Professional Development for Teachers of English to Secondary School Diverse Learners: Strategies for Integrating Art and Technology for Eﬀective Communication Universidad de Puerto Rico Recinto de Río Piedras Facultad de Educación Centro de Investigaciones Educativas
Title: Professional Development for Teachers of English to Secondary School Diverse Learners: Strategies for Integrating Art and Technology for Eﬀective Communication Copyright © 2014 Centro de Investigaciones Educativas Universidad de Puerto Rico Recinto de Río Piedras Project Director: Annette López de Méndez, Ed.D. Telephone: 787-764-0000 ext. 4382, 4384 Fax: 787-764-2929 Graphic Designer: Nilsa Espasas Editor: Rosemary Morales Urbina, Ed.D.
The Project is funded (in part) by a federal Grant under the Title II of the No Child Left Behind Act. (P.L. 017-110) administered by the Puerto Rico Education Council. Opinions and ﬁndings expressed herein do not necessarily reﬂect the position or policy of the U.S. Department of Education, and no oﬃcial endorsement by either of these agencies should be inferred.
Resources Administrative Personnel Annette López de Méndez, Ed.D. – Director María Antonia Irizarry, Ed.D. – Co-Director Zamary García- Administrative Secretary Sarai Deprat - Graduate Research Assistant/Coordinator Diana Rivera, Ed.D. – External Evaluator
Professors María Antonia Irizarry, Ed.D. Aníbal Muñoz Claudio, Ed.D. Elsie Candelaria, Ed.D. Jaqueline Duprey, Ed.D. Rosemary Morales Urbina, Ed.D. Juan Carlos Vadi, Ed.D.
Project Participants Ángel Vélez - Escuela Dr. Efraín Sánchez Hidalgo Caridad Carballido - Escuela El Señorial Carmen Velázquez Maldonado - Escuela Miguel Such Debra Padilla Meléndez - Escuela Braulio Dueño Colón Dolores Rodríguez Meléndez - Escuela Dr. José Celso Barbosa Elizabeth González Irizarry - Escuela Dr. José M. Lázaro School Ilia Rodríguez Andino - Escuela Miguel Such Jeannette Rosa Rodríguez - Escuela Francisco Gaztambide Vega Lilliam Cuevas Negrón - Escuela Miguel Such María Adorno Clemente - Escuela Juana A. Méndez Nancy Cardona Frontera - Escuela Miguel Such Neda Negrón Padilla - Academia María Reina Nedinia Vélez Figueroa - Robinson School Nilda Vargas Torres - Academia María Reina Vadi Vélez González - Escuela Miguel Such Virginia Báez Nieves - St. Mary’s School
Introduction Annette López de Méndez
Technology in the Classroom: An Update Elsie Candelaria Sosa
Using the Theatre in the ESL Classroom Michelle Rodríguez, María A. Irizarry, and Elsie Candelaria
“Take me to the concert”: A Lively and Innovative Teaching Strategy to Develop Communicative, Problem-Solving and Decision-Making Skills in Diverse Students Aníbal Muñoz Claudio
What are the Common Core State Standards? Rosemary Morales Urbina
Lesson 1: Learning English through Art Ángel Vélez
Lesson 2: Visit to the Museum of Art of Puerto Rico: Impact on the Student’s Point of View Toward Writing Skills Caridad M. Carballido Romero
Poem: My Student Carmen Velázquez Maldonado
Lesson 3: Goldilocks and the Three Bears Debra Padilla
Lesson 4: Creating a Story Map/Oral Report Ilia S. Rodríguez
Lesson 5: My Music Memoir Presentation Lilliam Cuevas
Lesson 6: Illustrated Poem Contest: “Energy: Now and Forever!” Nedinia Vélez
Lesson 7: Walking into the Future Vadi J. Vélez
Lesson 8: Creating a Video Song Oral Presentation: Song Reaction Virginia Báez
Lesson 9: Types of Bullying María Adorno
Lesson 10: Inclusive Love and Embracing Diversity Begins at Home School Nilda Vargas
Professional Development for Teachers of English to Secondary School Diverse Learners: Strategies for Integrating Art and Technology for Effective Communication Project was sponsor by a grant from the Puerto Rico Higher Education Council, No Child Left Behind, Title II Funds (NCLB – 12-03). This project is a response to the need to provide teachers from the Educational System in Puerto Rico with the opportunity to learn innovative strategies that will better the teaching and learning of English to students of diverse populations. It is crucial that teachers who impart education to these learners be equipped with the necessary tools, in this project they are deﬁned as technology and art, to meet the needs of these students. Thus, thee project was conceived as a commitment to guarantee equal opportunities for students of diverse populations, using curriculum integration as a central theme. To meet this commitment the following goals were envisioned: 1.
Achieve a high degree competent educator who can implement problem based learning, concept development, cooperative learning, and other teaching strategies pertinent to the educational growth of diverse learners. Facilitate the professional development of 20 teachers in the areas of visual and performing arts, music, curriculum alignment, state of the art technology, and assessment strategies, as integrated to the teaching of English to diverse learners for a better academic achievement. Promote and disseminate participants’ strategic planning through the design of curricular matrix(es) and lessons based on standards of excellence.
In order to achieve these goals, the Project recruited 16 teachers from the San Juan School Districts and 4 teachers from the private school system. The project was envisioned as a collaboration among different stakeholders: (a) Department of Education English Program, (b) San Juan School District (c) Puerto Rico Private School Association (d) Puerto Rico Teachers Of English To Speakers Of Other Languages (PRTESOL.), and (f) University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus, Education Faculty. All training sessions were offered at the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus, Education Faculty.
Instructional Program Teachers attended 116 hours of professional development, distributed in a 2 weeks intensive summer workshop and Saturdays during the ﬁrst semester of the academic year. The following topics were explored in the workshops: visual and performing arts, music, curriculum alignment, state of the art technology, assessment strategies for the development of English language arts, and strategic planning and implementation of innovative lessons on how to integrate different topics to the development of the English language arts oral and written communication, and reading comprehension. In addition, the project wanted to increase teachers’ conﬁdence in planning for the integration of English to other disciplines, as well as increase students’ interest and academic background regarding the arts and technology.
Follow-up visits were made to ten participating teachers for the purpose of stimulating their creativity, discussing challenges schools present and observe students using the innovative teaching strategies teachers were using. Besides, the faculty of the Project served as mentors giving support, observing, and offering feedback to participating teachers in the process of implementation of the school curriculum. Guiding Principles The Project was based on the premise that the development of linguistic and communicative competence beneﬁts from the use of different approaches to prompt teachers’ and students’ awareness that language proﬁciency is required for effective communication. Researchers in the areas of linguistics, sociology, psychology, and education such as Brown (2001, 2004, 2007), Dodge (1998), Ginn (1999), Guerra and Shutz (1999), Rassias (1998), and Zapel (1999) advocate the use of visual and performing arts, technology, and recent assessment strategies in the development of communicative competence. This Project reafﬁrms the following postulates: • The use of different approaches and strategies contribute to better, gratifying, and faster acquisition and learning of a language. This is accomplished through the integration of poetry, drama, movies, music, and the radio to the teaching lessons. •
Observing and thinking about art and poetry triggers in the individual the interpretation of the messages artists and writers intend to convey. This, in turn, stimulates critical thinking, creativity, and the construction and interpretation of meaning.
The use of problem based learning, concept development, comparative learning and technology for the creation of digital stories, blogs, and chat rooms contribute to the exploration and understanding of concepts, these strategies foster the multiplicity of modalities of learning, perceptions, and learning styles.
The integration of different subject areas develops reasoning, the understanding of distinct perspectives, problem solution ability, and the use of ﬁgurative language, which are essential for thinking skills.
The effective educator understands the importance of ongoing assessment and uses a variety of assessment strategies to guide the teaching of diverse learners.
Workshops topics In light of the Project guiding principles, the following theoretical topics were used to foster the professional development of participating teachers: Deﬁning diverse learners, assessment of diverse learners, Instructional alligment, Language arts for effective communication, Language production through writing, Phonemic awareness and listening comprehension, Differentiated instruction a reasonable accommodations for ESL classroom, Language teaching through strategic planning, Technological tools to enhance language learning: A look at what the 21st Century can provide, Lesson planning for listening, speaking, reading and writing, Developing Lesson plans for listening, speaking, reading and writing. In addition, practical topics and on hand experiences were provided to teachers on the following teaching strategies: Movies as a source of idiomatic expressions for English language enhancement, Using music for creative writing, Visit to the Puerto Rico Art Museum, The museum as a visual cue for speaking and writing production, Enjoying poetry through ﬁgurative language, Using the radio for listening comprehension, Drama for the enhancement of oral communication, The application of technology to the production of digital stories, Blogs and chat rooms. 7
The teachers’ manual This publication is seen as moment of sharing and celebration. It is dedicated to all participating teachers, for their passion toward the teaching profession and for their effort to pursue quality education for all. In the manual the reader will ﬁnd several articles written by the Project faculty, lessons plans written by some of the participants, and photographs that allows us to see how teachers integrated the innovative strategies in their classrooms. I would like to invite the reader, to see this Project as a learning experience from which we all can learn; as a request to the educational system to consider the importance of providing the time and the opportunity for teachers to explore and experiment with the use of technology and art in the teaching of English as a second language. I applaud the effort and support the Educational Council of Puerto Rico and Prof. Beatriz Philpott Pérez, director of the Department of Education English Program, in their endeavor to provide universities the resources to make these projects a reality and make them accessible to the teachers, the students, and the schools. We have high hopes and conﬁdence that this effort will begin to change the classroom environments, in order to continue motivating students’ interest and desire to learn. Thus, the following students comments conﬁrm the positive impact the project had on their lives: La experiencia que he tenido es algo nuevo, porque nunca he visto que eso pase en una clase de Inglés. Hasta ahora esa clase es “cool”. (Student from Escuela Juana A. Méndez) The experience that I consider different in English class was the documentaries and videos that we made of our favorite bands. This experience changed my perspective in English class because although it was a difﬁcult experience, it helped me a lot. It helped me because our groups were big and hard to cooperate but we managed to meet, not only as classmates but also as friends, to make this experience memorable. It helped me become a leader and a better friend. In the English class I feel like at home because I used to live in Arizona for a year and even though I was born and raised here, I managed to get the English language pretty quickly. When I came back, I didn’t know a single word of Spanish. When people tried talking to me, I couldn’t answer nor speak. I felt left out. I’m still trying to get the Spanish language. But when I speak English, I feel better because I get to express my feelings better. So in conclusion, I LOVE the English class. Not only that, I LOVE my English teacher, too. (Student from Academía María Reina) An experience that I’ve considered different in the English class this year is when we were working on group projects. This experience made a difference because it made me realize that working, as a team can actually be a fun and a learning experience. And doing these group projects helped me improve my English and learn from my mistakes. In English class I feel happy because I’m learning the right way and am willing to keep learning for the rest of the year. (Student from Academia María Reina) Annette López de Méndez, Ed.D. Project Director References
Brown, H.D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (2 nd. ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman. Brown, H.D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching (4th. ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman. Dodge, D. (1998). Creative drama in the second language classroom: Action Research. Retrieved from http://educ.queensu.ca/~ar/11drama.htm Ginn, W.Y. (1999). Jean Piaget: Intellectual development. Retrieved from http://english.sk.com.br/sk-piage.html Guerra, C., & Shutz, R. (1999). Vygotsky. Retrieved from http://english.sk.com.br/sk-vygoy.html
Rassias Foundation. (1998). Language in action: A proﬁle of Professor Rassias. Retrieved from http://Dartmouth.edu/arsci/rassias/JAR.html Zapel, A.L. (Ed.). (1999). 1999-2000 Theater, drama, and speech resources. Catalog #144. Colorado, Springs, CO: Meriwether Publishing.
Technology in the Classroom: An Update Elsie Candelaria Sosa, Ed.D.
Working with technology is not something that English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers have not heard of before, nor is it a new item in the repertoire that ESL teachers need to have if they want to remain pertinent and effective in the 21st century. However, new technology is always around the corner and staying up to date is sometimes very hard. In this article I want to share with you some of the most recent items I have found. Backer (2010) tells us that technology is now a “Key Learning Area in primary and secondary schools (Finger, 2002). It is regarded as an essential component even from the earliest of primary school classes. In secondary schooling, technology is also playing an increasing role, not only in use of information technology (IT) as described by Biggs (2003), but also with Education Technology” (p. 20). As teachers, we know that this is indeed true and that our students expect some form of technology to be involved in their teaching. Perhaps the question that begs to be answered is how to integrate items such as the Internet (with all of its online content), the smart phone, social networking, and videos seamlessly into lesson planning. Courts and Tucker (2012) have catalogued some of the latest resources available online. Insofar as academic work online for free is concerned, the following sources stand out: • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) open courseware (http://ocw.mit. edu/index. htm) • Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching (Merlot) (http:www.merlot.org) • Videolectures.net (http://videolectures.net/) • Ted.com (http://new.ted.com/) Since each of these resources has different items available, we will take a closer look at what each one of them can offer ESL teachers in particular. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) open courseware (http://ocw.mit.edu/index.htm) site offers free courses in a variety of topics (See Figure 1) and provides access to syllabi, materials, and video conferences; it is based on courses offered by MIT. ESL teachers will ﬁnd information for their professional development, as well as for classroom use.
Figure 1. MIT Opencourseware site (Source: http://ocw.mit.edu)
The Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching (MERLOT) (http:www. merlot.org) site is described in their website as a collection of tens of thousands of discipline-speciﬁc learning materials, learning exercises, and web pages. Materials are reviewed for suitability and retention in the collection and many undergo extensive “peer review.” The website mentions that learning resources are categorized into 19 different material types, among which we can single out the following, due to their relevance to ESL teachers:
• Animation: Allows users to view the dynamic and visual representation of concepts, models, processes, and phenomena in space or time. • Assessment Tool: Assessment tools and activities for measuring outcomes. • Assignment: Activities designed to be used as a task for a student to complete. Could be based on a learning object in MERLOT. • Drill and Practice: Requires users to respond repeatedly to questions or stimuli presented in a variety of sequences. Users practice on their own and at their own pace to develop their ability to reliably perform and demonstrate the target knowledge and skills. • ePortfolio: A collection of electronic materials assembled and managed by a user. These may include text, electronic ﬁles, images, multimedia, blog entries, and links. • Quiz/Test: Any assessment device intended to serve as a test or quiz. • Reference Material: Material with no speciﬁc instructional objectives and similar to that found in the reference area of a library. • Social Networking Tool: A site that allows users to communicate with others, create bookmark collections, share notices, and get connected with others.
