Issuu on Google+

RE: cento rifermenti x cento libri x cento mondi possibili Giovanni Innella: g.innella@interactiondesign-lab.com A:sm fs centoxcentoxcento@ymail.com

Web Immagini Maps News Gmail Altro

Google|mikhail bakunin god and the state|cerca| cerca: nel Web|pagine in Italiano|pagine provenienti da: Italia

God and the State Mikhail Bakunin. God and the State ... Online Version: Anarchist Archives; Bakunin Reference Archive (marxists.org) 1999; ... Bakunin Internet Archive. www.marxists.org/reference/archive/bakunin/ works/godstate/index.htm - 4k - Copia cache - Pagine simili LibriVox » God and the State by Mikhail Bakunin 29 Jan 2007 ... God and the State. by Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876) Translated by Benjamin R. Tucker (1854-1939). Bakunin’s most famous work, published in ... librivox.org/god-and-the-state-by-mikhail-bakunin/ - 18k - Copia cache - Pagine simili God and the State by Mikhail Bakunin on Audio Download - Free Audio Bakunin’s most famous work, published in various lengths, this version is the most complete form of the work published hitherto. www.learnoutloud.com/Free-Audio-Video/ Philosophy/Political-Philosophy/God-and-theState/23702 - 82k - Copia cache - Pagine simili


Mikhail Bakunin God and the State

Re: cento rifermenti x cento libri x cento mondi possibili <g.innella@interactiondesign-lab.com> A:Sm Fs <centoxcentoxcento@ymail.com>


Web Immagini Maps News Gmail Altro

Google|mikhail bakunin god and the state|cerca| cerca: nel Web|pagine in Italiano|pagine provenienti da: Italia

God and the State Mikhail Bakunin. God and the State ... Online Version: Anarchist Archives; Bakunin Reference Archive (marxists.org) 1999; ... Bakunin Internet Archive. www.marxists.org/reference/archive/bakunin/ works/godstate/index.htm - 4k - Copia cache - Pagine simili LibriVox » God and the State by Mikhail Bakunin 29 Jan 2007 ... God and the State. by Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876) Translated by Benjamin R. Tucker (1854-1939). Bakunin’s most famous work, published in ... librivox.org/god-and-the-state-by-mikhail-bakunin/ - 18k - Copia cache - Pagine simili God and the State by Mikhail Bakunin on Audio Download - Free Audio Bakunin’s most famous work, published in various lengths, this version is the most complete form of the work published hitherto. www.learnoutloud.com/Free-Audio-Video/ Philosophy/Political-Philosophy/God-and-theState/23702 - 82k - Copia cache - Pagine simili


God and the State di Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin - 1970 - 116 pagine books.google.it - Informazioni su questo libro - Altri risultati delle ricerche libri » Amazon.com: God and the State: Michael Bakunin: Books This item: God and the State by Michael Bakunin .... The dispute between Mikhail Bakunin and Karl Marx highlighted the difference between anarchism and ... www.amazon.com/God-State-Michael-Bakunin/ dp/048622483X - 316k - Copia cache - Pagine simili God and the State by Mikhail Bakunin - Project Gutenberg Download the free human-read Audio Book: God and the State by Mikhail Bakunin. www.gutenberg.org/etext/20677 - 34k - Copia cache - Pagine simili Audiobook: God and the State, By Mikhail Bakunin (download torrent ... 21 Dec 2008 ... God and the State, like most of Bakunin’s work, is unfinished and disjointed. This is not surprising, especially since none of Bakunin’s ... thepiratebay.org/torrent/4591842/Audiobook__ God_and_the_State__By_Mikhail_Bakunin - 12k - Copia cache - Pagine simili


