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Anatomy and Physiology for Exercise

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Manual

Level 3 Level 2 Level 1


Bones and Joints This section provides information on human bones and joints. After a brief introduction to the skeleton and location of the major bones of the body more information is given on the specific anatomical terms that describe different movements and exercises. Bones and joints are then described in detail. Particular attention is paid to the synovial joints as these are concerned with movement and activity.

Objectives By the end of this section you should be able to:

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Describe the anatomical planes of the body and analyse movements with reference to those planes

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Describe the different types of bone in the body and relate their shape and structure to their function

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Name and describe all of the main bones in the human body, relating their structure to function

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Describe the three main types of joints in the skeleton and explain their functional roles

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Describe the structural features of a typical long bone using appropriate scientific terminology

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Briefly discuss the main events in bone development

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Discuss the main factors that influence the development and maintenance of bone strength

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Describe the type of joints by which the bones articulate with each other and evaluate the movements possible at those joints, using appropriate anatomical terminology

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Level 3 Anatomy and Physiology for Exercise | Manual | Version 1.0 © Central YMCA Qualifications 2010


The Skeleton The human skeleton is made up of a collection of 206 bones. These bones each have a specific purpose related to their site, while the skeleton overall has the following functions: Functions of the Skeleton: to provide for specific ranges of actions and provide a surface for the attachment of muscles

Shape

to give overall individual form to the body according to each individual’s genetics

Protection

to protect the vital organs of the body, including the heart (sternum and rib cage), liver and kidneys (spine and pelvic girdle)

Storage

to store minerals (e.g. calcium)

Production

to produce red (oxygen carrying) and white (fight infection) blood cells, from within bone marrow

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Movement

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There are 206 bones of the human skeleton, as seen in the following figure , the anterior and posterior skeleton.

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There are 80 bones in the axial skeleton, which makes up the bones of the torso, and there are 126 bones in the appendicular skeleton, which makes up the bones of the arms and legs. There are 30 bones in each arm and 30 bones in each leg. Most bones are paired, so that those on the left also appear on the right.

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Bones need to have a mix of rigidity and flexibility. The rigidity is created by minerals, such as calcium, while the flexibility is created by collagen fibres.

Level 3 Anatomy and Physiology for Exercise | Manual | Version 1.0 Š Central YMCA Qualifications 2010

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Muscles and Muscle Actions In this section, we will build on the knowledge already gained at Level 2 to give you a deeper understanding of the muscular system and how it relates to everyday life and exercise.

Objectives By the end of this section you should be able to:

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Describe the features of the three different types of muscle found in the human body

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Describe the anatomical features of skeletal muscle

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Describe the mechanism by which muscle contraction occurs, and the role of the two contractile filaments

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Discuss the nature of the interaction between muscles and nerves, including the organisation of motor units and the function of proprioceptors

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Discuss the structural and functional characteristics of the different types of muscle fibres in skeletal muscle

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Define the terms ‘agonist’, ‘antagonist’, ‘fixator’, and ‘synergist’, and identify the roles of specific muscles in example movements

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Name and describe the main muscles involved in human movement, to include their origins, insertions and the joint action that occurs

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Describe the adaptation of muscles to long term activity

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Level 3 Anatomy and Physiology for Exercise | Manual | Version 1.0 © Central YMCA Qualifications 2010


Muscle Types There are three types of muscle in the human body – cardiac, smooth and skeletal. Although they share a similar microstructure, there are also marked differences between them. For example, they are all composed of elongated muscle cells called muscle fibres (or myofibrils) and all muscle cells are packed with two different kinds of contractile filaments. One of the filaments is made of a thin protein filament called actin, the other is made of a thicker protein filament called myosin.

Myocardium (Cardiac Muscle) This is found only in the heart. As in skeletal muscle, the actin and myosin filaments are arranged in an orderly fashion that makes the muscle cell look striped or striated. However, it has three major differences: 1. We have no voluntary control over its contraction (involuntary muscle).

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2. The muscle cells are connected via intercalated discs to form a single coordinated unit, so that they can share nutrients equally as well as communicate with each other very quickly. This allows all the cells to contract in a specially organised sequence e.g. all the myocardial cells will be involved in a contraction.

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3. The muscle cells can only generate the energy they need to contract in the presence of oxygen (i.e. aerobically).

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Nucleus

Branching cell

Intercalated disc

Level 3 Anatomy and Physiology for Exercise | Manual | Version 1.0 Š Central YMCA Qualifications 2010

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Core Stability This section describes the importance of posture. It describes the terms posture and core stability and how these two components affect performance. The supporting structures of core stability are explained along with the function of intra-abdominal pressure.

