AASRAY SPRING 2014 ISSUE
IN THIS ISSUE Page 8
Page 39 Page 42
Connecting the Subcontinent
A Decade and a Year
The Last Dance
Master of all Trades
Engineering is the art of modelling materials we do not wholly understand, into shapes we cannot precisely analyse so as to withstand forces we cannot properly assess, in such a way that the public has no reason to suspect the extent of our ignorance. - Dr AR Dykes Go for civil engineering, because civil engineering is the branch of engineering which teaches you the most about managing people. Managing people is a skill which is very, very useful and applies almost regardless of what you do. - Sir John Harvey Jones …as for earthquakes, though they were still formidable, they were so interesting that men of science could hard ly regret them. - Bertrand Russell Engineers … are not superhuman. They make mistakes in their assumptions, in their calculations, in their conclusions. That they make mistakes is forgivable; that they catch them is imperative. Thus it is the essence of modern engineering not only to be able to check one’s own work but also to have one’s work checked and to be able to check the work of others. - Henry Petroski Source: Internet
Prof.N.Roy, HOD(CE) Creativity is a part and parcel of Civil Engineering and there’s nothing more creative than ideas expressed on pen and paper. So it is really a matter of pleasure that Civil Engineering Students’ Technical (CEST) Club is bringing forth its second issue of the magazine- AASRAY. I hope this magazine would be a nice platform to inspire students to express their ideas, their thoughts and would be a motivating piece like the previous issue which was not only enriched in information and knowledge but also a pleasant read. I ask the students to enhance their knowledge and get passionate with civil engineering. All the best – “AASRAY”.
Prof. Robin Davis P, Faculty Advisor The newbie club which came into the scene of NITR on the auspicious birthday of the first civil engineer of India, has grown into a self-sufficient one in the course of odd eighteen months and has surpassed its founders’ dreams. As the faculty advisor of the newest venture, CEST has always been close to my heart. People have a plethora of ways to express their ideas and thoughts. Some find it comfortable on pen & paper. An idea, a drawing, a plan of structure is nothing less than a poet’s expression on a barren paper. AASRAY finds its root in the urge of the budding engineers to express themselves creatively yet productively. I hope this magazine quenches every desire of its readers to gain knowledge and motivate, inspire them in a positive way. It is of my utmost pleasure to be the part of this club and I hope it continues its saga of innovation.
Prof.Pradip Sarkar, Mentor Civil Engineering is not just about the firmness of concrete or ductility of steel. With every line drawn on the paper, a civil engineer puts forth his imagination and creativi-
ty which is turned into reality under his ardent supervision. So it is never so uncanny to see a budding engineer fell in love with his work. That’s what AASRAY is all about. CEST, despite being a nascent club in the arena of NITR-clubs, has achieved incredible success and the baton is taken forth by the second edition of AASRAY. I hope this magazine would inoculate the passion for civil engineering in every reader who browses through it. I hope the club and its magazine AASRAY get all the success.
Inside every one of us lies a dormant thinker, innovator who just needs a kick of motivation to get back from his sleep. The engineer inside does want a lot of things to do but suppressed by the workload and the education-system, he/she misplaces or sometimes loses the creative bent of mind. Being inside the bubble of guidelines of codes, formulas most of us convert ourselves into coded robots.
It’s not that we don’t want to think out of the box (Many of us have done wonders doing that and we do appreciate that.) but somehow because of the imaginary boundaries we have created by comparing ourselves or maybe sometimes underestimating ourselves, we hesitate to think out of the cube. Or maybe the warmth or temporary cosiness of the cube has put our creative bone to ultimate hibernation. As Einstein has pointed out in the case of a lot of reading and less usage of the grey-matter, reading without questioning is really a terrible act. In the era of growing demands, needs and satisfaction, the main reason for our failure may be lack of innovation. Innovation comes from thinking beyond or at least thinking beyond our imaginaryboundaries-which-we-have-set-for-ourselves. I was really impressed when I got to know that Martin Cooper, engineer at Motorola, made DynaTAC- a cellular phone after watching Captain Kirk’s “Pocket communicator” in Gene Roddenberry’s StarTrek. The pocket communicator idea was no more than a day-dream or wide fantasy in those days. In civil engineering, many architects are inspired from nature, trees to develop, design their architecture which still flaunt their elegance through the years. While lot of roads, pipe lines are inspired from arterial systems now a days biomimicry has come into existence which gets ideas from nature for solution of different problems. So this is the urge-of-the-era to innovate and to be inspired. AASRAY is just a small step to inspire the budding engineers -who are still through the learning process – to cultivate the uniqueness of thinking-original, acting-inspired for the betterment of themselves, the society and the world around them. And as you flip through the forty odd pages, I expect you all to admire the beauty of science and technology, to inherit and add to the quality and standards set by our forefathers through their “work, design and architecture” and to acquire knowledgethe-wing-wherewith-we-fly-to-heaven. Happy Reading.
ARCHITECTURE: An Overview
Architecture, most of the people are well acquainted with the term, many have heard it from their teachers, tourguides. But when you ask a couple of guys, “What is Architecture and what does an Architect do?” You find yourself amongst a
this article is for. To clear at
served stereotypes about the stuff and to give you an overall idea, if not precise. What is Architecture? The word “Architecture” finds its origin from the Greek word “Arkhitekton” meaning, chief builder or chief mason. Architecture is an art and science of building structures. Science, for it involves planning, designing and construction. An architect needs to know the technical aspects to build the structure as opposed to the common stereotype or convention of many a people. An architect has to study the wind path, solar path, existing terrain vegetation and structures and by far the ecological impact of the building. The data is acquired and addressed to comfort with the structure and the environment in which the same is being built.
Art, for architecture involves a lot of brainstorming, imagination and definitely an artistic bent of mind to evolve various ideas, plans and concepts into reality through engineering. Through his design he mirrors the general philosophy, belief and social behaviour of certain time, both knowingly and unknowingly. No wonder we can study and relate to people of the past analysing the architectural hint flaunted by the-thenstructures. As portrayed by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio through his book “De Architectura”, Architecture is all about, “firmitas, utilitas, venustas” (Which mean strength, utility and beauty respectively). The structure should be firm and stable and should possess enough and required resistance against the odds it is supposed to face. It must serve for the
very reason it is built from being a mega-structure to a waiting shed. It should be For many people, architectural engineering is just a twisted and crude synonym or maybe even a misnomer of civil engineering. It’s definitely not true. Yes they do relate to each other and they should. It is wisely said by Sir Ove Nyquist Arup, the chief Architect of the Sydney Opera House, “When engineers and quantity surveyors discuss aesthetics and architects study what cranes do, we are on the right road”. Whereas Civil Engineering, focuses on technical aspects of a building including the calculations involved which leads to tensile stress, compressive stress, elasticity etc.
attractive enough to lure, and inspire a viewer by flaunting its designer’s thoughts.
They deal more on stability and functionality of the structure. A lot of people do have this query, both professions design, plan and involve in construction. They can both become construction managers. They all follow the building codes. Then, where is the thin line between these professions? Here it is, Architects are authorized to perform architectural works - floor plans, elevation of buildings, sections, landscaping and planning most of the building materials to be used and in some case the interior designing. Whereas Civil Engineering involves structural works such as building foundation, footing, trusses, size and types of metals, etc. Architectural engineers and civil engineers are indispensable for each other and complete each other and a structure gets to life with the involvement of both streams. Now let’s go to what architects (Now, architectural engineers) are capable of. Be it Ustad Ahmad Lahauri of The epic Taj Mahal, the all-white monument shining for more than 350 years or be it Gustave Eiffel, who designed the tall tower standing stout in the city of love and romance. It goes down to Stonehenge -structure built of standing stones in a circular form. Being one of the most ancient structures of the world, it is believed to be built before 2000 B.C. and has been destroyed several times, and the present day structure is believed to be remains of the structure built in 1600 B.C. - the architects unknown. The burning examples of modern day architecture reflects through structures like, Empire State Building, Sydney Opera House, Guggenheim Museum, Jewish Museum, Burj-al-arab, Burj khalifa. With the trend and growing demand for building with the artistic hint and purpose-centred design, it is really a challenge for architects around the world to fulfil customer’s need and we hope they would do that and with excellence with which they have been doing for years. All hail Architecture.