Audiobook: God and the State, By Mikhail Bakunin - Torrent Reactor NET Download Audiobook: God and the State, By Mikhail Bakunin from Torrent Reactor torrents database or choose analog in Other. www.torrentreactor.net/torrents/2633482/Audiobook:-God-and-the-State-By-Mikhail-Bakunin - 28k - Copia cache - Pagine simili Audiobook: Mikhail Bakunin - God and the State torrent - Audio ... Audiobook Mikhail Bakunin - God and the State torrent FREE Download. ExtraTorrent.com The Worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Largest BitTorrent System. Torrents for free download. extratorrent.com/torrent/1640438/Audiobook:+ Mikhail+Bakunin+-+God+and+the+State.html - 65k - Copia cache - Pagine simili God and the State: Amazon.co.uk: Mikhail Bakunin: Books God and the State: Amazon.co.uk: Mikhail Bakunin: Books. www.amazon.co.uk/God-State-Mikhail-Bakunin/ dp/048622483X - 210k - Copia cache - Pagine simili


Make a donation to Wikipedia and give the gift of knowledge!

article|discussion|edit this page|history

Mikhail Bakunin From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (30 May [O.S. 18 May] 1814 - July 1, 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary and theorist of collectivist anarchism. Born in the Russian Empire to a family of Russian nobles, Bakunin spent his youth as a junior officer in the Russian army but resigned his commission in 1835. He went to school in Moscow to study philosophy and began to frequent radical circles where he was greatly influenced by Alexander Herzen. Bakunin left Russia in 1842 for Dresden, and eventually Paris where he met George Sand, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Karl Marx. He was eventually deported from France for speaking against Russiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s oppression of Poland. In 1849 he was apprehended in Dresden for his participation in the Czech rebellion of 1848. He was turned over to Russia where he was imprisoned in Peter-Paul Fortress in Saint Petersburg. He remained there until 1857, when he was exiled to a work camp in Siberia. He was able to escape via Japan and the USA, and


ended up in London for a short time, where he worked with Herzen on the radical journal Kolokol (“The Bell”). In 1863, he left to join the insurrection in Poland. But he failed to reach his destination and spent some time in Switzerland and Italy. Despite his criminal status, Bakunin gained great influence with radical youth in Russia, and all of Europe. In 1870, he was involved in the insurrection in Lyon, which foreshadowed the Paris Commune. In 1868, Bakunin joined the International Working Men’s Association, a federation of radical and trade union organizations with sections in most European countries. The 1872 Congress was dominated by a fight between a faction around Marx who argued for participation in parliamentary elections and a faction around Bakunin who opposed it. Bakunin’s faction lost the vote on this issue, and at the end of the congress, Bakunin and several of his faction were expelled for supposedly maintaining a secret organisation within the international. The anarchists insisted the congress was rigged, and so held their own conference of the International at Saint-Imier in Switzerland in 1872. Bakunin remained very active in this and the European socialist movement. From 1870 to 1876, he wrote much of his seminal work such as Statism and Anarchy and God and the State. Despite his declining health, he tried to take part in an insurrection in Bologna, but was forced to return to Switzerland in disguise, and settled in Lugano. He remained active in the radical move-


ment of Europe until further health problems caused him to be moved to a hospital in Berne, where he died in 1876. Bakunin is remembered as a major figure in the history of anarchism and an opponent of Marxism, especially of Marx’s idea of dictatorship of the proletariat. He continues to be an influence on modern-day anarchists, such as Noam Chomsky. Political beliefs Bakunin’s political beliefs rejected governing systems in every name and shape, from the idea of God downwards, and every form of external authority, whether emanating from the will of a sovereign or from universal suffrage. He wrote in Dieu et l’Etat (God and the State[22]), published posthumously in 1882: “ The liberty of man consists solely in this, that he obeys the laws of nature because he has himself recognized them as such, and not because they have been imposed upon him externally by any foreign will whatsoever, human or divine, collective or individual. ” Bakunin similarly rejected the notion of any privileged position or class, since “ it is the peculiarity of privilege and of every privileged position to kill the intellect and heart of man. The privileged man, whether he be privileged politically or economically, is a man depraved in intellect and heart. ”