Videolectures.net (http://videolectures.net/) is a collection of videos similar to YouTube Education. The database is organized by academic topics and includes lectures given by world-class experts of different areas. ESL teachers will surely enjoy listening to Noam Chomsky speak about The Biology of the Language Faculty: Its Perfection, Past and Future (Figure 2) or a lecture by Steven Pinker on Words and Rules: The Ingredients of Language (Figure 3). Depending on the grade level you are teaching, you can use sections of these lectures or the complete lecture in your classroom. Figure 2. Noam Chomsky
Figure 3. Steven Pinker
Ted.com (http://new.ted.com/) is also a collection of video lectures, but the topics are not related to academic subjects. They include technology, entertainment, design, business, science, and global issues. As ESL teachers, we include all of these topics in our classes because they serve to present, in an interesting and attractive form, our language learning schemata. If you teach high school students, they will be very interested in a lecture about What makes us happy? or The power of ﬁlm, since these are topics that are close to the turmoil that adolescence delivers. Most of the lectures are short and can be easily incorporated into a lesson plan. The smart phone, tablet, or netbook, according to Norris, Hossain, and Soloway (2011), are the second wave of the 1:1 ratio of student: computer device because this ratio will no longer be based on desktops or laptops. One of the major obstacles that the integration of technology into the classroom traditionally faced was cost. Laptops and desktops are expensive and require frequent updating. As teachers we have all seen the proliferation, in spite of restrictions imposed by school administrators, of mobile devices among our students. Mobile computer devices (smartphones, tablets, and netbooks) are cheaper and have become ubiquitous among students of all ages (we have all seen two and three year olds’ handling i-pads and tablets with ease). Furthermore, “the cost of the device + network is dropping and, sooner than expected, schools will be able to make use of student-provided devices, and thus schools will not even need to provide computing devices per se—all that schools will need to provide is the internet access (a data plan) and educational software” (Norris, Hossain, & Soloway, 2011, p. 18). This change warrants a change in the way we view these devices and integrating them into teaching seems like the most logical solution. Gozen and Caicedo (2011) state that “smartphones can still deliver good educational experiences if adequate software applications are used along with a hands-on laboratory based approach to discovering and learning educational concepts” (p. 10). When looking at mobile computer devices, it is necessary to explain that basically there are four different operating systems: Google’s, Apple’s, Microsoft’s, and Linux. Each one of these has a different set of applications available. This article will focus on the applications available in Google’s Androidbased devices and will only mention some of the applications available in the other three operating systems.
Besides the vast array of dictionaries, educational games, and language learning software available, Socrative is the ﬁrst application that comes to mind. Since it is web-based, it can work with any mobile device that has access to the internet and a browser; apps are available in Google Play and the iTunes Store, as well. In their web site, the developers of Socrative describe it as “a smart student response system that empowers teachers to engage their classrooms through a series of educational exercises and games via smartphones, laptops, and tablets.” Socrative allows students to play educational games and to respond to questions displayed by their instructor. The responses are delivered to the instructor in chart form. Teachers may use this feedback to guide their instruction and to re-teach content areas that the students have yet to master. It also allows instructors to create individual quizzes. As the students ﬁnish, the instructor receives individual reports on the correctness of data. Each student’s individual score is exported to an Excel spreadsheet and e-mailed to the instructor. Figure 4. Socrative screen-shot (Source: www.socrative.com)
Quizlet is another fun application that you should consider. It is web-based and can be used with any tablet, smartphone, or netbook that has internet access and a browser, and you can also download it from Google Play or iTunes. It allows the user to build “ﬂashcard” sets on any subject. These cards can be organized into sets that can be used to study for tests or to review material. It has millions of visitors from all over the world and an incredible amount of prepared data sets on a colossal amount of topics, and it is free for students. However, teachers must pay to prepare personalized materials.
Figure 5. Quizlet screen shot (Source: www.quizlet.com)
Another interesting feature available through mobile technology is the use of QR codes. I am sure you have seen them in different places (Figure 7), but you donâ€™t know that they are called QR codes. QR (Quick Response) codes provide quick access to web links and are easily created for any web address (URL) using a QR code generator (many are available free of charge online and in Google Play and iTunes). Users with smartphones or tablets can use QR code reader apps to scan QR codes and connect instantly to websites, videos, and images. Figure 6. QR code image (Source: www.wikipedia.com)
Podcasting is another web-based tool that is excellent for ESL teachers because it can be used to address several issues concerning listening and speaking. Podcasts can be found on a variety of topics online. One site of particular note is Podcast Alley (http://www.podcastalley.com/index.php). This site allows you to select podcasts according to your topic of interest and also allows you to make podcasts you can use in your class. Social networks have changed the way we keep in touch with family and friends; sometimes all we know about what is going on with the people we care about comes from social networks. Facebook is perhaps the best-known social networking software available today (see Figures 7 and 8). Backer (2010)
deﬁnes Facebook as “a popular social networking website that allows people to communicate online and share and upload material such as photos, videos and stories. It is also used by businesses as a marketing tool to connect with Facebook users” (p. 20). Yet, the controversies surrounding the privacy of the information posted in Facebook and the lack of security for minors has made its use in K-12 schools very difﬁcult. Thus, an alternative to this situation had to be found. Enter Edmodo. With a similar interface, but with restrictions to its use, it appears to be a solution to the current inability to use social networking software in schools. Figure 7. Facebook users in the World by Regions (September, 2012)
Figure 8. Top ten social networking sites
According to Lie (2013), “as a social media speciﬁcally designed for education, Edmodo is used as an out-of-class communication forum to post/submit assignments and resources, discuss relevant issues, exchange information, and handle housekeeping purposes” (p. 52). Teachers can create Edmodo groups and provide codes that allow only students to participate in discussion threads, take polls and quizzes, and complete assignments. The teacher can allow certain students to store photos, web links and other documents in the class’s Edmodo library. The fact that it looks so much like Facebook helps students feel comfortable quickly in this learning environment. There are many other applications that are available. You may have heard of such as Blogger, Skype, Grammarly, and Wikispaces, to name a few. Yet, an important item to remember is that “while content knowledge is certainly still a major component of teaching, effective teachers also need to create a classroom environment that facilitates learning, which might involve integrating technology” (Courts & Tucker, 2011, p. 125). References Backer, E. (2010). Using smartphones and Facebook in a major assessment: The student experience. E-Journal of Business Education & Scholarship of Teaching, 4(1), 19-31. Courts, B., & Tucker, J. (2012). Using technology to create a dynamic classroom experience. Journal of College Teaching & Learning (TLC), 9(2), 121-128. Gozen, E. N., & Caicedo, C. E. (2011). Using Smartphone applications to enhance the learning of telecommunication concepts. Paper presented at the 9th International Telecommunications Education and Research Association (ITERA) conference. Indianapolis, Indiana. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/1319251/Using_Smartphone_Applications_to_ Enhance_the_Learning_of_Telecommunication_Concepts Lie, A. (2013). Social media in a content course for the digital natives. TEFLIN Journal: A publication on the teaching and learning of English, 24(1), 48-62. Norris, C., Hossain, A., & Soloway, E. (2011). Using Smartphones as essential tools for learning. Educational Technology, 18.
Using the Theater in the ESL Classroom Michelle Rodríguez M.A., María A. Irizarry Ed.D., and Elsie Candelaria Sosa Ed.D.
The idea of using the theatre in the second language classroom is not by any means a new one. Numerous educators have written accounts about educational drama, reader’s theatre, poetry through drama, and sensory-kinesthetic theatre, among others. Puerto Rico’s ESL educators need to be aware that creative assignments in which the learner can generate ideas and put them into action while applying the second language are options that are more appealing to students. When confronted with reluctance and negativity, English through theatre may serve to ease the English classroom’s sometimes tense environment because the student steps into the language rather than seeing it from an outsider’s point of view. When students are asked to simply sit at a desk and read a passage of a theatrical masterpiece or copy material from the board to their notebooks, the task is repetitive, monotonous, and tedious; the words, musical and creative within the context of dramatic creativity, may just look like a bunch of letters mixed together to the student. Although the average educator may argue that theatre in the ESL classroom is difﬁcult due to time constraints in the academic calendar and pressure from the administration to complete speciﬁc topics and skills in the curriculum, theatre is a ﬂexible alternative. Not only does theatre cover the four language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing), it can be tailored to ﬁt any language area including grammar, vocabulary, and literature. The journal, Reading Teacher, from the International Reading Association (IRA), a nonproﬁt organization established in 1956 dedicated to fostering worldwide literacy, published an article entitled It Worked! Readers Theatre in Second Grade in which Sheri J. Forsythe shares a personal experience within her bilingual classroom. Forsythe (1995) explains how she used the technique of reader’s theatre to advance her students’ reading proﬁciency, while also encouraging the practice of the three other main skills of second language instruction. Reader’s theatre is a drama activity in which the performers do not memorize lines, but rather read the script and give emphasis to vocal production without necessarily using costumes and stage scenery. Forsythe (1995) informs how she increased the difﬁculty level of the reader’s theatre presentations during each academic quarter. Initially, the students used puppets and other props to perform a script from a language arts text and with the passing of time the teacher minimized these stage features and had the students write their own dialogue. Although the students seemed hesitant at ﬁrst, Forsythe (1995) asserts that by the end of the school year all of her students became at ease with speaking in front of an audience, using a microphone, participating in the composition of the script, and listening to each other’s work. She is a prime example of a teacher who used drama while still meeting the requirements appearing in her class syllabus. 15
Forsythe (1995) also describes how she introduced the concept of reader’s theatre using language arts books; later in the year, when the unit of study was the solar system, she went a step further. She gave her students an assignment which consisted of writing a story about space that could later be adapted into a reader’s theatre script. Since this task was more complicated, she involved her class in the school’s literary fair and had her students videotape their presentations in the fair; later, these were transcribed and made into a book consisting of several reader theater scripts. Forsythe proves that drama activity can encompass all four language skills recognized as important in ﬁrst and second language learning and that the use of drama results in higher student motivation and an increase in language acquisition. Her work also evidences how adding the performing arts to the language learning classroom can increase student learning. Although Forsythe does not mention the Arts Education Partnership (AEP), the activities carried out in her classroom foster AEP’s mission statement. This organization located in Washington DC is committed to, as indicated on their ofﬁcial website www.aep-arts.org, making high-quality arts education available to all United States students, improving arts education practice, and researching how art in all forms inﬂuences and strengthens American education. In the article, Creating Drama with Poetry: Teaching English as a Second Language through Dramatization and Improvisation, writers Marie Gasparro and Bernadette Falletta (1994) convey the idea that having ESL students roleplay real life situations when examining poetry improves their overall language achievement. Importance is given to both nonverbal and verbal skills, hence, the suggestion that acting is intended to have students connect with emotions and not only speak the words, but execute the meaning behind each term. Gasparro and Falletta (1994) indicate that when studying language through drama, the students take on greater responsibility for their learning because acquisition is based on performance. The teacher selects the poetry pieces and focuses on pronunciation, intonation, ﬂuency, and vocabulary; but the student decides how the poem will be portrayed through playacting. The authors of this article cite poetic works which have proven to be successful for ESL theatre assignments and provide ESL instructors with tips on how to plan and carry out this type of instruction. This article serves to show that ESL learners can internalize language when asked to combine it with the performing arts. The information Gasparro and Falletta share supports drama as a classroom activity and its inﬂuence on ESL communicative development. In a more recent study Cockett (2002), a senior lecturer of drama at the University of Exeter, tells us about the creation of a poetry show based on poems in English for children. Cockett (2002) tells how he sought to present drama as a strategy that enables pupils to communicate spontaneously and with meaning, notwithstanding their level of proﬁciency. This poetry show went on tour to schools in and around the cities of Torun and Krakow and made ESL learners spectators rather than participants, but with the purpose of captivating them and instilling in them a desire to get involved within their own classroom and with their own teacher in a similar future endeavor. The performances included eight drama university students as main actors. The idea of having ESL students as an audience ﬁrst turned out to be ultimately productive because children and adolescents tend to follow the actions of individuals who are older than themselves. The university performers did not only entertain and stimulate the ESL viewers, but acted as their role models. Cockett (2002) lists ﬁve reasons a poetry show could be speciﬁcally devised for a second language classroom. The reasons are: (a) to offer an opportunity to enjoy theatre in English and talk with native speakers of English, (b) to stimulate teachers to develop new vocabulary
and language forms with their pupils, (c) to demonstrate performance techniques that can be used by the pupils to learn English through action, (d) to provide a focus for different school and community groups to come together, and (e) to implement an event that would resonate with the excitement of hearing and understanding English spoken by native speakers in the pupils’ home town. When you consider poetry combined with theatre and Puerto Rico’s English teaching history, a Puerto Rican ESL educator could run a trial of Gasparro and Falletta’s ESL instruction ideas, using Martín Espada’s (1994) poetic piece Coca-Cola, Coco Frío published in City of Coughing and Dead Radiators. This narrative poem tells the story of a young boy whose family comes from Puerto Rico, but he was born and raised in Brooklyn, New York. He visits the Island for the ﬁrst time and his family “steers him with cool spotted hands to a glass of Coca-Cola while singing to him in all the English they could remember, a Coca-Cola jingle from the forties” (p. 26) over and over again. The young boy notices a stand on the street from which he obtains a coco frío. “The boy tilts the green shell overhead and drools coconut milk down his chin; suddenly, Puerto Rico is not Coca-Cola or Brooklyn, and neither is he” (p. 27). Espada’s poem symbolizes the Americanization of our Caribbean Island. This poetic piece, given to a group of Puerto Rican students who struggle with the idea of learning English when their mother tongue is Spanish, will allow for them to relate to the main character’s plight. Reading the poem will cause the students’ emotions to surface and the ESL instructor who assigns to them a play that will allow them to act out the occurrences and themes in Espada’s piece will give the students a creative space to present their feelings and at the same time practice their L2. This can also be linked to the notion of sensory-kinesthetic theatre. York University graduate student, Nikole Pascetta (2010), developed a thesis project entitled Making Meaning Through Movement: A Theatre Pedagogy for English Language Learning in Refugee Youth Settlement. Pascetta (2010) states that language in general is an expedient means to thinking and communicating thoughts and is of utmost necessity to cultural integration. This means that language stems from the root of culture, so individuals who can embrace their language and the language of others are able to prosper within a culture other than their own. Furthermore, Pascetta (2010) states that through non-verbal interaction the limitations of new language articulation are assuaged because ultimately all learning is connected through one’s body by sensory and cognitive means. Putting messages in motion, and not only orally, facilitates acquiring language. Overall, Pascetta’s thesis focuses on the English language learning (ELL) experience amongst Canadian young refugees that integrates theatrical pedagogical techniques developed by physiotherapist, Jacques Lecoq. According to Lecoq (2000), as cited by Pascetta (2010), the heightening of sensory awareness and of movement promotes a discovery of self and allows the individual to grasp real life situations and their relation to material contexts encountered in the world. Pascetta’s study provides insight on how physical movement can serve as a bridge between vernacular and culture because what is being spoken is also being brought into action and literally felt. The learner-as-actor transforms words into motion. The learner becomes involved in the speech and stigmas can slowly be broken down allowing cultural growth to take place.