the last dance It’s
skywalk of your city’s coolest restaurant. The music has just gone too loud and with quarter-a-pint in your hand you are rocking to it. But suddenly, the floor below your feet just collapses, no it’s no after-the-alcohol effect. You stick to the stringer beam and see people getting crushed under the falling roof. It’s no extract from a Bond movie - it’s what happened on 17th july 1981 in kansas city. The hyatt regency hotel in kansas city, missouri, opened to public after four years of construction and held a videotaped tea-dance party in their atrium lobby. The party brought people around the city to stand, to dance on the newly opened restaurant. The suspended walkway was crowded with people saltating to the beat. Everything was excellent untill the connections supporting the ceiling rods that held up the second and fourth-floor walkways across the atrium failed and both walkways collapsed onto the crowded first-floor atrium below plunging into that lobby killing 114 people and injuring 216 others with millions of dollars in costs resulted from the collapse and thousands of lives were adversely affeected. To cut short the whole, actually what happened is the fourth walkway collapsed onto the second-floor walkway,while the offset third-floor walkway remained intact. This was the deadliest structural
collapse in the united states untill September 17 attacks. The construction of this 40-storey Hyatt Regency, Kansas City began in May 1978. Despite many delays and setbacks, which also includes an accident on October 14 1979 in which 2700 square feet of Atrium roof collapsed due to inadequate movement in the expansion joint and imroper installation of a steel-to-steel concrete connection in the northern end beams and opened on July 1 1980. The main feature was its lobby which is featured with multisory Atrium spanned by steel, glass and concrete walkways. The main part of this is the fourth walkway is aligned directly above the second one which lead to this
disaster. of events. It finally became a two rod system from one-rod system doubling the load on the connector which eventually lead to this to be clear the actual plan was only one rod is hanged from ceiling and to that both the fourth floor and secon floor walkways were supposed to hang but according to the revised plan two beams one ceiling to fourth floor walkway and from that two second floor walkway that doubled load on the connecting beam which connected the two rods and resulted in this disaster. Three days after the disaster, Wayne G. Lischka, an architectural engineer hired by The Kansas City
During January and February 1979, the design of the hanger rod connections was changed in a series
Star newspaper, discovered a significant change of the original design of the walkways. Reportage of the event later earned the Star and its associated publication the Kansas City Times a Pulitzer Prize for local news reporting in 1982. Radio station KJLA earned a National
Press award for its reporting on the night of the disaster. The
were suspended from a set of 1.25 in (32 mm) diameter steel tie rods, with the second floor walkway hanging directly
platform was supported on three cross-beams suspended by steel rods retained by nuts. The cross-beams
wise, with a hollow space between them. The original design by Jack D. Gillum and Associates specified three pairs of rods running from the second floor to the ceiling. Investigators determined eventually that this design supported only 60 percent of the minimum load required by Kansas City building codes. Havens Steel Company, the contractor responsible for manufacturing the rods, objected to the original plan of Jack D. Gillum and Associates, since it required the whole of the rod below the fourth floor to be screw threaded in order to screw on the nuts to hold the fourth floor walkway in place. These threads would probably have been damaged and rendered unusable as the structure for the fourth floor was hoisted into position with the rods in place. Havens therefore proposed an alternate plan in which two
separate sets of tie rods
would be used: one connecting the fourth floor walkway to the ceiling, and the other connecting the second floor walkway to the fourth floor walkway. Now we see what a design change is capable of. From this disaster the fabricator company (heavens) and the engineering design team (G.C.E.) after many hearings lost their licenses and a number of firms went bankrupt. The Hyatt tragedy remains a classic model for the study of engineering ethics and errors and disaster management. As an engineer of record for the Hyatt project, Jack D. Gillum (21 November 1928 4 July 2012) occasionally shared his experiences at engineering conferences in the hope of preventing future mistakes. After the disaster, the lobby was reconstructed with only one crossing on the second floor. Unlike the previous walkways, the new bridge is supported by several columns underneath it rather than being suspended from the ceiling. As a result, some floors of the hotel now have disconnected sections on opposite sides of the atrium, so it is necessary to go to the third floor to get to the other side. Several rescuers suffered considerable stress due to their experience, and Bill Allman even took his own life due to the stress. The hotel was renamed the Hyatt Regency Crown Center in 1987 and Sheraton Kansas City at Crown Center in 2011. It has been renovated numerous times since, though the lobby retains the same layout
and design. It still reminds us of what an odd overlook of a mere design flaw is capable of. With the number of people it affects, it is no less than an unbearable guilt for the rest of life for an engineer. The lobby still rings a bell in every engineerâ€™s mind, at least in the Kansas City to be concerned about the design criteria and not to overlook even, a minor factor.
The day when earth became suitable for the living of creatures, small, big - whatever no one really thought of the dominance of human race from Pliocene era whereas others more powerful and dangerous creatures did not last up to that period also. The different clans of a single race became incompatible to one another and did move a further step to show their distinctiveness. The innovation and its introduction in the past has been a most dignified weapon to survive the audacities of nature. Since
ABOUT THE COVER
then our ancestors have built monuments which still attract and amaze us at the same instant and does motivate us to do something to live up to the standards. History has not been changed and in every form it only has shown us- human-beings the path to have the greatest command over technology and to revive the old customs only for our convenience. “Architecture and eloquence are mixed an art whose outcome is fulfillment of necessity weaved with sheer brilliance and beauty. Here are some great structure of human work and skill, which are worthy to be at the top of human architectural Excellency.
The top left
picture depicts the elegance of one of the oldest churches in In-
dia which is believed to be built in the 9th Century AD. Kadamattom church which is also called “Saint George Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church”. There is no concrete evidence of the exact date of the establishment of the church but as per historians the church was built before AD 650 . The church and the property was a gift by ‘Karthas’ - the then prominent family of Kadamattom. One of the kid of the family caught by a disease which was neither identified nor cured by the local doctors. Mar Abo, the middle eastern monk from Egypt reached Kadamattom at the same time. He cured the disease and the Karthas were very happy and as a favor they provided the land and constructed the Church in its form as it is now.
To be continued in page 24...
application of GIS - GPS for Transportation Engineeering Author: Prof. P. K. Bhuyan (CE) Abstract: Spatial data is the crucial component of a GIS. The important sources of spatial data are the already existing digital files, maps, which can be digitized, and more recently GPS. GPS (mapping type receivers) can be used to map an area and the data can be converted into GIS compatible forms. GPS-GIS integrated systems have some important applications in the field of Transportation engineering. These applications include vehicle tracking system for fleet management, vehicle navigation systems, and network travel time studies. GPS-GIS integrated systems can be used to predict the parameters in the car following theories, improving the trip reporting procedures. The paper gives some details of these applications and in particular the application of GPS-GIS integrated systems for network travel time studies, which are useful for quantifying congestion in terms of various parameters. Introduction Transportation data is usually associated with spatial data, like traffic counts from particular sites, the traffic volumes along particular roads or links, etc. (Taylor et al, 2000). Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used as a database for storing transportation data. The primary advantage of using GIS as a database for transportation data is the fact that GIS can integrate the spatial data and display the attribute data in a user-chosen format. The chief sources of spatial data are the existing digitized files (e.g.: Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) files in the US). The Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely being used as a tool for collecting the spatial data. Sys-
tems which chiefly use GPS as a spatial data source for a GIS are called as GPS-GIS integrated systems. The use of GPS-GIS integrated systems in transportation engineering are described below. In this section, the various applications of GPS-GIS integrated systems in transportation engineering are described. Vehicle tracking systems Vehicle tracking systems are usually used for managing a fleet of vehicles. The vehicles of a fleet are fitted with GPS, which usually transmit the positional data of the vehicles to a central station. The central station is a monitoring station, where the position of vehicles is displayed on a GIS map. Vehicle tracking systems will be useful for the police and emergency response services. The central station usually diverts the vehicle nearest to the site, where the vehicles are required. By using a wireless phone service
better results can be obtained. Vehicle navigation systems Vehicle navigation systems are used for guiding vehicles to their destination. These systems usually use GPS or inertial navigation systems or a combination of both for positioning the vehicle. The advantage of using both inertial navigation systems and GPS is that navigation can be continued even when the GPS cannot receive the signals from the satellites due to obstruction. In countries like the US, vehicle navigation systems are used for guiding tourists to different tourist spots. The vehicle navigation sys-
or cellular phone network, real time corrections can be sent to the receivers fitted on the vehicles and
tems use a computer, which determines the position of the vehicle, plans the route and gives the directions to the driver. The driver gives the location of his/her destination while starting his journey and the computer guides the driver by giving either audio or and visual instructions. The route the computer plans is usually optimized route; the route is the route optimized for distance or the route can be the most or the least used route (Jurgen, 1998). The above-described applications are a part of the intelligent transportation systems, where the vehicles are navigated and help is provided to the vehicles, which are stranded due to some problem with the vehicle or any accident. Zito et al, (1995), have studied the usage of GPS for Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS). Much of the research and development work related to IVHS (presently it is known as intelligent transportation systems or ITS) depends upon the reliability of the methods used for locating and monitoring vehicles. Some of their observations and conclusions are: GPS receivers, which have the capability of displaying the speed, will be useful for determining the speed of the vehicle, even though the display might show a non-zero value of speed sometimes, when the speed of the vehicle is zero.
