LAWRENCE BROOK WATERSHED GEO - DESIGN STUDIO FALL 2012 PROFESSOR: JEAN MARIE HARTMAN EDITOR: ADAM CESANEK
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
29.........PERSPECTIVE OF CENSUS DATA...............................................................................................................................................................1 RAIN GARDEN MUNICIPALITIES...........................................................................................................................................2 30..........RAIN GARDEN SUBURBAN HOUSING IN EAST BRUNSWICK 1930 - 2007..............................................3, 4 PLANTING GUIDE MIDDLESEX COUNTY REDEVELOPMENT PLAN.......................................................................5 31..........RAIN GARDEN LAWRENCE BROOK TOPOGRAPHY......................................................................................6 LAYOUT DIAGRAM FEMA FLOOD ZONES...............................................................................................7 32..................LEVEE SECTION IMPERVIOUS SURFACES........................................................................................8 33......................WETLAND CONTAMINATED SITES AND GROUNDWATER RECHARGE........................9 DIAGRAM FORESTED WETLANDS..................................................................................10 34.....................WETLAND AQUATIC PLANT HABITAT........................................................................11 SECTION 35...............................LOG AGRICULTURAL LAND USE...............................................12 BREAKWATER RESIDENTIAL LAWNS........................13 36.......................LIVE DETAIL OF POUROUS FASCINE PAVING LAYERS.....................14 37..............FIBER SECTION OF POUROUS ROLL PAVING LAYERS.......................15 38.............LIVE SECTION OF GREEN ROOF.....16 STAKES LAYERS OF GREEN ROOF........17 39, 40....................FLOW RETENTION POND PLANTER DETAIL, SECTION WATER STORAGE LEVELS....18 41..................CONTEXTUAL SECTION RETENTION POND AXON...19 42, 43.....................GRAVEL WETLAND 44, 45.......GRAVEL WETLAND EXAMPLES BIO RENTENTION AXON....20 46........................................................SAND FILTER GREYWATER AXON.............21 47..............................................FILTER STRIP SECTION GREYWATER DIAGRAM.....22 48.......................................................FILTER STRIP DETAIL GREYWATER DETAIL.........23 49..........................ENHANCED DETENTION BASIN PLAN EXISTING AND RETROFIT OF 50...................................ENHANCED DETENTION BASIN SECTION GREYWATER BASIN......24, 25 51..............................................VACANT DETENTION BASIN PHOTOS RAIN GARDEN 52............................DETENTION BASIN OUTLET STRUCTURE SKETCH PERSPECTIVE...26, 27 53................................................CONTOUR FARMING AXONOMETRIC SECTION OF 54...........................................XERISCAPING AXONOMETRIC DIAGRAM RAIN GARDEN...........28 55.............................................................EXISTING TURF GRASS SECTION 56....................................................................PRARIE GRASS SECTION
LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................3 STUDENTS.................................................................................................................4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.......................................................................................5 PREFACE....................................................................................................6 MICHELIN TIRE FACTORY....................................................................7
CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW............................................................9 MUNICIAPLITIES AND DEMOGRAPHICS..........10 REGIONAL RESTORATION.....12 LAND AND WATER...........14 WATER QUALITY............16 NATIVE VEGETATION.......18 NPS POLLUTION...............20
35..CONTRUCTED WETLANDS 36..................BANK STABILIZATION 37.......INFILTRATION PLANTERS 38.................GRAVEL WETLANDS 39.................SAND FILTERS 40.........FILTER STRIPS 41......DETENTION BASIN 42.........VACANT DETENTION PONDS 43.....................CONTOUR FARMING 44.......................................XERISCAPING 45............................LOW - MOW LAWNS
CHAPTER 2 BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES....................23
POROUS PAVEMENT...24 GREEN ROOFS..............25 RETENTION BASINS........26 GREYWATER.......28 RAIN GARDENS...........30 LEVEE.........................34
47.........................................APPENDIX - FINAL BOARDS
JUNIOR DESIGN STUDENTS LAWRENCE BROOK WATERSHED REGIONAL PLANNING STUDIO
BENJAMIN ANTWI ANDREW BLACKBURN GEORGE BRNLOVICH REBECCA COOK MARLON DAVIS PETER ELLIS ALEXANDRA DURO RYAN GOODSTEIN MICHELLE HARTMANN GWEN HEERSCHAP ANGELA JOHNSEN NATHANIEL KELLY AUDREY LI DEANNA LU BRIAN MAHER JOSHUA MIELOCH JUSTIN MORG SUHEE PARK JUNG ARELI PEREZ CHRISTOPHER PEREZ JOHN PETERS KELLY POPECK KIMBERLY RICHMOND ARI SALANT SAMANTHA SAYDAK MICHAEL TICKER ALYSSA VIANI JESSIE WOODS
The Regional Design and Planning Studio would like to acknowledge the support of the following organizations and institutions: Rutgers University School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University Department of Landscape Architecture, The New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, The Lawrence Brook Watershed Partnership and Wallace Roberts and Todd. We personally thank Alan Godber, WanQuing Huang, Christiana Pollack, Gena Wirth and Tobiah Horton for your guidance and contributions. Without your help this studio could not have been possible.
Landscape Architecture has a long tradition of working on an extremely wide range of scales. Olmsted – the father of landscape architecture – worked on landscapes as small as a few hundred square feet and as large as tens of thousands of acres. One of his final projects was the Biltmore Estate (Asheville, NC) where he agreed to design a French-style garden in order to get to design/manage the other 125,000+ acres of forestland on the estate. Think about his Emerald Necklace for Boston, which stretched for miles. One of his protégés, Warren Manning, tried to use overlays as the basis for a National master plan. Olmsted established projects like these as an important part of the profession. A key to Olmsted’s early rise to prominence was not just his visionary design abilities, but his strong emphasis on the importance of science as a basis of design decisions and respect for the place.
The semester will be spent exploring design interventions involving storm water best management practices. The designs will begin with inventory and analysis of Lawrence Brook Watershed. Through this process a number of issues related to water quantity and quality within the Watershed will be identified, mapped, and analyzed. We will rely on team efforts which result in a single collaborative report on the Watershed. Students will investigate stormwater best management practices that are appropriate to the issues that are identified. The final portion of the semester will involve individual design proposals that improve the quality and quantity of water moving through the watershed.
SCHEDULE Week 1 - Campus inventory exercises. Week 2 - Begin watershed inventory and GIS exercises. Week 3 - Continue watershed inventory and GIS exercises. Week 4 - Continue GIS exercises. Finish and present inventories. Week 5 - Develop analysis questions and begin analysis. Week 6 - Refine and document analysis. Week 7 - Complete and present analysis. Begin articulation of design goals. Week 8 - Develop and present design ideas. Week 9 - Complete library and field research for design. Week 10 - Develop and present design concepts and sketches. Week 11 - Begin design details. Week 12 - Integrate details with regional design. Week 13 - Continue design work, post completed inventory and analysis document. Week 14 - Finalize designs and create final details and design Week 15 - Complete and post all design and written work. FINAL - Present projects to faculty and public.
- D. Tulloch 2011
GOALS 1.Conduct inventories and analyses that draw out the real site 2. Complete projects that display a sense of stewardship in the landscape 3. Complete designs that demonstrate a clear understanding of the inventory and analysis processes. 6
MICHELIN TIRE FACTORY - MILLTOWN, NJ ICONIC SYMBOL OF LAWRENCE BROOK 7
CHAPTER 1 - OVERVIEW
OVERVIEW - Municipalities and Demographics Lawrence Brook Watershed is nearly entirely in Middlesex County. All of Milltown is in this watershed; more than half of North Brunswick, East Brunswick, and South Brunswick Townships are in the watershed; and some of the eastern section of New Brunswick all fall within the watershed.
The map on the following page displays the relationship between each town and the respective Legislative districts. It shows how at the state level the laws and ordinances in Lawrence Brook Watershed have input from different groups. Census data has shown that Latino and Asian populations have increased in Lawrence Brook over the past ten years. With these changes, it will be important to understand differences in attitudes about personal space, recreation, and aesthetics. Landscape architects can be agents of social change. By reaching beyond water quality and quantity this Regional Planning studio will address how stormwater management systems become appropriate to their location.
These five municipalities, as a whole, represent about one quarter of the countyâ€™s population. Another way to look at it is that over 10% of the countyâ€™s population lives in the watershed. Average household income and average per capita income have a broad range, from about $17 thousand in New Brunswick to over $40 in South Brunswick, whereas Median Household or Condo values are less distinct increase by about 40% from New Brunswick to East Brunswick.
Figure 1. Census Data by Municipality Population
New Jersey Middlesex County
Median House or Condo Value
Median Gross Rent
368,260 / 381,902
Figure 2. Map of Municipalities within Lawrence Brook 11
OVERVIEW - Promoting Regional Restoration
East Brunswick Aerial Photo Comparison
Each municipality also has its own character and priorities. Milltown is the only Borough amongst the five municipalities and is also the only municipality entirely contained in the watershed. Although it is largely built-out, there is one development plan that would significantly increase the size of the population and impact floodplain of the watershed.
New Brunswick is a city, with a long history, major highways, and industrial areas. The part of New Brunswick which falls in Lawrence Brook Watershed is primarily single or multifamily housing and major highways, such as Route 18 and 1. In the last 80 years, the Township of East Brunswick has changed from a largely agricultural township to a densely suburban area. Along with this change has come a heightened awareness of open space and environmental issues, resulting in over 6 square miles of preservation and an active butterfly garden program.
Figures 3 and 4. Development of suburban housing within East Brunswick 1930 - 2007
Similarly, North Brunswick Township has seen most of its agricultural land become suburbs, shopping centers and malls, or technical or industrial centers. South Brunswick has followed a similar pattern of growth as the other townships and has successfully created a park and open space system that balances its growth. There is a growing concern regarding open space within the region. Heightened development rates have mobilized multiple partnerships and organizations in order to promote environmental restoration. The following page shows the Middlesex county redevelopment plan for the Lawrence Brook Watershed. 12
Figure 5. Overlay of Middlesex County Redevelopment Plan with Lawrence Brook Watershed 13
OVERVIEW - Lawrence Brook Land and Water The Lawrence Brook Watershed is an approximately 50 square mile area, located in central New Jersey. Lawrence Brook flows to the northeast to the Raritan River in New Brunswick.
A watershed is defined by all the land which drains into a water body. Water that runs over the land (also called runoff) will collect in a stream or river, raising the level of water. The amount of precipitation and the steepness of slopes detemine plant communities and vegetation types. Development leads to lower stream flows during dry periods, shorter time to peak flow after rainfall, and higher peak flows. This pattern increases as the amount of impermeable land surface increases.
The main stem is about 12 miles long with tributaries located in five sub-watersheds adding many miles of flowing water. The lowest elevation is less than 20 feet, near the mouth of the Brook at the Raritan River. Within the watershed, elevations exceed 200 feet along the western edge and 140 feet along the eastern edge. Figure 6. Topography and streams of Lawrence Brook Watershed
Negative impacts associated with development are reduced by the presence of wetlands, which act as sponges and filters of flood water. As long as wetland ecosystems remain protected, downstream areas will be protected against upstream flood waters. The map on the adjacent page shows the FEMA Flood Boundaires. The darkest blue zone on the map indicates the 0.2% (or 500 hundred year) flood hazard zone. Although the width of the flood hazard zone is widest in the southern half of the watershed, a great deal of economic impact from flooding has occurred in the northern half of the watershed, especially in Milltown during current storm events such as Hurricane Irene.