Intrinsic Motivation vs. Extrinsic Motivation
A common human question is the simple three letter word known as why. Individuals naturally have an inquisitive side to their personality and a need to understand the world and its constituents. Thus, learners often question why they have to learn certain concepts, while teachers often question why learners want to acquire certain skills. Passionate educators are on the lookout for what drives their students. This driving force is referred to as motivation, which curiously varies from learner to learner. Noels, Clément, Pelletier, and Vallerand (2000) discuss different types of motivation, speciﬁcally, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and its relation to molding self-determination in students during L2 learning. The authors of this research explain the ideas of Gardner (1959) and Lambert (1972) and posit that L2 learners may possess integrative or instrumental orientation. Integrative orientation, as per Noels et al.’s (2000) analysis of Gardner and Lambert, is a desire to learn the L2 in order to have contact with, and perhaps to identify with, members from the L2 community, whereas instrumental orientation is a desire to learn the L2 to achieve some practical goal, such as job advancement or course credit. Intrinsic motivation is similar to integrative orientation and extrinsic motivation mirrors instrumental orientation. Now the question is which type of orientation/motivation is mostly seen in the ESL Puerto Rican classroom and which should be encouraged in order to modify second language stereotypes and negative impressions? Noels et al. (2000) claim that when people are free to choose to perform an activity, they will seek interesting situations where they can rise to the challenges that the activity presents. This willingness is intrinsic motivation because there is no need for an external reward. The beneﬁts are indirectly received. This should be the answer to why Puerto Rico ESL students practice the L2. A mindset in which selfimprovement is a priority that will eventually result in positive attributes for the greater good of the community ﬁrst and then of society as a whole. Intrinsic motivation will help diminish the idea that the study of English on the Island is an attack on identity and culture. Furthermore, Noels et al. (2000) mention how intrinsic motivation causes sensations of aesthetic appreciation or fun and excitement. This can be interconnected with theatrical activities in the ESL classroom because if a student is asked to invent and perform, they can eventually appreciate the beauty of what has been produced. When an individual is the center of a project and their ideas are considered and valued, self-worth is acquired and the individual shows determination in order to reach success. Language skills will increase and what was once seen as difﬁcult and threatening will become pleasant and exciting. The aforementioned is not meant to designate extrinsic motivation as a lack of determination. This is not so. An individual who is moved by extrinsic motivation can possess determination; the difference has more to do with the intentions. Noels et al. (2000) elucidate the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation by stating that extrinsically motivated behaviors are those actions carried out to achieve some instrumental end, such as earning a reward or avoiding punishment. Unfortunately, this is sometimes the stimulus that supports Puerto Rico’s ESL learners. They complete the assignments to earn points for the class or to insure a passing grade. This should not be their sole reason for learning English. Undoubtedly, there will always be students who simply do not enjoy studying language because it is not their forte. Additionally, it is understood that every individual has the right to feel the way they want to about any topic or subject. When you take into account the history of English language teaching and the political zigzagging backgrounds of Puerto Rico; then, the resistance to learn English can appear almost reasonable. However, ESL teachers have a duty to promote intrinsic motivation and to help students develop competence and conﬁdence, a sense of worth, and an open mind when it comes to learning English
(or any another language), understanding other cultures, and dealing with diversity as a common and unavoidable occurrence. Noels et al. (2000) also specify that extrinsic motivation can at times relate to carrying out an activity as a result of some type of pressure. Once again, this should not be the drive behind learning ESL. Students should not carry out language tasks because it is demanded or imposed upon them. An ESL class should entice the student and that attraction can be accomplished through lessons that take the student out of the ordinary and into the extraordinary: things like a play, a comedy, skit, or a dialogue with props. Creating eases certain pressures because there is room for individuality. The end result is that students will get involved with the learning activity because it is important to them and because it allows them to achieve a personal goal (such as attaining a level of competence) rather than earning a concrete goal (Noels et al., 2000). References Cockett, S. (2002). Verse in action: Performing poetry to learners of English as a second language in Poland. Children’s Literature in Education, 33(1), 11-28. Espada, M. (1994). City of coughing and dead radiators. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. Forsythe, S. (1995). Teaching reading: It worked! Readers theatre in second grade. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association. Gasparro, M., & Falletta, B. (1994). Creating drama with poetry: Teaching English as a second language through dramatization and improvisation. Washington D.C.: ERIC Publications. Noels, K. A., Pelletier, L. G., Clément, R., & Vallerand, R. J. (2003). Why are you learning a second language? Motivational orientations and self-determination theory. Language Learning, 53(1), 33–63. Pascetta, N. (2010). Making meaning through movement: A theatre pedagogy for English language learning in refugee youth settlement. York University (Canada). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/ 749077610?accountid=44825. (749077610).
“Take Me to the Concert”:
A Lively and Innovative Teaching Strategy to Develop Communicative, Problem-Solving and Decision-Making Skills in Diverse Students Aníbal Muñoz Claudio, Ed. D.
“Voy a reir, voy a bailar… vivir mi vida… lalala lala” are the most acclaimed lyrics from, Vivir Mi Vida, Marc Anthony’s (2013) latest album. Just as the rhythmical jingle in the song conjures all souls to get up and dance, ESL classes must cast a spell upon students for them to laugh, live, and enjoy their academic experiences. Quite often educators fall short of making the right connections between their ESL classes and the immediate contexts that embrace students afterwards. Such contexts ﬁlled with the latest unending attractions and lots of technological entertainment, usually make the ESL classroom experiences look obsolete, dull, and not so appealing to students –particularly to those in adolescence stages. From TV reality shows to cellular phone applications, today’s digital-native students are innate expectants of action and thrill at all times. One ﬁne example of today’s most revered students’ enticement is becoming hard-devoted fans to trendy artists, following their performances digitally, and lastly, attending live concerts to epitomize a tribute to the beloved idols. These three amusing activities which usually ﬁll students with excitement and awe cannot go unnoticed in ESL classrooms. If students are letting educators know that they are always fascinated by music, and that going to live concerts brings them ecstasy, why not maximizing that impetus in ESL classes? Why not turning that enthusiasm into a complete academic experience? Let the students take you to a concert in your ESL class! In today’s constructivist educational paradigms, one Project Based Learning (PBL)1 activity that can really elicit students’ problemsolving /decision making skills is to devise an imaginary concert in an ESL class. The task of organizing a fantasy concert using the students’ idolatrized artists can turn into one unforgettable academic experience in the English class. Such project will encompass an array of problem solving and decision-making situations that would prompt students to communicate and interact in English while embrace professional dispositions, such as: creativity, leadership skills, diversity, and social transformation. In order to set students in motion, educators must provide a set of speciﬁc guidelines and strategies for all the stages of the project. At this juncture, educators could use different approaches to sort out project logistics, such as kind of project –oral or written (or a combination of both), length of project –one single concert or
1 Project Based Learning (PBL) –one of the recommended teaching approaches by the Department of Education of Puerto Rico (CC- 11-2011-2012- English Curriculum Program, 2012)
a concert tour, number of students per group (or individual work), mode of presentation, time allotted for each presentation, preparation timeline, and others. These methods could vary from group to group. However, some common elements educators must take into consideration, and that are essential to enliven this kind of PBL project are: to provide lots of opportunities for students to foster their creativity and imagination, plenty of room for English language enhancement, ample time to carry out research and informational skills, and management of decision-making processes all throughout the project. In order to plan and design an imaginary concert, students need to consider many issues. The ﬁrst aspect students need to decide is to choose which artist or artists (to open the concert or extras) they would love to present in their concert. If they are working in groups, this would be the very ﬁrst decisionmaking process they would run into as they must reach a consensus or use selected criteria to determine who would be the main artist. Teachers could help students by presenting criteria guidelines to select one artist over the other. One recommended criteria is to provide the artists’ trajectory (or short biography) which leads to the task of researching and using informational skills. Right after choosing their artist, students need to select an ideal date for their concert. Once the artist(s) and date are selected, students need to proceed to the second most important part of the project –choosing a well-located arena (or various arenas if they choose to schedule a tour) for the concert. This single step or decision, although simple in form, will bring lots of decision-making/ problem solving tasks for students. For instance, students need to ﬁnd out the market price to rent this place and, more importantly, its spectators’ seating capacity so they can determine and estimate possible earnings for their project. This task requires all around research and math skills since students could be asked to prepare and present a ﬁctional budget based on their investments and earnings. Students need to rely on basic math skills to either add, multiply, or subtract large amounts to predict how much money they would make depending on the different seating accommodations (preference, VIP, or others), on the ticket prices per seat, and other goods that could be sold at their imaginary concert. One last detail regarding the place selection is that students must provide a city map to indicate adequate routes and transportation venues in the nearby areas to facilitate access to the arena. This can easily be accessed with the Google Map tool or similar ones. After the artist(s), date(s), and location(s) have been determined, students need to think critically and creatively in designing an appealing concert slogan to carry out a superb promotional tour. Besides writing a captivating theme and logistic details, students can rely on their artistic skills to either draw or simply design digital posters, ﬂyers, banners, brochures, and other forms of advertising to promote their concert at large. In another area of this project, students also need to consider which organizations could sponsor their concert. Problem-solving skills will surface again as students could be asked to research and determine which companies, agencies, brands, or products will be suitable to sponsor their concert. These decisions would require additional justiﬁcations thus, embracing diversity even further. Along with the concert’s sponsor decision, students could present individual VIP lists of people they would love to invite to the concert. Teachers can require one speciﬁc number of VIP people to force students to decide who are their most beloved siblings or close friends. Each of these steps will have students engaged thinking critically at all times.
Furthermore, in this project students will be asked to schedule a media tour for their artist(s) to promote the concert in advance. At this stage, students must choose which local or international TV/radio programs, online media, or printed newspapers would be ideal to promote their concert more effectively. Research and decision-making skills are further developed here since students not only need to search for different media venues and estimate their respective prices or requirements, but also justify such decisions. Educators can easily assess this task by requiring a complete agenda of the promotional tour that would include program or show’s names, hosts, newspaper columns, speciﬁc time arrangements, estimated price for each advertisement or other requirements for each artist’s promotional appearances in different media. Another area in which students can maximize decision-making skills is by choosing a charitable non-proﬁt organization to donate a percentage of their total income. First, students need to decide and justify which non-proﬁt organization they could choose and secondly, they have to agree on how much money (percent) they could donate. This aspect of the project brings an excellent opportunity for students to develop leadership skills and engage in social transformation dispositions by selecting one charitable organization (or charities) they identify with to help it ﬁnancially. History, mission, and objectives of each non-proﬁt organization should be presented along with its respective pictures, logo, and other details that depict this organization’s contributions to society. Other additional (optional) aspects of the project in which students could maximize decisionmaking skills is in determining sound effects, visual effects, special effects, special guests and use of extras, choreographies, dancers, background settings, intermission sessions, stands and goods to be sold, concert memorabilia for fans, and others. Lastly, students should maximize their creativity by designing all kinds of digital or authentic paraphernalia to either promote the concert beforehand or sell during the concert to boost their earnings. Items such as t-shirts, hats, banners, key holders, cups, bracelets, magnets, stickers, license plates, among others could be recommended to students. Educators should not be afraid of venturing into this kind of project for it doesn’t bring any extensive workload upon them. Teachers must ensure to provide speciﬁc guidelines for students at the beginning, monitor their progress at regular intervals, and ﬁnally, enjoy their students’ presentations while assessing them with a simple rubric or checklist like the model provided here. An encompassing PBL task like this one should be viewed and enjoyed by many people in the school community. Therefore, teachers must consider various publishing venues for these projects such as online loading, library posts, and inviting parents or other teachers to the presentations. Teachers can modify or adjust all evaluation criteria depending on their group level, timeframe, resources, or other educational considerations. Let your students take you to a free concert! Let them laugh, live and enjoy their academic tasks in your ESL class, “Vivir la vida …lalala…lala!”
SAMPLE ASSESSMENT RUBRIC School: _____________________________________ _School District: __________________________________________ Grade/Group __________ Room No. _____________Teacher: _________________________________________________ Sample of Concerts and Tours Oral Presentation (Artist’s Promoter) Evaluation Rubric – Maximum: 60 Points
CRITERIA AND CRITERIA DESCRIPTORS 1. Content (48 points)
SCALE AND STANDARDS 4 Excellent
1 Needs improvement
1. Introduction: Students greet the audience and introduce themselves properly. 2. Artist presentation: Students provide adequate information regarding the artist’s trajectory (or short biography) 3. Promotional Tour: Students provide an adequate concert slogan and/or other advertising material (flyers, banners, brochures, paper ads, etc.). 4. Concert Schedule: Students provide a complete schedule for the concert(s), which includes: dates, time, and other considerations (press conference, autograph sessions, etc.). 1.
Directions: Students provide complete information (map diagrams) to indicate adequate routes and transportation.
Concert Ticket Prices: Students provide complete and detailed list of tour ticket prices and other sales.
BUDGET: Students provide an estimate of gross earnings based on computation of expenses and earnings.
Concert VIP List: Students present their list of VIP people invited to the tour.
Concert Media Schedule: Students present a complete list of media interviews (TV and radio programs) for the artist.
Charity Sponsor: Students choose and organize an event for a charitable organization of their preference.
Concert Paraphernalia: Students provide one (1) creative paraphernalia item to promote the concert.
Originality: Students provide additional elements to their concert such as use of extras, special effects, special guests, choreographies, and other aspects to embellish the concert or tour.
Language (12 points) 9.
Pronunciation: Students make their best effort to communicate with clear English pronunciation and intonation patterns.
10. Grammar: Students use grammatical structures: parts of speech, syntax, capitalization and punctuation rules correctly in all written components of the project. 11. No use of Spanish: Students make their best effort to conduct their presentation entirely in English (Minimal usage of Spanish during the entire presentation). TOTAL POINTS Bonus Points (5 maximum) Classroom decoration settings are welcome! Prepare a banner for the song to decorate the board, snacks for the occasion are optional, arrange the seats differently, give a name to your group, wear special attire and accessories for the moment, and take care of details not listed in the checklist.
What are the Common Core State Standards? Rosemary Morales Urbina, Ed. D.
Unlike the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, a government-mandated law enacted “to ensure that students in every public school achieve important learning goals within 12 years” (¶ 1) and to annual testing to measure the achievements attained in public school students (Yell, 2010), the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) originated from a state-led effort organized by the Council of Chief State School Ofﬁcers and the National Governor’s Association to develop high-quality education standards. Drawn on the most important international models, teachers from all levels, parents, school administrators, experts, and state leaders also provided input into the development of the Standards. The Standards are based on research and evidence and are aligned with college and work requirements. They are also rigorous and internationally benchmarked. (Common Core State Standards, 2010) (Swanson, 2013).
However, according to a recent PDK/Gallup Poll, “62% of Americans have never heard of the Common Core ” (¶ 3). In addition, the Poll reveals that there are many misconceptions that hamper understanding and acceptance of the Standards (Swanson, K. (2013). In this article, I will attempt to clarify doubts and answer questions still pending in educators’ minds. The CCSS intend to prepare students for college and careers. Evidence shows that more than 5.6 billion dollars is spent annually on college remedial courses, mostly because students upon entering college and the work force lack the skills and competencies needed to be successful. By elevating the current standards, the Common Core proposes to reduce the oppressive weight on employers and colleges (Swanson, 2013). Its goal is to end the fragmented system of education across the United States so that students can compete globally (Donaldson & Niederberger, 2013). As indicated by Trotter (2014), two leading business groups are strongly backing the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). They argue that this education reform is vital for the U.S. to stay competitive in the global economy. In October, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and the Business Roundtable, both based in Washington, DC, announced their intention to launch nationwide advertising to promote CCSS. Both groups have long backed the standards, which are currently being phased in by 45 states and the District of Columbia. According to the vice president for education policy at the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, which represents thousands of businesses across the country, Cheryl Oldham, as cited in Trotter, 2014, (¶ 3) “We know what is not working: to have standards so low, [and] to be graduating kids that can’t read.” Oldham stated that another sign of the need for more rigors in high school is that, according to a 2012 study by the nonproﬁt Complete College America, half of all undergraduates at four-year colleges and 70 percent of community college students must take remedial courses. In addition, many college students who take remedial courses fail to graduate (Trotter, 2014) Concurrently, the Common Core has been endorsed by the National Education Association, the American Federation of Teachers, many editorial boards across the country, and the U.S. Department of Education. Education Secretary, Arne Duncan, remarked recently that in the eight states with Common Core standards in place in time for this year’s National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), reading and math scores were higher than they had been in 2009. The initiative’s more rigorous academic goals have an obvious appeal to the business community, opines Oldham, as cited in Trotter (2014), because they contribute to economic and workforce development.