The number of satellites the receiver is able to track (NSAT) and the PDOP give an indication
about the reliability of the speed data. It was found that the error in speed increased when the PDOP values were high (greater than three) and the NSAT value was three.
GPS, when integrated with GIS, is a valuable
Tool for travel time studies.
The conclusion that they gave was: GPS stands ready as a valuable tool for IVHS applications,
given adequate attention to its possible shortcomings. Though, the above conclusions were drawn when Selective Availability (S/A) was on, these conclusions are still relevant and valid. Car following analyses The basic assumption in car following theories is that the speed and acceleration of a car are dependent upon the vehicle immediately preceding it (in a single lane of traffic). The General Motors Corporation has done some extensive studies of car following behaviour. They have used two-vehicle platoons
to estimate driver behavioural responses. The Louisiana State University (LSU) has developed a new technique; it had used GPS to record aspects of vehicle motion, independently, for vehicles under open roadway conditions. A GIS was also used as tool for the creation of mapped road networks, route analysis and linear referencing. The study involved the use of GPS and GIS to collect and process vehicle movement information. In the system used by the LSU researchers, latitude and longitude coordinate information as well as speed and time data for test vehicles were collected independently. These data were reduced and translated using a GIS linear referencing technique to prepare a set of movement data for each vehicle. The study conducted at LSU has shown that GPS was a viable and valuable tool for the collection of vehicle movement data. The research conducted at LSU has allowed the results of General Motors to be expanded and the results to be further verified through the use of open roadway car following data. They have also found that the price-to-accuracy afforded by GPS was also one of its significant advantages (Wolshon and Hatipkarasulu, 2000). GPS for trip reporting The problems with the existing methods of trip reporting procedures are: the poor data quality on travel start and end times, total trip times and destination locations. A project study was conducted in Lexington, Kentucky in fall, 1996 where GPS was used to capture vehicle-based, daily travel information. The project used a computer for computer-assisted self-interviewing, combined with GPS system. Though the design of equipment required the respondents to actively turn the computer on each time they made a private vehicle trip, the GPS component could capture the â€œactualâ€? travel rather than the self-reported travel. The driver had to actively select the driver and passenger names, and their trip purposes. The GPS component captured date and time, and latitude/longitude data every three seconds when a trip had begun, so that the trip start and end times were passive data elements to the respondent. The advantage of passive data recording is that respondent burden is minimized and the travel times and distances that were collected represent the true picture about the length and duration of the trip. The usage of computer for computer-assisted-self-interviewing has helped to capture data
regarding trip purpose and vehicle occupancy. Having the data regarding the trip purpose, occupancy, together with the route choice and travel speed, would provide planners with the information that could be used in evaluating management systems, designing ITS, etc. To further reduce the burden on the driver, GIS can be integrated with GPS. The GPS data, after exporting to a GIS can be viewed on the map. The use of GIS helps in knowing the destination of the trip, without the driver intervention, and also in knowing the particular route the driver had chosen to reach his destination. Though GIS has not been used in the research mentioned above, its usage for the trip reporting purpose will definitely improve the trip reporting procedure (Murakami and Wagner, 1999). Network travel time studies
travels in a vehicle, which is a part of the traffic stream and notes the time required for the vehicle to travel between two specified points. The problem with the moving observer method is that to get a representative value of the travel time, different drivers should repeat the method. Another disadvantage of this method is that the exact variation of the speed of the vehicle along the link cannot be studied. The variation of the speed of the vehicle along the network gives an idea about the traffic conditions on the road. Therefore, the moving observer method cannot be used for studying the localized traffic effects. Some of these effects can be overcome by using GPS-GIS integrated systems. Quiroga and Bullock
Moving observer methods are commonly used for travel time surveys. In this method, the observer
(1995) have deduced the following, after performing experiments and collecting over 3 million GPS data points over a network of more than 300 miles. They have shown that to detect localized errors, the segment (the road networks are divided into segments whenever particular attribute changes, one such attribute may be the number of lanes on that segment) lengths of the road network should be around 0.2 to 0.5 miles. A sampling rate of 1 or 2 seconds is preferable and the sampling rate should be smaller than half the shortest travel time associated with the segment. In conducting travel time studies using GPS and GIS, the first step is to obtain a good base vector map with links to a database. It is advisable to construct the base map directly from GPS data, GPS data collected during future travel time studies is guaranteed to match the vector base map with in a tolerance defined by the GPS equipment positional accuracy. The major advantage of using a base map produced by a GPS, against previously existing maps is that the positional errors in the existing maps can be overcome. This new automated procedure provides consistency; fine levels of resolution and better accuracy in measuring travel time and speed than traditional techniques. For detecting localized effects in traffic, detail speed-time or speed-distance profiles along the link are required. These profiles can be easily plotted in a GIS. The travel times obtained can be used to quantify congestion in terms of parameters like delay and congestion index. Delay is defined as the excess travel time above the minimum (free flow) travel time needed to traverse a network element. Congestion index (CI) is defined as total delay divided by the free flow travel time. Congestion index is a dimensionless quantity, and can be used for comparing the congestion levels on two or more roads, as it is independent of route length, route geometry or intersection control and capacity factors that may distort comparisons of actual travel times and delays at different sites. To alleviate the problem of congestion, Congestion Management Systems (CMS) needs to be developed. A typical CMS usually collects the travel time data and the congestion parameters are calculated as explained in the above paragraph. The congestion parameters indicate the level of congestion on the roads and necessary control measures can be taken to reduce the congestion.
FAST AND INGENIOUS
India - a country known for its snail’s pace development whether it be in policy making or economic decisions or technology embracement – recently broke the shackles of sluggishness by constructing a 10-storey building in just 48 hours, an achievement for every Indian to feel proud of. This rare distinction reserved its place in the
‘Limca Book of Records’. The success story had its inception when entrepreneur Harpal Singh, who heads the 1000-crore infrastructure company, Synergy Thrislington , promised that the 10-storey building would be completed within 48 hours. The construction of the 10-floor ‘Instacon’ sky-scraper, having an area of over 25,000 square meters, started at Phase 1, Industrial Area, Mohali at 4.30 p.m. on Thursday. As many as 3 cranes and over 200 skilled workers, technicians and engineers worked round the clock to make this Herculean task turn into reality. But the invisible force in this race against time is technology.
This smart building has several benefits over traditional buildings. The (PUF)
panel. The technology makes use of structurally insulated plates (SIPs), a
composite building material. They consist of an insulating layer of rigid core sandwiched between two layers of structural board. The board can be sheet metal, plywood, cement, magnesium oxide (MgO) board or oriented strand board and
building required no brick or sand. The outer wall is a double-skinned polyurethane
the core either expanded polystyrene foam (EPS), extruded polystyrene foam (XPS), polyisocyanurate foam, polyurethane foam (PUF) or composite honeycomb (HSC).
