Smokeless Tobacco Use and Periodontal Disease NYC in a Rural Male Population A study investigating smokeless tobacco use found that people who chew tobacco or retain it in their mouths display greater gingival recession prevalence and extent. Periodontal Disease NYC: Investigating the Effects of Smokeless Tobacco Use on Oral Health Despite the reported effects of smokeless tobacco (ST) on the periodontium (the soft tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth), the incidence of periodontal disease NYC, and the high prevalence of ST use in rural populations and in men, studies on this specific topic are limited. With such a gap in the literature on this subject, it is the purpose of this crosssectional investigation to evaluate the periodontal health status and incidence of periodontal disease NYC in male ST users from a rural population. However, before the methodology is explored, the term ‘smokeless tobacco’ needs elucidation. Smokeless tobacco, in the context of the United States and this research, generally refers to tobacco leaves that are placed between the lower or upper lip and the gums, or alternatively chewed. Investigating Health and Periodontal Disease NYC and the Connection with Smokeless Tobacco Consumption: Methodology The study sample of this periodontal disease NYC study consisted of 73 adult male residents of two rural Appalachian Ohio counties that were daily ST users and presented unilateral mandibular oral ST keratosis lesions. Keratosis legions generally take the form of a growth in the upper layer of soft tissue or gum. Subjects completed a questionnaire and received an oral examination in which the following variables were recorded: ● ● ● ● ● ●
Teeth present (the number of missing teeth, if any) ST keratosis lesion, Plaque and gingival index (the severity of accumulation) Probing depth (PD) (to what extent the gingival can be separated from the tooth) Recession depth (RD) (to what extent the gum has receded from the tooth, exposing the root), and Attachment level
A Statistical analysis was conducted, which compared ST-site mandibular teeth (teeth adjacent to the subject's unilateral ST keratosis lesion) to NST-site teeth (contralateral corresponding teeth). Investigation of Periodontal Disease NYC in ST Users: Results Of the 73 ST users recruited for this analysis, the following results were obtained:
Recession prevalence is much greater in ST-site quadrants (36%) compared to NSTsite quadrants (18%). ● Twice as many teeth had recession on ST-site (approximately 20%) than NST-site (approximately 10%). ● Average buccal (cheek-side) RD on ST-site teeth did not differ from that on the NST-site teeth. Although average buccal attachment loss is greater on ST-site teeth, the mean difference is <0.5 mm. ● When stratified by years of ST use, subjects using ST for 10 to 18 years exhibit the most differences between ST and NST sites, whereas subjects using ST for <10 years show no differences.
From this analysis, the authors conclude that the results indicate that greater gingival recession prevalence and extent are associated with ST placement site in rural male ST users. The implications in terms of periodontal disease NYC remain to be investigated, but from these initial findings, it can be inferred that ST users are at a greater risk due to gum recession and tooth root exposure.