Objectives By the end of this section you should be able to: Define core stability

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Describe the structure and function of the stabilising structures of the spine

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Describe the role of intra-abdominal pressure in core stability

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Describe muscular changes that can take place due to insufficient stabilisation

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Explain the effects of abdominal adiposity and poor posture on centre of gravity

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List the benefits of improved core stability

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Level 3 Anatomy and Physiology for Exercise | Manual | Version 1.0 © Central YMCA Qualifications 2010


Introduction The words ‘posture’ and ‘core stability’ are frequently used within the fitness industry today. This section is aimed at improving understanding of these terms and how they relate to successful exercise programming. This section should be read in conjunction with earlier sections on bones and muscles of the spine.

Posture

Correct posture creates:

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Posture has been defined as ‘the arrangement of body parts in a state of balance’ (Posture Committee of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1947). Posture provides a frame of reference from which the individual can organise their own movements with relation to the external environment. Posture relates to much more than simply spinal alignment, as it includes the arrangement of body parts other than the spine.

A solid foundation for all movements

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Optimal biomechanical efficiency for effortless pain free movement

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Balance between the right and left sides, and the front and back of the body

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Reduced risk of injury

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Reduced risk of degeneration of muscles and joints

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Correct posture is often referred to as correct alignment. Posture varies according to the type of activity being performed:

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Static posture – alignment when the body is still, either standing, sitting or lying Dynamic posture – alignment when the body is walking, running or lifting Optimal static posture should be set before beginning an exercise. Then when an exercise is performed it should be done so with optimal dynamic posture. Just because static posture is optimal it does not follow that dynamic posture will automatically be optimal. Any muscles which cross the spine, including those involved in movement as well as those involved in stability, could be the cause of poor posture. An assessment of these will determine whether the muscles are too short and/or too strong, or too long and/or too weak.

Level 3 Anatomy and Physiology for Exercise | Manual | Version 1.0 © Central YMCA Qualifications 2010

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The Cardiorespiratory System Cardiorespiratory refers to the heart (cardio) and lungs (respiratory). The cardiorespiratory system works together with the cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels) system to supply oxygen to the rest of the body. This section will explore the journey of air coming in through the nose and travelling around the body during activity and rest.

Objectives By the end of this section you should be able to:

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Describe the structure and function of the heart

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Describe the location, structure and function of the heart valves

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Explain coronary circulation

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Describe the circulatory system

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Explain how disease affects the circulatory system

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Define blood pressure classifications and associated health risks

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Describe the respiratory system

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Explain long and short term effects of exercise on the circulatory and respiratory system

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Describe the benefits and risks of cardiovascular training

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Level 3 Anatomy and Physiology for Exercise | Manual | Version 1.0 © Central YMCA Qualifications 2010


Introduction The cardiovascular and respiratory systems are responsible for the transport and uptake of oxygen (O2) in the body. The cardiovascular system refers to the heart and circulation. The respiratory system refers to the lungs. Both of these systems will be explained in detail in this section.

Overview of the Cardiovascular System The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels and blood. The heart is the pump which circulates blood around the body. The blood is circulated through a network of blood vessels called arteries, veins and capillaries. The process begins with the heart pumping blood to the lungs so that waste products such as carbon dioxide can be removed and oxygen (O2) can be collected and distributed around the body.

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Once carbon dioxide has been removed and oxygen refuelling has occurred the blood is carried from the lungs to the heart ready to be pumped around the body.

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The heart acts as a duel pump for two circulatory systems:

1. Pulmonary circulation (circulation in and out of the lungs)

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2. Systemic circulation (circulation throughout the body)

Level 3 Anatomy and Physiology for Exercise | Manual | Version 1.0 Š Central YMCA Qualifications 2010

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The Nervous and Endocrine Systems This section explains how the body’s various systems work within finely set parameters. It explains the roles of the nervous and endocrine systems before detailing how the body controls blood glucose and the medical conditions that adversely affect how an individual’s ability to control blood glucose.

Objectives By the end of this section you should be able to: Describe the specific roles of the nervous system

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Describe the specific roles of the central nervous system

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Describe the specific roles of the peripheral nervous system

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Describe the roles of the somatic nervous system

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Describe the roles of the autonomic nervous system

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Explain nervous control and the transmission of nerve impulses

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Describe the structure and function of a neuron

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Explain the role of the motor unit

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Describe the process of motor unit recruitment

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Explain the use of muscle proprioceptors during different types of stretching

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Explain the neuromuscular adaptations to exercise

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Describe the functions of the endocrine system

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Identify the major glands of the endocrine system

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List the hormones secreted by the major glands of the endocrine system

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Explain the functions of hormones

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Level 3 Anatomy and Physiology for Exercise | Manual | Version 1.0 © Central YMCA Qualifications 2010

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Introduction The nervous and endocrine (also known as hormonal) systems are the body’s systems for sending messages. The human body works on a principle of homeostasis (meaning ‘same state’), which means that physiological settings must be kept in an almost constant state, within a relatively narrow range. The general ranges are common to all, but genetics means that there are slight differences between individuals. If any one level changes outside the range for an individual, then the ability to survive is put at risk. As an individual goes about their life, the environment within which they interact is constantly changing. This affects the body. For example, changes in temperature and humidity affect body temperature and fluid levels, and eating changes blood sugar levels. The body has a certain ability to adapt to these challenges by sending messages to create appropriate responses, and so return the body to its constant state. The nervous system is the body’s electrical messenger system. It is fast acting in its ability to send messages, usually taking less than one second.