SIPs share the same structural properties as an I-beam or I-column. The
rigid insulation cone of SIP acts as a web, while the sheathing fulfills the function of the flanges. Some SIPs use fiber cement or plywood sheets for the panels and agricultural fiber, such as wheat straw, for the core. SIPs can be used as roof, floor, walls and foundations. The red and white structure, which came up at the cost of a normal building, has several benefits over traditional buildings. It used one-third of the power and bears a promise for a cleaner environment. The standardized and all-in-one nature of SIPs reduces the construction time as well as requires fewer workers than the conventional and contemporary buildings. This ultrafast technology of construction with less than 20 per cent of work at the site has minimal emission of flying dust and less pollution of water at the site. The structure has a tighter building envelope and the walls have higher insulating properties. The model has been cleared for Zone-V seismic area, the highest risk area (for earthquakes) by CSIR-SERC. Prof. I.C. Syal of the CSIR-SERC lab even praised the safety of the technology and believes that buildings up to 150-storey can be constructed using this technology. For a country like India, where most of the projects do not get the nod of the Ministry on environmental grounds, such-a-technology which uses minimum polluting materials, looks to be promising. On the flip side, this technology of constructing structures is in a nascent state and much of its implications based on stability and durability has not been studied in detail. A thorough research needs to be carried out before implementing it on larger projects. Overall, this promising technology looks to have vast potential to revolutionize the much needed infrastructure technology in the country.
KNOWLEDGE AND EDUCATION It is way too clichéd to say- “Knowledge leads to Light” and for quite a long time people have misconstrued education for knowledge. Does education lead to light? Yes, it sure does if and only if its perspective is towards assimilation and acquisition of knowledge. I would be flaked for being an emotional dork if I relate knowledge with education in an era where we have got ourselves into a crazy race being abacinated by the lust of monetary and materialistic pleasure. Both literally and figuratively education has got itself into some kind of hurry and has become a tool to earn money and better life-style in most of the cases (Not in every case). It is no punch out of the box as for a country like India as in most cases it is just a mere consequence of the poverty and state of mind of most of us. But still a bunch of people are there who dream of what they want to know and in the next day they travel for the pursuit of knowledge. They may be like the ante-penultimate students of ICE as in the movie 3 Idiots, or may be the red-bearded Muslim uncle who sells books in Purani Delhi as in the novel of Aravind Adiga. Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing wherewith we fly to heaven- the golden words of William Shakespeare reflect the true power of knowledge. Education is tailoring one’s mind to perform a work whereas knowledge is acquired wisdom which stays with oneself till the end. While on the other hand knowledge is the application of facts and theories we acquire. There are no set of guidelines for it like, where and when and how it should be applied. Education has a predefined set of rules, regulations and curriculum whereas knowledge has no such boundaries. It can come from a Tea-vendor- how he manages to pour the hot tea so effortlessly, the gupchupwala, the worker, from a blabbering
kid, from the teachers, friends, from moments of life. Whatever may be the cause, opinion or views but the main motive of education and educational system should be in an order such that the required environment is provided for the budding of a beautiful mind who craves to serve the humanity by acquiring pure knowledge with a clear motive or vision.
CONNECTING THE SUBCONTINENT
BRIDGES IN INDIA
Adam’s Bridge, also known as Rama’s Bridge or Rama Setu is a chain of limestone shoals, between India and Sri Lanka. Geological evidence suggests that this bridge is a former land connection between the two countries. The name Rama’s Bridge or Rama Setu refers to the bridge built by the Vanara (ape men) army of Lord Rama as in Hindu theology in verse 2-22-76 of The EpicRamayana.
In the depths of north-eastern India, in one of the wettest places on earth, bridges aren’t built - they’re grown. The image of the root-bridge in the left is actually two bridges stacked one over the other and has come to be known as the “Umshiang Double-Decker Root Bridge.” The bridges actually gain strength over time for they are living- and some of the ancient root bridges used daily by the people of the villages around Cherrapunji may be well over five hundred years old.
The Bandraâ€“Worli Sea Link, officially called Rajiv Gandhi Sea Link, is a cable-stayed
bridge with pre-stressed concrete-steel viaducts on either side that links Bandra in the Western Suburbs of Mumbai with Worli in South Mumbai and spans over a length of 5.6 kilometres. Being an 8-lane bridge with 2 lanes dedicated for buses it does an almost unbelievable savings in vehicle operating cost to the tune of Rs.100 crores per annum. So beautiful and gracious it is- no wonder it emerge as a landmark structure in the city.
The Howrah Bridge, the famous landmark in the heart of one of the busiest and oldest cities of India, spans about 1500 ft. is one of the pre-independence wonders india inherited. Commissioned in 1943, the bridge was originally named the New Howrah Bridge, because it replaced a pontoon bridge at the same location linking the two cities of Howrah and Kolkata (Calcutta). On 14 June 1965 it was renamed Rabindra Setu, after the great Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore. The bridge formed by riveting the whole structure consumed 26,500 tons of steel.
PHOTO FEATURE The beautiful Vembanad Rail bridge that connects Edappally and Vallarpadam in Kochi is considered as one of the longest railway bridge in India with the total length of 4.62 km and only allows 15 trains to pass each day. The name of the bridge is attributed to the backwaters of the lake it runs over. It also passes through 3 small islands in the proximity of the longest Indian lake.
The Pamban Bridge on the Palk Strait connects Rameswaram island to mainland India. It refers to both the road bridge(Left) and the cantilever railway bridge(right), though primarily it means the latter. It is one of the longest sea bridge in India at a length of nearly above 2 km and stands as a fine example of Indian architecture and it was opened for traffic in 1914.
Mahatma Gandhi Setu, a bridge over the river Ganges connecting Patna in the south to Hajipur in the north of Bihar. It was the longest river bridge in India at the time of its construction and remains the longest river bridge in Asia. It was inaugurated in May 1982 by the then Prime Minister, Mrs Indira Gandhi. Spannnig a little less than 6 kilometres it occupies its position amongst the longest
bridges in the world. The Indian postal department issued a commemorative postage stamp on Landmark Bridges Of India: Mahatma Gandhi Setu of denomination 0500 Paise on 17 August 2007.
The Saraighat Bridge on the Brahmaputra not only connects the northeast with the rest of the country, but it has also been instrumental in strengthening the bond among the seven NE states. Saraighat Bridge is the first rail-cum-road bridge constructed over the Brahmaputra River in Guwahati. The bridge proved to be of immense help during the Sino-Indian war, which broke out soon after completion of the Saraighat bridge.The bridge was just completed. As the Indian soldiers were braving the bullets of the Chinese, arms and ammunition along with food items were being transported to the battle front by means of the Saraighat bridge. The Saraighat bridge spans just above 4000 ft having the width of the road as 24 ft with annexed pavement on both the sides.
Sometimes the worst thing about time is how it unceremoniously changes its gesture, its form. Under the heavy blow of its unexpected devastating surprises, only thing we can do is to play the role of a si-
A DECADE AND A YEAR...
lent spectator. Who had the slightest of a clue that, on a February day in 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia would disintegrate - killing all its crew members. India lost Kalpana Chawla: first Indian woman in space. We also lost the first Israeli astronaut, Ilan Ramon. The mourning was still not over when suddenly the discovery of Ramonâ€™s disintegrated diary stirred and stunned the world. Pages from his diary he was keeping with him while being in orbit, was found wet and crumpled in a field near Texas. The name of the place was Palestine, how is that for coincidence as Ramon was a Jew. The tracker of the diary recognized it from the NASA logo on its cover. The diary was returned to his widow and on her request to restore the book, the scientists started their work and were able to piece togethermuch of what was on the 18 recovered pages of handwritten Hebrew which Ramon had written in the book with a NASA space pen, a pencil and a felt tip pen- using image enhancement technology and infrared light. It took over four years of rigorous process to recover and put together the content. However all of the felt tip notes washed away. The Sabbath Kiddush, the blessing for wine, is still very clearly readable and is a center piece of the display. The prayer had been written into the diary so that Ramon could offer it during his space Sabbath which he read over the radio to Earth. Eight pages are his personal diary from before launch, six pages are of technical notes, and four pages are notes Ramon took during the 16 day mission. On day six of the mission Ramon wrote: â€œToday is maybe the first day that I really feel like I live in space. I turned out to be a
man who lives and works in space, just like
in the movies.” He also wrote, “I have a beautiful view of a mighty lightning storm over India, Tibet, Nepal and Japan.” Ramon, 48, the son of Holocaust survivors, perished along with six other crew members when the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrated upon reentry just 16 minutes before they were expected to land at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on February 1, 2003. His wife Rona Ramon agreed to have portions of the diary go on display saying, “This is a small miracle that needs to be shared.” Really, it’s interesting to know how the 37 pages survived the extreme heat of the explosion, as well as the 60 km (37-mile) fall to earth and several days of wet weather before they were found. “It’s almost a miracle that it survived — it’s incredible,” Israel Museum curator Yigal Zalmona said. “There is no rational explanation for how it was recovered when most of the shuttle was not. I guess that’s how miracles happen, don’t they?