Figure 7. Map of FEMA FloodZones 14
OVERVIEW - Water Quality/ Quantity in Larence Brook The following map shows the distribution of impervious surface in the watershed. 25% or more impervious surface significantly increases the flood patterns. The areas with the highest percent impervious surface are dark blue; they tend to be along the major highways or in the headwaters of the stream system. The central area of the watershed includes the
County Parks and extensive wetlands. This arrangement has probably buffered some of the potential impact of the densely built areas on the flood plain downstream. However, collected runoff from impervious surfaces increases erosion downstream.
Figure 8. Impervious Surface Map - Lawrence Brook The map on the adjacent page shows contaminated sites in relationship to areas of high groundwater recharge. Lawrence Brook Watershed is at the transition between the Piedmont and Coastal Plain rock formations. Patterns of soil infiltration, topography and erosion are related to these geologic features, with higher infiltration rates often occurring on sandy soils. The potential exists for contaminants to leave polluted sites (such as old gas stations or industrial facilities) and enter the groundwater.
Figure 9. Contaminated Sites and Groundwater Recharge 16
OVERVIEW - Native Vegetation of Lawrence Brook Aquatic plants found in the Lawrence Brook watershed work to: aid in toxin removal, convert organic and inorganic matter, oxygenate water, provide shelter for prey fish, baby fish, fish eggs, reduce wave activity and control sediment, reducing erosion both in the water and along the shoreline. The following map shows areas where aquatic plant are common within the Lawrence Brook Watershed, indicating typical land covers where plants are found (wetlands, streams, lakes, and rivers). The color of the ring around each aquatic plant picture indicates the associated land cover.
A unique habitat is created where wetlands and forests overlap. Such areas, known as forested wetlands are highly effective in absorbing runoff, providing habitat and increasing evapotranspiration. This map denotes wetland, forests, their intersection, as well as tributaries and streams. Forested wetlands are ecologically stable areas which maintain the flow rates across the entire watershed. Destruction or degradation of these areas lead to irregular water quality/ quantity and depleted species habitat. Landscape architects can draw inspiration from forested wetlands in creating stormwater management systems which employ bio-mimicry to resolve complex water resource management issues. Researching plant life, animal species, aquatic species, and soil types will further inform our design for the Lawrence Brook Watershed. Figure 10. Forested Wetlands of Lawrence Brook
Figure 11. Aquatic Plant Habitat
OVERVIEW - Non Point Source Pollution in Lawrence Brook Figure 13. Residential Non Point Source Pollution
The Lawrence Brook Watershed has one of the highest percentages of agricultural land use within central New Jersey. Mapping agriculture within the watershed is important to gain an understanding of associated nutrient runoff into local tributaries. Increased nitrogen and phosphate loads can degrade downstream water quality. Therefore, designers should address agricultural sites adjacent or relatively close to stream systems ensure proper management, buffer systems and reduction of offsite drainage to reduce the amount of nutrient runoff as much as possible.
Figure 12. Agricultural Land Use This map shows the location of lawns based on 2007 land classification and their proximity to water. When residential lawn runoff directly enters surface waters, excess nitrogen and phosphorous are deposited in water bodies. Increased nutrient loading can cause a higher rate of lake and wetland eutrophication. A 600 foot buffer was added to indicate all areas in which runoff drains directly to streams. 20
CHAPTER 2 - BMP’s
Structural BMP’s - Porous Pavement
Structural BMP’s - Green Roofs
Porous asphalt is a type of paving surface that allows water to be able to penetrate the surface and infiltrate belowground aquifers. Larger aggregate is added to the asphalt mixture, while fine aggregate is eliminated, creating larger void space. Porous asphalt commonly has a Stone recharge bed underneath the paving layer to store water during a storm, allowing the water to slowly infiltrate into the soil below. Porous asphalt reduces the amount of runoff into storm sewers and allows storm water to recharge the ground water supply.
Depending on where this material is used, it can reduce the need for onsite irrigation to plants around paved surfaces. The storm water is filtered as it passes through the asphalt, the stone recharge bed, and the filter fabric layer, greatly improving water quality when compared to direct runoff.
Intensive Green Roofs are structural systems placed on top of buildings that help to reduce the amount of pervious surface in urban areas. There are various layers that compose this BMP which when put together, create an effective stormwater management system. Some benefits can include the reduction of runoff, reduction of the urban heat island effect, reduction in air pollution, providing wildlife habitat and biodiversity enhancement, and lower risk of urban flooding. The roofs vegetation usually needs to be watered and fertilized for the first few years of implementation, depending upon plant selection. Planting media for intensive green roofs are a foot deep at minimum but can vary depending on what the roof’s purpose is serving.
Soil Substrate Filter Fleece
Figure 16. Section of Green Roof
Drainage Board Reservoir Fleece Root Barrier
Figure 14. Detail of Porous Pavement Layers Waterproof Membrane Thermal Insulation Vapour Control Layer Figure 15. Section of Porous Pavement Layers 24
Structural Roof Deck
Figure 17. Layers of Green Roof Construction Detail 25
Structural BMPâ€™s - (Bio)Retention Basins To provide bank stability, retention ponds are often landscaped with a variety of grasses, shrubs, and/or wetland plants. Vegetation improves water quality by removing soluble nutrients through root uptake. Retention ponds are often implemented in highly developed areas. Buildings, roadways, parking lots, driveways, etc. Are all impermeable surfaces, or material water cannot infiltrate during rainfall. Not all retention ponds are created equal, some retention ponds are more effective at catching pollutants, removing or using up those pollutants, and discharging cleaner water than other ponds. Planning the size of the retention pond ensures the BMP will serve its intended purpose. Careful aquatic plant selection allows for ecological benefits including bacteria reduction, nitrogen and phosphorous
Retention basinâ€™s primary function is to hold water. Typically the water comes from drainage pipes, streets, or parking lots. In urban or suburban areas there are many surfaces that do not allow water to penetrate. Impermeable surfaces reduce infiltration resulting in flooding of streams and rivers, contributing to erosion and water pollution. Retention basins serve to reduce flooding by providing a temporary storage area for water and associated runoff pollutants, thereby improving local ecosystems. Vegetation can make shift the goal of a retention basin from addressing water quantity to addressing water quality. Retention basins that utilize vegetation are known as bioretention basins. Some other names for retention basins include wet ponds, wet detention basins, or lakes fails. The main difference between retention and detention basins is that retention basins are created to hold water constantly where detention basins channel it elsewhere.
removal. Aeration should also be considered when designing a retention pond, without proper levels of oxygen, a pond will not be able to support life and serve as a healthy ecosystem.
buffers strips, a bioretention area, underground mulch layer, underground sand bed, and pea gravel. The basin has three water levels: a permanent pool (located at the lowest elevation), a water quality level (plants face partial submersion), and a flood storage volume (holds the excess runoff during storms). Bioretention areas function by filtering water through onsite plants over the course of 24 â€“ 72 hours. Bioretention basins can be aesthetically pleasing, fit into most landscapes, and are relatively low maintenance.
Bioretention basins are a type of stormwater best management practice. The job of the basin is to filter and reduce the velocity of runoff. The bioretention basin is based on characteristics of an upland terrestrial forest and a meadow. It is composed of grass
Figure 18. Retention Pond Water Storage Levels
Figure 20. Axonometric drawing of Bioretention Pond Figure 19. Retention Pond Axonometric Drawing 26
Structural BMPâ€™s - Greywater Infiltration Basins Greywater is a major component of households in todayâ€™ s society that comes from daily processes such as washing the dishes,showering/bathing, and washing your clothes. The concept is to implement a Greywater Constructed Wetland within a residential area and get that water filtered by natural processes. The toxins within greywater can become harmful to the surrounding environment. The opportunity to filter and resuse wateris essential to creating ecologically friendly developments. The modular design can be retrofitted on existing stormwater management systems or incorporated into future developments.
Figure 24. Existing Stormwater Basin Figure 21. Persective of Greywater Infiltration Basin
Figure 22. Functional Diagram of Greywater Infiltration Basin
By replacing the existing stormwater culvert (shown to the right) with a greywater infiltration basin stormwater overflows will not pollute surrounding water bodies when the water table exceeds engineered standards. Through this innovative design, water is diverted away from existing wetlands and will instead slowly be released into underground sewage lines. Overall, phytoremediation allows for less chance of contamination as greywaterwater travels to the the wastewater treatment plant.
Figure 23. Detail of Greywater Wetland - Componenets of Greywater Constructed Wetlands Include: Impermeable Layer, Sand Layer, Gravel Layer, Mulch and Planting Later
Figure 25. Retrofitted Greywater Infiltration Basin 28
Structural BMPâ€™s - Rain Gardens or from nearby rooftops. Nutrient loading in the storm water from nearby agricultural land or large fertilized lawns begin to seep slowly into the soil base along with the water. Nutrients are then collected by the ecosystem of wet site tolerant plants, with the exception that excess nutrients seep past the soil base that lines the rain garden or if water overflows out of the rain garden and into nearby storm drains. Rain gardens are not only functional; they are very aesthetically pleasing and when implemented correctly, can provide wildlife habitats.
A rain garden is a planted depression in the ground specifically designed to manage storm water runoff from impervious surfaces. These surfaces are mainly urban rooftops, parking lots, roads, and even lawns. When compared to a patch of lawn, a rain garden allows 30 percent more water to soak into the ground. Much occurs within these depressions when storm water runoff begins to reach the basin. Plants, mulch and rock streambeds begin to slow the surge of storm water that enters the basin usually off a street drainage gutter
Figure 26. Sectional Perspective of Rain Garden 30
Figure 27. Detail of Water Flow in Rain Garden
Structural BMPâ€™s - Rain Gardens II
The BUFFER zone is the outermost edge of the garden and serves to decrease the velocity of water, filter out sediment, and absorb pollutants. Vegetation planted here must tolerant to dry soils. The SLOPE is the area that connects the buffer zone and base and stores runoff waiting to be treated. Vegetation planted here must tolerant both dry and wet soil tolerant. The BASE is the deepest area of the rain garden. Vegetation planted here must be tolerant to wet soils.
A rain garden can be categorized into three areas, the buffer zone, slope, and base. From the driest to the wettest soils, the obligate upland (UPL), facultative upland (FACU), facultative (FAC), facultative wetland (FACW), and obligate wetland (OBL) are the five wetland statuses which determine soil moisture and vegetation type located within the three zones mentioned above. Rain gardens function as infiltration basins that quickly drains water within 24 hours. As water percolates through the ground, the soil and vegetation absorbs and filters our any type of pollutants and sediments that came from runoff and recharges the aquifers located below.
Figure 31. Rain Garden Layout Diagram
Figure 29. Perspective of rain garden in residential area
Figure 30. Rain Garden planting guidelines Figure 28. Section of rain garden 32
Structural BMPâ€™s - Constructed Levee A levee is a natural or artificial flood bank that follows along a river or canal path. Natural levees are created when a river floods over the bank and deposits sediment, which causes the banks to be higher than the floodplain. Man-made barriers are also created to prevent flooding, contain water flow, and/or increase water speed. Levees are also known as a stop wall, dike, dam, or storm barrier. A levee can be found along lakes, rivers, or the sea. They are generally made of soil and some man-made levees are reinforced by rocks or
Structural BMPâ€™s - Constructed Wetlands concrete to prevent erosion. They are occasionally used as a military defense, as well. There is no set height for such a barrier; the height usually varies between 10 and 30 feet (3 to 10 m). An emergency levee, such as that to be used in the event of flood, can be created with sandbags.