According to the CCSS cite, English Language State Standards, the “Standards set requirements not only for English Language Arts (ELA) but also for literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects. Just as students must learn to read, write, speak, listen, and use language effectively in a variety of content areas, so too must the Standards specify the literacy skills and understandings required for college and career readiness in multiple disciplines” (English Language Arts Standards (2010, ¶ 5). Before, with the NCLB teaching practices, children didn’t have to exercise the power of reason. They checked a box on a test. Now they will have to show how they know what they learned and get credit for demonstrating their thinking skills. That’s a key element of the new Common Core instructional strategies all school districts must implement in the 2014-2015 school year, according to Kathy Pon, assistant superintendent for instructional services with the Merced County Ofﬁce of Education. She believes it is an opportunity to elevate innovative thinking and problem-solving skills (Yawger, 2013). The new Core Standards are more demanding and focus on higher-level analytical thinking than past standards. They move certain math concepts in elementary school to lower grades and call for more intense reading requirements, which include a return to phonics and an emphasis on grammar in the early grades (Donaldson & Niederberger, 2013). However it’s not just affecting Language Arts classes. The Common Core demands for more reading, writing, and vocabulary work in social studies and science, as well (Smith Amos, 2013). According to Robin Hopper, assistant superintendent in the Livingston Union School District, teachers’ roles are changing. “Teachers no longer are the sole keepers of knowledge to impart to their students,” Hopper afﬁrms. “Children today can ﬁnd information on any subject within seconds via the Internet [and cellular phones]. A teacher’s job now is to teach students how to ﬁnd primary sources, critically analyze the vast amounts of information out there and then apply their new learning to useful, real-world problems” (Yawger, 2013, ¶ 6). Hopper asserts that educators must recognize 21st century education standards in a different way and “shift instruction from a teacher-centered to student-centered approaches through inquiry , project-based learning and effective use of technology” (Yawger, 2013, ¶ 14). Forty-ﬁve states and the District of Columbia have taken on the Common Core, which recommends for fourth graders a 50-50 split between reading ﬁction and nonﬁction in the typical student’s school day and requires nonﬁction to comprise 70 percent of what a student reads by senior year (Smith Amos, 2013). “Second source” is more a journalist’s jargon than part of a teenager’s everyday vocabulary. Nonetheless, with information so easily available through social media, the Internet and traditional news sources, educators say news literacy, teaching students how to identify credible information and good journalism is increasingly important (Bui, 2013).
Conforming to Alan C. Miller, president of the News Literacy Project and a Pulitzer Prizewinning journalist who worked as an investigative reporter with the Los Angeles Times, “Younger students might feel that all information is created equally. If something is put on the internet, they tend to believe it” (Bui, 2013, ¶ 5). Therefore, Miller’s Maryland-based nonproﬁt organization develops lesson plans, activities and curriculum for middle and high schools, to teach students to “sort fact from ﬁction in the digital age.” Students learn to identify bias in stories, discover what makes sources credible and verify information (¶ 6). Kathy Pon believes educators should encourage students toward higher-level thinking, so they can read at higher and more complex levels, and be able to master college texts and technical documents
(Yawger, 2013), such as more nonﬁction, informational texts (Smith Amos, 2013), biographies and newsmagazines (Donaldson & Niederberger, 2013,
For example, Laurie Heinreicher, Hampton’s curriculum director, states that the new language arts curriculum will include having third-graders read the biography of Roberto Clemente, which is factbased, and then compare it to a ﬁctional work from the same time period. Also, on high school science and social studies papers, students will be graded on their mastery of grammar and sentence structure as well as their knowledge of the content area (Donaldson & Niederberger, 2013). Katie Isaacs, a teacher at Princeton High in Sharonville, is planning lessons now that will pair nonﬁction works with relevant, classic ﬁction in each lesson unit. She states that, “The material is not a drastic shift for us. These works are the same works colleges tend to focus on and expect their students to be able to analyze and understand.” Karen Beerer, a teacher who runs Discovery Education’s Common Core Academies for educators, posits that, “Students need to practice reading nonﬁction, especially complex, technical writing, because if they get a job or go to college, chances are good nonﬁction reading will be the bulk of what’s required,” (Smith Amos, 2013, ¶ 14 ). Two students in Isaac’s sophomore class said they’ve already started to balance ﬁction and nonﬁction reading and they like it, especially the contemporary articles about subjects they’re interested in. “I like reading nonﬁction because you get to know what’s actually happening,” said Cristina Valdiva, a West Chester sophomore (¶ 20). Teachers also will push students to become more engaged in the text, stretching their reading levels and showing them how to glean more than just the facts from their reading. Students will get more time to read, because teachers will direct them to read and reread passages to ferret out key facts and meanings. It’s a process called “deep reading” or “close reading.” Common Core and literacy coach for Cincinnati public schools Danielle Pankey-Wallace afﬁrms that, “We’re so used to reading stories and talking about story elements…. This time we’re going to dive deep into informational texts” (Smith Amos, 2013, ¶ 15). Argumentative writing is also emphasized in the Common Core. Students learn to take a position based on facts and evidence (Yawger, 2013). At Walt Whitman High School, where principal Alan Goodwin ﬁrst hosted News Literacy Program pilot lessons, Goodwin said he sees his students applying what they have learned in the classes, such as fact checking, research, and using multiple sources as they write papers or make decisions in their everyday lives. “It helps students understand what they should believe and not believe and what sort of research they should do,” says Goodwin (Bui, 2013, ¶ 17). Because English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers know the process of acquiring a language, ESL and subject teachers at the ethnically diverse middle school in Beaverton, Oregon are teaming up to discuss what learning strategies can be utilized with English Language Learners (ELLs ) in light of the CCSS adopted by the state. They have broken down the concepts and analyzed and simpliﬁed the language to develop strategies that all of them can use to support ELLs in both content and ESL classes. ESL teachers are now central in this process as they become consultants to other teachers, since “every single teacher is now a teacher of language and content,” states Claire Sylvan, the executive director and president of the Internationals Network for Public Schools, based in New York City. This includes preparing special education students for the rigors of the Common Core to insure that every student upon graduation will be ready to compete in careers as well as in college (Maxwell, 2013). Every student, whether a native English-speaker or a second-language learner, is expected to engage in conversation and discourse in the classroom, read and understand complex texts, and make effective oral and written arguments, among other high-level language practices in the new standards (Maxwell, 2013). Boddie (2014), who works at the New Victory Theater, ﬁrmly believes that through the arts teachers can foster students’ passion for learning while simultaneously fulﬁll the implementation of
the Core Standards. ESL teachers can incorporate theater techniques into academic units and engage students into creative learning, enabling them to deepen understanding. I believe the following teaching strategy serves any grade level and covers all language skills, notwithstanding, for third-to-ﬁfth grade educators who teach a fairytale unit or a book-of-the-month focus, Boddie recommends activities where theater can enliven literature. The example she uses is the Brothers Grimm’s Sleeping Beauty fairy tale. The objectives and goals in this 2-3 week lesson include: To: 1. 2. 3.
explore the text Sleeping Beauty through different theater techniques of storytelling. build imagination and point-of-view skills through the theatrical convention “River of Dreams.” make artistic choices to complete the ﬁnal scenes of Sleeping Beauty using the theater skills explored.
To stimulate prior knowledge, Boddie (2014) suggests that teachers ask students these questions for the ﬁrst objective: How do you tell stories? What techniques do you use when telling stories in your classrooms? Students will then be asked to keep their responses to these questions in mind throughout the session as they activate and adapt text by using different theatrical and design techniques.
For objective number 2, Boddie recommends teachers ask students the following question: “What do you think Sleeping Beauty dreams about during 100 years of sleep?” For the “River of Dreams,” students will reﬂect deeply to create a visual timeline of Sleeping Beauty’s dreams while she sleeps in her tower. Finally, What techniques did we use to bring this story to life? and What do you know about this story that you didn’t know before? are the last two sets of questions Boddie advises teachers ask students for objective number 3. According to Boddie (2014), the activity described above meets all of the anchor Common Core standards and provides a creative learning environment for students to make deeper connections while building skills that young men and women need in this new creative economy. She encourages teachers to continue ﬁnding ways to use theater techniques and incorporate other art forms in their English Language Arts units and encourage educators to continue igniting students’ passion for their own learning.
Britt (2013) states that kids grow and change over time; therefore, she asks educators to consider this one thing that remains consistent in our profession, and that is growth. She has found that while working with teachers across the country, most educators are up for the task of implementing the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), but have expressed a sense of fatigue as yet another initiative is rolled out.
In fact, the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) released a report called Fulﬁlling the Promise of the Common Core State Standards: Moving from
Adoption to Implementation to Sustainability that identiﬁed initiative fatigue as one barrier to CCSS implementation (Britt, 2013).
Britt (2013) recommends for combating this fatigue is to provide teachers with resources that demonstrate how to align best practices with the new standards. Many teachers have already taken action by reading the standards at www.corestandards.org. There you will observe that the standards are organized around building students’ skills over the course of their academic career. The vertical alignment of the standards supports the use of ongoing formative assessments that monitor student progress over time. Thus, tracking student growth over time, instead of focusing on one “ﬁnal” test score is favorable for students, parents, teachers, principals, and schools. Britt (2013) believes that when presented with an engaging and rich curriculum that focuses on supporting academic progress, not one that is merely a checklist for covering the standards, research shows that students grow academically. Educators have the power to shape student growth over time. The standards provide what students need to be successful. Teachers provide the “how”—the pathway for getting students there. To that end, teacher creativity is more important than ever, afﬁrms Britt. Britt (2013) recommends taking advantage of the many free online resources that provide lesson plans, articles, and professional learning on topics like ELL (English Language Learners), CCSS, differentiation, and formative assessments. ASCD’s EduCoreTM tool is a free online resource portal that has materials intended to build teachers’ knowledge around the Common Core standards; and for secondary teachers, there are instructional resources from the Literacy Design Collaborative and Mathematics Design Collaborative.
As educators, we are all responsible for helping our parents and our school community to understand overarching ideas about the development and implementation of the Common Core State Standards. When parents and the community are well-informed about issues that affect education, they are better able to participate in the democratic educational process (Yawger, 2013).
Far from the No Child Left Behind tests, Timothy Shanahan, a professor from the University of Chicago who helped review and revise the new CCSS tests, afﬁrms that they will highlight in time reading deﬁciencies for students and teachers to correct them. Long gone is the burden of “teaching for the test.” Shanahan states that, “These aren’t more rigorous tests; they’re more honest tests” (Smith Amos, 2013, ¶ 50).
I trust that the purpose of this article to enlighten educators regarding the Common Core State Standards has been achieved. In the future, it will be up to the educators in Puerto Rico to adopt CCSS to our reality. More importantly, however, is our commitment to our students while they attend school. Hopefully, we will observe continued cognitive and emotional growth through formative assessment as we include in our curriculum more nonﬁction works and informational texts, elevated language
practices, critical thinking writing opportunities and higher order thinking skills. Let all our students be regarded as useful, competent, and productive citizens when they graduate from high school, enter the university, pursue their professions and careers, or enter the workforce in this dynamic global economy. References Boddie, C. J. (2014, January 7). Common core in action: Using the arts to spark learning. Edutopia. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/common-core-and-creative-learning-courtney-boddie Britt, S. (2013, July 3). Growing with the common core standards. Retrieved from http://inservice.ascd.org/commoncore/growing-with-the-common-core-state-standards/ Bui, L. (2013, April, 15). Schools demanding news literacy lessons to teach students how to ﬁnd fact amid ﬁction. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www2.smartbrief.com/subscribertools/passiton. action?issueid=1038DDF1-8D0A-40AC-8959-EACB9DBCD4C8©id=E03D07C9-6A50-4D33-B75B0C549F03D8B7 &brief=ascd&sid=d1f6a48c%252daa27%252d4f52%252d9c35%252d9ccde1b401d3 Common Core State Standards. http://www.corestandards.org/ Donaldson, B. & Niederberger, M. (2013, December 7). Pennsylvania’s core standards aim to get students on same page. Retrieved from http://www.post-gazette.com/news/education/2013/12/08/State-s-Core-Standards-aim-to-getstudents-on-same-page/stories/201312080068 English language arts standards (2010). Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy Hallermann, S. (2013, December, 17). The role of PBL in making the shift to common core. Edutopia. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/pbl-role-shift-to-ccss-sara-hallermannhttp://www. edweek.org/ew/contributors/lesli.maxwell.html Maxwell, L. A. (2013, October 28). ESL and classroom teachers up to teach common core. Education Week, 33(10), 9-12. Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2013/10/30/10cc-eslteachers.h33.html?tkn= OQCC%2F2FryriDNQHrMrm7UZ7LGzuGxBSdlZTA&cmp=clp-sb-ascd Smith Amos, D. (2013, April, 16). In our schools: Common core a “monumental shift”. Retrieved from http://news.cincinnati.com/article/20130416/NEWS0102/304160017?nclick_check=1 Swanson, K. (2013, September 9). Educating parents about the common core: Our role. Retrieved from http://smartblogs.com/education/2013/09/09/educating-parents-about-the-common-core-our-role/ Trotter, A. (2014, January 14). Big business speaks out for the common core. The Journal. Retrieved from http://thejournal.com/articles/2014/01/14/big-business-speaks-up-for-common-core.aspx Yawger, D. (2013, May 28). Common core curriculum calls for new approach. Retrieved from http://www.mercedsunstar.com/2013/05/28/3040665/common-core-calls-for-new-approach.html Yell, M. L. (2010, July 20). The purpose of No Child Left Behind. Retrieved fromhttp://www.education.com/reference/article/purpose-no-child-left-behind/
Lesson 1 31
Learning English through Art
Theme/Topic: TESL 8.4 Decisions That Shaped My Beliefs General Strategy: ECA Phase: Conceptualization/Application Cross- Curricular Connections: Art Grade: 8 Lesson Time Frame: Three days Standard: Reading The students will explore deﬁning experiences that have shaped their beliefs and their outlook on life. They will read personal essays that describe the beliefs of others and how these beliefs were developed. Grade level Expectation: R.8.1 Analyzes the text, establishes purpose, identiﬁes author’s purpose, and distinguishes text features to enhance comprehension. DOK: Recall Skill: Creating an art work that reﬂects their beliefs. Objectives: • Conceptual: After reading how art has changed many people’s lives, the student will create a work of art that reﬂects their lives. • Procedural: The student will learn the elements, principals, and types of art that exist in the world through PowerPoint presentations and documentaries to help understand art and create a work of art. • Attitudinal: Student will appreciate the arts and identify him/herself with art. Materials: • Projector • Laptop • Internet • Art canvas paper • Tempera paint • Paint brushes • Craft materials Initial Activities: • Daily routine • Greetings/Date • Art reﬂection PowerPoint presentation • Open questions: What decisions have you made that have changed your life? 32
Developmental Activities: Students will: • Read several short non-ﬁction texts about people and how art has inﬂuenced them in life. • View a PowerPoint presentation on the elements, principals, and types of art. • Gain an understanding of the elements, principals, and types of art by viewing several examples • Create art work that expresses his or her beliefs and interests. including aspects of elements and principals of art. Closing Activities: Student will: • Develop an art gallery • Explain his/her art work to classmates and visitors to demonstrate knowledge of art and focus on how it has an impact on his/her beliefs.