...continued from page 11
The bottom right
is the beautiful Sanchi Stupa located about fifty kilo-
meters from the central Indian city Bhopal.Being one of the oldest stone structure in India, it rfemains as a landscape and place of tourist attraction. It was built by emperor - Ashoka the Great - in the 3rd century BC under the supervision by Ashoka’s wife, Devi herself, who was the daughter of a merchant of Vidisha. Sanchi was also her birthplace as well as the venue of her and Ashoka’s wedding.
To be continued in page 27...
The man that came down from eve’s womb… Climbed and ate the fruits of the sacred tree. He roamed in the jungle, wayward and free. He slept in the cave in the nights that blinded him. Be it the sun or the moon nothing mattered to him.
THE ARCHERMUS CLAN
He found his better half and made love in the grass bed. Another man came and followed the way his father led. “I will conceal my body for I can’t stand the sun”. Muttered to his father, the newbie son. “Wear my skin” the tree said or bark the dear that lie dead. The boy grew up and found her Eve. They wanted something safe and alive. “Open my heart” - the earth said. “Deface me and take my flesh” - the hill muttered. “Take the sand that lies deep down my blood” - the river joined. And the man opened the layers of the soil and found the strongest core. Filled ‘em with the sand the aggregate-the-flesh-of-the-hill. The soil rose up soaking the lifeblood of earth. The man covered it with the spine of the tall tree. And the man slept inside wild and free. And years were gone - the man led the man that came by. Who caved the earth and filled it and raised it. Who touched the sky standing on their roof. The man and their clan - the ARCHERMUS, shaped the earth. Gone are the days of that man But he lives through his clan. The clan who plays with the cement and bricks. Discovers new tips and tricks. Who stops the river and turns the water into light. Who shows the world - the undreamt height. For Man may come and Man may die But his footprint stays on the earth stout and high.
THE POLLINATION I spent my 3rd semester studying CE 203- Mechanics of Solids. First I was sceptic, bewildered and totally puzzled as to why am I reading a civil centric subject when I should be studying a mining course. Doesn’t sound logical, does it? A mining undergrad spending 5 essential credits for a subject that solely belongs to the civil department. I often received taunts from my Civil mates, citing absence of Mining subjects as the sole reason behind such anomalousness. The whole semester went by, I crammed, I passed, I even managed an A. Cool isn’t it? I didn’t know why I was reading it, yet I read, yet I wrote and I got a pretty impressive grade. Passed 3rd sem, came the 4th one. Till then I was clueless regarding the logic behind such incongruity, such intricacy in curricula design being absolutely beyond my construal level. I however not being a Ranchoddas Chanchad, continued to strive for grades without pondering much about “excellence”. However in the 4th semester, came a subject, Rock Slope technology, a Mining one this time. I was happy that I didn’t have to go to other departments for subjects that weren’t remotely close to my branch. But my Professor of RST course, in a lecture once said,” How do we analyse the stability of rocks? How can we derive a formula for a material that is so highly irregular and inconsistent in properties? It is the mechanics of regular solids that helps us in giving the knowledge regarding the jagged or porous objects. From the regular mechanics, we derive formulas, using some boundary conditions that help us in maintaining stability of a mine.” Woah! So insightful! Isn’t it? A simple course, that seemed irrelevant and the start of the semester now seemed inevitable. The course gave me a detailed idea regarding
the concept and vision that the curricula framers had while outlining our syllabus. Now speaking of the way these 2 branches merge and symbiotically exist, any person who has visited a mine can astute and assess. A mine operates on two important principles: Extract and Refill. In these two vital developments the pseudo component that is always a matter of concern is the support system. While some parent rocks are strong enough to support and endure the blasts and drills, many are not. And that is when the knowledge of civil engineering and mechanics comes into picture. The stability analysis done prior to the extraction gives a brief idea as to how we need to design a mine and dig out the ores without hampering the slope stability system.
Mine for a vocational training, the analysis done in the Geological and research wing of the Mines gave me a clear idea regarding the importance of the stability analysis that is done with the help of civil engineering. Coming to the importance of Mining engineering which they call as one of the oldest professions in the world, it is inconceivable and incalculable. If the mining processes were to
Even in the summer vacations, when I went to a
stop even for a month, then the economy of any country will go back to the stoneage. Be it Electronics, Electrical, Civil, Computer Science, Ceramic, Chemical or Metallurgical engineering; it is always the mining process that gives the crudest and the most vital sample that is required in the fabrication and synthesis process in the aforesaid engineering disciples. And if it werenâ€™t for mining, then probably the technology that we enjoy today would not have been feasible. So, now that I am clear regarding why the curricula is as such, I have finally started believing in these 2 branches that has given me the courage to take a leap of faith towards achieving success by continually striving for the improvement of the processes that involve the superior derivation techniques and wonderful execution of these immensely complicated yet subtle practices.
...continued from page 24
Above in the center
is the picture of Vishwakarma - the divine
engineer of the world (according to Hindu mythology). As a mark of reverence, he is not only worshiped by the engineering and architectural community but also by all professionals. It is customary for craftsmen to worship their tools in his name. He is personified as the symbol of omnipotence and the abstract form of the creator God according to the Rigveda. He is the presiding deity of all craftsmen and architects. He is believed to be the â€œPrincipal Architect of the Universeâ€? To be continued in page 32...
CERAMICS: THE BUILDING
BLOCKS OF CONSTRUCTION
â€œTry to learn something about everything and everything about something.â€? The above line, so wisely quoted by the English biologist, Thomas H. Huxley, applies in almost every field - for technology gets amalgamated every now and then. Time has come where an engineer has to keep track of disciplines even merely related to his work and has to overcome the stereotype or xenophobia of knowledge of different branches of engineering. For example: a civil engineer has to know how the chemical engineer does furnish the rapid-hardening-cement he has to use on the field. He has got to know the ceramic relations behind the making of the brick he relies upon for the strength of the boundary wall. Be it cement for RCC-Design, brick for the wall, sewer pipes for the municipal waste water, and glass for our sea-view windows, ceramic products are almost indispensable for any construction. This versatile raw material has not only firmly established itself in our everyday life but has also proven to be extremely useful in many different areas. It is continuing to be as contemporary as ever before. Sometimes it is the primary material for construction and sometimes it plays its role as a background material, Irrespective of where, how and when!! Ceramic materials have always been adapted to the current needs of mankind and been continuously improved. Today we are able to employ this valuable resource in more diverse and flexible ways than ever before. The ingredients for the ceramic materials are of simple materials or common elements like clay. It is the field where the recipe of earth, water, air and fire has done wonders. For example the baked clay or brick- as we call it, stands there for years supporting every block of our masonry. Let us discuss exactly what a ceramic material truly is. Ceramic materials are inorganic, non-metallic materials made from compounds of a
metal and a non metal. Ceramic materials may be crystalline or partly crystalline. They are formed by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. (That’s how Wikipedia defines it). Clay was one of the earliest materials used to produce ceramics, as pottery, but many different ceramic materials are now used. Before the clay can be turned into actual ceramic, the earth has to be ground and mixed with other natural materials before being given the desired shape. These might take the form of refractories, technical ceramics, fine ceramics or heavy clay. But this is only one among any ways of classifying the endless range of possible materials. After being shaped, the ceramic products are placed in a dryer to remove most of the moisture. The material is then inserted into a kiln where it is fired for several hours. Clay bricks are able to withstand the high temperature fluctuations of their surroundings and make the building material sophisticated and versatile and can be used in an environment where high temperature is a criterion of concern. The secret lies not only in large chambers but also in the brick’s fine pores and arteries that distort or help to retain the temperature. Furthermore, the brick is able to absorb moisture and release it back to the surrounding air as soon as humidity drops. This way the inside of the house stays dry and air conditioned in the most natural of ways. Or take fire, for instance, since the bricks have already been fired, they can withstand the flames of a fire for the long time. But these are only few examples showing how versatile ceramic is. A house consists of so much more than just plan bricks, piping, ceiling blocks, hollow bricks, facing bricks, roof tiles, floor tiles, clay pavers. These all are ceramic materials. Nowadays, there are almost no limits as to the number of ceramic materials that can be produced. In these materials we won’t find damp walls or high heating or air-conditioning bills. There are also environmental aspects of ceramics except the monetary benefit involved. The products like RAK ceramics are really helpful in reducing environmental threat due to construction materials. Ceramic products like floor, wall and roofing tile, cement, brick, gypsum, sewer pipe, and glass are a major part of the multi construction industry. Approximately three billion square feet of glass is produced each year to make various types of windows. Additionally, glass fibers are used for insulation, ceiling panels and roofing shingles to protect humans from the elements. Ceramic tile is used in applications such as flooring, walls, countertops, and fireplaces. Tiles are also very durable and hygienic construction products that add both considerable strength and aesthetic pleasure to any masonry or construction. The days have arrived- where almost everything is being tailor-made according to the exact prescription of the customer. So it is the job of almost every engineer to evaluate the need of the consumer and relate it to the provider for which at least basic knowledge of ceramic materials is required. So worth quoting twice, “Try to learn something about everything and everything about something”.