Constructed wetlands are artificially crafted wetlands, marshes, and swamps that act as a natural filter- removing sediments and pollutions from the watershed. This type of structural best management practice can be classified as biomimicry, which is a term that involves the study and replication of natureâ€™s systems to solve environmental issues. In addition to their aesthestic value, constructed wetlands have numerous benefits for a watershed such as filtration, retention, and infiltration. The incoming runoff
passes through the upland buffer, where larger trees and brush slow down the momentum and begin the filtration process. The forested wetlands segment is composed of wet-site tolerantspecies that absorb excess water and sediment. The water then passes through a series of marsh grasses and comes to rest in the retention pond where infiltration into the groundwater system can take place.
Figure 33. Diagram showing water holding capacity of contructed wetlands for different rainfall events
Figure 34. Section of Constructed Wetland, Detailing Biomimicry
Figure 32. Section of Constructed Levee 34
Structural BMPâ€™s - Bank Stabilization
Structural BMPâ€™s- Infiltration Planters soft technology interventions provide improved habitat for fishes, amphibians and benthic macro-invertebrates. Streambank stabilization can be achieved through the use of highly engineered structures (levees, channelization, however these methods promote biologic interaction and foster increased ecosystem services. Overall, these methods work with existing floodplains and allow for inundation in certain areas to achieve infiltration during periods of heavy rainfall.
Erosion threatens the water quality of streams, lakes and other water bodies. The erosion process can be defined as the removal of soil particles from a site due to forces of water, wind and ice. High volumes of stormwater runoff erode streambanks, thereby increasing the amount of total suspended solids and organic matter within surface water bodies. Such pollutants degrade the habitat of beneficial plant and animal communities. This collection of proposed BMPâ€™s will improve water quality through streambank stabilization, which uses extensive root systems to hold soils in place. At the same time,
Figure 36. Live Fascine - A combination of live stakes and bundles of dead / live branched. Often used with riprap to stabilize the tow of the slope. Fascine bundles will root, providing further stabilization
Figure 35. Log Breakwater - Sediment builds up behind log breakwater allowing space for vegetation to become established
Figure 37. Coconut Fiber Roll - Functions as breakwater in shallow water, reducing wave energy. Contains substrate and encourages development of wetland communitites. 36
Figure 38. Live Stakes - Create a living root mat that stabilizes the soil. Live, ruootable vegetative cuttings are inserted into the ground, where they will root and grow. Willow is a popular choice, as it roots rapidly and tolerates wet soil.
Infiltration planters are structural landscaped reservoirs used to collect and filter stormwater runoff. By allowing water to infiltrate through the soil, flow through planters can restore underground aquifers while reducing the velocity and temperature of water entering surrounding streams. This stormwater management BMP is useful in scenarios with a high ratio of impervious to pervious cover (large parking lot / commercial areas). Flow through planters, include the use of a semi-permeable lining and include an overflow pipe which conveys water to a connected storm-drain. Infiltration planters are appropriate for soils with a minimum infiltration rate of two inches per hour. The minimum planter size is thirty inches Figure 39. Detail Section of Flow Through Planter wide and twelve inches deep, allowing for water collected in the infiltration planter to fully drain within twelve hours. River rock, gravel, or some other energy dissipater are required at the entry point in all design scenarios. Infiltration planter walls must be made of durable, non-toxic material which does not leach chemicals or pollutants into the surrounding area. Planting specifications for an infiltration planter (per 100 square feet) include: four large shrubs / small trees, six shrubs / large grass-like plants and ground covers planted twelve inches on center. Figure 40. Perspective of Flow Through Planter 37
Infiltration Planter Parking Area
Figure 41. Contextual Section
Structural BMPâ€™s - Subsurface Gravel Wetlands
Structural BMPâ€™s - Underground Sand Filters
Subsurface flow constructed wetlands consist of a large gravel or sand filled channel, with wetland appropriate vegitation. In a sub-surface constructed wetland the water sits from 5 to 15 centimeters below the surface of the gravel while maintaining horizontal flow direction. The channel can range from .5 to 1 meter and can be as wide as pleased. The water inflow evenly distributes the water throughout the wetland. Some advantage of subsurface gravelwetlands include reductino of mosquito populations and reduction of other risks associated with open, standing water. Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have found that subsurface gravel wetlands are the most efficient deign in removing total suspended solids form water.
Underground sand filters compensate for space limitations in high-density urban spaces lacking pervious drainage areas. Underground sand filters have demonstrated effectiveness in removing many common pollutants found in urban stormwater runoff, especially those in particulate form. Underground sand filters are designed to improve water quality, and are not intended to address issues related to quantity. The most effective designs intercept the first
flush, while subsequent runoff bypasses the system. In bioretention areas stormwater pollutants are removed from the system via phytoremediation processes, as runoff passes through the plant and soil community. Water quality improvement is achieved through a mixture of organic sandy soil (promotes infiltration) and mulch (promotes microbial activity). Native plants are specified due to synergies with local climates, soil and moisture conditions without the use of fertilizers and chemicals. Underground sand filters are best applied on a relatively small scale, such as in tree pits (shown below).
Figure 42. Section of a Subsurface Gravel Wetland Figure 44. Subsurface Gravel Wetland Example 1
Figure 43. Layers and materials of Subsurface Gravel Wetland
Figure 46. Underground Sand Filter Section and Implementation Diagram
Figure 45. Subsurface Gravel Wetland Example 2 38
Structural BMP’s - Vegetated Filter Strips
Structural BMP’s - Enhanced Detention Basins
A vegetated filter strip is a sloped area which receives runoff from both pervious and impervious surfaces. They are designed to slow the runoff ’s velocity, help filter out pollutants, and collect sediment before letting the runoff into a secondary structure (similar to a swale or bioretention zone). They can also be designed in such a way as to act like a rain garden, by storing and infiltrating runoff water.
Unlike their traditional counterparts, enhanced detention basins remove sediment and pollutants from stormwater much more effectively, as well as provide some infiltration, habitat for wildlife, and recreational opportunities for humans. From the inlet stabilized with riprap to prevent erosion, water moves to the small sediment forebay, where the majority of sediments settle out, simplifying maintenance. The stormwater then moves along a meandering riprap “flow channel” (no concrete) through a series of vegetated “cells,” which slow the water and take up contaminants. Intermittant mini-berms planted with native vegetation reduce flow speed and provide landings for wildlife. The micropool, planted with wetland species, performs final treatment and reduces re-suspension of
Vegetated filters are comparable to an attenuated swale, which design to convey, treat, and capture stormwater. Such structural BMP’s are capable of handling 90% of annual storm events. Specificed at a minimum of 10 ‘ - 15’ in length, vegetate filter strips become increasingly effective the longer they get. The size depends primarily on the use and the target levels at which the resulting runoff is desired to be. The ideal slope is 5% or less, with up to 15% being acceptable but not recommended. Soil should be selected to best suit the needs of the specific site. Amending the existing soils at the site will allow for proper infiltration, preventing excessively drained or impermeable situations . As water sits in the soil it is taken up by plant matter and evapotranspired into the surrounding atmosphere.
Figure 47. Sectional Implementation of Vegetated Filter Strip
sediments. There are possible modifications to this basic system (e.g. check dams between cells, as illustrated on the Site Application: Envisioning the Destinations board), as well as additional amenities. For example, a trash rack prevents rubbish from entering the outlet. Integrating paths over or through the basin offers a number of educational opportunities, especially in residential areas. Maintenance, while essential to good basin performance, is periodic and relatively low in cost. Figure 49. Plan of Enhanced Detention Basin
Figure 48. Perspective detail of Vegetated Filter Strip 40
Figure 50. Section of Enhanced Detention Basin
Non-Structural BMPâ€™s - Vacant Detention Ponds Detention basins are generally in close proximity to housing developments. These areas currently are maintained by the home owner associated and contracted out to landscape management companies. Current mowing and fertilizing strategies defeat water quality intervention processes which could take place within detention basins. Additional suspended solids enter the outlet structures due to excessive soil compaction. Fecal contaminants are pervasive in maintained detention basins which act as feeding territory for the Canadian Goose. If maintenance strategies are revised and plants are allowed to re-colonize, detention basins could host additional ecosystem services, while providing an important amenity to the surrounding neighborhood. The urgency which engineers design stormwater management systems causes aesthetics and water quality to be marginalized.
Non-Structural BMPâ€™s - Contour Farming Contour farming is unique to many other BMP solutions because it is non-structural. The construction of this BMP or method of farming is simple and relatively low in maintenance in comparison to the traditional work of a farmer. Crops are simply alternated in a strip thickness dependent upon the slope intensity. They are planted based on the orientation of the contours in the slope of the land. Contour farming and stripcropping function similarly in the improvement of water quality. For both, crops are planted in vegetative strips to slow runoff and allow for maximum percent infiltration. With the alternat-
ing crop types, not only is high-speed runoff interrupted, but water treatment is maximized. By strategically planting vegetation that thrives with higher concentrations of nutrients, farmers can provide high levels of treatment before irrigation water runs off to the nearest tributary. In addition, soil erosion from runoff is decreased. It provides a beautiful, picturesque piece of land artwork that is not only photogenic, but also helpful to the quality of water.
CROP STRIP VEGETATIVE BUFFER NUTRIENT ABSORBING VEGETATIVE STRIPS
Figure 51. Photos of lawrence brook detention basins which could host additional ecosystem services
2 - 10% CROSS SLOPE
Figure 52. Rendering of detention basin outlet structure
Figure 53. Axonometric Drawing of Contour Farming 43
Non-Structural BMP’s - Xeriscaping
Figure 54. Axonometric Drawing - Re-thinking approach to water use through xeriscaping
Xeriscaping is a design practice that employs the use of plants that require little to no watering, in order to reduce if not eliminate the use of ancillary irrigation. The planting of herbaceous vegetation has been seen as an alternative to turf grass with the intent of improving water efficiency and infiltration. This practice is common in arid landscapes where water is scarce. Xeriscaping originated in Denver in 1981 with “Seven principles for Xeriscaping your Property”. The Denver Botanic Gardens opened the first Xeriscape demonstration garden in 1982 and to date they have accumulated over 200 species of water smart plants. The seven principles the Denver Water outline a basic planning and design process incorporating soil cultivation, smart irrigation, careful plant selection and planting for maximum water infiltration and efficiency. Within the temporal climate of the Northeast there are many opportunities to
incorporate xeriscaping to improve aesthetics, decrease costs, and rethink our approach to utilizing water. There are many advantages when a home owner choses xeriscaping over traditional turf grass lawns. Xeriscaping objectives can be used in efforts to feasibly restore riparian buffers in strategic locations throughout the Lawrence Brook Watershed. 44
Non-Structural BMP’s - Low Mow Lawns Homeowners have the choice to minimize the amount of turf grass lawns in the watershed and replacing these areas with native prairie grasses and wildflowers. Unless being used for recreational purposes, turf grass serves no purpose in our landscape. Turf grass is not native to the United States therefore it has no benefit toward maintaining and restoring healthy levels of biodiversity. Along with this, there are issues of high pollution outputs from the high maintenance of lawns. It is estimated that gas-powered garden tools account for approximately 5% of total air pollution in the United States. Along with high water requirements turf grass needs, water pollution is increased due to the use of chemical fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides. The root system of lawns is extremely shallow making it act as and impervious surface; eliminating the chance for groundwater recharge. Replacing areas where turf is not needed with native grasses and wildflowers will have several beneficial outcomes. Prairies will create habitats for wildlife, the strong and deep root systems of the plants will aid in soil biodiversity, infiltration and prevent erosion. Little to no chemical maintenance is required, resulting in improved water quality. Maintenance such as mowing is decreased drastically; native grasses can be cut once a season or burned. Along with all the benefits listed above, there are many beautiful native species to choose from that will work in all types of soil and typologies. Figure 56.conditions Section through community greenway
Figure 55. Existing turf grass, with: lack of biodiversity, shallow roots and poor soil quality
Figure 56. Section of prarie grasses and deep rooting systems, promoting high biodiversity and healthy soil 45
APPENDIX - FINAL BOARDS
HENDERSON ROAD DEVELOPEMENT - SITE ANALYSIS & DESIGN DIAGRAMS
HENDERSON ROAD DEVELOPEMENT - SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS & PLAN ALEXANDRA DURO
DESIGN CONCEPT: TO IMPROVE THE WATER QUALITY AND QUANTITY IN THE HENDERSON ROAD DEVELOPEMENTS BY IMPLEMENTING BOTH A RETENTION POND AND INFILTRATION PLANTERS, AS WELL AS, IMPROVING THE PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION THROUGHOUT THE SITE. THE ADDITION OF MORE SHADE TREES, AND THE PAVILLION ON THE WATERS EDGE, MAKES THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT FOR THE RESIDENTS MORE COMFORTABLE TO LIVE IN, AND ALSO IMPROVES ITS AESTHETIC QUALITY OF THE SITE.
