Page 1


Abstracts of the

46th CIRP Conference on

Manufacturing Systems

Economic Development and Wealth through Globally Competitive Manufacturing Systems

Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Editor Pedro F. Cunha

i


The abstracts published in this book reflect the opinion of the respective authors. Information contained in these proceedings has been obtained by the editor from sources believed to be reliable. © Pedro F. Cunha and contributors 2013.

Publisher: Ceni – Centro de Integração e Inovação de Processos Assoc. I&D Editor: Pedro Filipe Cunha Graphic Design: António Belchior Impression and Finishing’s: FOTOARTE ISBN: 978-989-98403-1-7 Setúbal, May 2013 ii


46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Organisation

CENI Centro de Integração e Inovação de Processos http://www.ceni.pt/

ESTSetúbal Escola Superior de Tecnologia / Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal http://www.estsetubal.ips.pt

PRODUTECH Pólo das Tecnologias de Produção http://www.produtech.org/

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Sponsors

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Contents Organisation

iii

Contents

v

Welcome

1

Conference Chairmen

3

International Scientific Committee

3

Industrial committee

6

Local Organisational committee

7

Conference Program

8

Keynote Sessions

12

Keynote Abstracts

13

Evolving paradigms of manufacturing: From mass production to mass customization and personalization 13 Strategic factors for competitiveness

14

The vision and the strategy of the Slovak automotive industry

15

Manufacturing systems: Skills & competencies for the future

18

Virtual Factory: An integrated framework for manufacturing systems design and analysis

19

The relevance of human capital within the contexts of a sustainable manufacturing system

20

What tracks for sustainable production systems in Europe?

21

Perspectives of manufacturing for re-industrialization and adding value in Europe

22

Paper and Project Sessions

23

Production and Logistic Network

24

Factory and production planning

25

Knowledge and data management in production and logistics

27

Process modeling and process planning

27

Manufacturing processes

28

Product and service development and management

30 v


46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Simulation and optimization of manufacturing systems

31

Production systems design and management

32

Process improvement and management

33

Energy-efficient processes and systems

35

Technology in production and logistics

36

Abstracts Production and Logistics Networks

37 38

A1 – Opportunities in the wake of crisis

38

A2 – Risk-Value-Cost-Based optimization of global value-adding structures

39

A3 – Managing complexity in supply chains: A discussion of current approaches on the example of the semiconductor industry

40

A4 – Coalition formation based multi-item multi-attribute negotiation of supply chain network

41

A5 – A generic approach for the graph-based integrated production and intermodal transport scheduling with capacity restrictions

42

A6 – Milkrun vehicle routing approach for shop-floor logistics

43

A7 – Control-theoretic analysis of the lead time syndrome and its impact on the logistic target achievement

44

A8 – Concurrent product - supply chain design & trade-off methodologies: A conceptual framework & literature review

45

A9 – A game theoretic model to manufacturing planning with single manufacturer and multiple suppliers with asymmetric quality information

46

A10 – Ad-hoc rescheduling and innovative business models for shock-robust production systems

47

A11–P – Vendors management inventory

48

A13 – Manufacturing network design for mass customization using a genetic algorithm and an intelligent search method

50

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

A14 – Structural complexity issues of assembly supply chains: a theoretical framework

51

A15 – Towards socio-cyber-physical systems in production networks

52

A17 – Conceptual framework for non-hierarchical business networks for complex products design and manufacturing

54

A18 – Methodology for the assessment of structural complexity in global production networks

55

Factory and production planning

56

B1 – Virtual reality as a collaboration tool for factory planning based on scenario technique

56

B2 – Multidimensional evaluation of the changeability of interlinked production processes with material flow simulation

57

B3 – Design of production control`s behavior

58

B5 – Current state of standardized work in the automotive industry in Sweden

59

B6 – Synchronization measures in job shop manufacturing environments

60

B7 – Dispatching rule-based algorithms for a dynamic flexible flow shop scheduling problem with time-dependent process defect rate and quality feedback

61

B8 – Matching bills of materials (BOM) using trees reconciliation

62

B9 – A holistic management model for manufacturing companies and related IT support

63

B10 – Usage of a digital eco-factory for green production preparation

64

B11 – The evolution of manufacturing species – A cladistic analysis and its application

65

Knowledge and data management in production and logistics

66

C1 – Quality prediction in interlinked manufacturing processes based on supervised & unsupervised machine learning

