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Certificate in Fitness Instructing (Gym-Based Exercise) Manual

Workbook

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Learner Assessment Record

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Syllabus

Level 3

Level 2 Level 1


Standing Static Stretching Exercises Hip flexor Instruction/Coaching points: 1. Take a long step backwards 2. Keep the torso upright and push the hip forward 3. Feel the stretch across the front of the hip

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Obliques Instruction/Coaching points:

1. Use a wide stance 2. Place the hand on the hip to support the upper body 3. Reach up and bend to the side

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Deltoids Instructions/Coaching points: 1. Reach the arm across the chest 2. Support the arm above the elbow 3. Feel the stretch across the outside of the shoulder

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Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing (Gym-Based Exercise) | Manual | Version 1.0 Š Central YMCA Qualifications 2010


Trapezius Instructions/Coaching points: 1. Keep a small bend at the elbows 2. Roll the shoulders forward separating the shoulder blades 3. Look down between the arms

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Erector spinae Instructions/Coaching points:

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1. Place the hands on the thighs to support the upper back 2. Draw in abdominals to round the upper back 3. Continue to breath normally

Re-Warm

As the pulse rate and muscle temperature drop during the preparatory stretch, it is good practice to gradually re-warm clients prior to the main workout, in order to promote safety. The best way to achieve this is by performing exercises that are similar to those in the main workout. The intensity of these activities should be gradually increased until the intensity matches that of the main workout. This re-warming phase can also be used to facilitate or rehearse skills, promoting safe and effective performance of exercises used in the main workout. The instructor could therefore include exercises that mimic or rehearse the exercises that are to be performed in the main workout. Duration of a Warm Up Although no clear guidelines exist regarding the duration of the warm up, a reasonable duration would be between 5-10 minutes dependent upon the client’s fitness level and capability. An unfit or older individual may need longer. Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing (Gym-Based Exercise) | Manual | Version 1.0 Š Central YMCA Qualifications 2010

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Rowing Machines Stationary rowing is an excellent non-impact aerobic modality that emphasises the upper and lower body. The major muscles utilised during rowing are the following: Quadriceps, hamstrings, hip flexors, soleus, biceps, trapezius, latissimus dorsi and deltoids. Exercise Technique

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Introduce the Exercise Demonstrate correct rowing technique to the client before teaching him/her the activity. Rowing involves a complex set of motor skills and to successfully enhance client performance, it is highly beneficial if the client is given time to initially practice the technique without any workload. Start with just the leg action and then progress from a quarter slide to the full slide. Move on to just the arm action and then combine both using a little bit more of the slide each time.

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Demonstrate to the client how to input the data into the console correctly. The exercise programme and level of intensity should be based upon the client’s current level of fitness and desired goals. Below are some guidelines for suggested levels of stroke/pace rates for different ability levels.

Activity Status

Stroke/Pace Rate (per min)

Inactive

20 - 25

Active Trained

25 - 30 30 - 35

Well Trained

35 - 45

There are four important positions to be aware of when you teach rowing techniques:

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Position 1 − The Starting Position

Position 2 − The Drive

Position 3 − The Release

Position 4 − The Recovery

Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing (Gym-Based Exercise) | Manual | Version 1.0 © Central YMCA Qualifications 2010


The Starting Position (also called the ‘catch’) Adjust the Foot Straps Secure the foot straps around the upper mid-section of the feet to ensure both heels are resting on the footplate. Grip Take an overhand grip, shoulder width apart. Wrap the fingers around the handle so that you have a relaxed and firm grip. The arms should be straight, with a slight bend at the elbow and the wrists should be fixed. Body Position

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The lower back should be relaxed and straight. The upper back should lean forwards slightly. The head should be in a relaxed neutral position looking forwards. The knees should be flexed and in line with the hips and ankles.

The Drive

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It is during this phase of the stroke that peak power should be achieved. Concentrate on keeping the back neutral throughout this phase. The lower back should be firm and the upper back relaxed. Start the drive with your legs, keeping your arms relaxed and fully extended (see fig.1). When the legs have reached almost full extension, use the arms to pull the handle firmly into the abdomen. Try not to lock the knees on full extension as this can aggravate the knee joint and hamstring muscles. Keep the knees just slightly flexed (see fig.2).

Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing (Gym-Based Exercise) | Manual | Version 1.0 © Central YMCA Qualifications 2010

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6. Standing Triceps Pushdown (high pulley) Prime movers − triceps Body Position

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1. Face the machine and take a pronated grip on the bar with the hands approximately shoulder width or slightly narrower 2. Pull the bar down until it is level with the chest and ‘fix’ the upper arm into the side of the body 3. Ensure that the cable is near vertical, the body upright and take the lock off the knees. Place the feet about one and a half times hip width apart

Exercise Action

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1. Extend the elbows until the arms are fully straight, but avoid hyperextension 2. Avoid any excess wrist movement; concentrate on keeping the wrists “‘fixed’ 3. Keep the back straight whilst performing the exercise 4. Return slowly back to the starting position without the weight touching the stack and repeat, keeping the movement smooth and continuous 5. Ensure that there is no movement of the upper arms (only the lower arms should move with the elbow joint as the pivot), keeping the elbows close to the body

Precautions Avoid any tendency to let the upper body lean forwards whilst performing this exercise. This is a form of ‘cheating’ that utilises the weight of the upper body to assist in the lifting, which allows more resistance to be applied. The risk here is that the client does not have sufficient muscular strength to control the movement, which could possibly lead to a muscular injury. Variations Some machines have a V-shaped or horseshoe-shaped bar for the triceps pushdown. These bars are preferred to the straight bars because there is less stress placed on the wrists and the exercise is more comfortable to perform.

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Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing (Gym-Based Exercise) | Manual | Version 1.0 © Central YMCA Qualifications 2010


7. Seated Triceps Extension (free weight alternative, see Free Weights section for key points on delivering free weights) Body Position 1. Sit on the bench with the back in a neutral position. Keep the feet on the floor shoulder width apart 2. Hold the dumbbell in the hand and raise it above the elbow, dropping the weight behind the head 3. Support the arm holding the weight (support away from the joint)

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Exercise Action

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1. Slowly extend the arm until the elbow is fully extended 2. Return slowly back to the starting position 3. For clients with limited shoulder flexibility the weight can travel in front of the body

Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing (Gym-Based Exercise) | Manual | Version 1.0 Š Central YMCA Qualifications 2010

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4. Lying Dumbbell Chest Flyes Prime movers − pectoralis major and anterior deltoid Body Position 1. Lie flat on the bench facing up (check that the body position is the same as for the bench press) 2. The arms are in a ‘w’ position

Exercise Action

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1. Take the lock off the elbows and flex the wrists slightly 2. Lower the dumbbells out to the sides of the body leading the movement with the elbows and knuckles. Only lower as far as shoulder level or just slightly below (this will largely depend upon the client’s strength/flexibility) 3. The line of the wrists, elbows and shoulders should be at 90 degrees from the trunk with the dumbbells parallel to the floor 4. Return the dumbbells to the starting position, again maintaining the alignment of the arm and making the action smooth and continuous 5. Take care to avoid any hyper extension at the elbows or excessive movement of the wrists

Precautions Clients with limited shoulder flexibility may need to reduce the range of movement to prevent straining the shoulders. The instructor can assist in establishing the correct range for the client by simply spotting the desired range of movement for the client.

Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing (Gym-Based Exercise) | Manual | Version 1.0 © Central YMCA Qualifications 2010

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5. Lying Triceps Press Prime mover − triceps Body Position

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1. Lie flat on the bench facing up (check the body position is the same as for the bench press) 2. The client takes a narrow overhand grip on the barbell (shoulder width or slightly narrower) 3. The elbows are bent and close to the body 4. Lock the wrists and keep the upper arms ‘fixed’ vertically

Exercise Action

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1. Lift the barbell under control, extending the elbows leading the movement with the knuckles. The barbell should be brought above the chest 2. Extend the arms until they are straight (but not hyperextended) to return the barbell to the starting position, making sure the action is smooth and continuous 3. Ensure that the back maintains a natural curve throughout the exercise 4. To complete the exercise − use the same ‘spotting technique’ as for the bench press

Precautions With some deconditioned clients, it is often useful to perform the above exercise with dumbbells. The coaching points are the same as above with the exception of the grip. The client should take a neutral grip of the dumbbells.

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Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing (Gym-Based Exercise) | Manual | Version 1.0 © Central YMCA Qualifications 2010


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