REDUCTION OF TOTAL PHOSPHORUS & TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS AFTER IMPLEMENTATION OF BMPs
EXISTING FOREST EDGE PROPOSED PEDESTRIAN PATHS
EXISTING FOREST EDGE
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS: PROPOSED ALLEE OF TREES
PROPOSED INFILTRATION PLANTERS
WHEN DOING MY SITE ANALYSIS, I WAS MAINLY TARGETING AREAS THAT WERE HIGH ON BOTH TOTAL PHOSPHORUS (TP) AND TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS (TSS). AFTER RESEARCHING A COUPLE OF POSSIBLE SITES I DECIDED TO WORK WITH AREA 1 (AS SHOWN ON THE OTHER BOARD) BECAUSE IT WAS THE MOST SUITABLE FOR MY BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES. THE MAPS TO THE LEFT ARE A SERIES OF MAPS THAT SHOW THE LEVELS OF BOTH TP AND TSS IN KILOGRAMS, AS WELL AS THE DRAINAGE AND THE KIND OF URBAN LAND I DECIDED TO WORK WITH. AFTER ANALYZING NUMERICAL FIGURES I HAVE CONFIRMED THAT THE IMPLEMENTATION OF BOTH THE RETENTION POND AND INFILTRATION PLANTERS WITH REDUCE THE LEVELS OF TP AND TSS DRASTICALLY. THE PERCENTAGE OF REDUCTION OF TP, AFTER MY BMP IMPLEMENTATION, IS A TOTAL OF 83% AND THE PERCENTAGE OF REDUCTION FOR TSS IS 98%. THIS ANALYSIS CONCLUDES THAT BOTH OF MY BMPs ARE BY FAR APPOPRIATE FOR MY SITE CHOICE AND WOULD ALSO WORK FOR OTHER SITES IDENTICAL TO MY PROJECT AREA.
NOT TO SCALE
CONTOURS (5 FT) WATER FLOW HENSERSON ROAD US ROUTE 1
PEDESTRIAN PATH PEDESTRIAN PATHS EXISTING DRY PONDS
HENDERSON ROAD PROJECT AREA EXISTING HOMES
NOT TO SCALE
PROPOSED LINDEN TREES
PROPOSED RETENTION POND WITH VEGETATION BUFFER
EXISTING DRY POND PROPOSED RETENTION POND
EXISTING HOMES HENDERSON ROAD PEDESTRIAN PATH PEDESTRIAN PATH EXISTING CULVURT
NOT TO SCALE
EXISTING LOT PLANTERS
EXISTING FOREST EDGE
PROPOSED VEGETATION BUFFER
Greywater Constructed Wetlands
Greywater Constructed Wetlands: Proposed Plan & Section
In order to implement a Constructed Greywater Wetland into a residential neighborhood and be able to reuse that filtrated water for irrigation purposes the ideal location to implement this managment practice would be a landuse typology of that with a large slope and a development that has some type of pre-existing retention basin or stormwater basin. Greywater Constructed Wetlands are essentially very useful in a sense that greywater can not only be reused but it poses an economic benefit in the sense that it is saving people money by not using more water for irrigation because they already paid for that used water. The concept of irrigating the filtrated water is a very eco-friendly concept that allows the filtrated water to not turn into runoff or just sit in the wetland but to utilize it for vegetative purposes surrounding the neighborhood.
A2 WETALANDS, WATER & STREAMS
A1 SINGLE UNIT RESIDENCES, LOW & MEDIUM DENSITY
SITE LOCATION: OFF HENERSON ROADNANCY AVENUE & BARBARA STREET LOCATED IN SOUTH BRUNSWICK, NEW JERSEY
WETLANDS, WATER, STREAMS & STORMWATER BASINS
PROPOSED PLAN SPILLWAY FOR WATER OVER FLOW
ft 20 ft
140 ft 0
4 ft 1
12 110 ft 110 ft
10 0 ft
ft 11 0
14 ft 80
90 110 ft ft
CONTOURS AT 2 FT
ft 8 0 ft
60 ft ft 80 70 80 ft ft 11 70 ft ft 0 ft 80 90 ft 90 ft 100 ft
0 11 ft
0 ft 22 0 ft
WETLANDS, WATER, STREAMS, SINGLE UNIT RESIDENCES, LOW & MEDIUM DENSITY
120 ft 0 11
WETLANDS, WATER, SINGLUE UNIT RESIDENCES, LOW & MEDIUM DENSITY, & STORM WATER BASINS
Site: Milltown Post Office
Final Design: Plan, Sections & Perspective View
Urban Built-Up Land
Urban Built-Up Land
Lawrence Brook Watershed
500-Year Flood Zone
Sections & Perspective
Suitable Sites Lawrence Brook Watershed
Watershed Impacts Acre Feet of Water Treated (1" strom = 1/12 ft * 1 acre = 0.83 acre ft water 1" * 10,000 acres * 0.83 acre ft = 8,300 acre ft water)
Lawrence Brook Watershed: 1" * 860 acres * 0.83 ft = 714 acre ft
500-Year Flood Zone
Lawrence Brook Watershed
Suitable Sites Lawrence Brook Watershed
DESIGN IMPACT ON WATERSHED
SITE SELECTION PROCESS
ARELI PEREZ I have always been interested in working in urban areas, where I would be able to give back to the community therefore I first started looking urban areas and where their locations were within the watershed. Second, I decided that I wanted to work with residential areas since that is where people live and are at the most. I researched how watersheds have a negative impact on residents and found that flooding is what usually disturbs residential areas. In the third map I mapped out all of the flood plains found in the watershed along with the residential areas. I then decided that I wanted to work in a site where the flood plains were hazardous. Therefore I observed flood plains categorized as AE and that have .2 % annual flood hazard which mean that they receive the highest levels of flood and occur more frequently. The final map shows four potential residential sites that are negatively impacted by flooding.
My design involves a levee protecting residential sites from flooding. The impact that my BMP has on the watershed at this moment is a very low impact because the site I chose is a small trailer home. The size of the trailer home that I am targeting is 10 acres, and the watershed itself is about 33,000 acres. Therefore my site does not account for even 1% of the watershed. However, the site that I chose is not the only site with flooding problems. The main cause of the flooding is because of the river next to my site. When that river overflows, water has nowhere to go but to the small trailer park. I looked back at my site suitability analysis and found that nothing has changed. The idea of a levee would work in these areas because the flood plains found in these areas are the same flood plains that have an impact on the small trailer park that I chose and also these places are also located near a river a stream that cause the flooding. I looked up all of the residential places in the watershed that were in the same situation as my site selection and I came up with a total of 2000 acres which is .06% of the watershed, which is almost one percent. Although it may not be a big impact when compared to the watershed, the relief that residents living in these areas will be a positive one. I feel that this is a bigger accomplishment when trying to come up with solutions for a problem because in a way it will have a more impact on their lives and homes than anything else.
An example of how water is reduced in my site selection and how flooding can be reduced in other sites with similar problems.
C H A N G E
O V Reduction ofE R
Final flooding impact Legend
T I M E
0.2 PCT ANNUAL CHANCE FLOOD HAZARD
0.2 PCT ANNUAL CHANCE FLOOD HAZARD
A AE X
0.2 PCT ANNUAL CHANCE FLOOD HAZARD AE RESIDENTIAL
Crossroads Middle Schools Walking/ Bike Path
My design is implemented at Crossroads Middle Schools. As there are two middle schools apart from one another, my intention was to create a green campus. The campus is quite large and a bike path is in the design. The area is mostly used by the sport fields which bring both middle schools together. A storm water strategy is implemented in my design which collects the rain water. As it collects the rainwater from the school buildings, it is sent into the larger basins. At the large basins, it is cleansed by wetland plants then sent back to the schools for reuse. The smaller basins also receive the rainwater from the schools and then cleanse the water to be used by the sports fields. As there is going to be overflow, that water is then sent into the two large gathering areas for an aesthetic appeal. The infiltration basin will serve as a focal point, gathering space and a learning amenity. The basins will be an an integral portion of rain water re-use system. The basin employs aquatic plants to further cleanse the water, while also providing an enjoyable and relaxing area for the whole school. The floating aquatic plants will include cattails, lotuses, arrowheads and iris. These will help cleanse the water through the process of phytoremediation.
Water Reuse for Schools
Benjamin Antwi I decided on an urban area as my landuse typology because it had the greatest amount of impervious surface. As my BMP will collect all the street runoff and that will start the water reuse system. I then specified my typology to schools and parks as places whhere my BMP could be implemented. My BMP can also be used as a seating area and a gathering area. Because of that i wanted to choose areas that many people gathered. My selectd site is a mostly a flat continous surface, which is perfect for stormwater basins that need to be placed on a flat surface. Itâ€™snot impossible to place these basins on a contoured area but it is recommended. Urban areas tend to increase water runoff volume, thus degrading water quality. As i use my BMP in urban areas, it would collect the large amounts of water volume and would cleanse the water. Model of my selected site.
Model of the 40,000 gallon cistern found underneath each school.
Current site of the Crossroads South Middle School.
Current site of Crossroads North Middle School.
Underground Water Grid Irrigation Use
South Brunswick Developed Parks and Trails
South Brunswick Schools A- Brunswick Acres B- Cambridge C- Constabel D- Greenbrook E- Monmouth Junction F- Indian Fields/Main Campus G-Dayton at Indian Fields H-Crossroads North Middle School I- Deans at Brooks Crossing J- Crossroads South Middle School K- South Brunwick High School L- Brooks Crossing/Main Campus
1. Crossroads Middle School North Campus 2. Crossroads Middle Scool South Campus 3. Stormwater Basins 4. Tennis Court 5. Baseball Field 6. Track Field 7. Football Field 8. Soccer Field 9. Water Square 10. Wetland Pond 11. Parking Lots
2- Bedford Park 3- College Park 4- Dayton Square Park 5- Dobin Park 6- Haven Pond Park 7- Heathcote Park 8- Ireland Brook Park 10-Kingsley Park 11-Reichler Park 12-Sondek Park 13-Summerfield Park 14-Tall Timbers Parks 15-Veterans Park 16-Wetherhill Historic Park 17-Wooddlot Park 31-Freedom Trail, Monmouth Junction 33-Scenic Park 34-Environmental Center 35-Beech Woods Park 36-Freedom Trail, Kingston 37-Harvest Woods Park 39-Rowland Park County State Parks 18- D&R Canal State Park 19- Cook Natural Area 20- Mapleton Preserve 21- Davidsonâ€™s Mill Park
Contours of my selected site.