66

C2 – Production data handling using a manufacturing indicators’ knowledge model

67

C3 – The operational process dashboard for manufacturing

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

C4 – Implications for optimisation of the automotive supply chain through knowledge management Process modeling and process planning

69 70

D1 – A study of automatic determination of cutting conditions to minimize machining cost

70

D2 – Planning of remote laser welding processes

71

D3 – Conceptual design of an off-site industrialisation process for FRP-based transport infrastructure components

72

D4 – Process model for the design of bent 3-dimensional freeform geometries for the three-roll-push-bending process

74

Manufacturing processes

75

E1 – Investigation of different hard coatings for micromilling of austenitic stainless steel

75

E2 – Metal additive manufacturing of a high-pressure micro-pump

76

E3 – Pressure retrieval for microrolling process monitoring

77

E4 – Designing rules for additive manufacturing: application on Electron Beam Melting

78

E5 – Performance evaluation of a design tool for automated design of cooling systems in injection moulding

79

E6 – Turning of high-strength bainitic and quenched and tempered steels

80

E7 – An approach to the calculation of process forces during the precision honing of small bores

81

E 8 – Improvement the drilling possibilities of difficult to machine materials

82

E9 – Manufacturing of twist-free surfaces by hard turning

83

E10 – Multi-objective process optimization to improve surface integrity on turned surface of Al/SiCp metal matrix composites using grey relational analysis

84

E11 – Compensation of errors in robot machining with a parallel 3D-Piezo Compensation Mechanism

86

E12 – Technological development and research of environmentally friendly dry machining system with compensation of physical function of cutting fluids

87

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

E 13 – Evaluation of dynamic behavior of machine tools for sculptured surface manufacturing

88

E14 – Genetic algorithm-based optimization of cutting parameters in turning processes

89

E15 – A Real-time collision prevention system for machine tools

90

E16 – Study of the environmental and technical performance of a diesel engine with the alternative use of biofuel obtained from the reutilization of vegetal oil.

91

E17 – Influence of force and travel speed in the friction surfacing of AA 6082-T6 over AA 2024-T3

92

E18 – Learning defect classifiers for textured surfaces using neural networks and statistical feature representations

93

E19 – Predicting dimensional deviations of structural vehicle body parts deep drawn from aluminum blanks

94

E20 – Advances in NDT and materials characterization by eddy currents

95

Product and service development and management

97

F1 – Architecture and conceptual design for IPS²-Execution Systems

97

F2 – A methodology for developing product-service Systems

98

F3 – A framework for developing portfolios of improvements projects in manufacturing

99

F4 – Roadmap for business models definition in manufacturing companies

100

F5 – Five models of platform-type product service systems in manufacturing

101

F6 – A PSS model for diamond gemstone processing: economic feasibility analysis

102

F7 – Statistical process control as a service: An industrial case study

103

Simulation and optimization of manufacturing systems

104

G1 – Simulation integrated control system for supporting changes of routing strategy in an automated material flow system 104 G2 – Method for situation based modelling and simulation of assembly systems

105 ix


46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

G3 – Visualization support for virtual redesign of manufacturing systems

106

G4 – Integrated virtual platform for manufacturing systems design 108 G5 – 3D Design support for rapid Virtual prototyping of manufacturing systems

109

G6 – Agent based manufacturing simulation for efficient assembly operations 111 G7 – Object-oriented modeling of manufacturing resources using work study inputs 112 G8 – Analyzing the influence of excess capacities on performance robustness in fluctuating job-shop environments

113

G9 – Methodology and data-structure for a uniform system’s specification in a simulation project

114

G10 – Viable system model for manufacturing execution systems 115 G11 – Enhanced production control for prepreg manufacturing

116

G12 – Modelling complex production processes in aerospace industry based on dimensional analysis

117

G13 – Four types of manufacturing process innovation and their managerial concerns

118

Production systems design and mangement H1 – Proposal for a generic model dedicated to reconfigurable and agile manufacturing systems (RAMS)

119 119

H2 – Changeability by a modular design of production systems – consideration of technology, organisation and staff 120 H3 – A dispatching algorithm and software tool for managing the part flow on Reconfigurable Transportation System

121

H4 – Control of the feeder for a reconfigurable assembly system

122

H5 – Passive haptic feedback for manual assembly simulation

123

H6 – Developing concepts for improved efficiency of robot work preparation

124

H8 – Disassembly liaison graphs inspired by word clouds

127

H9 – Virtual Fort Knox – Federative, secure and cloud-based platform for manufacturing

128 x


46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

H10 – A group decision-making method based on intuitionistic fuzzy set in the three dimensional concurrent engineering environment: a multi-objective programming approach 129 H11 – Modelling of flexibility costs in a decision support system for mid-term capacity planning

130

H12 – Contact-less and programming-less human-robot collaboration

131

Process improvement and management

133

I1 – Maintenance database

133

I2 – Impact of machine reliability uncertainty on the design and operation of manufacturing systems.