THE UTTARAKHAND CATACLYSM Science
knowledge the race of Homo-Sapiens acquire with the flow of time and use it as a tool against all (if not all, almost all) their plights. Implication
Technology to the use of man is as old as 2500 B.C or much earlier when the people, of Indus Valley Civilization came to know first time about the fire and the wheel. Since then, man’s curiosity and meticulous efforts have helped him find new inventions and discoveries. The last century had been witnessing the spectacular progress in science and technology made by our nation, but do we have enough tactics and techniques to surmount over the upcoming danger. “Science knows and technology does”-but in present scenario the mediocrity in science and technology has threatened every Indian mind and reverberated minds are just asking “ARE WE SAFE?”. In June 2013, a multi-day cloudburst centered on the North Indian state of Uttarakhand caused devastating floods and landslides in the country’s worst natural disaster since the 2004 Tsunami. Over 95% of the casualties occurred in Uttarakhand. As of 16 July 2013, according to figures provided by the Uttarakhand government,
more than 5,700 people were presumed dead. This total included 934 local residents and about 10000 pilgrims’ and tourists trapped in the valley. So the first question arises “what is the real cause? Is nature solely responsible for this?” Environmentalists describe this as a manmade disaster while geologist says this damage could have been far lesser if the planning of the so called “Eco sensitive zone’’ i.e.(the watershed area between Bhagirathi and Gaumukh river) was according to the environmental protection act. The act strictly banned the setting up of a hydropower project along river Bhagirathi and other hotel and residential projects. A
bad engineering decision is no way less potent than an epidemic. No one is blamed but everyone is a part of it. So here comes the civil engineering and a need of a good Now focusing the enormity of civil engineers and their quality of work, can they be efficient enough for handling a situation that is far dangerous and challenging? Policy makers and planners should prepare the development plan of an area considering the vulnerability of the area to various hazards. Specifications and guidelines
for construction activities should be carefully laid down particularly for vulnerable areas. While structural and transportation engineers can design new structures and roads during rehabilitation. Water resources engineers have responsibility of distributing water facility and designing of flood control measures including early warnings. A geotechnical engineer should provide a detailed investigation of the subsoil, which would be particularly useful for earthquake-resistant design another type of natural calamities. Disasters are adverse or unfortunate events which have profound effect on society and nation. Generally during a large scale disaster civil engineering structure like building, bridges, dams, roads, water supply projects, infrastructure facilities everything are severely affected. After every disaster, there comes the great challenge of rehabilitation. If rehabilitation process remains sluggish in then it doubles the losses and indirectly it shows the technical and engineering inefficiency of India. The Reports says: it will take a year or even more to drag Uttarakhand out of the effects of the June calamity as vagaries of nature and unique geographical conditions have made the exercise difficult, (Disaster Management Centre office Uttarakhand). 10234 families in 366 villages are yet to be rehabilitated and 335 roads including major motor roads in the worst hit Chamoli, Rudraprayag, Uttarkashi and Pithoragarh districts are still blocked at places making it difficult to take relief material to people, an official data said. 1967 roads are open to traffic but only on a temporary basis. However, the state government is hopeful that the major highways including Rishikesh-Badrinath, Rishikesh-Gangotri and Rishikesh-Yamunotri highways are opened within the stipulated deadline of September 30. In a review to chinaâ€™s latest flood control and disaster encountering, the country has rehabilitated in two months and the construction of major structures are going on at an optimum speed and in our country the replaced people of tehri dam have not
got their homes yet. What faults in planning and construction that is to be reminisced in case of Uttarakhand caseâ€Ś Geomorphological study of the Uttarakhand area indicates that the surface slopes consist mostly of glacial, fluvio-glacial, or fluvial materials, which are mostly unconsolidated and loose in nature. The drainage studies indicate a migratory or shifting nature of the river systems that causes aggradations on the concave end of the river and degradation or toe erosion on the convex part of the river. Due to morphological setting of the area, the river has high sinuosity and hence, high level of erosive capacity, especially when it is loaded with sediments (the erosive power of river with sediments is almost square of the erosive power without sediments). Seismo-tectonically, the area is traversed by several lineaments, faults and thrusts, which are considered to be geodynamically active. The area had suffered an earthquake on March 29, 1999 (M-6.8), which caused loosening of rock masses, ground cracks and landslides, besides killing more than a 100 people due to collapse of buildings. Thus, the natural terrain conditions combined with climatic/weather conditions and haphazard human intervention made a conducive environment for such a hazardous process to take place in this valley. According to the NDMA (National Disaster Management Authority) chief, the roads of the riverside area specially of eco-sensitive zone (water shed areas of Bhagirathi and Gaumukh river) and roads connecting Badrinath to Kedarnath should be made over the concrete embankment which can prevent the landslides of the riverside areas. The introduction of composite geo-technical materials and soil reinforcement through the association of compacted frictional fill can be a major step in mitigating the unknown disaster but a large investment with a long planning period is needed.
...continued from page 24
told to be the ruins of a long-lost city. The structures and artifacts discovered by National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) are the subject of contention. The major disputes surrounding the Gulf of Khambhat Cultural Complex (GKCC) do claim about the existence of submerged city-like structures. To be continued in page 34...
Life is a gigantic and chaotic dance of rise and fall. It is a wave with crests and troughs. It is a human predicament that we do not acknowledge the good times and let it go and whine for it when the time is not right. Life is not always about purple patches but the key is to keep moving forward .As said in Rocky, “It ain’t about how hard you hit; it’s about how hard you can get hit and keep moving forward” .”That’s how winning is done.” In our bad times we keep looking for that inspiration, that
DISCOVER THE DIAMOND IN YOU
spark that can ignite our lives. But we must realize that, the spark is within us and only we have to search it within ourselves. In my soul-searching I came across a book which made me realise I have a diamond inside me. So here goes, “Discover the diamond in you” by Arindam Chaudhuri is a best seller without any doubt. A forward by Shahrukh Khan, recommended by Amitabh Bachchan himself and all the sales of the book being donated to charity, this book will sell. But the book has also got some real inspiring substance and style. The book gives you 9 ‘P’ Powerful Principles like passion, patience, perseverance, patriotism that move into an alliteration. Each principle is explained with many small yet motivating paragraphed examples from oft remembered legends like Bruce Lee, Che Guevara, Akio Morita, Larry Page & Sergey Brin, Jeff Bezos, Ted Turner, Ray Kroc, Steve Jobs, Richard Brandson, Roger Bannister and Phil Knight with famous Indians like Jagdish Singh, J.R.D. Tata, A.R. Rahman and Sachin Tendulkar. The book journeys you step by step with each principle and with each principle learnt you get one step closer to find that diamond in you. Also the book figuratively compares you to a diamond and tells how each virtue learnt can help you cut and polish the diamond- yet maintain its characteristics virtue. Many have reviewed the book as just a collection of inspired stories told again and again. Again others have said it as a lifetime of learning sized into a book. According to me it is a book for everyone who aspires to break out of the cocoon of selfsatisfaction and choose to tread on the path of self-improvement. It inspires you to be the change that you want to see. It shall motivate you not just in improving yourself but also making a difference to the society. If you are having an hour free and pondering how to make best use of it I suggest you to read “discover the diamond in you” because there is always a diamond waiting to be discovered in you. So have a go and shine like a diamond in your life.