Bakunin’s political beliefs were based on several interrelated concepts: liberty; socialism; federalism; anti-theism; and materialism. He also developed a critique of Marxism, which some consider prescient, predicting that if the Marxists were successful in seizing power, they would create a party dictatorship “all the more dangerous because it appears as a sham expression of the people’s will.” Bakunin’s concept of liberty By “liberty”, Bakunin did not mean an abstract ideal but a concrete reality based on the equal liberty of others. In a positive sense, liberty consists of “the fullest development of all the faculties and powers of every human being, by education, by scientific training, and by material prosperity.” Such a conception of liberty is “eminently social, because it can only be realized in society,” not in isolation. In a negative sense, liberty is “the revolt of the individual against all divine, collective, and individual authority.” Collectivist anarchism Bakunin’s socialism was known as “collectivist anarchism,” in which the workers would directly manage the means of production through their own productive associations. There would be “equal means of subsistence, support, education, and opportunity for every child, boy or girl, until maturity, and equal resources and facilities in adulthood to create his own well-being by his own labor.”


Federalism By federalism Bakunin meant the organization of society “from the base to the summit—from the circumference to the center—according to the principles of free association and federation.”Con sequently, society would be organized “on the basis of the absolute freedom of individuals, of the productive associations, and of the communes,” with “every individual, every association, every commune, every region, every nation” having “the absolute right to self-determination, to associate or not to associate, to ally themselves with whomever they wish.” Anti-theologism Bakunin argued that “the idea of God implies the abdication of human reason and justice; it is the most decisive negation of human liberty, and necessarily ends in the enslavement of mankind, in theory and practice.” Consequently, Bakunin reversed Voltaire’s famous aphorism that if God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent Him, writing instead that “if God really existed, it would be necessary to abolish Him.” Materialism Bakunin denied religious concepts of “free will” and advocated a materialist explanation of natural phenomena: “the manifestations of organic life, chemical properties and reactions, electricity, light, warmth and the natural attraction of physical bodies, constitute in our view so many different but no less closely interdependent vari-


ants of that totality of real beings which we call matter” (Selected Writings, page 219). The “mission of science is, by observation of the general relations of passing and real facts, to establish the general laws inherent in the development of the phenomena of the physical and social world.” However, Bakunin rejected the notion of “scientific socialism,” writing in God and the State that a “scientific body to which had been confided the government of society would soon end by devoting itself no longer to science at all, but to quite another affair... its own eternal perpetuation by rendering the society confided to its care ever more stupid and consequently more in need of its government and direction.” Bakunin’s concept of social revolution Bakunin’s methods of realizing his revolutionary program were consistent with his principles. The workers and peasants were to organize on a federalist basis, “creating not only the ideas, but also the facts of the future itself.” The worker’s trade union associations would “take possession of all the tools of production as well as buildings and capital.” The peasants were to “take the land and throw out those landlords who live by the labor of others.” Bakunin looked to “the rabble,” the great masses of the poor and exploited, the so-called “lumpenproletariat,” to “inaugurate and bring to triumph the Social Revolution,” as they were “almost unpolluted by bourgeois civilization.”


Critique of Marxism The dispute betwen Mikhail Bakunin and Karl Marx highlighted the differences between anarchism and Marxism. Bakunin argued – against certain ideas of a number of Marxists – that not all revolutions need be violent. He also strongly rejected Marx’s concept of the “dictatorship of the proletariat”, which Marx’s adherents translate in modern terms to mean a “workers democracy” but which also maintains the state in existence during the transition to communism. Bakunin, “who had now abandoned his ideas of revolutionary dictatorship”, insisted that revolutions must be led by the people directly while any “enlightened elite” must only exert influence by remaining “invisible...not imposed on anyone...[and] deprived of all official rights and significance”. He held that the state should be immediately abolished because all forms of government eventually lead to oppression. “ They [the Marxists] maintain that only a dictatorship—their dictatorship, of course—can create the will of the people, while our answer to this is: No dictatorship can have any other aim but that of self-perpetuation, and it can beget only slavery in the people tolerating it; freedom can be created only by freedom, that is, by a universal rebellion on the part of the people and free organization of the toiling masses from the bottom up.” — Mikhail Bakunin, Statism and Anarchism