134

I3 – Spare parts planning for offshore wind turbines subject to restrictive maintenance conditions

135

I4 – Lean leadership – fundamental principles and their application

136

I5 – Continuous improvement beyond the lean understanding

137

I6 – A systematic approach on developing action-oriented, competency-based Learning Factories

138

I7 – A new approach for integrated design of flexible production systems

139

I8 – Cellular Manufacturing – A lean and flexible approach for machining

140

I9 – Improving changeover time: a tailored SMED approach for welding cells

141

I10 – Lean and proactive liquidity management for SMEs

142

I11 – Beyond lean and six-sigma; Cross-collaborative improvement of tolerances and process variations - A case study

143

I12 – Casting defect analysis using design of experiments (DoE) and computer aided casting simulation technique

144

Energy-efficient processes and systems

145

J1 – Enabling energy management for planning energy-efficient factories

145

J2 – Energy efficiency issues of manufacturing processes

146

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

J3–P – Think blue. factory

147

J4 – Energy efficient manufacturing from a machine tool to manufacturing systems

148

J5 – Realizing energy reduction of machine tools through a control-integrated consumption graph-based optimization method 149 J6 – A study on the heating process for forging of an automotive crankshaft in terms of energy efficiency

150

J7 – Methodology for energy-efficiency on process level

151

J8 – Total energy estimation model for remote laser welding process

153

Technology in production and logistics

154

K1 – Leveraging apps in manufacturing. A framework for App technology in the enterprise

154

K2 – Towards a definition of PLM-integrated dimensional measurement

155

K3 – Cost model for digital engineering tools

156

K4 – A new numerical chain from 3D model of parts to CNS manufacturing

157

K5 – An approach for cloud based machine tool control

158

K6 – Achieving low cost and high quality aero structure assembly through Integrated digital metrology systems 159

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Welcome On behalf of the CIRP CMS 2013 Organising Committee, we would like to invite you to read and follow the papers presented at the 46th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, held in Setúbal, Portugal, on May 29th-30th, 2013, with the theme of “Economic Development and Wealth through Globally Competitive Manufacturing Systems”. The 46th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems (CIRP CMS 2013) was an international forum of researchers and industrialists, from all over the world, offering the opportunity to all the participants to be actively involved in technical and scientific discussions on the manufacturing systems’ trends and their contribution for sustainability and development of manufacturing companies and of societies worldwide. The current situation in Europe and the world highlights the important role of manufacturing activities for societies, in contributing to their sustainable development, particularly with jobs, human realization and wealth. For the manufacturing company’s competitiveness the key issues to be met are the socio-economic challenges, knowledge development and application, in all aspects of the manufacturing systems design and management. Organising this year the CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems in Setúbal, Portugal, we created a favourable environment to share and discuss new ideas, launch initiatives for new projects or new businesses, which brought together the scientific and the business communities. We also contributed to stimulate technical and scientific discussions on manufacturing systems and their implications for industry, to provide an international platform for the exchange of the latest ideas and developments on manufacturing systems, to act as a driver for new research themes and international networking and to promote the development of collaborative networks to support the involvement of manufacturing systems and their global competitiveness. The goal of the 46th CIRP CMS 2013 was to review and discuss the advances, research results and other improvements in the area of manufacturing systems, taking different perspectives and innovative approaches and envisioning future trends. These reviews and discussions covered a wide variety of research topics such as Supply Chain and global production management, Production networks, Intelligent, adaptive and e-manufacturing, Digital manufacturing, Factory and production planning, Design and application of production systems, Flexible and reconfigurable manufacturing systems / Agile manufacturing, Sustainable production, recycling and remanufacturing, Energy-efficient processes and systems, Process modelling and process planning, Simulation and optimization of manufacturing systems, Micro manufacturing, Nano manufacturing, Novel processes and machinery, Life cycle 1


46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

management, Concurrent engineering, Industrial product service systems (IPS2), Production systems evolutions (SPECIES), Quality and maintenance management, Knowledge and data management in production and logistics, Beyond lean and Education in learning factories. We would like to acknowledge the contribution of all our authors who participated in the 46th CIRP conference on Manufacturing Systems with the submission of such high quality papers. We formally thank all those who assisted in any way with the preparation and delivery of CMS2013, including the distinguished members of the International Scientific Committee, Local Organising Committee and Industrial Committee. We would like to especially to acknowledge the major contribution of our referees, whose valuable comments improved the quality of papers and consequently enhanced the academic quality. Finally, we are deeply grateful to the sponsors of CMS2013, whose financial support was essential for the organisation of the meeting.