Lesson 2 34
Caridad M. Carballido Romero
Visit to the Museum of Art of Puerto Rico: Impact on Student’s Point of View Toward Writing Skills Theme: How the visit to the Museum of Art of Puerto Rico will impact the student’s point of view toward the writing skills. School: El Señorial San Juan, Puerto Rico Topic: Fables Estimated Time: one week Grade: Third grade Unit: 3.3 Fables Phase: Trilogy Literacy: * Before Reading Transversal: Cultural Identity Taxonomy: Bloom - Analysis Standards and Expectations Listening and Speaking: L/S.3.2 Applies phonemic awareness and auditory discrimination and distinguishes between singular/plural forms as well as past/present tense of regular verbs Reading: R.3.5 Uses story organization of beginning, middle, and end within narrative text to state and organize events; makes predictions and connections. Writing: W 3.4 Recognizes descriptive and narrative writing forms; writes words, phrases, and simple sentences to develop descriptive and narrative three sentence paragraphs. Objectives: • Conceptual: Having visited the Museum of Art of Puerto Rico, the student will to write in their journals phrases or a simple narrative (three sentences) to their classmates to share about his/her favorite piece of art. (Creative writing) • Procedural: Having visited the Museum of Art of Puerto Rico, the student will write one or three phrases or a simple narrative (three sentences) to their classmates to share opinions about his/ her favorite piece of art. • Attitudinal: Having visited the Museum of Art of Puerto Rico, the student will orally appraise their classmates interest for drawing and writing. Procedure Initial: After greeting the students and singing our daily routine songs, the teacher will explain the purpose of visiting the Museum of Art of Puerto Rico as our cultural, interactive, and educational patrimony. The teacher will present a previously a documentary of different pieces of art at the Museum this will help the student gain insight of the future pieces of art they will see at the Museum. Development: The student will see and listen to the documentary of the Museum of Art to increase his/ her understanding of different styles of art in the Museum. The exposure of an English tour guide will help the student comprehend and select his/her future work of art to write a short story. The Visual Arts
teacher will also be invited to collaborate with the students in the process to guide, investigate, describe, and arrange a variety of characteristics, styles and cultural elements related to the pieces of art. Closing: The students will work in pairs, sit on the ﬂoor and start writing and drawing their favorite piece of art that he/she likes the most. Using the story elements, each one will write the title, author, characters, main idea, and supporting details, and draw his/her interpretation of the piece of art. Then, during the week the teacher will invite an artist from Ponce, Puerto Rico who will contribute with her talent and experience to stimulate the student to draw and write on the wall of the classroom their thoughts, emotions, and love for the English class. Also the teacher will incorporate the student with special needs to express his/her feelings in free writing and drawing. My goal at the end of this Project will be to: • Take photos and videos to present at the end of the school year to the parents by email and CD to each family. • Create a mural in my English classroom with my students. Materials: • Illustrations of different paintings at the Museum • Magic pencil (special incentive for each student) Motivate them to write… • Journals • Writing pad • DVD • Crayons • Magazines • Paint • Tissue paper • Glue • Pastel and acrylic Paints • Computer • Internet • Projector • Rubric Praxis Reﬂection: The teacher will extend this lesson plan, to maintain students’ interest in drawing and to develop writing, reading, and oral speaking skills. It was a very positive experience and the students loved it. My Visit to the Museum was:
I wonder: ________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ______________________________
My favorite piece of art was:
I wonder: ________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________
My ﬁrst impression was:
Rubric for student’s creation: _____________________________________ Title: ____________________________________________________________ Date: ___________________________________________________________ Visit to: __________________________________________________________ Directions: Circle the face that best applies to your partner. Reading 1: How did my partner write his/her story?
Remembered to write using upper and lower case letters.
Remembered to write clearly and neat.
Remembered to write and draw in the middle of the paper.
Remembered to write using correct descriptive and narrative phrases and sentences. You forgot the words __________________, ______________, and _______________. Next time remember to write ______________________, not _____________________. Remember to write the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads”. Always believe that you can! Teacher Cary Loves you! You are awesome and wonderful!
Poem “My Student” Carmen Velázquez Maldonado
There you are, anxious, eager, expecting. You enter slowly, eyes searching for that seat, that corner that will become your niche in room 302. You claim it, sit, and eagerly await what is to come. As papers are passed around, you watch with anticipation your fellow classmates’ faces. They don’t notice you, but I do. Days, weeks, and months come and go, and your strengths and convictions keep me going. Bad days fade away as I watch you grow and commit to every new task. When I tire, thoughts of you inspire me. Your laughter, wit, creativity, and love for life remind me of why I do this job. Winter passes and spring is here with its new life, but with its end of ours. Soon this year will be over and as you reach for your future our existence will fade. It’s June, you’re gone. Summer seems shorter each year. September arrives and there you are different but the same, giving my existence a name once more. Thank you for allowing me to be a part of your life. Your memory is etched in my mind forever.
Lesson 3 40
Debra E. Padilla
Goldilocks and the Three Bears Grade: Kindergarten Time Frame: 1 to 2 weeks Theme: Feelings/Re-Telling School: José María del Valle Elementary School Standards and Expectations 1. Listening/Speaking a. L/S.K.1 Listens and responds to basic commands, instructions, and routine questions during story time using expressions to demonstrate engagement. b. L/S.K.3 Uses basic vocabulary to identify familiar concepts related to self, family, and to interact with peers. c. L/S.K.5 Uses both verbal and nonverbal forms of communication to express feelings and needs; reacts to pictures and simple language cues after listening to read aloud. 2. Writing a. W.K.2 Writes the letters that represent ﬁrst name. Objectives: Conceptual Through the week’s work, the student will identify different kinds of feelings to demonstrate acquired knowledge of the theme. Procedural After completing the lesson, the student will be able to: • arrange pictures in the correct order of events. • retell the story Goldilocks and the Three Bears using a mask. • write his/her complete name. Attitudinal Through the week’s work, the student will express feelings and act like the story characters. Materials Technology Computer Converter program TV set Video Player DVD Radio Music - several
Story Hand Outs Special Comic Strips Sequence of Events (pictures) Mask Homework My Family
Art Material Pencil Crayons Glue Scissors Pictures
Procedure Initial Activity Students will react and respond to courtesy expressions and daily routine. Songs will be used to help students construct meaning. Fairy tales will be explained and discussed.
Developmental Activities Students will: • listen and follow instructions. • give examples of fairy tales. • watch the story on the television. • discuss the story. • listen to the presentation of the vocabulary. • express verbal and non-verbal feelings to demonstrate the different phases of feelings or emotions. • review the story using pictures. • demonstrate story comprehension. • answer questions orally. Closing Activities Students will: • color a special comic strip. • color, cut, and paste four pictures and arrange them in the correct sequence of events. • color and cut a mask. • retell the story using the mask. • write his/her complete name on each handout. Assessment Correct the sequence of events skill. Retelling rubric. Curricular Integration English and Art Values Respect, Family Union, Sharing, Taking care of themselves, Self-esteem Special Accommodations offered to SES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Offer individual help Call in distraction period. Present material in alternative form. Present enlarged print Simplify directions/instructions. Reinforce appropriate behavior
Reﬂection Students tried to use the English language. They used vocabulary words. They also used courtesy expressions and songs. Homework During the whole week the students will: 1. Write his/her complete name on the worksheet provided. 2. Draw and color the assigned face – happy, sad, angry, and/or scared. 42
Name ______________________________________________________________________ Kindergarten Date _________________________________________________________________________ Mrs. Padilla Listening Rubric 5 – Strong
4 – Moderately Strong
3 – Average
2 – Moderately Average
1 – Weak
Ø Student participates in the discussion. 1
Ø Student pays careful attention to the movie. 1
Ø Student listens to the narration. 1
Ø Student orally answers questions. 1
Ø Student asks questions related to the information. 1
Ø Student shares opinions. 1 Score: 30
5 %– Grade ________
Name ______________________________________________________________________ Kindergarten Date _________________________________________________________________________ Mrs. Padilla Story Retelling Rubric 1 – Incorrect
2 – Incomplete
3 – Partially complete
4 – Completely detailed
Beginning: How does the story begin? Setting: Where did the story take place? Characters: Who is the main character? Who are the other characters? Problem: What is the problem of the story? Events: What are the events/actions of the story? Solution: How is the problem solved? End: What happened at the end of the story? Orally Retelling: Was the retelling assisted? _____Yes ______No
% – Grade ________
Lesson 4 45
Ilia S. Rodríguez Andino
Creating a Story Map/Oral Report Grade: 10th Theme • Explore the theme of conﬂict in narrative writing as well as other mediums. • Analyze plot structure in a variety of stories. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening/Speaking L/S.10.2 Analyzes, organizes, explains, describes, supports, and discusses information; answers and formulates closed and open-ended questions. L/S.10.4 Expresses thoughts and opinions to discuss current events, concepts, themes, characters, plot, and conﬂict and resolution; makes predictions and inferences, as well as draws conclusions from listening to a variety of texts, performances, and multimedia sources. Reading R.10.3 Organizes and analyzes the plot; establishes cause and effect; makes connections, predictions, and inferences; draws conclusions; classiﬁes and analyzes the conﬂict and resolution in a variety of texts. Writing W .10.3 Analyzes and applies organizational patterns to connect ideas and to write narrative, expository, and persuasive essays. W .10.5 Applies editing marks and revision techniques; applies reference sources to verify and support information; writes a ﬁnal draft using the writing process. Depth of knowledge • Recall: Use • Skill/Concept: Construct • Extended Thinking: Apply Concepts General Objectives • Use the elements of plot (exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution) in order to analyze a story. • Use the elements of ﬁction (title, setting, characters, plot, theme and point of view) in order to complete a story map.
Objectives: Conceptual: Analyze the elements of ﬁction and the elements of plot to analyze a story. Procedure: Create a story map, chosen by the student, based on the novel, short story, half/hour TV show, or movie. Attitudinal: Use types of conﬂicts characters experience in literature to make connections with and deepen understanding of their personal lives and characters in other mediums.
Materials 1. Notebook 2. Pen/pencil 3. Magazines 4. Mini proposal information 5. Special project handout with guidelines 6. Classroom/personal laptops with PowerPoint program 7. Story map activity handout 8. PowerPoint presentation of a story map 9. Student’s individual pen drive 10. Cell phones with internet access 11. Active touch Promethean Board 12. Project rubrics Special Accommodations offered for SES •
Individual help, additional time, sits close to the board, sign language instructor, resource room, and positive reinforcement
Evaluation • • •
Mini proposal written assignment Pre-planning stages assignment Oral presentation of project
Story Map Mini Proposal Assignment Guidelines 1. Select a novel, short story, movie, a half hour or one hour TV show to create your story map project. 2. Once you make your choice, you will need to provide the following information: a. If you choose a novel or short story: 1. Title 2. Author 3. Number of pages 4. Genre (ﬁction, historical, mystery, etc.) b. If you choose a movie: 1. Name 2. Duration 3. Company that produces the movie 4. Rating 5. Explain brieﬂy in two or three sentences what the movie is about. c. If you choose a half or one hour television show: 1. Channel/network 2. Days on television, e.g., Monday, Tuesday, etc. 3. On TV or internet. 4. Duration: half hour/one hour 5. Type of program: (genre) comedy, drama, mystery, science ﬁction) 6. Explain brieﬂy in three or four sentences what the show is about. 3. You will write the basic information requested on loose leaf paper to hand in. 4. Teacher will authorize your proposed theme to be used on the project. 5. Proposal due date_____________________________ Story map/oral report project
Directions: After having your proposal approved, you will begin work on your story map presentation. You will need to have access to a computer with the PowerPoint program. 1. Using the information provided in the story map mini proposal assignment authorized, you will create your presentation. 2. The presentation should have 8-10 slides like the model presented in class. 3. First slide: Name of your chosen work and author, your name, group, and workshop: E.g. The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe By C. S. Lewis Ilia S. Rodríguez Group 10-20 Workshop: Artes Gráﬁcas 4. Second slide: list of characters, setting, and point of view 5. Third and fourth slide: Plot 6. Fifth slide: Title, author, theme, and conﬂict a. Movie- Name, produced by, theme. and conﬂict b. Novel/Short story- Title, author, theme. and conﬂict
7. Sixth slide: Exposition and rising action 8. Seventh slide: Climax and falling action 9. Eighth slide: Resolution 10. Ninth slide: A picture or short clip of the show or movie trailer if possible. You can also use a drawing or magazine picture to present with your project. 11. You will have 7 days to work on your presentation. 12. You will present your work to the class on the date assigned by the teacher.
Name: _________________________________________ Submitted: _______________________
Title of Work: _____________________________
Mini proposal Assignment
All are items attempted
9-8 items are attempted
At least 8-7 items are attempted
Less than 1/2 of all items attempted
All items are correct.
9-8 items are correct.
Between 8-7 items are correct.
Less than 1/2 of all items are correct.
Shows complete understanding of the questions, ideas, and process.
Shows substantial understanding of the problem, ideas, and process.
Response shows some understanding of the problem.
Response shows a complete lack of understanding of the problem.
Goes beyond the Meets the requirements of requirements of the problem. the problem.
Somewhat meets the requirements of the problem. mm
Does not meet the requirements of the problem.
Writing is not legible.
Marginally legible Writing is not Legible handwriting, handwriting, legible in some typing, or printing typing, or printing places.
Group: ___________ Title: _________________________________________________________
Project Pre-Planning Rubric
Points All items are attempted
8-7 of the items attempted.
Less than 1/2 At least 7-6 of the of all items items attempted attempted
All items are correct.
8-7 of items are correct.
Between 7-6 of the items are correct.
Less than 1/2 of all items are correct.
Shows complete understanding of the questions, ideas, and processes.
Shows substantial understanding of the problem, ideas, and processes.
Response shows some understanding of the problem.
Response shows a complete lack of understanding of the problem.
Goes beyond the requirements of the problem.
Meets the requirements of the problem.
Meets some of the requirements of the problem.
Does not meet the requirements of the problem. 4
Use of enhancements/ Design
All graphics, video, etc., are used effectively to convey the intended meaning.
Most graphics, video, etc., are used effectively to convey the intended meaning.
Some graphics, video, etc., are used effectively to convey the intended meaning.
Graphics, video, etc., are not used effectively to convey the intended meaning.