While both social anarchists and Marxists share the same final goal, the creation of a free, egalitarian society without social classes and government, they strongly disagree on how to achieve this goal. Anarchists believe that the classless, stateless society should be established by the direct action of the masses, culminating in social revolution, and refuse any intermediate stage such as the dictatorship of the proletariat, on the basis that such a dictatorship will become a selfperpetuating fundament. For Bakunin, the fundamental contradiction is that for the Marxists, “ anarchism or freedom is the aim, while the state and dictatorship is the means, and so, in order to free the masses, they have first to be enslaved.” However Bakunin also wrote of meeting Marx in 1844 that “ As far as learning was concerned, Marx was, and still is, incomparably more advanced than I. I knew nothing at that time of political economy, I had not yet rid myself of my metaphysical observations... He called me a sentimental idealist and he was right; I called him a vain man, perfidious and crafty, and I also was right.” Bakunin found Marx’s economic analysis very useful and began the job of translating Das Kapital into Russian. In turn Marx wrote of the rebels in the Dresden insurrection of 1848 that “In the Rus-


sian refugee Michael Bakunin they found a capable and cool headed leader.” Marx wrote to Engels of meeting Bakunin in 1864 after his escape to Siberia saying “On the whole he is one of the few people whom I find not to have retrogressed after 16 years, but to have developed further.” Bakunin was perhaps the first theorist of the “new class”, the intellectuals and administrators forming the bureaucratic apparatus of the state. Bakunin argued that the “State has always been the patrimony of some privileged class: a priestly class, an aristocratic class, a bourgeois class. And finally, when all the other classes have exhausted themselves, the State then becomes the patrimony of the bureaucratic class and then falls—or, if you will, rises—to the position of a machine.” Criticism Violence, revolution and “Invisible dictatorship” Bakunin has been accused[who?] of being a closet authoritarian. In his letter to Albert Richard, he wrote that “ [t]here is only one power and one dictatorship whose organisation is salutary and feasible: it is that collective, invisible dictatorship of those who are allied in the name of our principle.” However, Bakunin’s supporters argue that this “invisible dictatorship” is not a dictatorship in any conventional sense of the word, as Bakunin was


careful to point out that its members would not exercise any official political power: “ this dictatorship will be all the more salutary and effective for not being dressed up in any official power or extrinsic character. ” Charles A. Madison claimed that “ He [Bakunin] rejected political action as a means of abolishing the state and developed the doctrine of revolutionary conspiracy under autocratic leadership – disregarding the conflict of this principle with his philosophy of anarchism. Madison contended that it was Bakunin’s scheming for control of the First International that brought about his rivalry with Karl Marx and his expulsion from it in 1872. His approval of violence as a weapon against the agents of oppression led to nihilism in Russia and to individual acts of terrorism elsewhere – with the result that anarchism became generally synonymous with assassination and chaos.” Others reject this analysis, arguing that Bakunin never sought to take personal control over the International, the secret societies he organized were not subject to his autocratic power, and that he condemned terrorism as counter-revolutionary. Nationalism Anarchist historian Max Nettlau described Bakunin’s pan-slavism as being the result of a


nationalist psychosis from which few are free. The publication of his Confession of 1851, written while a prisoner of the Tsar in the Peter-Paul fortress, was used to attack Bakunin because in it he asked the Emperor for forgiveness for his sins and begged him to place himself at the head of the slavs as both redeemer and father. Anti-semitism Bakunin is often seen as a notable anti-semite since his death. Bakunin used Anti-Semitic arguments during his argument with Karl Marx. He claimed that Jews are “an exploitative sect, a people of bloodsuckers, one voracious parasite” who serve both Marx and the Rothschilds. Mikhail Bakunin repeated typical anti-semitic positions, imagining, for instance, the Jews as “…one exploiting sect, one people of leeches, one single devouring parasite closely and intimately bound together not only across national boundaries, but also across all divergences of political opinion…[Jews have] that mercantile passion which constitutes one of the principle traits of their national character” Bakunin’s bigotry was shared by other radical socialists and anarchists of the time. Proudhon’s notebooks, for example, contain a passage in which he calls for the expulsion or extermination of the Jews from Europe.