...continued from page 32 There are a whole lot of difficulties associating dated artifacts with the site itself, and disputes about whether stone artifacts recovered at the site are actually geofact. People still believe it to be one of ancient cities cited in the epic hindu tale of Mahabharata.
to it is the “Kallanai Dam “. The dam was
originally built by Karikala Chola around first century AD. The idea behind constructing the dam was to divert the river to the delta districts thereby boosting irrigation. The dam was re-modeled by the British during the 19th century. Kallanai Dam is one of the oldest irrigation dams in the world built around 2000 years ago. Kallanai has a strong foundation and solid structure. Due to its stubbornness it is still in excellent condition and is used as a major irrigation dam in Tamilnadu. About 15,000 Singala speaking slaves and war prisoners were picked and mobilized from Srilanka during the construction of the mammoth Dam.
The bottom left
one is the picture of “The Mundeshwari Devi Temple”
. It is located at Kaura in Kaimur district in the state of Bihar, India on the Mundeshwari Hills. It is an ancient temple dedicated to the worship of Lord Shiva and Shakti and is considered one of the oldest Hindu temples and is also considered as the ‘oldest functional’ temple of world.
Just above it is the pride of the nation- the monument that bears the memory of the 70,000 Indian soldiers who lost their lives fighting for the country. The monument, situated in the heart of New Delhi, was designed by
Sir Edwin Lutyens. The foundation stone of India Gate was laid by His Royal Highness, the Duke of Connaught in 1921. The monument was dedicated to the nation 10 years later by the then Viceroy, Lord Irwin. It stands there tall and stout wearing the pride of nation in its every bit of masonry and still inspires the yongsters of the nation.
interview one of our
WHAT THEY SAY
beloved civil engineering department seniors working in EIL (Engineers India Limited). Listen to him talk about placement, training, work, teachers, friendship and life spent in NIT-R. CEST: How was life at NIT? ALUMNI: It was simply incredible. Now I feel why they relate “Student life” to the most cherished moments of our life. Its nonpareilness, its simple joys. The “backpost”, “Raju bhai’s Samosa”, those “nightouts” and “DC++”. I have enjoyed a lot. There was nothing to worry about except those few days of the semesters. The only thing I missed was that I didn’t get any luck with my special friend because I was busy with my studies (chuckles). CEST: How did you manage to grab a seat in EIL? ALUMNI: From the beginning of my B.Tech, it was my dream to get placed in EIL and to stay in Delhi. I was so obsessed with EIL that I didn’t sit for any interviews in any other company. I was really focussed in achieving my goal. I was studying very hard and managed to get a good CGPA and be in top ten of my branch. Improved my knowledge in core subjects and in interview I tried and gave my best. That’s how it is- I am in EIL now. CEST: How does it feel getting placed in your dream company? ALUMNI: It feels great to bag the job you really craved for and when it is in one of biggest consulting company in India- it is just icing to the cake. I am really happy to be placed in my dream job. And for our juniors it is my advice, if one is really interested in bagging a job in a PSU then he should really get serious about it from the beginning of his sophomore year itself. Job and the working environment here
is really good. It gives a great platform to learn and progress by providing a really interesting and inspiring environment. CEST: How is life at EIL? ALUMNI: It’s the daily challenges along with the chronic pressure that tends to build up while performing your work- that makes job life trickier, challenging and gratifying at the same time. The main problem is that it is way too different from the curricula and syllabi system. A few days and you will watch almost every stereotype- you formed about job- burst in your face (chuckles). But keep that aside, it provides a great platform to learn things that are much more valued and way too precious than the knowledge you acquired and assimilated from years of study. So, I have learned a lot and almost tackled and managed to stay intact under a lot of pressure in these previous few years and really received and cherished some practical knowledge. CEST: How is your work experience different from class experience? ALUMNI: As I said earlier, both are really different. It may seem elusive to a lot of you guys because you can sense the difference if and only if you do that work. In class we are very much into theory than the practical aspect but in our workplace we are more into practical than theory. Where even small tactical abilities like ‘time and people management’ come handy. Here we have to concentrate equally on the design aspects as well as the economy and time aspect. We have to amalgamate both quality, quantity and management into a single package and I guess, that’s what a real engineer does. CEST: What were the subjects that were really helpful for getting you this job? ALUMNI: Every subject has its own importance but three subjects namely- structural design, RCC and mechanics of soil were really helpful for me to crack the almost arduous interview of EIL.
CEST: How were teachers in NIT? And who was your favourite teacher? ALUMNI: Teachers were really helpful in my time. And some of the teachers ardently answered all our queries and helped us with almost everything. I can proudly say that I got teachers who helped me be it the matter of studies or be it any advice in the perspective of future or career irrespective of time and literally I could go to any of my Prof. at any time. My favourite teacher was Prof. SP Singh. He may be a little harsh at times but he always has the motive to help the students. CEST: How has your extra-curricular life been in the institute?
ALUMNI: I was interested in social work. I was in AASRA. It gave me immense pleathe economically poor students and giving a comforting hand to the needy. I loved swimming and almost spent an hour every day in our institute swimming pool. CEST: How tough it was, to balance your time for studies and other works and how was your social life? ALUMNI: Time management varies with person to person I have devoted my almost a quarter of my time for extracurricular activity and rest for study. Holidays were
sure to help others. Most of my weekends were devoted for social work, teaching
to compensate any missing work. But I always found 4-5 hours daily for self-study. For social life, I haven’t had a lot of friends. But, I had a small but cool circle and we have enjoyed a lot and have done a lot of leg pulling and visiting different restaurants became our hobby in senior years. CEST: Any unforgettable memory you want to share back-then in NITR. ALUMNI: I love helping people and I remember two things which give me eternal satisfaction. One, everyone was thinking of making me general secretary. But I was not interested and I helped a friend of mine a lot to be a GS. Same thing happened with the case of placement coordinator. I did lend a helping hand towards him and helped him conducting meeting etc. I was fondly called “the kingmaker” by my friends. CEST: How you value summer internships and training and how it was helpful for your placement? ALUMNI: There runs a lot of chaos in the sophomore and continuing years and students get themselves into this crazy race of internships and training. I personally feel that one should not run after meaningless internship rather should go through syllabus properly and gain knowledge. If one is really in the pursuit of real knowledge there are lot of facilities in NIT itself. One is internet. If one really wants to learn then one should choose properly where to do training and should try to learn and learning should be the only perspective wherever they do training. CEST: How much CGPA matters in placement? ALUMNI: It’s my personal belief that they consider CGPA up to 80% weightage and give 20% weightage to other extracurricular activities and communication skill. And the CGPA-stereotype is not always true. Some students are there who are really good at studies or are having knowledge but somehow they haven’t scored better in exams and have got a low CGPA. One may have a minimum average CGPA but
should have knowledge about the branch subjects. Performing well in an interview can ensure you a good job. Later on high CGPA will not help you in doing job properly but a better knowledge will. Good impression on the interviewer is important to get placed. Internships are helpful for practical knowledge. CEST: What was your agenda for placement? ALUMNI: Be in touch with your seniors. Ask them about the companies and their set of criterion. Collect questions asked in interviews or in aptitude test and go thoroughly through them. Ask them about summer internships and training. Have a proper knowledge of your core subjects. Always try to learn and not to mug up things. Always make yourself compatible and comfortable for working in a team. CEST: when should one prepare for placement? And if one is interested to go for higher studies; what will you suggest him? ALUMNI: From 1st year or 2nd year one should be focussed on the aim of oneself. But if anyone haven’t started preparing than I suggest them to start from today itself. Make notes, clear your doubts and study properly. If one is interested in higher studies dual degree programme is really helpful and one should score a decent score in GATE. CEST: Will you suggest anyone for civil engineering? ALUMNI: Oh yes! Of course I will. I really love civil engineering and I love its versatility and how it deals with the grass-root level of every work. Be it sanitation, transportation or construction you can point a building in the skyline to your grandchildren and say, “look! That’s my work”. CEST: Anything you will want to say about this interview? ALUMNI: Thank you. This interview made me take a stroll down my memory lane and left me teary-eyed, literally. I miss those carefree days- in which there was not a worry to face, those late night gossips, those backpost chai-samosa. And in the end,
all the best for your career and future.