Name: _______________________________________ Group:___________
Date: ________________________ Title: _______________________
Story Map Oral Presentation Organization
1. Student presents information in logical, interesting sequence which audience can follow.
1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6
7, 8, 9,10
2. Student demonstrates full knowledge with explanations and elaboration.
1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6
7, 8, 9,10
3. Student uses visuals to reinforce screen text.
1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6
7, 8, 9,10
4. Student shows acquired knowledge
1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6
7, 8, 9,10
5. Follows instructions
1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6
7, 8, 9,10
1. Student uses a clear voice and correct and precise pronunciation of terms.
1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6
7, 8, 9,10
2. Mechanics of speaking/writing
1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6
7, 8, 9,10
3. Presentation has no misspellings or grammatical errors.
1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6
7, 8, 9,10
1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6
7, 8, 9,10
5. Listens to other presentations
1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6
7, 8, 9,10
Total Score: ____________________________
Teacher(s) Comments:_____________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Lesson 5 53
My Music Memoir Presentation Miguel Such Vocational Metropolitan High School English Program Grade: 11th Unit/Lesson: Unit 1: Memoirs
Date: Two weeks Topic: My Music Memoir Presentation
Problem -Based Learning
_X_ Art ___ Physical Education __ Health __ Science _X_ Library Skills __ Social Studies __ Math __ Theatre __ Spanish __Vocational __X_ Technology
__ Contextualized Teaching __ Action Research _X_ Project Based Learning __Other
Crosscutting / Transversal Theme: General Strategy(Select one): (reading) Trilogy: __ Before reading __ During reading _X_ After reading (listening/speaking or writing) ECA: __ Exploration __Conceptualization _X_ Application
__ Cultural Identity __ Civic and ethical education __Education for peace __ Environmental education X Technology and education __ Education for work
Content Standards and Grade
Expectations (main focus - select one):
Standard #1: Listening and Speaking
Standard #2: Reading
Standard #3: Writing
□ 11.1 □ 11.2 □ 11.3 □ 11.4 X 11.5
□ 11.1 □ 11.2 □ 11.3 □ 11.4 □ 11.5
□ 11.1 □ 11.2 □ 11.3 □ 11.4 X 11.5
Dr. N. Webb Depth of Knowledge ___ DOK 1- Recall ___ DOK 2- Basic application ___ DOK 3- Strategic thinking _X_ DOK 4- Extended Thinking
Levels of Thinking __ Remembering
__ Understanding __ Evaluating __ Applying _x_ Creating
Objectives: Conceptual While going through the writing process, the student will apply memoir characteristics in his or her final draft with a minimum of errors. Procedural Using the program Movie Maker, the student will create a music video individually.
Attitudinal After completing his or her project, the student will appraise his or her final product with honesty. Activities
_X_ Routine (greeting, attendance, date, weather) _X_ Other: The student will use Movie Maker to create a video based on the selection of a song that reminds the student of a significant experience (memoir). In class, the student will work on the written part of the project. He or she will write a paragraph summarizing the song and another paragraph with his or her memoir.
_X_ Presentation: The student will present his or her video to the class and share his or her memoir related to the song.
_X_ Input from the students (what was learned). The student will reflect in written form on his or experience with “My Music Memoir” presentation
_X_ Oral Report _X_ Writing Log _X_ Other: Video
Materials _X_ electronic board
Differentiated Instruction: _x_ Extended time for task __Adapting Educational Materials _x_ Individual help __ Paired to peer
_x_ Positive reinforcement __Read to __Resource classroom __ Preferential seating __ Simpli�ied directions __ Task and/ or test fragmentation ___ Other: _____________________________________________________________________________________________
Incidents _X_ Mission Accomplished
Name: ________________________________________________ Date: __________________________________________ Ms. Cuevas
English 11- __ â€œMy Music Memoirâ€?
Standards 10: Perfect 8: 1-2 Elements Missing 6: 3-4 Elements Missing
5-6 Elements Missing 7-8 Elements Missing Not Present
Minimum 15 images
Written lyrics (5)
4: 2: 0:
Two paragraphs (summary, memoir)
Format (computer typed, times new roman, size 12, double-spaced presentation page,)
Presentation (eye contact, voice, gestures)
Punctuality - Due date: (Monday, October 28, 2013)
Lesson 6 59
Illustrated Poem Contest: “Energy: Now and Forever!” Robinson School English Department Name: _________________________________ Date: ________________________ Course: _English Grade 10PWE__ Topic/Unit: Poetry Score: ______/__60___=_____% Teacher’s Name: __Mrs. Nedinia Velez-Infanzón___
Illustrated Poem Contest “Energy: Now and Forever!” General Contest Rules: •All poems must be no more than 40 words, and in one of the following styles in order to be considered: _ Haiku _ Concrete poem _ End rhyme
•Entries are judged based upon relevance to and incorporation of the National Chemistry Week theme, “Energy: Now and Forever!”, word choice and imagery, colorful artwork, adherence to poem style, originality and creativity, and overall presentation. (related topics: biofuels, solar energy, etc.). All entries must be an original work without aid from others. Each poem must be submitted and illustrated on an unlined sheet of paper of any type not larger than 11 x 14. •The illustration must be created by hand using crayons, watercolors, other types of paint, colored pencils, or markers. The text of the poem should be easy to read and may be printed with a computer, before the hand-drawn illustration is added. (Except for the concrete poem). Last day to submit an entry: Friday, October 11, 2013 Only 1 entry per student. Science and English teachers will collect them. Winners will be announced during National Chemistry Week 60
What is a Haiku? Haiku are short poems that use sensory language to capture a feeling or image. They are often inspired by an element of nature, a moment of beauty or a poignant experience. Haiku poetry was originally developed by Japanese poets, and the form was adapted to English and other languages by poets in other countries. Read on to learn how to write one yourself. How to Write a Haiku Poem By Kevin Casper Haiku is a Japanese form of poetry that evolved out of an earlier form of Japanese poetry called Tanka. Tanka was typically written by two poets, with one writing the ﬁrst three lines and writing the ﬁnal two lines of a 5-7-5-7-7 poem. Haiku evolved as a poetic form in its own right in the 18th century. It retained the initial 5-7-5 form of the ﬁrst three lines of Tanka and dropped the ﬁnal two lines. Traditionally, the theme of a haiku poem dealt with the seasons and aimed to create an eternal moment when man and nature become presented in a uniﬁed whole, free from the bounds of space and time. Tips on How to Write a Haiku Poem While creating any work of art is a highly subjective act, having some tips on how to get started can never hurt. In no way, however, should you feel like you have to follow these ideas like they are hard-set rules. They are merely offered to help guide you down a path toward discovering your own process. •Haiku is not only a form. A haiku poem takes a particular approach to viewing the world around you. Typically, a haiku refers to nature by calling particular attention to a referent location and/or a season. •Three approaches to writing haiku are advocated by the great haiku writers. One is to write haiku about where you physically are at the moment. If you’re sitting on a bench in the park, your poem should reﬂect your physical location. The second is to write from a place of reﬂection. Thinking back on a place and time in the past or some belief, can deepen one’s poetry by allowing the poem to experience the changing effects of time. Finally, some believe that haiku should be completely imagined and not based on one’s literal experiences. Of course, experimenting with all three methods is highly recommended. •A haiku is a short form of poetry. One idea to keep in mind when you compose is that you should be able to read your ﬁnished poem in a single breath. This approach helps to focus your writing on a single emotion that can be expressed without laborious effort. •Haiku poems are typically divided into two parts. Try to create a break between either the ﬁrst line and the second line or the second line and the third line. This can be accomplished with punctuation or a focused use of language that conveys a stop or a break. You can then relate the two parts of the poem to each other using techniques like comparison, contrast, double meaning, metaphor, paradox, etc.
•While the standard form of haiku is 5-7-5, some writers in the west like to shorten the poem even more to a 3-5-3 form. Experiment with both, and see which proves to be the most successful to you. When you’re deciding how many sounds or syllables to use in your Haiku, refer to the Japanese idea that the Haiku should be able to be expressed in one breath. In English, that usually means the poem will be 10 to 14 syllables long.  Further Reading Sometimes the best inspiration comes from reading the work of other poets. Take, for example, this haiku by American novelist Jack Kerouac: Snow in my shoe Abandoned Sparrow’s nest Use Haiku to juxtapose two ideas. The Japanese word kiru, which means “cutting,” expresses the notion that Haiku should always contain two juxtaposed ideas. Japanese haiku are commonly written on one straight line, with juxtaposed ideas separated by a kireji, or cutting word, that helps deﬁne the ideas in relation to each other. The kireji usually appears at the end of one of the sound phrases. There is no direct English translation of the kireji, so it is often translated as a dash. Note the two separate ideas in this Japanese haiku by Basho: how cool the feeling of a wall against the feet — siesta English haiku are most often written as three lines. The juxtaposed ideas (of which there should only be two) are “cut” by a line break, punctuation, or simply a space. This poem is by American poet Lee Gurga: fresh scent— the Labrador’s muzzle deeper into snow In either case, the idea is to create a leap between the two parts, and to heighten the meaning of the poem by bringing about what has been called an “internal comparison.” Creating this two-part structure effectively can be the hardest part of writing a haiku, because it can be very difﬁcult to avoid too obvious a connection between the two parts, yet also avoid too great a distance between them. Choose a Haiku Subject 1. Japanese poets traditionally used haiku to capture and distill a ﬂeeting natural image, such as a frog jumping into a pond, rain falling onto leaves, or a ﬂower bending in the wind. Many people go for walks just to ﬁnd new inspiration for their poetry, known in Japan as ginkgo walks. 62
Include a seasonal reference. A reference to the season or changing of the seasons, referred to in Japanese as kigo, is an essential element of haiku. The reference may be obvious, as in using a word like “spring” or “autumn” to indicate the season, or it might be subtler. For example, mentioning wisteria, which is a ﬂower during the summer, can act as less obvious reference. Note the kigo in this poem by Fukuda Chiyo-ni: morning glory! the well bucket-entangled, I ask for water
Create a subject shift. In keeping with the idea that haiku should contain two juxtaposed ideas, shift the perspective on your chosen subject so that your poem has two parts. For example, you could focus on the detail of an ant crawling on a log, then juxtapose that image with an expansive view of the whole forest, or the season the ant is currently inhabiting. The juxtaposition givesthe poem a deeper metaphorical meaning than it would have if it were a simple, single-planed description. Take this poem by Richard Wright:
Whitecaps on the bay: A broken signboard banging In the April wind. Use Sensory Language 1. Describe the details. Haiku are comprised of details observed by the ﬁve senses. The poet witnesses an event and uses words to compress that experience so others may understand it in some way. Once you have chosen a subject for your haiku, think about what details you want to describe. Call the subject to mind and explore these questions: a) What did you notice about the subject? What colors, textures, and contrasts did you observe? b) How did the subject sound? What was the tenor and volume of the event that took place? c)
Did it have a smell or a taste? How can you accurately describe the way it felt?
Show, don't tell. Haiku are about moments of objective experience, not subjective interpretation or analysis of those events. It's important to show the reader something true about the moment's existence, rather than telling the reader what emotions it conjured in you. Let the reader feel his or her own emotions in reaction to the image. Use understated, subtle imagery. For instance, instead of saying it's summer, focus on the slant of the sun or the heavy air.
Don't use clichés. Lines that readers recognize, such as “dark, stormy night,” tend to lose their power over time. Think through the image you want to describe and use inventive, original language to convey meaning. This doesn’t mean you should use a thesaurus to ﬁnd words that aren’t commonly used; rather, simply write about what you saw and want to express in the truest language you know.
Tips •Haiku has been called “unfinished” poetry because each one requires the reader to finish it in his or her heart. •Contemporary haiku poets may write poems that are just a short fragment with three or fewer words. A Haiku doesn’t always need to rhyme. •Haiku originated from haikai no renga, a collaborative group poem that is usually one hundred verses in length. The hokku, or starting verse, of renga collaborations indicated the season and also contained a cutting word. The haiku as its own form of poetry continues in this tradition. Sample Nature Haiku
An afternoon breeze expels cold air, along with the fallen brown leaves.
Cherry blossoms bloom, softly falling from the tree, explode into night
Summer here again. Music plays sweetly, drifting. And life is renewed.
A winter blanket covers the Earth in repose but only a dream An ocean voyage. As waves break over the bow, the sea welcomes me
How to divide syllables:
# of Syllables
The warmth on my skin. Fire falls beneath the trees. I see the sun set. A winter blanket covers the Earth in repose but only a dream
Tips •The word “government,” for example, is 3 syllables. •Place the back of your hand under your chin for an easy way to determine syllables. Speak. Every time your jaw moves, it is a new syllable. •Read the word out loud. (This will help you syllabicate words on paper as well as say words correctly that you are unfamiliar with when reading. When in doubt on where to split a word into syllables, follow the common practice that an open-ended vowel, or a vowel at the end of a portion of sound, will say its long sound. A vowel that is closed off with a consonant will say it’s a short sound.) CONCRETE POETRY What is a Concrete Poem? Concrete poetry, also called pattern or shape poetry, has a visual appearance that matches the subject matter of the poem. The emphasis on form separates this genre from other types of poetry, and writing a poem in this style has its own set of challenges and considerations. Here are some steps to follow when writing a piece of concrete poetry. Concrete poetry—sometimes also called ‘shape poetry’—is poetry whose visual appearance matches the topic of the poem. The words form shapes which illustrate the poem’s subject as a picture, as well as through their literal meaning. This type of poetry has been used for thousands of years, since the ancient Greeks began to enhance the meanings of their poetry by arranging their characters in visually pleasing ways back in the 3rd and 2nd Centuries BC. A famous example is “The Mouse’s Tale” from Lewis Carroll’s, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. The shape of the poem is a pun on the word tale/tail, as the words follow a long wiggling line getting smaller and smaller and ending in a point. The name “Concrete Poetry,” however, is from the 1950’s, when a group of Brazilian poets called the Noigandres held an international exhibition of their work, and then developed a “manifesto” to deﬁne the style. The manifesto states that concrete poetry ‘communicates its own structure: structure = content’ There are 2 main ways that this can be achieved: 65
1. Outline Poems A common way to make the visual structure reﬂect the subject of the poem is to ﬁll an outline shape that relates to the topic of the poem, in the same way that Carroll’s poem ﬁts the outline of a mouse’s tail. • Choose an object to be the subject for your poem. Good suggestions for beginners could be favorite animals or favorite foods. • Draw a simple outline of its shape on paper or on the computer. If you’re using paper, draw with a pencil not a pen. • Write your poem normally. Try to describe how the subject makes you feel. The words will be ﬁtted into your drawing, so don’t make it too long – between 6-12 lines is probably a good length! 2. IT DOESN’T HAVE TO RHYME! • Lightly in pencil, or on the computer, write your poem into the shape. It’s OK if it doesn’t ﬁt properly yet, because this is where you ﬁnd out if you need to make the writing larger or smaller. • Decide if you need to make your writing bigger or smaller in certain parts of the drawing, then erase your ﬁrst draft and write out the poem again. You can keep doing this until you are happy. • Finally, erase the outline of your shape, so that it is just the words from your poem left creating the image! If you were writing in pencil, you can now go over the words in pen! 1.
Educate yourself about concrete poetry. A concrete poem is a poem in which the author arranges the words or letters in a particular shape or pattern relevant to the subject matter of the piece. For example, the text of a love poem may form a heart shape, while a concrete poem about autumn might have words scattered down a page, mimicking the falling leaves. The resulting visual aesthetic is integral to the meaning of the poem as a whole. There are two main methods one can employ when creating a concrete poem: the outline method and the drawing method.
Choose a topic. The outline method works best with tangible subjects that you can clearly visualize, because you will be writing your poem within the outline of a related shape. In a concrete poem, the picture formed by the words is just as important as the words themselves; without the image, the meaning of the piece is weakened. The shape can relate literally to the subject of the poem, or you may prefer to represent a more abstract connection between the poem's text and image.
Physical objects with distinct, easily recognizable forms make good topics for concrete poems. Geometric shapes, ﬂowers, and animals all work well.
Beginners may beneﬁt from choosing a subject that is very familiar, like a favorite symbol that can easily be pictured and described. Write the poem. In a concrete poem, there are no rules about rhyme or cadence. The most important thing to remember is that you are creating a picture, and the words you choose should reﬂect that goal. Brainstorm descriptive words and phrases about your chosen topic to incorporate into the piece.