Eurocentrism His Eurocentrism manifested itself in his call for a United States of Europe, his support for Russian Colonialism, particularly as practised by his relative and patron Count Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky and his indifference to Japan and Japanese peasants during and after his brief stay in Yokohama. (Japan was regarded as the most prominent revolutionary country in Asia following the Meiji Restoration of 1866â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1869.) All these aspects of his thought however date from before he became an anarchist. Bakunins conversion to anarchism was not till 1865, some years after his exile in Siberia and escape through Japan.


Make a donation to Wikipedia and give the gift of knowledge!

article|discussion|edit this page|history

God and the State From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Composition God and the State was written between February and March 1871. It was originally written as Part II of a greater work that was going to be called The Knouto-Germanic Empire and the Social Revolution. Part I was to deal with the background of the Franco-Prussian War and a general history of European resistance to imperialism. God and the State, like most of Bakunin’s work, is unfinished and disjointed. This is not surprising, especially since none of Bakunin’s written work is in fact complete. When Bakunin was criticized on this he said, “My life is a fragment.” God and the State is indeed a fragment; the book has paragraphs that drop out and pick up in mid-sentence, footnotes that are four or five paragraphs long, and the book itself stops abruptly in mid-sentence. Discovery and publication history God and the State was discovered by Carlo Cafiero and Élisée Reclus, two prominent anarchists at the time, and close friends of Bakunin around the time of his death. The two looked tirelessly for


the missing parts of the book, but had no success. They translated the book into French and distributed it as a pamphlet in Geneva in 1882. Cafiero and Reclus titled the book Dieu et l’état(God and the State) although Bakunin originally titled the book The Historical Sophisms of the Doctrinaire School of Communism. The book’s original title was not discovered in Bakunin’s diary until after Cafiero and Reclus’s deaths. In 1883, the American anarchist Benjamin Tucker translated the book into English and distributed it in pamphlet form throughout Boston. He ran into many problems, however, because when Cafiero and Reclus translated the original manuscript into French, they sometimes changed words around to give the French a more literary quality, and often misread Bakunin’s handwriting. A correct French translation was released in 1908, and a new English edition was released in London in 1910. In 1916, the Lithuanian-born anarchist Emma Goldman released a re-print of the 1910 London edition for the radical journal, Mother Earth. Since God and the State’s first publication it has been one of Bakunin’s greatest known works. It has been translated into many languages including English, German, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, Russian, Polish, Czech, Romanian, and Yiddish.


External links Full text of God and the State http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/ bakunin/works/godstate/index.htm Audiobook God and the State http://librivox.org/god-and-the-state-by-mikhailbakunin/ Bakunin Internet Archive http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/ bakunin/index.htm Bakunin Texts at Anarchy is Order http://www.anarchyisorder.org/ENGindex2.htm Mikhail Bakunin, What is Authority? http://www.panarchy.org/bakunin/authority.1871.html


http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/bakunin/works/godstate/index.htm#intro Mikhail Bakunin God and the State Written: February - March, 1871; Source: God and the State; Publisher: Mother Earth Publishing Association, New York © 1916; First Published: 1882 (Discovered posthumously by Carlo Cafiero and Elisée Reclus); Translated: Benjamin R. Tucker; Online Version: Anarchist Archives; Bakunin Reference Archive (marxists.org) 1999; Transcribed: Dana Ward; HTML Markup: Brian Basgen. Introduction Bakunin’s most famous work, published in various lengths, at times ending mid-second section with the line “This is the sense in which we are really Anarchists.”, this version is the most complete form of the work published hitherto. Originally titled “Dieu et l’état”, Bakunin intended it to be part of the second portion to a larger work named “The Knouto-Germanic Empire and the Social Revolution” (Knouto-Germanic Empire is in reference to a treaty betwixt Russia and Germany at the time), but the work was never completed. What follows is a small collection of passages rep-