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The endocrine system is the body’s chemical messenger system. Some hormones are fast acting, but most are slower acting, taking minutes or even hours.

The Nervous System

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The role of the nervous system is to monitor changes in the internal and external environment. The message received as a result of these changes needs to be interpreted so that the appropriate motor response can be made.

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The three main functions of the nervous system are:

Sensory input – Monitoring events and changes inside and outside the body Interpretation – Analysing the data

Motor output – Response to the incoming data The nervous system has two branches. The central nervous system (CNS) – The brain and spinal cord. The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. It is constantly receiving messages about changes in the internal and external environment, interpreting and collating the information and deciding on the correct response. The brain is responsible for interpretation of messages and the spinal cord is responsible for the transfer of messages in and out of the CNS. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) – All the incoming nerves bringing incoming information to the CNS and outgoing nerves sending out a response from the CNS.

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Level 3 Anatomy and Physiology for Exercise | Manual | Version 1.0 © Central YMCA Qualifications 2010


Energy Systems This section explains how the body acquires the fuel it requires for energy production. It describes the different food groups that are essential in the diet and how these are used. It then goes on to explain how diet and exercise work to manage weight. The different systems used to produce energy are detailed, including how exercise can be used to improve the effectiveness of each system. Finally, the section ends with information about how to monitor and measure exercise intensity.

Objectives By the end of this section you should be able to:

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Name the three energy nutrients used by the body to make ATP

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Describe the three energy systems used to make ATP in the muscles

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Describe the mixture of fuels used by each energy system to produce ATP

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Identify the waste products of each energy system after ATP production

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Identify the factors affecting the contribution of each energy system to ATP synthesis

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Describe the aerobic and anaerobic thresholds

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Describe how the capacity of each energy system can be improved with different training methods

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Explain methods of monitoring exercise intensity including maximum heart rate (MHR), heart rate reserve (Karvonen method) and rate of perceived exertion

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Level 3 Anatomy and Physiology for Exercise | Manual | Version 1.0 © Central YMCA Qualifications 2010


Introduction Energy is required for every bodily function. This energy comes from food, the air and the sun. Each different energy source is metabolised differently to generate useable energy. The only energy unit useable by the body is adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Once ATP is generated, it is used in one of three energy systems to fuel activity. These systems are the aerobic system, lactic acid system and phosphocreatine system, each of which is discussed in more detail later in this chapter. The energy required to fuel bodily function comes from the food we eat. Food provides fat, carbohydrate and protein plus vitamins and minerals required to assist in chemical reactions needed for healthy bodily functions. The foods an individual chooses to eat will influence the energy available to fuel activity.

Carbohydrate

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Carbohydrate provides 4kcal of energy per gram. Approximately 60–65% of daily calorie intake should come from carbohydrate. Due to its molecular structure it is the simplest of the different food groups to convert into useable energy. It is the preferred source of energy to make ATP.

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Dietary carbohydrate is available in two different forms:

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Simple sugars – e.g. sugar and sweets Complex sugars – e.g. cereals, rice and vegetables (including potatoes) Simple and complex sugars contain the same amount of energy but, because complex sugars contain dietary fibre they take longer to digest.

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Carbohydrates are not easily stored in the body. Small amounts can be stored in the muscles and the liver in the form of glycogen. This amount is approximately 2000kcal. Carbohydrate stored in the muscles can only be used in the muscles, it cannot be released into the blood for use elsewhere. Liver glycogen can be broken down and released into the blood stream as glucose (sugar). It is therefore important to refuel with carbohydrates on a regular basis, especially during and after activity. Carbohydrates going into the blood stream can either be used immediately for energy production or stored for later use. When carbohydrate supplies run out the body ‘hits the wall’. All non-essential functions will shut down. The individual collapses to prevent further energy wastage through non-essential movement so that any small amount of remaining carbohydrate is used to maintain life particularly brain function. As soon as carbohydrate is ingested, perhaps through a sugary drink, recovery will begin. This is sometimes seen in long duration activities such as marathon running when an individual does not refuel with carbohydrate drinks throughout a race.

Level 3 Anatomy and Physiology for Exercise | Manual | Version 1.0 © Central YMCA Qualifications 2010

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