Pedro Filipe do Carmo Cunha

Chairman of 46th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Director of CENI – Centro de Integração de Inovação de Processos Assoc.I&D Professor Adjunto at Escola Superior de Tecnologia / Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Conference Chairmen P. F. Cunha, EST/IPS, CENI, PT (Chair) K. Ueda, AIST, JP J. Vancza, Hungarian Academy of Science, HU J. C. Caldeira, INESC, Porto, PT

International Scientific Committee E. Abele, Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany L. Alting, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark J. Aurich, University of Kaiserslautern, Germany A. Azevedo, University of Porto, Portugal T. Baines, Aston University, UK P. Bartolo, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal A. Bernard, IRCCyN – Ecole Centrale de Nantes, France H. Bley, Saarland University Saarbrücken, Germany K. Bouzakis, Engineering Aristoteles University of Thessaloniki, Greece D. Brissaud, University of Grenoble, France H. V. Brussel, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium P. Butala, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia D.Cagánová, Slovak University of Technology, Slovakia L. Camarinha, Matos, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Portugal J. Cao, Northwestern University, United States of America L. Carneiro, INESC-Porto, Portugal G. Chryssolouris, University of Patras, Greece M. Colledani, Politecnico di Milano, Italy C. Constantinescu, IAO – Fraunhofer, Germany D. D’Addona, University of Naples Federico II, Italy J. Deuse, Technical University of Dortmund , Germany J. Duflou, Centre for Industrial Policy, Belgium 3


46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

N. A. Duffie, University of Wisconsin Madison, USA H. ElMaraghy, University of Windsor, Canada W. ElMaraghy, University of Windsor, Canada E. Frazzon, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil R. Gao, University of Connecticut, England, U.K. R. Gonçalves, Faculty of Science and Technology /UNL, Portugal M. Grunow, Technical University of Munich, Germany M. Hauschild, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark E. Henriques Instituto Superior Técnico/UTL, Portugal J. Hu, University of Michigan, USA K. K.B. Hon, University of Liverpool, UK I.S. Jawahir, University of Kentucky, USA F. Jovane, Politecnico di Milano, Italy T. Kankaanpää, University of Vaasa, Finland S. Kara, University of New South Wales, Australia Z. Katz, University of Johannesburg, South Africa A. Kjellberg, Stockholm University, Sweden F. Kimura, Hosei University, Japan A. Kjellberg, Stockholm University, Sweden G. Lanza, Wbk Institute of Production Science, Germany L. Laperriere, University of Québec, Canada M. Leu, Missouri University of Science & Technology, Unit.States of America T. Lien, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway E. Lutters, University of Twente, Netherlands V. Majstorovic, University of Belgrade, Serbia P. Maropoulos, University of Bath, UK P. Martins, Instituto Superior Técnico/UTL, Portugal L. Mathieu, University of Paris XI, IUT de Cachan, France H. Meier, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany G. Molcho, Researcher at Technion, Israel

4


46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

L. Monostori, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary O. Moravcik, Slovak University of Technology, Slovakia D. Mourtzis, University of Patras, Greece A. Nassehi, University of Bath, England, U.K. A. Nee, National University of Singapore, Singapore S. T. Newman, University of Bath, UK N. Nishino, University of Tokyo, Japan P. Nyhuis, University of Hannover Leibniz, Germany J. F. G. Oliveira, IPT – Institute for Technological Research, Brazil L. Osório, ISEL/Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon, Portugal H. P. Wiendahl, University of Leibniz, Germany G. Perrone, University of Palermo, Italy G. Putnik, University of Minho, Portugal K. Rajurkar, University of Nebraska, USA G. Reinhart, Technical University of Munchen, Germany R. Roy, Cranfield University, United Kingdom H. Rozenfeld, University of São Paulo, Brazil T. Sakao, Linköping University, Sweden M. Santochi, University of Pisa, Italy O. Sauer, Fraunhofer Institute for Optronics, Germany B. Scholz, Reiter, University of Bremen, Germany K. Schüetzer, UNIMEP, Brazil G. Schuh, RWTH Aachen University, Germany G. Seliger, Technical University of Berlin, Germany A. Shamsuzzoha, University of Vaasa, Finland W. Sihn, Fraunhofer Austria Research GmbH, Austria A. Sluga, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia M. Shpitalni, TECHNION, Israel J. Sutherland, Purdue University, USA S. Takata, Waseda University, Japan