resentative of the primary themes of the book: “God being everything, the real world and man are nothing. God being truth, justice, goodness, beauty, power, and life, man is falsehood, iniquity, evil, ugliness, impotence, and death. God being master, man is the slave.” While Satan is “the eternal rebel, the first freethinker and the emancipator of worlds.” “The liberty of man consists solely in this: that he obeys natural laws because he has himself recognized them as such “Science is the compass of life; but it is not life itself....What I preach then is, to a certain extent, the revolt of life against science, or rather against the government of science, not to destroy science - that would be high treason to humanity - but to remand it to its place so that it can never leave it again”. Chapter I Who is right, the idealists or the materialists? The question, once stated in this way, hesitation becomes impossible. Undoubtedly the idealists are wrong and the materialists right. Yes, facts are before ideas; yes, the ideal, as Proudhon said, is but a flower, whose root lies in the material conditions of existence. Yes, the whole history of humanity, intellectual and moral, political and social, is but a reflection of its economic history.


All branches of modem science, of true and disinterested science, concur in proclaiming this grand truth, fundamental and decisive: The social world, properly speaking, the human world - in short, humanity - is nothing other than the last and supreme development - at least on our planet and as far as we know - the highest manifestation of animality. But as every development necessarily implies a negation, that of its base or point of departure, humanity is at the same time and essentially the deliberate and gradual negation of the animal element in man; and it is precisely this negation, as rational as it is natural, and rational only because natural - at once historical and logical, as inevitable as the development and realization of all the natural laws in the world - that constitutes and creates the ideal, the world of intellectual and moral convictions, ideas. Yes, our first ancestors, our Adams and our Eves, were, if not gorillas, very near relatives of gorillas, omnivorous, intelligent and ferocious beasts, endowed in a higher degree than the animals of another species with two precious faculties - the power to think and the desire to rebel. These faculties, combining their progressive action in history, represent the essential factor, the negative power in the positive development of human animality, and create consequently all that constitutes humanity in man. The Bible, which is a very interesting and here


and there very profound book when considered as one of the oldest surviving manifestations of human wisdom and fancy, expresses this truth very naively in its myth of original sin. Jehovah, who of all the good gods adored by men was certainly the most jealous, the most vain, the most ferocious, the most unjust, the most bloodthirsty, the most despotic, and the most hostile to human dignity and liberty - Jehovah had just created Adam and Eve, to satisfy we know not what caprice; no doubt to while away his time, which must weigh heavy on his hands in his eternal egoistic solitude, or that he might have some new slaves. He generously placed at their disposal the whole earth, with all its fruits and animals, and set but a single limit to this complete enjoyment. He expressly forbade them from touching the fruit of the tree of knowledge. He wished, therefore, that man, destitute of all understanding of himself, should remain an eternal beast, ever on all-fours before the eternal God, his creator and his master. But here steps in Satan, the eternal rebel, the first freethinker and the emancipator of worlds. He makes man ashamed of his bestial ignorance and obedience; he emancipates him, stamps upon his brow the seal of liberty and humanity, in urging him to disobey and eat of the fruit of knowledge.


Audiobook: God and the State, By Mikhail Bakunin - Torrent Reactor NET Download Audiobook: God and the State, By Mikhail Bakunin from Torrent Reactor torrents database or choose analog in Other. www.torrentreactor.net/torrents/2633482/Audiobook:-God-and-the-State-By-Mikhail-Bakunin - 28k - Copia cache - Pagine simili Audiobook: Mikhail Bakunin - God and the State torrent - Audio ... Audiobook Mikhail Bakunin - God and the State torrent FREE Download. ExtraTorrent.com The Worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Largest BitTorrent System. Torrents for free download. extratorrent.com/torrent/1640438/Audiobook:+ Mikhail+Bakunin+-+God+and+the+State.html - 65k - Copia cache - Pagine simili God and the State: Amazon.co.uk: Mikhail Bakunin: Books God and the State: Amazon.co.uk: Mikhail Bakunin: Books. www.amazon.co.uk/God-State-Mikhail-Bakunin/ dp/048622483X - 210k - Copia cache - Pagine simili


God and the State