Draw the shape of your poem. Using a pencil, lightly draw an outline of the shape you want your text to ﬁt into. Alternately, you can also use a computer program to design a simple image. Consider the length of your poem and desired text size when drawing your shape.
Fill the shape with text. If you are writing by hand, use pencil so that you can easily adjust the size and shape of the words and outline. Experiment with word arrangement. It may take several attempts to achieve an aesthetic that you are happy with. Erase the outline. Once you have a picture that you are satisﬁed with, remove the outline. The shape should be recognizable on its own. References YouTube http://www.wikihow.com/Write-a-Concrete-Poem Computer program to use to create image: http://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-GIF-Image-With-Microsoft-Paint http://freelance-writing.lovetoknow.com/How_to_Write_a_Haiku_Poem
Robinson School English Department Name: _________________________________
Course: English Grade 10PWE
Teacher’s Name: Mrs. Nedinia Vélez-Infanzón English Department Rubric
Adherence to style
Poem follows style chosen (Haiku, concrete, or end rhyme)
Poem follows style chosen with some minor changes
Poem somewhat follows style chosen, but with many changes
Poem does not follow any of the styles
3 or more clear, vivid images, appealing to at least two different senses and chosen profession.
2 or more clear images, appealing to at least two different senses and chosen profession.
2 or more clear images.
Poetic Devices: Alliteration, onomatopoeia, metaphors, similes, repetition, etc.
Frequent use of poetic devices
Obvious attempt of poetic devices
Little use of poetic devices
No use of poetic devices
Overall Neatness & Creativity
Much time and effort went into the creation of the poem. Gives an impression of neatness, creativity, and care.
Some time and effort went into the creation of the poem. Assignment is neat and shows planning and care.
More effort and time needed. Assignment shows some planning and care, but could be neater.
Little time and effort evident. Assignment lacks in neatness and shows little planning.
Student Example Marcos Comas Berlingeri Grade: 10PWE Course: American Literature Teacher: Mrs. N. Vélez Topic: Poetry (Haiku)
Energy, Energy Is so expensive The sun is free Let’s use it please!
The bills are high My parent’s cry The sum up high To use it we must try.
Lesson 7 69
Vadi J. Vélez González
Walking Into The Future
LESSON PLAN - Career Research Paper and PowerPoint presentation Grade: 12th Time Frame: 2 weeks Content Standards and Learning Expectations: Listening/Speaking L/S.12.3 Uses appropriate language structure to analyze and evaluate issues, problem solve, explain a process, and express opinions integrating comparison and contrast statements. Reading R.12.4 Distinguishes between fact and opinion infers and supports the main idea in a variety of texts; debates the theme or topic using text evidence to justify and validate position. Writing W .12.5 Organizes synthesizes, outlines, and evaluates information to write a research paper; demonstrates voice and knowledge of topic throughout the writing. Objectives After completing the lesson the students will: Conceptual Search for information about a career ﬁeld they will pursue in the future. Organize information found into the Career Research Graphic Organizer. Procedural Create a research paper about the career ﬁeld they have chosen. Create a PowerPoint presentation for class on the career ﬁeld chosen, following guidelines provided by the teacher. Attitudinal Express their own formational experiences through writing. Materials • Career Research Paper Outline handout • Career Project Oral Presentation Guidelines handout • Tips for Effective PowerPoint Presentation handout • Oral Presentation Rubric ** See handouts provided and discuss with students. 70
WALKING INTO THE FUTURE: CAREER RESEARCH PROJECT Objective: The purpose of this research paper is to investigate a career ﬁeld. It is hoped that you will choose a ﬁeld that is of interest to you now or in the future. Be sure to document everything while researching. Always take notes from your sources in your own words or phrases. Do not copy entire paragraphs verbatim. You need to include the following criteria in your paper: • Introduction • The paper should be 3 full pages long (no longer than 5) • Typed (double-spaced with one inch margins) • 12 font - Times New Roman • Four sources (at least one book) • DO NOT use “I” or “you” within paper • A winter blanket covers the Earth in repose but only a dream Due date – TBA Evaluation: This paper will count as two test grades. If you are not in class on January 25th your paper must be here. MLA format 1. Heading 2. Numbering of pages 3. Title of paper should not be underlined or quoted 4. Follow format for Works Cited page You will be given four days to do research in the school library; most of your work should be done outside of class. Use your time wisely while in the library and the classroom. Reminders: • Make sure that your paper has transitions. • Avoid choppiness; read your paper out loud. • Avoid run-on sentences. • Avoid overuse of and, but, so • No sentence should begin with but or so. • Avoid overuse of commas. • No sub-headings. • Review mechanics — punctuation and capitalization.
WALKING INTO THE FUTURE: CAREER RESEARCH PROJECT OUTLINE Introduction: Your opening paragraph should gain your reader’s interest and introduce the career ﬁeld that you have chosen. Do not give details of the career in this paragraph. To get your reader’s attention, use one or more of the following methods: • ask one or more questions about the topic • provide an interesting story about the subject • present a signiﬁcant fact or statistic • quote an expert on the subject • give a deﬁnition of the career choice in general terms History: Give some historical background for your subject. For example, if your career is electrician, your history section may go back to when electricity was discovered and note how over time it has become so important to the world that we now have a group of workers who specialize in electrical careers. If your career is a lawyer, then when did mankind start using trained advocates or lawyers to plead cases? This section needs to be only 1 - 2 paragraphs. Job Description/Workplace Skills: Describe the typical tasks involved in this job and explain the skills necessary to carry out those tasks. Training/Education: Specify the kind and levels of education or training necessary for your chosen career. Give details of the kinds of schools or training programs available. You may include information on the approximate costs involved as well. Career Advancement: Indicate any possible ways in which a person could advance in this career ﬁeld, for example, to go from construction worker to construction manager to contractor. Include what additional educational requirements, training, experience or expense might be involved in an advanced position. Salary Ranges/Area: Discuss the range of salary or wages possible in this career ﬁeld. Include information on the state of Virginia speciﬁcally, as well as a national average or scale. Also consider the wages for different types of jobs within the career ﬁeld, e.g., registered nurses, practical nurses, nursing assistants, nursing supervisors, etc. Job Outlook/Conclusion: “Job Outlook” means the forecast or prediction for the number of positions available in this career ﬁeld in the future. If enough information on local, state and/or national employment trends is available, this could be a separate paragraph. If not, the concluding paragraph may be combined with the job outlook.The conclusion sums up or recaps in general what has been said in the paper and presents a ﬁnal statement about the career. Do not include new facts or information. Have a strong concluding sentence. WALKING INTO THE FUTURE: CAREER PROJECT (ORAL PRESENTATION) The oral presentation section of the Career Project is a simple extension from the factual information gathered in your research. Using the information from your research, you will create a PowerPoint presentation that informs your classmates about the career you studied. Your presentation is worth one test grade and is due TBA. You will be docked one full letter grade for each day it is late – no excuses.
REQUIREMENTS • You must have a minimum of 7 slides. (The title slide does not count.) • You will give a 3-5 minute presentation as you share your information with the class. • Be prepared to elaborate on your slides – DO NOT SIMPLY READ FROM THE POWERPOINT SLIDES. 1. Slides are only intended to highlight certain points as you add more details or discuss the bulleted points on the slides. • Use index cards or your PowerPoint print out with notes if necessary during your presentation to help you recall information. SLIDE LIST:
**Title Slide (does not count as one of your required 7) – It should have the name of your topic and your name.
*Job Description – What does the job involve? What are some of the typical tasks one would complete? What job skills are needed?
Education / Training Needed
Salary Ranges – Salary possibilities by state or nationally and/or by hourly and/or yearly totals
Career Advancement Possibilities – Can you move up in this career? How? Do you have to start at the bottom and work your way up?
Beneﬁts – What are the beneﬁts (besides salary) to work in this ﬁeld? What might draw a person to this career?
Job Outlook – What is the future of this career? Where are there a great number of openings? What kind of conditions might one ﬁnd to work in?
Other – Suggest another subject to bring up about your topic
**Works Cited (does not count as one of your required 7)
– Highlight some of the most interesting history you learned about your career.
*You do not have to cover all of these topics (you may have one topic that is covered on more than one slide); however, I should still see a variety of topics covered. **These slides must be included in addition to any other slides your presentation contains. Tips for Effective PowerPoint Presentations Fonts • • • • • •
Avoid fonts smaller than size 24 point. Clearly label each screen. Use a larger font (35-45 points) for the title. Use a single font for most of the presentation. Use different colors, sizes and styles (bold, underline) for impact. Avoid italicized and script fonts as they are difﬁcult to read. Remember, the fewer words to a line, the better, (but it still needs to make sense!) Use dark text on light background or light text on dark background. However, dark backgrounds sometimes make it difﬁcult for some people to read the text. 73
Do not use all caps except for titles. To test the font, stand back six feet from the monitor and see if you can read the slide.
Graphics and Design • Keep the background consistent and subtle. • Keep the design clean and uncluttered. Leave empty space around the text and graphics • Use quality clipart/photos and use it sparingly. The graphic should relate to and enhance the topic of the slide. • Try to use the same style graphics throughout the presentation (e.g. cartoon, photographs) • Limit the number of graphics on each slide. • Avoid ﬂashy graphics and noisy animation effects unless they relate directly to the slide. • Limit the number of transitions used. It is often better to use only one so the audience knows what to expect. Color/Sound • Limit the number of colors on a single screen. • Pick one series of colors to use throughout the presentation. • Remember, some vibrant colors are difﬁcult to read when projected. • Limit the sound used in the presentation. Choose speciﬁc, important places to use it. • If sound effects are used, wait until the sound has ﬁnished before speaking. General Presentation • Check the spelling and grammar. • Do not read the presentation. Practice the presentation so you can speak from bullet points. The text should be a cue for the presenter rather than a message for the viewer. • Give a brief overview at the start. Then present the information. Finally review important points. • It is often more effective to have bulleted points appear one at a time so the audience listens to the presenter rather than reading the screen. • Do not turn your back on the audience. Try to position the monitor so you can speak from it.
Career Research Organizer
Job Description/ Workplace Skills
Student Name: ________________________________ Date: _____________________ Prof. Vadi J. VĂŠlez GonzĂĄlez, M. Ed.
ORAL PRESENTATION RUBRIC
4 = 20
3 = 15
2 = 10
Student is completely prepared and has obviously rehearsed.
Student seems pretty prepared but might have needed a couple more rehearsals.
The student is somewhat prepared, but it is clear that rehearsal was lacking.
Student does not seem at all prepared to present.
Speaks clearly and distinctly all (10095%) the time, and mispronounces no words.
Speaks clearly and distinctly all (10095%) the time, but mispronounces one word.
Speaks clearly and distinctly most (9485%) of the time. Mispronounces no more than one word.
Often mumbles or cannot be understood or mispronounces more than one word.
Shows a full understanding of the topic.
Shows a good understanding of the topic.
Shows a good understanding of parts of the topic.
Does not seem to understand the topic very well.
Stays on Topic
Stays on topic (100%) of the topic
Stays on topic most (99-90%) of the time.
Stays on topic some (89-75%) of the time.
It was hard to tell what the topic was.
Volume is loud enough to be heard by all audience members throughout the presentation
Volume is loud enough to be heard by all audience members at least 90% of the time.
Volume is loud enough to be heard by all audience members at least 80% of the time.
Volume often too soft to be heard by all audience members.
Lesson 8 77
Creating a Video Song Oral Presentation: Song Reaction
• • • • •
Song Standards Speaking, Reading, and Writing Expectations Content Standards and Grade Expectations
Standard #1: Listening and Speaking
Standard #2: Reading
Standard #3: Writing
o o o o o
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5
o o o o o
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5
o o o o o
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5
o o o o o
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5
o o o o o
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5
o o o o o
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5
o 12.1/ o 12.2 o 12.3/ o12.4/ o12.5
o 12.1/ o 12.2 / o 12.3 12.4/ o 12.5
o 12.1/o 12.2 / o 12.3 o 12.4/ o 12.5
• Depth of knowledge Dr. N. Webb Depth of Knowledge (complexity of the activities) ___ DOK 1- Recall (recognition of a fact, information, details, concept or procedure) ___ DOK 2- Basic application (of skills & concepts beyond recall-Two-steps ___ DOK 3- Strategic thinking (reasoning, planning, using evidence, explaining, generalizing, connecting ideas, multi-step problems, decision making abstract) ___ DOK 4- Extended Thinking (Higher order thinking, design, analyze and synthesize information from multiple sources; justify, explain, organize and interpret data; apply information from one text to another; compare and contrast literary features orally and written, investigation or application to real world and across content areas, edits, judge, verify) Objectives The students will: • Conceptual: o Research all relevant contextual factors about a song (date and place of origin, artist, composer, lyrics, etc.) and present it in a PowerPoint presentation. o Create an original presentation of the song. •
Write a short biography of the artists and/or composers and provide all
o o o •
Attitudinal: o Values o o o o
relevant contextual factors about the song Locate the lyrics of the song with the corresponding images. Present the song in an original/creative format (video, live performance, karaoke, CD, written copies, etc.) Talk about things that people do that affect our world. Appreciate the artists’ positive contributions to their communities and society at large (if not applicable, students need to explain why).
Citizenship Caring Empathy Daily Reﬂection
Materials • Laptop • Projector • DVD • Microphone
Song Title & Genre: _____________________________ Artist(s):_______________________________________ Student(s):_____________________________________ _______________________________________________ Date: __________________________________________ St. Mary’s School English Department 10th Grade ______________ Mrs. Virginia Báez Video Song Oral Presentation (SONG REACTION) Checklist (Rubric) Criteria
1. Student greets the audience and introduces him/herself properly.
2. Student presents the song in an original/ creative format (video, live performance, karaoke, CD, written copies, etc.) 3. Student provides all relevant contextual factors about the song (date and place of origin, etc.) 4. Student provides a short biography of the artists and/or composers (research was conducted properly, references are optional) 5. Student presents and discusses the artists’ positive contributions to their communities and society at large (if not applicable, students need to explain why). 6. Student provides complete and pertinent information about the time and circumstances surrounding the song’s creation.
(3) Partially Met
(0) Not Met
7. Student provides statistical information regarding the number of albums sold, concerts and tours given, Billboard ratings, and local top twenty countdowns ratings.
8. Content is accurate and studentâ€™s information is presented in a logical order.
9. Slide Creation: Presentation ďŹ‚ows well and logically. Presentation reďŹ‚ects extensive use of artifacts in a creative way. Student provides correct numbers of slides.
10. Student presents slide transitions. Transitions are smooth and interesting. Transitions enhance the presentation. 11. Student provides pictures, clip arts, and background. Images are appropriate. Layout of images is pleasing to the eye. 12. Mechanics: No spelling errors. No grammar errors.