DEVELOPMENTS AND THEIR IMPACTS ON THE WATERSHED
Habitat and Community
When it comes to the quality of our environment, developments deliver a wide array of negative impacts. From habitat destruction to the degradation of the quality of our air and water ways, developments do very little to prevent or reverse the ever lowering standard of our environmental quality. By clear cutting the site of a proposed development, large patches of habitat are destroyed and fragmented, only to be replaced with impenetrable turf grass. With no trees or native grasses present, and with the amount of mowing and fertilizers these lawns take to maintain their pristine conditions, storm water runoff gets diverted directly to our streams carrying the pollutants and sediment left behind, while causing increased stream bank erosion, further destroying water habitats. Developments throughout the watershed contribute a total of 29,000,000 gallons of water to the raritan river during an average 1â€? rainfall, while the chosen site delivers 56,700 gallons of water to the river. By filtering the water and slowing the rate at which it enters our water ways, habitat can be restored and revitalized both on land and in the water.
With the reintroduction of larger patches of habitat, communities can start to form around these areas and begin to create spaces for gathering and leisure. Developments do not have to be something that exists seperate from nature and its surrounding community, by bringing these two ideas together humans and all wildlife can begin to co-exist, creating a new outlook in the younger generations eye that can direct the progress in an environmentally friendly way, while creating a fresh outlook for the older generation which are used to urban sprawl and larges patches of unused, wasted space that has been ripped away from the species that are becoming ever more important to protect.
GROUND WATER RECHARGE SELECTED SITE
Rain Gardens: Suitable sites In The Lawrence Brook Watershed
Rain Gardens: North Brunswick Site Selection
This series of maps shown is what is used to target key sites in the Lawrence Brook Watershed that have the best site suitability. Criteria for a suitable site are moderate to high total phosphorus (TP) loading, high ground water recharge levels, low to medium density residential areas as well as proximity to waterbodies.
Preceeding the previous map analysis, A site on the northwestern bank of Farrington Lake off Route 130 was selected as the first most suitable site due to its moderate phosphorus loading, high groundwater recharge amounts and high slopes of streets and embankments pitched directly towards the lake where contaminants begin to runoff into the watershed affecting the largest waterbody in the watershed.
The map below shows groundwater recharge amounts measured in inches per year. The light blue map layers indicate poor groundwater recharge and the darker blues indicate higher amounts.
Site Location Farrington Lake
The map below shows total phosphorus runoff amounts measured in kilograms per year. The light red map layer indicates low to no phosphorus runoff and the darker red layers indicate moderate to high amounts.
The map above shows combined data layers of low to medium density residential areas merged sites with moderate to high total phosphorus runoff levels. The merge of this beneficial data allows us to see precisely where the most suitable sites are located for prime site selection in the watershed as well as other areas where a similar rain garden application would work . Once the site was chosen, water flow diagrams like the one shown above were drawn to show where possible rain garden zones could be designated according to proper sloping to evacuate water off of streets properly without having a disfunct in rain garden system.
Above: Master Plan of site showing rain garden design throughout the developement showing the conflict between existing homeowners driveways that would have to be intersceted in order to move water along a continuous stream channel along the street until a basin is implemented. Also shown is the direction of water flow off of the site, proposed street trees, 5 foot contours, underground piping, culverts and check dam locations
es: Parking Lot Surface Rehabilitation and Redesign
Parking Lot Layout Analysis Christopher Perez Parking lot suitability for retrofit and redesign is assessed through three investigations: Hydrology, Pedestrian Flow, and Automobile Flow. The diagrams on the left are an analysis of existing conditions, while the diagrams on the right display the hidden functions of the proposed parking lot.
1) Bio-retention swale, North Brunswick 2) Active-use primary parking lot, pedestrians and cars share paths, Milltown 3) Pedestrian and Car crossings handled by vegetated buﬀers and large speed tables, West Windsor
Section Perspective A: Hydrology
Drain to Stream
waterwa terwater wate
CARS CARS CARS
Hydrology Section Perspective B:
lkerwalke rwalkerw alkerwalkerw alker
High Flow Auto-Pedestrian Intersection
Low Use Firelane Access
Pedestrian Channels Section Perspective C: Automobile Flow
Sketch Section Bio-Retention Swale Integrated at a Retail Storefront
Low Flow Feeder Lanes
Low Use Overrow Parking Intersection
Sketch Perspective “”Usability Zones”
Rain Gardens : Potential Sites
Washington Cemetery Design Proposal
RD S ND
0.01 mg/l) and high amounts of total suspended solids (above 30 mg/l) can lead to eutrophication, reduce or kill aquatic life, and increase
ry ok tributa
feet of water and 9.2 acre-feet of water during a 4” rain storm. However, by implementing these rain gardens throughout the watershed,
The Washington Cemetery is an ideal location for a healing rain garden design. Located in an area that has low ground water recharge and high total phosphorus and total suspended solids, a rain garden will help recharge the aquifers as well as absorb pollutants contaminating the area. Through the use of native plants, this garden will become a new habitat for various species of threatened and endangered wildlife, specifically different species caterpillars, butterflies, and birds. By using plants that stimulate the five human senses, the rain garden turns into a healing garden for those in mourning. In this design proposal, the rain garden is designed to have specialized resting spaces with year-long interest. The sound garden will have plants that attract various birds, whereas the texture garden is built to be interactive and the fragrant garden will have various species of plants that naturally give off a pleasant smell or when a leaf is crushed. As a result, this rain garden design will not only help improve the water quality and increase biodiversity, but also provide comfort for those visiting the deceased.
The proposed rain garden will be able to hold a maximum of about 13.2 acre-feet of water. During a 1” rain storm, it will store about 2.31 acre-
have the ability to bring the community together. They can be transformed into community garden or a healing garden, or even a community garden that exhibits healing garden elements.
various species of plants and threatened and endangered wildlife and increases biodiversity. In addition to environmental benefits, rain gardens
pollutants like total phosphorus and total suspended solids are filtered out. Though prevalent in nature, high amounts of phosphorus (above turbidity. By using native vegetation, the plants easily adapt to the surrounding area and become low maintenance. New habitats are created for
Rain gardens are easily implemented man-made gardens that have various ecological benefits. As water percolates at the base of the garden,
Project Area Davidson Mill Pond Park
17 1 NJ
TY ibu tary roo k tr Bo gB RD S PO ND
SH FR E
Bro rda m Be ave
re nc e La w
trib uta ry
De an s
code d tr
Herbaceous Vegetation Grasses
Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis)
River Birch (Betula nigra)
3. FRAGRANT GARDEN
Pussy Willow (Salix discolor)
Proposed tomb plots
9 67 TY
Ditc h tr
d tr de -co Un
Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus)
trib uta ry
Gre at D
Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus)
Run D R une R Terh O AJ M EX
B nd ela
Great Ditch tributa ry
Barred Owl (Strix varia)
96 Y6 NT
2. TEXTURE GARDEN
4 69 TY
ry uta ID M
k roo SE
y ke Oa
De an s
1. SOUND GARDEN
ok Yard Bro
Beav erdam Bro
ry uta trib
A RIV HA
ce ren Law
0-8 8 - 16
Groundwater Recharge Billions of Gallons per Year
er ck Su
ROUT E 52 2 k roo eB nc wre Deanna La Lu 12/13/12 Source: NJDEP Projection: NAD 1983 StatePlane NJ FIPS 2900 Feet
Gre EX ES
Habitat Specific Requirements
ry uta ch
Species-Based Habitat Threat Level
Total Phosphorus and Total Suspended Solids
approximately 411.1 acre-feet of water will be captured during a 1” rain storm, and about 1644.5 acre-feet of water during a larger 4” rain storm.
Deanna Lu 12/16/12 Source: NJDEP Projection: NAD 1983 State Plane NJ FIPS 2900 Feet
Common Spicebush (Lindera benzoin) 0
Sweet Pepperbush (Clethra alnifolia)
American Witchhazel (Hamamelis virginiana)
Sportfish of Farrington Lake
Bicentennial Park & Farrington Lake
George Brnilovich III
George Brnilovich III Bicentennial Park is located in East Brunswick, New Jersey on the South edge of Farrington Lake. The park is a popular spot for all types of recreation, including fishing, sports, jogging, cycling, boating & picnicking. Farrington Lake is a 290 acre scenic reservior that was created by damming the Lawrence Brook, a tributary of the Raritan River. The lake is the source for most of our local drinking water, as well as being an area of high ground water recharge. The lake faces a host of challenges to its water quality as it is surrounded by developed urban/suburban land , paved surfaces , and agriculture which add significant pollutant loading from stormwater runoff. The developed land is juxtaposed with open forest land and wetlands, which provide important wildlife habitat. Both native and stocked gamefish are present in the lake, as fishing enjoys a long history in Middlesex County, but fish populations are exhibiting signs of stress, and there is a lack of developed fishing areas. The most critical issue facing the lake are TSS, or Total Suspended Solids which are being dumped into the water due to runoff, erosion, and lack of riparian buffers.
Yellow Perch - Perca Flavescens New Jersey native. Preyed upon by birds, other fish, and other predators. Plays a significant role in the ecosystem. Popular commercial & sport fish.
Total Suspended Solids Highest sediment loads from red, down to orange, yellow, and green at the lowest.
Tolerant of PH & temperature fluctuations. Prefers clearer waters. Spawns in shallow waters where aquatic or flooded terrestrial vegetation is present. Yellow Perch Eggs
Chain Pickerel - Esox Niger New Jersey native. Popular sport fish due to its energetic fight when hooked. Tolerant of PH & temperature fluctuations. Important part of New Jerseyâ€™s ice fishery.
Detail of Project Area - Bicentennial Park
Legend Inches Per Year
Spawns in shallow waters where aquatic or flooded terrestrial vegetation is present.
0 - 3.266 3.266 - 6.532
Chart showing proposed placement of BMPâ€™s around Farrington Lake.
These photos are examples of the kind of habitat we prefer, lots of vegetation, logs, and branches. In this environment, we can feel protected & spawn.
Solitary, prefers thick beds of vegetation.
Ground Water Recharge
6.532 - 9.798 9.798 - 13.064 13.064 - 16.330
Improved habitat will make a great nursery when I swim up to Lake Farrington to spawn !
Atlantic Shad - Alosa Sapidissima Historically one of the most commercially important fish of the Eastern seaboard. Anadromous- Shad spend most of their life in saltwater then swim into freshwater to spawn. Currently not in the watershed. Populations have been serious decline due to waterways blocked by dams, pollution, & overfishing.
We like having the lake all to ourselves, but with all this extra habitat , there will be room for all of us !
Height In Meters 5 - 53 54 - 100 101 - 148
Plans are underway to build fish ladders in Westons Mill Pond, and Farrington Lake, which will bring Shad back to the local watershed Spawns in shallow sandy or pebbly waters.