They say –“Drawing is the language of engineers”. They say -We, the Engineers converse and
convey to the world through designs sketched on the heart of papers. But seriously, who else can know what it means to sketch out a plan with a pencil, expect the countless hours spent- that remain our silent witness. But gone are the days of those blinding hours of pencil and papers thanks to different softwares developed in the field of civil engineering. “Chief Architect” is no exception. And Yes! Chief Architect software was initially created for home design due to Simpson’s frustration in designing by hand (Simpson developed the software). WHAT IS IT?? Chief Architect Software is a “Computer aided design(CAD)” software for the home building industry created by Chief Architect Software, a software developing industry in Coeur d’Alene, Idaho, United States. Chief Architect Software is a 3D architectural design product for the professional home design industry and the DIY home design markets. Chief Architect is a benchmark product for BIM (BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING) as it applies to residential constructions. BRIEF HISTORY Chief Architect software is a privately held company founded in 1981 in Palo Alto, CA. Initially the company was named Advanced Relational Technology, Inc. (ART) and developed relational databases Around 2003, the name of the company name was changed to Chief Architect, Inc. Released in 1992, Chief Architect Version 2 was a 3D Computer Graphics Software
(CGS) product that ran on an early version of MS WINDOWS Version 3.1. The software has become the industry standard for home design and is taught in classroom environments down to the middle school level. THE SOFTWARE Chief Architect Software enables the novice computer users to utilize technology quickly and easily and visualize a design in both 2D and 3D rendering environments. This has put a 3D home design tool in the hands of builders, contractors and homeowners who have traditionally lacked the skills to run complex CAD softwares. Drafting a great architectural design is so much easier when you have the right application to help you out. Chief Architect Premier is without a doubt one of the most impressive programs of its kind. One of the best things about Chief Architect Premier is that it allows you to download huge libraries of materials and various patterns for doors, windows, fences, staircases mouldings etc. Furthermore, the application is capable of automatically building roofs for your structures according to your customized settings. Another impressive trait is its 3D rendering capabilities. You will be able to get a detailed look over your project from various perspectives, see through walls and analyse your building from any angle you can think of. The downside to this is that the program requires a lot of system resources in order to run in optimum conditions, so you probably won’t be able to use it on a low-end computer.
Chief Architect Premier is one of the best tools that a professional architect could have. Not that people who have a hobby for architecture and design couldn’t use it, but its price is pretty exorbitant for someone who doesn’t plan to make money by using it. Chief Architect Premier X5 is available in 64-bit and-32 bit versions. The 64-bit version is more efficient in managing memory. Chief Architect Premier is for all aspects of residential and light commercial design. Powerful building and drafting tools help design professionals quickly create plans according to standard building practices. Finally, Chief Architect includes design
tools for photo-realistic Renderings, Artistic Renderings and Virtual Tours to help Chief Architect Software announced the release of version X5 of its architectural home design and drafting software at the Remodelling Show.The Chief Architect family includes four products for the professional design market - Premier, Interiors, Educational and an Academic version. The new X5 version offers enhanced tools and advances to existing features to improve design experience and produc-
clients visualize your designs.
tivity. Chief Architect Premier is the best-selling product for full residential and light commercial design with the most comprehensive features. Chief Architect Interiors is specifically for kitchen & bath and interior design professionals with specific features for that market. The Lite version is geared toward drafters and the Academic product is based on the Premier version and is discounted for students and schools. New features in the X5 release include, PDF Import; Shadow Boards and Ridge Caps for added exterior detail; The National Kitchen and Bath (NKBA) dimension tool to automatically place dimensions for interior rooms and elevation views; an improved 3D Walkthrough tool; Progressive Ray Tracing technology for faster rendering; and several other key improvements. A detailed feature list is on the chiefarchitect.com website along with a summary video of the new features. “With each release of Chief Architect Software, user productivity tools are a key focus. The ability to automatically dimension wall elevations to NKBA standards or import a PDF of a manufacturer’s CAD detail are just as important as the 3D renderings are to visualize and sell your jobs. We want Chief Architect customers to have the best design tools to help them be successful”, said Scott Harris, VP of sales and marketing.
MASTER OF ALL TRADES You have seen him watching you through his glasses near the entrance gate. You have been sitting in the auditorium reading “his name” for your “Fresher” and “Farewell”. Yes, we are talking about Bhubaneswar Behera- scholar, civil engineer, visionary, writer, first principal of REC-Rourkela, Utkal Ratna recipient and many more. Born on the new-year-day of 1916 at village Kashibahal in the then princely state of Kalahandi; completed his early education at Bhawanipatna and passed his matriculation in 1935. He had his B.Sc. (Hons), Physics from the Ravenshaw College, Cuttack in 1939. Obtained B.Sc.(Engg.) Hons. Degree in Civil Engineering in 1943 from Bihar College of Engg. Patna. After an apprenticeship in Government of Orissa, Works Department and the Irrigation Dept. of the then princely state of Mysore, in the Jog Hydro Power Project, he joined as an Asst. Engineer with special charge of irrigation under the Kalahandi, Darbar in Feb. 1945. Being chosen as a post war reconstruction scholar by Govt. of India for higher studies abroad - obtained Masters Degree from the State University of IOWA, USA in 1947. He came across the perennial Indrāvati flowing across the Thuamul Rampur Plateau of Kalahandi, a tributary of Godavari running parallel to the Eastern Ghats. He visualised that the diversion of the river Indrāvati to Hati River will create an artificial water fall from a height of 2000 feet which will generate hydropower and will also
provided perennial water supply for irrigation. He prepared a preliminary scheme and submitted the same to the Maharaja for his consideration. The Maharaja was enthralled with his work. He has worked as Executive Engineer in the Hirakud Dam Project till 1956. He was the principal of University College of Engineering, Burla in 1961 and also was appointed as Vice-chancellor, Sambalpur University in 1971. In 1977, he was sent to the Democratic Republic of Liberia in West Africa as an Ad-
visor for Technical Education by the Govt. of India. Later appointed as member of Das Committee by Govt. of Orissa to recommend ning Board and was a Member of the Union Public Service Commission. This genius was one renowned litterateur known across odisha for his lucid writing. His essay book “Suna Parikshya” earned him Orissa Sahitya Academy Award and his novel “Gaonro Daka” earned him the prestigious “Sarala Award”. He also
establishment of Colleges in Orissa. He also worked as Member, Orissa State Plan-
has bagged the “Sarala Sanman” and “Prajatantra Prachar Samity Essay Award”. The Utkal Pathak Sansad, Cuttack has conferred on him “Sahitya Sudhakar” Title. Sambalpur University and Utkal University have conferred on him Doctorate of Science(Honoris Causa) degree. He is also the recipient of “Utkal Ratna” in 1998. His Oriya travelogue “Paschima Africa re Odisa Dhennki” is a textbook in many universities of odisha. He has authored several research papers. Behera’s paper titled “Optimum Height of Multipurpose Reservoirs,” co-authored with P.K. Mohapatra, and his paper “Flexible Foundation,” co-authored with A.P. Mishra, earned the Ministry of Irrigation Gold Medal and The Institution of Engineers (India) Gold Medal, respectively. For his lifelong achievements and contribution to the society, The Institution of Engineers (India) Orissa State Center honoured him with the title of “Senior Engineer” of the state on the occasion of the 50th anniversary celebrations of Indian independence in 1998. He officially retired from his work on January 1, 1981, and returned to his native village, Mundraguda, in the Dharmagarh subdivision of Kalahandi District, Orissa. Standing near the entrance - he still watches us and may his presence boost our budding engineers to serve for the humankind.
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