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

P. Teixeira, Faculty of Science and Technology /UNL, Portugal R. Teti, University of Naples Federico II, Italy T. Tolio, Institute of Industrial Technologies and Automation, Italy T. Tomiyama, Cranfield University, UK K. Tracht, University of Bremen, Germany M. Tseng, Hong Kong University, Hong Kong A. Valente, ITIA-CNR, Italy F. Van Houten, University of Twente, Netherlands L. Wang, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden E. Westkämper, University of Stuttgart, Germany H-P Wiendahl, University of Hannover, Germany R. Wilhelm, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA K. Windt, Jacobs University Bremen, Germany X. W. Xu, The University of Aukland, New Zeeland M. Zaeh, Institute for Machine Tools and Industrial Management, Germany I. C. Zattar, Federal University of Paraná, Brazil M. Zatarain, Manager of Scientific Development, IDEKO, Spain

Industrial committee C. Abreu, SECIL P. Azevedo, Sna Europe L. M. Amaral, Banco BIC C. Cabeleira, COTEC M. S. Carneiro, Randstad J. Costa, AutoVision P. Cunha, Adi-Portuguese Innovation Agency A. Freitas, Systion Electronics, Lda J. S. Gomes, Brisa, Innovation and Technology H. Gouveia, ISQ, Welding and Quality Institute 6


46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

J. Holeck, Association of Slovakia Automotive Industry A. C. Pinto, Adira, SA J. S. Pinto, Softi9, Informatic Innovations, Lda J. P. Oliveira, Bosch Termotecnologia, SA J. Oliveira, COLEP M. Paske, Volkswagen Autoeuropa A. S. Ribeiro, Sistrade, Software Consulting, SA R.Tocha, CENTIMFE J. Menezes, Iberomoldes, SA J. Sampaio, INEGI J. Simões, EFACEC F. Sousa, Zipor, Industrial Technology, SA C. Valente, Pioneer Ibérica H. Vasconcelos, CATIM

Local Organisational committee A. Cabrita, CENI, Portugal A. Conde, Bosch Termotecnologia SA, Portugal N. Costa, EST/IPS, Portugal F. Cunha, EST/IPS, Portugal J. Duarte, EST/IPS, Portugal B. Fonseca, EST/IPS, Portugal A. Leitão, EST/IPS, Portugal P. Macedo, EST/IPS, Portugal S. Neves, ATEC, Portugal F. Pinho, ESE/IPS, Portugal A. Pombinho, Câmara Municipal de Palmela , Portugal P. Sena Ferreira, CENI, Portugal D. Snow, ESCE/IPS, Portugal 7


46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Conference Program th

28 May 18:00-20:30

CMS2013 Registration and Welcome Conference Registration and Welcome

th

29 May

Wednesday - Morning Sessions

Room

CENI

8:30-9:00

Late Registration

9:00-9:40

Opening Session Pedro F. Cunha, CIRP CMS2013 Conference Chairman Engelbert Westkämper on behalf of the Chairman of the CIRP Manufacturing Systems Conference series

9:40-10:10

Keynote Speaker - Jack Hu, “Evolving paradigms of manufacturing and the manufacturing systems challenges”, University of Michigan

10:10-10:40

Keynote Speaker - António Conde, “Strategic factors for competitiveness”, Industrial Director of Bosch Termotecnologia SA

10:40-11:00

Coffee Break Production and logistics networks

Room

Knowledge and data management in production and logistics

Factory and production planning

Process modeling and process planning

BOSCH

Volkswagen Autoeuropa

SAGE

EST/IPS

11:00 -11:25

A1

B1

C1

D1

11:25 -11:50

A2

B2

C2

D2

11:50-12:15

A3

B3

C3

D3

12:15-12:40

A4

B4

C4

D4

12:40-14:00

Lunch

th

29 May 14:00-14:30

Wednesday - Afternoon Sessions Keynote Speaker - Jaroslav Holecek, "The vision and the strategy of the Slovak automotive industry" Production and logistics networks