Atlantic Shad Eggs
149 - 195 196 - 243 244 - 290
Citations: Yellow Perch photo - Public Domain Wikipedia Yellow Perch Egg photo - Jay Fleming Photography Chain Pickerel photo - Public Domain Wikipedia Atlantic Shad photo - galleryfish blogspot.com Chain Pickerel underwater photo - stock photoVeezzle.com Underwater log - Engbretson Underwater Photography
A Native Manicure; Change Over Time
A Native Manicure
Gwen Heerschap The typology for this BMP was selected from the observation of GIS parcel layers in the Lawrence Brook watershed overlaid on a Bing aerial map. To determine which sites would best suit prairie plantings I looked at lot sizes and the amount of turf grass present; it was determined that single unit rural residential sites were best. To help restore water quality and flow for this parcel class, I began with looking for areas of high groundwater recharge because those are the typologies where water will be able to infiltrate. I came across a block of homes on Golden Pond Drive which has large areas of turf grass, it was determined from GIS data that the block is classified as an area of medium to high groundwater recharge. Taking interest in this area, I looked at how it was classified under erodible soils and learned that it is considered to be potentially highly erodible land. The next step was to analyze the amount of total suspended solids lost on the block; the GIS results showed that it is an extremely high amount. Currently, all rural residential parcels in the watershed loose 379,974 pounds of suspended soils a year. This number can be greatly reduced to 132,991 if homeowners were to plant native grasses and minimize the amount of turf grass on their properties. From these studies, Golden Pond Drive is suitable area to execute prairie plantings. One residential parcel on Golden Pond Drive will be an example of how this can be implemented on the entire block and other rural residential sites throughout the watershed. Inches of Groundwater Per Year for Single Unit Rural Residential Sites
Inches of Groundwater Recharge Per Year Impacting Golden Pond Drive
0.000000 - 4.200000
12.150000 - 13.057500
4.200001 - 9.970000
13.057501 - 13.965000
9.970001 - 11.610000
13.965001 - 14.872500
11.610001 - 13.160000
14.872501 - 15.780000
13.160001 - 15.780000
Golden Pond Drive
WATERSHED IMPACT FOR SINGLE UNIT RURAL RESIDENTIAL PARCELS
TSS CURRENTLY LOST (lbs)
TSS REDUCTION (lbs)
TSS REMAINING (lbs)
SINGLE HOME ON GOLDEN POND DRIVE
ALL HOMES ON GOLDEN POND DRIVE
ALL SINGLE UNIT RURAL RESIDENTIAL SITES
Minimal Water Infiltration Shallow Root System Causing Erosion
Total Suspended Solid Data for Golden Pond Drive
Erodible Soil Classification for Golden Pond Drive
Deep Root Systems Preventing Erosion R
Summer Prairie Section Water Infiltration
Residential Site on Golden Pond Drive
Potentially Highly Erodible Land
High Water Infiltration
Not Highly Erodible Land
1622.865697 - 3865.604335
Golden Pond Drive
Golden Pond Drive
GO L GO L
Eastern Cottentail: Omnivore DE
Cardinal: Feed on Insects, Berries and weed seeds
Robin: Feeds on Berries and Seeds Monarch Butterfly: Feeds on Plant Nectar
Gray Fox: Carnivore Eastern Meadowlark: Nests on Ground and Feeds Off Insects
American Goldfinch: Thistle Seed
Earthworms: Soil Fertility
Scarce Wildlife in Lawn
Bobwhite Quail: Ground-Dwelling Feeding on Plant and Insects 0
Fall Prairie Section Biodiversity
Grasshopper Sparrow: Forages on Insects like Grasshoppers
INDUSTRY IS FOR THE BIRDS
INDUSTRIAL ROOFS AS WETLAND EXPANSION JACK PETERS
THE LAWRENCE BROOK WATERSHED CONTAINS OVER 4700 ACRES OF WETLAND, AND WHILE THAT MAY SEEM TO BE AN OVERWHELMING NUMBER, IT IS DROPPING DRASTICALLY AS LAND IS DEVELOPED FOR HUMAN USE. FRAGMENTATION OF WETLAND AREAS TEARS APART THE NATURAL PROCESSES, CONNECTIONS AND HABITAT, CAUSING MANY PROBLEMS WITHIN THE LAWRENCE BROOK WATERHSED. WITH THE INCREASING ACREAGE OF INDUSTRIAL SITES, NOT ONLY IS THE WETLAND FRAGMENTED, BUT IT IS ALSO FLOODED WITH THE TOXIN AND POLLUTED WATER RUNOFF FROM THE LARGE FLAT ROOFS AND EXPANSIVE BLOCKS OF IMPERVIOUS ROADS AND PARKING LOTS. BY FOCUSING ON THE AREAS OF INSUSTRIAL SITES THAT REMAIN TIED TO THE WETLAND THEY REPLACED, I PROPOSE A SYSTEM WHICH WILL BEGIN TO RESTORE WHAT DEVELOPMENT HAS TAKEN , BEGINING WITH A WATER TREATMENT PLAN WHICH WILL REDUCE RUNOFF AS MUCH AS 80 MILLION GALLONS PER 10 YEAR STORM, AND TAKING SPECIAL INTEREST IN WATERFOUL NESTING HABITATS
INDUSTRIAL IMPERVEOUS COVER
INDUSTRIAL FLAT ROOF TOP
OVER 30 ACRES OF WETLAND HABITAT WILL BE RESTORED, NEARLY HALF OF THE AREA OF DISTURBED WETLANDS WITHIN THE LAWRENCE BROOK WATERSHED
INDUSTRIAL LAND COVER DISTURBED WETLAND DECIDUOUS WETLAND WETLAND WATER STREAMS
UNUSED INDUSTRIAL FLAT ROOFS WILL BECOME A NESTING ISLAND FOR VARIOUS WATERFOUL SPECIES, INCLUDING THE ENDANGERED BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT HERON
NJ DEP: Rutgers University GIS Data NAD 1983 State Plane New Jersey FIPS 2900 feet
Map created by: Jack Peters
BROWN ROOFS PROVIDE THE BUILDING WITH EXCELENT INSULATION WHICH REDUCES HEATING AND COOLING COST PROPOSED WETLAND EXPANSION
PROPOSED WETLAND WETLAND WATER
MATING AND NESTING
WATERFOUL SEEK OUT TREES, BUSHES, AND GROUND COVER FOR NESTING SITES EACH YEAR. IN A HERONY, A ROOKERY PRIMARILY MADE UP OF VARIOUS SPECIES OF HERON, A GREAT EGRET OR GREAT BLUE HERON WILL BE THE FIRST TO THE NESTING SITE, CLAIMING HIGH TERRITORY AT THE TOPS OF RIPARIAN TREES. OVER THE COURSE OF THE NEXT COUPLE OF WEEKS, SMALLER HERONS AND OTHER GROUND NESTING WATERFOUL FIND THEIR PLACES AMONG THE LOW BRANCHES, CATTAILS, TALL GRASSES AND ROCKY TERRAINS.
HERONS WILL FIND A NEW MATE EACH YEAR, WITH MOST MALE HERONS CLAINING THE NESTING SITE AND BUILDING THE NEST FOR FEMALE APPROVAL. FEMALES MUST HAVE LOW EXPECTATIONS AS THEIR MALE COUNTERPART ARE NOT TERRIBLY GIFTED CRAFTSMEN. THE NESTS OF GREAT EGRETS AND GREAT BLUE HERONS CAN REACH AS LARGE AS 4’ IN DIAMETER. BOTH PARENTS TAKE TURNS SEACHING FOR FOOD AND WATCHING THE EGGS/CHICKS.
WATERFOUL GENERALLY NEST OVER OR NEARBY WATER AND FOOD SOURCES, BUT THE RANGE EACH SPECIES IS ABLE OR WILLING TO TRAVEL DIFFERS BASED ON SPECIFIC NEEDS AND PRIORITIES. THE LARGER HERONS WILL FLY AS FAR UP TO 4 MILES FROM WATER TO A NESTING SITE. GREAT EGRETS AND THE ENDANGERED BLACK CROWNED NIGHT HERON TEND TO STAY CLOSE TO WATER, WHILE DOUBLE CHESTED CORMORANTS MAY TRAVEL AS FAR AS 40 MILES FROM A FEEDING AREA TO A SAFE GROUND NESTING SITE.
OVER 30 A POTENT CRES OF IAL HAB ITAT
RUNOFF WILL REDUCE AT THIS SITE BY 3.5 MILLION GALLONS PER 5 YEAR STORM
STREAMS LBWS BOUNDARY
REGIONAL IMPACT: OVER 575 ACRES OF WETLAND HABITAT WILL BE RESTORED RUNOFF WILL REDUCE IN THE WATERSHED BY 67 MILLION GALLONS PER 5 YEAR STORM MULTIPLE VARIATIONS OF GREEN AND BROWN ROOFS CAN BE IMPLIMENTED TO MEET THE NEEDS OF THE SURROUNDING AREAS (IE: POLLINATIOR ROOFS FOR BEES AND SONGBIRDS WHICH WOULD BENEFIT FARMERS)
NJ DEP: Rutgers University GIS Data NAD 1983 State Plane New Jersey FIPS 2900 feet
Map created by: Jack Peters
URBAN HEAT ISLAND EFFECT WILL BE REDUCED IF IMPLIMENTED OVER THE ENTIRETY OF THE WATERSHED, OVER 1522 ACRES OF WETLAND WILL BE RESTORED. THE OVERALL IMPACT OF THE REGIONAL DESIGN WOULD REDUCE RUNOFF VOLUME BY OVER 200 MILLION GALLONS PER 10 YEAR STORM.
NORTHUMBERLAND WAY WETPARK: SITE SUITABILITY
NORTHUMBERLAND WAY WETPARK: SITE OVERVIEW JESSIE WOODS
CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS Constructed wetlands are artificially crafted wetlands, marshes, and swamps that act as a natural filter- removing sediments and pollutions from the watershed. This type of structural best management practice can be classified as biomimicry, which is a term that involves the study of natureâ€™s systems and implementing imitated versions of such to solve environmental issues. In addition to their aesthestic value, constructed wetlands have numerous benefits for a watershed such as filtration, retention, and infiltration. The incoming runoff passes through the upland buffer, where larger trees and brush slow down the momentum and begin the filtration process. The forested wetlands segment is composed of wet-site tolerant species that absorb excess water and sediment. The water then passes through a series of marsh grasses and comes to rest in the retention pond where infiltration into the groundwater system can take place.
DIAGRAMMATIC SECTION Retention Pond
Located in South Brunswick, the Northumberland Way Extension is a tract of barren land that meets the criteria for this wetpark design as previously outlined in the suitability analysis. The timeline below shows the sequence of land usages of the site. Shortly after 1995, the land was approved for a large scale mixed-use development project which included a four-lane thoroughfare called Northumberland Way. The land was cleared and development commenced, progressing all the way to a completed road system, sewers, and intial construction of a major bridge until 2006 when construction came to a halt as a result of a lawsuit between the developer and the township. As of 2007, the area remains as barren land with a constructed but unused road system. Northumberland Way was selected for this design proposal because it is a point of convergence of the suitability requirements- a vacant plot surrounded by existing wetlands, close proximity to the stream system, and high flooding potential.
SITE SELECTION PROCESS To begin to narrow down suitable sites, a series of applicable land use typologies were analyzed. The intersections and proximities of these classifications designate the most suitable sites for a constructed wetland park design. Barren land, the primary focus, was overlayed with streams, wetlands, and water to identify areas in which the design will make sense contextually and have maximal impacts. Areas of high flood risk were added to begin to examine which areas provided the opportunity for the park to double as floodplain storage, and finally overlayed with high groundwater recharge rates to identify optimal infiltration. The magnified site selections highlight seven areas in which all of these parameters converged.
Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Site
Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Design
I plan to design a standard sub-surface flow constructed wetland to be implemented in current and future residential developments with a detention basin. Primarily it will be located in developments of low to medium density that are near a waterbody. It will be tasked with increasing the water quality of the runoff that comes from these neighborhoods and is diverted into the streams, brooks, and rivers of the Lawrence Brook Watershed. My design will also create an educational opportunity, where the community can interact and learn about wetlands, water quality, and how they can help. As well as being educational and functional for cleaning the water, my design will be aesthetically pleasing. It will no longer be a sunken area of grass, but an area that is visually engaging and interactive, where people in the community can come relax, meet others, and learn.