13. Technology Connection: Comprehensive use of technology is apparent. 14. Students respond to the song creatively and ingeniously. 15. Creative work Title: ______________
16. Overall presentation: 75 points
Points (5 maximum): Classroom decoration settings are welcome! (Prepare a banner for the song to decorate the board. Snacks for the occasion are optional. Arrange the seats differently. Give a name to your group. Wear special attire and accessories for the moment and take care of details not listed in the checklist)
Types of Bullying
Subject Area: Language Arts, Art, Music, Drama, Technology Grade Level: 6th Time: Adjust to time and reality (Approximately 4-6 weeks) Objectives • Develop note taking, story board writing, keyboarding, power point presentation, and video editing skills. • Create to enhance learning. • Understand the need to prevent and stop bullying in school and share the information with school friends. • Use research and note taking to learn new concepts. • Write a simple script and create a video story board to be integrating in a power point presentation related to bullying. • Will evaluate other’s work using a rubric. Materials and Resources Technology: Computer(s), Scanner, Digital Camera, Internet Connection, Word Processing, Radio and CD Printed Materials • •
Variety of handouts on bullying. Hard copy lyrics: Hall Of Fame: Will I Am
Procedure 1. Teacher will introduce activities with a PowerPoint Presentation. (Including An Ice – Breaker Activity). 2. Students will watch and critique the Cyber Bullying documentary video. 3. Students will take notes about the different types of bullying in school. (Students will later use the notes to create a script for the video) 4. Students will take notes about the important features of a script. (Students will later use the notes to create a script for the video). 5. Students will videotape and use some wide angle and some close-up shots. 84
6. Teacher will introduce How to Create a Video Story Board PPT. 7. Students will create their own video storyboards, using scripts, digital cameras, and computers. (After writing the storyboard and script for the video, students will do the editing). 8. Teacher will introduce How to Create a PowerPoint Presentation.
(Students will use computers in the library to create their own PPP)
9. Once or twice a week, students will use the computer to ďŹ nish video storyboards and the PowerPoint presentations. 10. Students will present their PowerPoint presentation and evaluate peers. 11. During their English period, students will acquaint their buddies about the need to prevent and stop bullying in school. 12. Students will visit the English class webpage to enjoy seeing selected published projects. Conclusion/Evaluation 1. Writing will be evaluated using the writing rubric. 2. Power Point Presentations will be evaluated using the teacher created rubric, the student evaluation form, and oral report rubric. 3. Video will be evaluated for cooperative group work, content, and technical work using point charts. ModiďŹ cation for Special Needs
1. Student can be partnered with a more experienced computer user. 2. Extra teacher time will helps students succeed.
Group_________________________________ Names of Participants 1._____________________________________ 2._____________________________________ 3.______________________________________
4._____________________________________ 5._____________________________________ 6._____________________________________ Rubric for Video Story Board
The digital story is missing significant elements
The story is not complete
The digital story is missing significant elements
The digital story is grade appropriate and engaging for students
There is no evidence of a storyline
The story is difficult to The story is complete, The story is easy to follow yet lacking depth follow and shows significant planning
Format and Technology use
The story is incomplete
The story needs major The story needs some The story needs editing editing litte editing and the technology supports the story.
Lesson 10 87
Prof. Nilda Vargas
Inclusive Love and Embracing Diversity Begins at Home (School)
Example of strategies and new ideas integrated to teaching Desperate times for desperate measures, this is the sentiment of many teachers who realize that to get their students’ attention, they must strategize their game. Fortunately, it is the perfect moment to do so since the Internet has revolutionized education in a way that was unfathomable before. One of the most astounding strategies that can ante-up the learning process is “ﬂipping the classroom” by assigning the reading for homework and by using class time to develop strategically planned activities. This strategy transforms the way students approach the language class and the learning material. In a thematic unit designed for the English Teachers’ Workshop: Professional Training for Teachers of Diverse Learners: Strategies for Language Enhancement, the mission and vision of Academia María Reina were aligned to the curriculum. Academia Maria Reina’s mission is based on the principles of hospitality, embracing community, caring for others without distinction, acknowledging the needs of others and focusing on excellence and making a difference locally and globally; whereas, the vision states that alumni will “be receptive toward social justice, spread inclusive love, appreciate cultural diversity, be loyal to the principles of non-violence, and be reverent toward nature and the rest of the creation. The thematic unit develops all these goals through the strategic planning of the theme in the novel Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry by Mildred Taylor. The setting of this novel is in Mississippi during the 1930’s when an African – American family must struggle against segregation and racism in their effort to save their pride and dignity. Initially, the students deﬁne the concepts of the school’s mission and vision, and then different examples of said behaviors are illustrated. Four activities are developed for the seventh grade students of Academia Maria Reina. This novel has been included in the curriculum for the last ten years, but it is this year that the students’ are able to transcend the reading on a more meaningful level through the strategic planning developed for the curriculum. All the elements of the novel are fully explained and discussed in class, including role - playing of speciﬁc scenes. Guide questions are posted on the school’s webpage and students answer them by chapter. Afterwards, they are discussed in class. After this initial process, the students are ready to begin the activities, which constitute the thematic unit. The ﬁrst three activities are individual, while the last activity, the dramatization of The Good Samaritan, is done as teamwork. During the ﬁrst activity, the students portray different scenes from the novel to point out racism and segregation practices. This activity will give them insight of unjust social practices seen in Mississippi during the 1930’s. Then they are asked to choose a scene from the novel that strikes them. Then, they prepare storyboards for a comic strip that they later develop in the website www.bitstripsforchildren. com and print them out. They present their work to the class in an oral presentation. Afterwards, the comic strips are exhibited in the library. The second activity consists of producing a movie titled “Selﬁe-lm.” Through this project, they learn to care for others without distinction. They develop the concept of the “selﬁe”, or self-picture, but it is lengthened into a 3-10 minute ﬁlm based on the story of their lives that includes sections like name, birth date, place of birth, hobbies, sports, friends, families, what they are most proud of, and
most importantly, the charities that they sponsor. For the ﬁlm, they must prepare three different documents: the storyboard, the script (simpliﬁed for seventh graders) and the movie clips that they have produced. These three elements constitute a test grade for the amount of work done and the length of time that is invested in the process. The third activity in which students participate is the Candle Ceremony. This activity requires that each individual student light a votive candle and take the following oath: I hereby take the oath that I will honor my commitment to embrace all children, regardless of their race, skin color, social status, and physical or mental handicap. We are all God’s children and deserve to be loved, accepted, and honored. I will reject and speak up against any form of racism, segregation, or bullying inﬂicted upon my classmates. I will take a stand for what’s fair. We are all equal and deserve to be treated with respect. After this simple ceremony, the students cut a cake with the inscription “Inclusive Love and Embracing Diversity.” Before the end of the school year, the students will divide in teams to present modern versions of the Bible story The Good Samaritan. The class divides into two groups. They co-jointly write the storyboard and the script. To make their characters more believable, they use simple props. They can integrate music and use a narrator. In these skits they must illustrate the value of inclusive love toward their fellow beings. Example 1: Unit Plan for 7th grade Unit Title: Inclusive Love and Embracing Diversity In Our Communities Unit Plan I. Objectives After the reading of Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry by Mildred Taylor, the students will: A. Develop a comic strip based on one the most captivating scenes from the plot events. B. Produce an I-movie focusing on how they embrace diversity and show inclusive love at their own schools. C. Honor their commitment by taking an oath at a candle ceremony at school/home D. Participate in an adapted version of the play “The Good Samaritan”. II. Activities A. Students will develop a comic strip following these steps: • Read the story • Portray different scenes from the novel to point out racism and segregation practices. • Select a scene from the novel that strikes them to draw a comic strip. • Prepare storyboards for a comic strip that they later develop in the website www. bitstripsforchildren.com and print them out. • Present their work to the class in an oral presentation. • Comic strips are then exhibited in the library. 89
B. Students will produce a 3-10 minute I-movie based on their biography. It will include information such as family, school, friends, hobbies, sports and preferences (movie, song) and show a scene where they practice inclusive love and embrace diversity at school or in their communities. I. Pre-production stage 1. Assignment: a. Hand in parent’s authorization to participate in the project. b. Prepare a preliminary checklist of 5 dimensions that they want to develop in the movie (home). 2. Quiz grade- Prepare a story map with the selected scenes. II. Production stage 1. Film, photograph and record scenes for the movie. III. Post-production stage 1. Present movie to the class. C. Candle Ceremony- The students will take an oath while lighting candles while taking the oath. “I hereby take an oath that I will honor my commitment to embrace all children, regardless of their race, skin color, social status, and physical or mental handicap. We are all God’s children and deserve to be loved, accepted and honored. I will reject and speak up against any form of racism, segregation, or bullying inﬂicted upon my classmates. I will take a stand for what’s fair. We are all equal and deserve to be treated with respect.” D. Play: The Good Samaritan (Adaptation to 2013) • Divide the class into two groups. • Students in each group co-jointly write the storyboard and the script. • Students use simple props to make their characters more believable. • Students integrate music and use a narrator. • Students illustrate the value of inclusive love toward their fellow beings.
Rubrics for Comics Strips 90
More information is presented than what was required. The additional information included �its with the required topics and adds interest to the project.
All of the required information is presented in the project. Information on all topic headings is provided
Some of the required information is presented in the project. Basic information on some topic headings is provided
Very little of the required information is presented in the project. Limited information on some topic headings is provided
Work quality/effort/ reasearch done
The work done exceeds all expectations. The effort put into this project is the best it can be by the learner.
Work is done with good effort that shows the capability of the learner. It is evident that time was put into this project.
Work is done with some effort, but the quality is not what the learners are capable of. It is evident that the work was rushed or not given appropriate time and attention.
Work is done with little effort, shows lack of quality, and may be incomplete. It is evident little time was spent on the �inal product.
The students are wellprepared, present the information clearly, and display a complete understanding of the information.
The students present the information clearly and show a reasonable understanding of their information.
The information presented is somewhat organized. The presenters understand some of the information presented.
Not enough preparation was done for the presentation of the information. It lacks the expected organization, understanding, and �low.
Cartoon or Frame Strip
The students cartoon shows great detail and effort. It includes detailed and well designed backgrounds, characters, and speech bubbles.
The students cartoon shows good detail and effort. It includes appropriate backgrounds, characters, and speech bubbles.
The students cartoon shows some detail and effort. It includes basic backgrounds, characters, and speech bubbles.
The students cartoon shows limited detail and effort. It includes poorly designed backgrounds, characters, and speech bubbles
Example 2: Narration for Documentary: Student Example Student Name: Adriana Kleshick
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/one-direction-announce-2013-summer-tour-20120412 Title: One Direction Pop Band • Frame #1 One Direction Pop Band has made one tour and they are on the second one. In the ﬁrst tour they held 26 concerts in Europe, 7 in Oceania and 26 in North America. This makes a total of 59 concerts in 2012. In 2013, they performed in 61 concerts in Europe, 41 in North America, 25 in Austria and 2 in Asia. This makes a total of 129 concerts in one year.. In 2014, they are going on their third tour where they’re planning to go to Europe, Latin America and the United Kingdom. • Frame #2 One Direction has made two tours: The ﬁrst one is named “Up all night” and the second one is named “Take me home”. They are planning to make a third one on 2014. For now the biggest tour was “Take me home” in 2013 which consisted of a total of 131 concerts. • Frame #3 One Direction recorded 35 songs and 8 solos. The ﬁve most popular songs are “ Up All Night” from the ﬁrst tour, “ More Than This” , “ Moments” , “ One Thing” and “ What Makes You Beautiful.” • Frame #4 One of the most impressive news of One Direction is that they spent $27,000 in a house for seven nights in Los Angeles. This house has a particular shape. It resembles the famous ship Titanic. • Frame #5 One Direction has sold tons of albums. The album “Up All Night from the group’s debut sold 4,500 million copies in 2012, making it the third bestselling album of that year across the world. One Direction next album is going to be “Where We Are. It is expected to keep increasing its sales. • Frame #6 One Direction has made two charity events, one in Ghana and another one was done worldwide with Ofﬁce Depot against bullying. In Ghana, they donated food, water and medications. We don’t know exactly how much money they spent, but anyway it’s a part of them that we value their hearts. The One Direction and Ofﬁce Depot campaign against bullying starts this summer and will continue during 2014. This campaign was created to make people aware of different types of bullying. 92
Example 3: Using quotes as writing prompts I. Pictures as writing prompts. Show students examples. Invite them to take their own pictures and write.
http://www.pinterest.com/pin/243687029810881011/ II. Animation Used as Prompts for Writing The train whizzes by ______________. A woman… A paper ﬂies _________ in the air and sticks to Tillie’s forehead. Jake _______________removes the paper from Tillie’s forehead. Tillie’s lipstick stain is printed _________________ on the paper. He _________________________folds the paper into an airplane. Jake throws the paper plane ______________________________. Jake calls Tillie _________ but ___________, she can’t hear him. 93
III. Newspaper articles as writing prompts We followed a newspaper article from the New York Times for a week until the issue at hand was resolved. Then, the students wrote a paragraph with their reaction. From a New York Times, Sept. 18, 2013 article, “At Alabama, a Renewed Stand for Integration,” the caption reads: “Students at the University of Alabama marched across campus to demand racial integration in the university’s mostly white sororities and fraternities.” Example 4: “Selﬁe-IM”
- A picture taken of yourself that is planned to be uploaded to Facebook, Myspace or any
other sort of social networking website. You can usually see the person’s arm holding out the camera in which case you can clearly tell that this person does not have any friends to take pictures of them so they resort to Myspace to ﬁnd internet friends and post pictures of themselves, taken by themselves. A selﬁe is usually accompanied by a kissy face or the individual looking in a direction that is not towards the camera. Deﬁnition from Urban Dictionary http://www.urbandictionary.com/deﬁne.php?term=selﬁe Name _______________________ Date ________________________ Group 7B ___________________
Take a picture of yourself and share it with your friends. Then let’s re�lect.
1. How often do you take and share selﬁes?
2. In your opinion, what are the best, most interesting kinds of selﬁes, and what are the worst? 3. Is taking selﬁes about vanity, about trying to understand how others see you, or about something else? Why do you think people take and share them? 4. Do you agree with the person quoted who says, “The idea of the selﬁe is much more like your face is the caption and you’re trying to explain a moment or tell a story”? Why or why not? 5. Can selﬁes sometimes be “a kind of visual diary”? 6. Is the proliferation of selﬁes changing the way we have online conversations and interactions? How?
Example 5: Developing Listening Skills After viewing the interview from Time Magazine video with a celebrity, the students must write the questions: 12 Questions for Taylor Swift 12 Questions for Daniel Radcliffe 12 questions for Natalie Portman Example 6: Find the interjections. Sing- a- longs INTERJECTION: an ejaculatory utterance usually lacking grammatical connection: as a : a word or phrase used in exclamation (as Heavens! Dear me!) b : a cry or inarticulate utterance (as Alas! ouch! phooey! ugh!) expressing an emotion Teen Beach Movie Cast: Hey!, Hey!, Hey!, Awwwwww! Hey! Hey!, Hey!, Hey! Maia Mitchell Everybody’s diggin on the rays of the summer sun/sun The sand and the waves are made for havin fun/fun Grab your boy, your girl, and hold on tight/sight Hip cats, Hot-dogs, yeah we’re so outta sight/sight Teen Beach Movie Cast: Are you ready?Ready Freddy?Ready Steady?Let’s Go! It’s a Summer Paradise Cruisin’ with the boys and girls. Surﬁn’ Day and Night Everybody shoot the curl Hang Five!, Keep it alive! And then you drop down low all toes on the nose Hang Ten, Hot Doggin Again Let’s Go! Awwwww! Surf’s Up
Published on Jun 2, 2014
Professional Development for Teachers of English to Secondary School Diverse Learners: Strategies for Integrating Art and Technology for Eff...