TP Low Density High Density
45.33 kilograms 14.45 Kilograms TSS Kg/yr
Low Density High Density Aerial Images: Bing Base Map, Arc Map
Amount Removed 64% 29.01 Kilograms 64% 9.24 Kilograms
Removal Eﬀ. 83%
Amount Removed 248164
Kim Richmond For this BMP I choose sites that would be appropriate for remediation and educational value. Some of these buildings and old factories have historical value. Also I showed sites that would have a high probability of disturbed soils. These all have community value in some way which will allow me to connect it to some education purpose whether it involves showing the plant variations and what they are used for. The purpose of phytoremediation is revitalizing the environment with the use of plants. By taking contaminants in the soil, air, and water the plants will take up, contain, degrade, or eliminate metals, pesticides, solvents, explosives, crude oil and its derivatives, and various other contaminants from the media. With this I selectively choose different typologies that would have the most aesthetic value for the community allowing more awareness and community help to be instilled into the area. Also it would allow a lot more educational purpose for the school systems and for the students to be hands on with the problems in their communities involving the environments. For this BMP I choose sites that would be appopriate for remediation and educational value. Some of these buildings and old factories have historical value. Also I showed sites that would have a high probability of disturbed soils. These all have community value in some way which will allow me to connect it to some education purpose whether it involves showing the plant variations and what they are used for. The purpose of phytoremediation is revitalizing the environment with the use of plants. By taking contaminants in the soil, air, and water the plants will take up, contain, degrade, or eliminate metals, pesticides, solvents, explosives, crude oil and its derivatives, and various other contaminants from the media. With this I selectively choose different typologies that would have the most aesthetic value for the community allowing more awareness and community help to be instilled into the area. Also it would allow a lot more educational purpose for the school systems and for the students to be hands on with the problems in their communities involving the environments.
Kim Richmond In this process of the design I began to look at the different stages and how they would look as it entered further into the design phases. This allows for the possiblity of temporary design features that would allow the community to be involved in some of the decision making of the project. Since this phytoremediation park is being developed in phases it allows room for different design ideas to be used in order to see which would benefit the community and the environment the most. The spaces can be utilized while the park is being remediated as a farmers market or designated area where things can be sold depending on the season. It also leaves room for an expansion of the design if the remaining factories are not being used for housing and development, or a further design connecting the developments to the park and with the trails adjacent to it across the pond.
This is the origional state of the Michelin tire factory and after the deconstruction and break down of the site bringing in plants this is how i envision the site will look
Reusing the factories glass as a design feature
In this part of the design process I envisioned looking at reuse of the infrastructure in the design as well as other ways of creating additional environmental benefits
Contour Farming is a water management practice that focuses directly on agricultural land, and how to redesign conventional farming practices to have less negative effects on water quality. It is achieved by planting vegetative filter along the slope and in between crop lines to help mitigate contaminated runoff by treating water at the source of its pollution.
This trail is primarily a maintenance trail for the tractors daily work schedule. If you choose to walk it, we ask you to please be careful. Tractors run each morning at 6am.
In conventional farming practices (farming with fertilizers and pesticides) crop production contributes heavily to the total phosphorus content and the total suspended solids in the water of any system. In addition to the direct contamination through stream flow and runoff, agricultural practices may also highly affect groundwater. Overall, farming is a large contributor to water pollution, and mitigating that affect with contour farming can be taken in sequential steps based on suitability.
Total Walk Time: 1 Hour (2 Miles)
HABIAK AGRIPARK TRAIL MAP
For the Lawrence Brook Watershed, each piece of agricultural land is weighed in an action plan as to how necessary the impact of contour farming is. For each individual factor the farms are ranked on a scale where level 4 are farms most critical for implementation and level 1 are least critical. The map below depicts an overall summary of each site including all factors with the same implementation scale.
This trail is great during the fall months when the pumpkins are ripe for the picking! Take this short walk up to the top of the hill a grab the best pumpkin in the field. Total Walk Time: 45 Minutes (1.5 Miles)
This trail is great for a quite stroll through the farm. Step quietly and speak softly and hear the soft songs of the Song Sparrow, Tree Swallow, and Tufted Titmouse. If you especially quiet you may also see a Ruby Throated Hummingbird or an American Goldfinch. Total Walk Time: 1 Hour & 15 Minutes (2.5 Miles)
Interested in picking a handful of wildflowers? Take a walk down our wild corridors to find a variety of different flowers all spring and summer. If you look closely you may see some cardinal flowers, smooth aster, or showy goldenrod. Total Walk Time: 1 Hour & 30 Minutes (4 Miles)
This trail is another seasonal value. Take a waltz up the western edge of Habiak and choose your favorite Christmas tree from our wide selection. But remember to choose wisely because they are an important part of the water system at Habiak Agripark. Total Walk Time: 1 Hour (2 Miles)
Total Phosphorus Content: Areas found with phosphorus levels over 5.00 kilograms per hectare are of major concern.
Groundwater Recharge: Areas of high ground water recharge are of major concern.
Total Phosphorus Reduction
The Lawrence Brook Watershed is an area of New Jersey with a fair population of croplands and pasturelands. Although agricultural cropland only covers about 5.7% of the watershed’s groundcover, it compensates for over 4.4% of their total phosphorus pollution and 5.8% of their total suspended solids in water. In addition to their heavy amount of pollution, many of these farmlands are conveniently located on groundwater recharge “hot-spots”, where soils are porous, and allowing for great infiltration opportunities to recharge our wells and aquifers. However, with the constant use of landscape chemicals without proper treatment, our water becomes unusable.
By implementing contour farming into the Lawrence Brook Watershed, there is the potential to reinvent up to 2,050 acres of farmland into ‘greener’ and healthier water treatment systems.
Stream Proximity: Areas within 200 feet of stream banks are of critical concern.
Total Suspended Solids Reduction
5.8% 1.9% 0
Percentages are formulated from pollution produced by agricultural cropland in comparison to the total pollution produced by all landuses in the Lawrence Brook Watershed
This trail is a special one. Have you ever seen a farm through a farmer’s eyes? Take the Farmer’s Morning Stroll and you will start to understand. This trail travels through all the important parts of the farm and the different systems that keep it healthy. Ask at the farmhouse, and we will even take you on the tour and teach you a little bit about sustainable farming. Total Walk Time: 1 Hour & 30 Minutes (4 Miles)
Total Suspended Solids: Areas with over 5,000 kilograms per hectare are major
FARMER’S MORNING STROLL
Sections and Site Analysis Diagrams
Impervious surface’s are defined by the impenetrable materials of which they are composed. They eliminate water filtration and groundwater recharge by sealing the soil’s surface and contribute to the degradation of water quality by way of the suspended solids contained in their runoff. In an effort to reduce contaminated runoff and improve the water quality of the Lawrence Brook Watershed, my design proposes to create various types of rooftop agriculture as a means of stormwater management and local food production through the use of my BMP-intensive green roof structures. Through a variety of physical, biological and chemical treatment processes that filter pollutants and reduce the volume of precipitation runoff, green roofs reduce the amount of pollution delivered to the local drainage system and, ultimately, to receiving waters. The Lawrence Brook Watershed is located in a county which has been involved in agriculture production right up through present day. But, over the past four decades lots which hold the more productive, well-drained soils, have been used for development as food production works it’s way further and further from the home. I chose to use the Parkview Elementary School in Milltown as my site for implementation for a few specific reasons-it is located in an area with high impervious surface and high percentages of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) along with a high residential density, and a lack of fresh, local produce.
Existing Water Flow
The existing contours of the school’s surrounding area carries runoff from storms down into a ‘pocket,’ picking up loose materials on it’s way and eventually ending up in the nearby streambed.
Parkview Elementary School Milltown, N.J
On a site-level approach, my design will propose a functioning rooftop garden and educational experience to educate children and the community about healthy eating habits, growing your own food and the history of Lawrence Brook’s agriculture industry.
Impervious Surface and Total Suspended Solids (T.S.S)
High Impervious Surface and T.S.S % Medium Impervious Surface and T.S.S % Low Impervious Surface and T.S.S % 0
Food Access Within the Watershed
Water Flow After Implementation Michael Ticker
Flat Roofed Institutional, Commercial and Industrial Buildings
Implementation of this rooftop garden system will create a ‘sponge’ on the school’s roof, filtering and evapotranspiring stormwater.
Supermarkets with 3/4 mile buffers Convenient Stores with 3/4 mile buffers High Density Residential Medium Density Residential Low Density Residential
Site Analysis and Design Development
Schematic Design: Ireland Brook Lower Reach NATE KELLY With bio-engineering for streambank erosion as a best management practice, my plan looks at the lower reach of the Ireland Brook. As well as improving water quality and flow, this strategy provides an opportunity to re-plant riparian areas, and introduce human interaction with the stream. I propose a riparian meadow corridor as a potential re-planting strategy, and a streamside recreational trail that will compliment an already established trail system. The idea of creating networks along the stream that connect its stabilization with people and habitat is what drove the design.
Erodible Forest Vegetation
Perspective of SECTION B-2:
Perspective of SECTION B-2:
Potentially highly erodible land Highly erodible land
The use of logs as an aesthetic standard for the trail is exemplified by the log bridge at a major thoroughfare between the existing Ireland Brook trail and proposed trail.
The use of logs as an aesthetic standard for the trail is further exemplified by the log benches used in proposed gathering spaces along the stream. These spaces also provide an interaction with the revetment strategy as depicted here at a proposed root wad revetment.
The site analysis of the lower reach of Ireland Brook began with a walk in the woods. I hiked the existing trail framework of the Ireland Brook Trail and The Forest Brook Trail. I photographed the experience and observed a void in the lack of access to the actual stream and very little trail along the banks. I observed signs of erosion and favorable conditions for erosion. I analyzed soil and vegetation data in GIS to seek areas of specific concern, and noted them on site visits. I observed a utility right of way cutting through the reach and began to think of corridors and how in re-planting the banks of the brook a habitat corridor could be created in the strategy. I knew stream side access for people was needed and began to think how this habitat corridor and public trail could begin to interplay and create a network along the stream.
Potentially highly erodible land
Highly erodible land 0
The purpose of stream bank stabilization is to prevent erosion. Erosion of stream banks is a major contributor to high concentrations of total suspended solids. The log revetments proposed will be installed intermittenly along the reach, at certain areas of immediate concern. These immediate areas are banks with poor soil conditions and banks with no vegetation. With the total area of the stream banks of the reach I have studied totalling 3 acres, banks of immediate concern total 0.67 acres, which accounts for 22% of the lower reach of the Ireland Brook. The proposed revetments will potentially absorb 80% of the total suspended solids that are in contact with that 22%.
SITE PLAN: IRELAND BROOK Lower Reach In conjuction with the stabalization of erodible stream banks along the Ireland Brook, it is imperative to consider a re-planting strategy for the riparian zone and address public access to the newly rejuvenated area. The proposed riparian meadow corridor could be an implemented strategy to satisfy stabilization and remediation to the soils of the stream banks, as well as a potential habitat corridor linking forested areas and potentially creating new nodes of habitat along the stream. The proposed recreational trail will address public access to the stream. Working in unity with an existing trail framework the proposed rectreational trail attempts to bring the human experience closer to the actual stream and its banks.
A utility right of way intersecting the lower part of the reach.
A small portion of Irleland Brook trail that is along the stream, which provided a nice experience.
Signs of erosion and blown down trees littered the reach, this section was observed in the upper portion of the reach.
Diagrams of pedestrian/habitat trail concept
Legend Observed Sandy Soil Conditions Bedrock Lithology
Diagram depicting gradient of immediacy for revetment strategies.
clayey silt overlying quartz sand
Observed sandy soils at the upper reach.
Signs of erosion along a highly erodible portion of the stream adjacent to a residential neighborhood.
diabase, medium- to coarse-grained dolomitic or silty argillite, mudstone, sandstone, siltstone, and minor silty limestone quartz sand, fine- to coarse-grained, interbedded with thin-bedded clay or clay-silt
In making decicions about the revetment strategies to be applied I looked at the lithology and topography of the reach along with the vegetative and soil conditions and observed a gradient of immediacy along the brook. The upper portion of the reach showed sandy soils that where eroded and I determined the root wad revetment strategy would assist this area. Along the middle portion of the stream the soils became silty and more stable and the topography got more gradual and flat, so I used a lighter approach resorting to a single loge revetment. Then at the lower reach towards the mouth the topography got steeper and the soil conditions worsened, so I looked at a multi log revetment strategy.
School Zone Greenway Plan Layer Drawings
School Zone Greenway Best Management Practices & Watershed Impacts
Layer 1 School zone & reSidential areaS
Layer 2 riparian/ wetland network & water bodieS
To figure out which best management practice (BMP) would be most effective to remediate water along the greenway through the Lawrence Brook Watershed, it was necessary to look into green plans that used a range of BMPs to see how they worked, both independently and in a series with other management practices. Many case studies were referenced, namely Philadelphia’s “Green Stormwater Infrastructure Plan.” Doing so introduced many BMP options and after a suitability analysis four were selected for use along the proposed School Zone Greenway path, three that were structural and one that was nonstructural. Tree filters (also referred to as Tree Trenches) clean the greatest amount of runoff and can re-route it if the water volume is too great for the tree to filter it alone. The next most effective BMP is bioswales and the next porous pavement. The one nonstructural BMP proposed would be use of native plantings, they promote habitat and healthy ecosystems for organisms of the area and could replace the nonnative, invasive species, which are quite prevalent in much of the area now. This project aims at creating a pathway spanning about 16 miles across the Lawrence Brook Watershed and estimates having the ability to utilize green infrastructure in such a way that rougly 7,845,686,000 gallons of water/year could be filtered, most of which would be naturally cleaned and replenished into the earth’s ground water network.
aPPLICaTION bmp typeS along bike & walking route baSed on corridor type
NORTH BRUNSWICK HIGH SCHOOL
WATERSHED IMPACT: QUANTIFICATION OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES’ EFFECTS AFTER ONE YEAR NUMBER OF GALLONS OF WATER PER YEAR TREATED/ RE-ROUTED PER ACRE OF LAND PERCENTAGE OF GREENWAY THROUGH SELECTED SITE GALLONS OF WATER TREATED IN SELECTED SITE PERCENTAGE OF GREENWAY THROUGH ENTIRE WATERSHED GALLONS OF WATER TREATED IN ENTIRE WATERSHED
ARTHUR M. JUDD ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
HIGH DENSITY RESIDENTIAL AREA MEDIUM DENSITY RESIDENTIAL AREA
Quantities calculated using data from: ttp://buildgreen.ufl.edu/Fact_sheet_Bioswales_Vegetated_Swales.pdf, hhttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthrain.html, http://climate.rutgers.edu/stateclim_v1/data/njhistprecip.html, http://warnell.forestry.uga.edu/service/library/for96-054/index.html, retrieved on December 14, 2012
WETLAND OR WATER BODY FORESTED AREA
LOW REMEDIATION Layer 3 water movement & topography
ENTIRE WATERSHED & SELECTED SITE
aLL Layers relation of conditonS
NORTH BRUNSWICK PARK
CREATIVE NURSERY SCHOOL
VeHICULar TraFFIC COOrIDOr HIGH: BIO SWALES & TREE FILTERS MEDIUM: BIO SWALES & POROUS PAVEMENT
PeDesTrIaN TraFFIC COOrIDOr LOW: BIO SWALES OR POROUS PAVEMENT RIPARIAN/FORESTED COORIDOR: NATIVE PLANTINGS
American Holly Pitch Pine Virginia Pine Black Gum Sugar Maple Sassafrass Cranberry Witch-hazel Butterfly Weed Fox Sedge Purple Coneflower
Hydrology and Site Conditions
Divergence, Expansion, and Restoration
120 ACRES The original purpose of my design was to use the bare lands located along Northumberland Way to reduce flooding in the form of retention basins. However, as the design process developed I realized that there was much more oppurtunity to create an impact on both the watershed and as well as the ecology of the site. The design started with the diverting of water from a stream that results in heavy flooding in populated areas. At peak rainfalls some of the water will be diverted into a different floodplain. The start of this floodplain is located in forested and barren areas. Since flooding in forests is ecologically benefitial, the goal was to use the barren lands to increase the volume of the floodplain. The quanity of water in the floodplain is increased from the diverted stream. I started working with the topography of the land in order to channel and pool the water. In certain areas, shallow pools were created which allow organisms such as salamanders to thrive with limited presence of predators. These areas, are known as Vernal Pools. The last area of the system slows down the flow of water by diverting it into two barren a reas. All areas, except for vernal pools are vegetated with native species that thrive in floodplains. The result is an ecologically benefitial area that also serves as a storm water management areas. “Let nature be and only refine it at selected places.” -Friedrich Nietzsche (German Philosopher)
This diagram represents the acres of the existing flood plain (BLUE) and the watershed that empties into into (GREEN). The proposed addition to the watershed is show in ORANGE. While the additional area is more than double the existing, only 25 % of the water will be introduced.
SOURCE: LANDSCAPE RESOURCE
SOURCE: PORCUPINE HOLLOW FARM
SOURCE: SUMMER HILL NURSERY
This is a map of the barren land made by Northumberland Way and the floodplains that cross through it. The largest area is the location of the expanded floodplain with the stream that is being diverted just North of it.
LOCATION OF STREAM INITIAL STREAM DIVERSION
SOURCE: NORTHWEST OHIO NATURE
This hydrograph shows the amount of water in the system in terms or depth and time. The existing hyrdograph results in stormwater being flushed out of specific streams quickly. What this means is that at a certain time water depth will be extremely high and at others extremely low. It is better to have a more gradual line. This way the flooding will be lmited and streams will not dry out.
STREAM EROSION LOCATED IN THE DIVERTED STREAM
STREAM EROSION CAUSED BY RAPID STORM WATER
SOURCE: WILLOW LANDSCAPE DESIGN
LOCATION OF SWALE THAT WILL BARREN LAND TO BE USED FOR CHANNEL STREAM FLOODPLAIN
Industrial Design Details
The site has a problem with stormwater, circulation, and air pollution. The industrial site already has existing retention and detention basins. These types of basins do not filter the water as well as a bioretention basin. That is why this design proposes that they be retrofitted and turned into bioretention basins. Regarding the human circulation, each road leading into the site leads to a dead end and there are no ways for people to walk around. As a solution, the design proposes a walk way for pedestrians that runs from the west side of the site to the north east side. This allows for people during their lunch break to walk around and enjoy the outdoors. The last problem is the air pollution that is coming from the trucks that frequently visit on a daily basis. The design includes the reforestation of the area. Shade trees are to be planted along the roadways and proposed pathway. Off of the roadway there are going to be trees that would attract birds. The birds will act as seed dispersers by eating the fruit of the trees. This will result in more trees without paying for them or planting them.
The plants that are proposed for this site were chosen because they possess characteristics that add value to the site. Whether it is for aesthetics or for air quality the plants enhance the area. The bioretention plants are perennials, which mean that they will last for several years. The Joe-Pye weed is an example of a perennial that attracts butterflies. On the other hand the Red osier dogwood just has its beautiful red bark that looks stunning in the winter time. The reforestation plants were picked because birds like to eat their fruit. The shade trees were chosen for a different purpose than the reforestation plants. The shade trees, which include red maples, were selected because of their ability to reduce large amounts of carbon dioxide and pollutants from the air.
Plants List Bioretention Basin Redosier Dogwood
Joe Pye Weed
Reforestation Trees Shadblow
http://science.halleyhosting. com/nature/plants/shrubs/ deciduous/myrica/californica/californica2a.jpg
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_JZlh88EMaiw/SnMUTTHpF6I/ AAAAAAAAEHs/V73cU3w1HL8/ s400/sassafras+tree.JPG
Canopy Trees Vehicular Circulation
LAWRENCE BROOK WATERSHED
POTENTIAL IMPACT THROUGH DESIGN
LAWRENCE BROOK WATERSHED
CIRCULATION WATER VIEW PLANT DESIGN
Potential Impact: The design storm for an infiltration basin is typically a frequent, small storm such as the 1 year event. This provides treatment for the first flush of stormwater runoff. Infiltration basins provide total peak discharge, runoff volume, and water quality control for all storm events. This infiltration reduces the volume of runoff, removes many pollutants, and provides stream baseflow and groundwater recharge. Advantages: -reduces the volume of runoff from a drainage area -can be very effective for removing a fine sediment, trace metals, nutrients, bacteria, and organic substances -reduces downstream flooding and protects streambanks -reduces the size and cost of downstream stormwater control facilities and storm drain systems by infiltrating water in upland areas -provides groundwater recharge and baseflow in nearby streams -reduces local flooding
HIGH DENSITY HOUSING STORM BASINS
POTENTIAL SITES SUITABLE SOILS
HIGH DENSITY RESIDENTIAL
Site Analysis I
SUHEE PARK- JUNG
Old Michelin Tire Fctory
Weston Mill Pond
Brook Park is located in Milltown, NJ, by Weston Mill Pond and Old Michelin Tire Factory. The Park is very secluded and quiet. The people who come to the site are mostely the neighbors who are jogging or walking their dogs. From the recent storm, there are a lot damages in the park. There are broken trunks hanging from the trees or blocking the trail. Although there is a factory running right next to the park, it is not loud in the site. The sidewalk around the park is very damaged and needs to be fixed immediately but the sidewalk going across the bridge is still safe and existing. When the sun goes down, it is very dark and not safe because there are only few street lights across street from the park, therefore it is pitch dark when you walk down the trail. The entire place is covered with phragmites and when you are in the site, the tall phragmites blocks the view around the park and give the closed feeling. There are not many cars driving the back road, so parking is easy and backing out of the spot is also convenient. When the stream gets flooded, it is most likely that the park will be flooded. The stromwater from the neighborhood will end up at the park. There is a very steep slop for about 2-3 feet but the rest of the area is flat so when the stormwater flows to the park, it will go down the steep slope but adequate amount of water will sit at the site instead of flowin to the stream because the land is flat.
VEGETATION WETLANDS SUHEE PARK JUNG
American Arborvitae (Thuja Occidentalis)
Pin Oak (Quercus palustris)
Golden Greeping Jenny (Lysimachia nummularia â€˜Aureaâ€™)
Interrupted Fern (Osmunda claytoniana)
Pussy Willow (Salix Discolor) Red Maple (Acer rubrum)
Inkberry (Ilex glabra)
New York Fern (Thelypteris noveboracensis) Common Rush (Juncus effusus)
Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) Serviceberry (Amelanchier arborea)
Switch Grass (Panicum virgatum)
Chokeberry (Prunus virginiana)
http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/83176/ http://www.ct-botanical-society.org/ferns/thelypterisnove.html http://landscapedesignbylee.blogspot.com/2011_04_01_archive.html http://grownative.org/plant-picker/ http://www.mahoneysgarden.com/evergreen-shrub/dense-inkberry-ilex-glabra-densa http://www.mahonianursery.com/grasses-sedges/common-rush-native.html
RUTGERS UNIVERSITY LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DEPARTMENT