Factory and production planning

Manufacturing processes

Product and service development and management

BOSCH

Volkswagen Autoeuropa

SAGE

EST/IPS

14:30-14:55

A5

B5

E1

F1

14:55-15:20

A6

B6

E2

F2

15:20-15:45

A7

B7

E3

F3

Room

8


46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

15:45-16:15

Coffee Break

Production and logistics networks

Factory and production planning

Manufacturing processes

Product and service development and management

Room

BOSCH

Volkswagen Autoeuropa

SAGE

EST/IPS

16:15-16:40

A8

B8

E4

F4

16:40-17:05

A9

B9

E5

F5

17:05-17:30

A10

B10

E6

F6

17:30-17:55

A11

B11

E7

F7

18:30-20:30

Cocktail Reception in Sesimbra

th

30 May 8:30-9:00 09:00-9:30

Thursday - Morning Sessions Late Registration Keynote Speaker - George Chryssolouris “Manufacturing systems: Skills & competencies for the future” Production and logistics networks

Simulation and optimization of manufacturing systems

Manufacturing processes

Production systems design and management

BOSCH

Volkswagen Autoeuropa

SAGE

EST/IPS

9:30-9:55

A12

G1

E8

H1

9:55-10:20

A13

G2

E9

H2

10:20-10:45

A14

G3

E10

H3

Room

10:45-11:05

Coffee Break Production and logistics networks

Simulation and optimization of manufacturing systems

Manufacturing processes

Production systems design and management

BOSCH

Volkswagen Autoeuropa

SAGE

EST/IPS

11:05-11:30

A15

G4

E11

H4

11:30-11:55

A16

G5

E12

H5

11:55-12:20

A17

G6

E13

H6

12:20-12:45

A18

G7

E14

H7

Room

12:45-14:00

Lunch

9


46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

th

30 May 14:00-14:30

Thursday - Afternoon Sessions Keynote Speaker - Tullio Tolio, “Manufacturing systems modelling” Process improvement and management

Simulation and optimization of manufacturing systems

Production systems design and management

Special Session

BOSCH

Volkswagen Autoeuropa

SAGE

EST/IPS

14:30-14:55

I1

G8

H8

14:55-15:20

I2

G9

H9

15:20-15:45

I3

G10

H10

Special session: Future decision environment in a sustainable and global competitive manufacturing context

Room

15:45-16:15

Coffee Break Process improvement and management

Simulation and optimization of manufacturing systems

Production systems design and management

Energy-efficient processes and systems

BOSCH

Volkswagen Autoeuropa

SAGE

EST/IPS

16:15-16:40

I4

G11

H11

J1

16:40-17:05

I5

G12

H12

J2

17:05-17:30

I6

G13

H13

J3

Room

17:30-17:55

Keynote Speaker - António Melo Pires, “The relevance of human capital to the contexts of a sustainable manufacturing system.”

18:00-18:45

Factory 2013 "An award for the most efficient production site in Portugal”

19:30-22:30

Conference Dinner and Best paper

Special session: “Future decision environment in a sustainable and global competitive manufacturing context” (Moderator: Alain Bernard) The manufacturing environment has been changing in many aspects and humans have to interact with systems that are technically more complex and related with more complex organisations. Companies are multi-scale systems, from basic processes and technologies, to complete shopfloors, with different aspects of technical and management decisions. This special session will discuss the place of computer-aided decision making systems to help humans in their technical and management operations, but also in training and evolution periods. Factory 2013 “An award for the most efficient production site in Portugal” CENI-Centro de Integração e Inovação de Processos and Fraunhofer Austria will present an initiative to award the most efficient production site in Portugal and to share benchmarks as well as best-practice solutions. The focuses of the evaluation are highlights of the production site as well as applied methods within the processes. Best Paper Award of 46th CIRP Conference of Manufacturing Systems CIRP CMS traditionally honour papers of young researchers, not older than 35 years, that exemplify the highest standards both in technical contribution and exposition. The award started from the 33rd CIRP International Conference on Manufacturing Systems, in 2002, by initiative of Professor Kanji Ueda.

10


46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

th

31 May 8:30-9:00

Friday - Morning Sessions Late Registration Process improvement and management

Energy-efficient processes and systems

Manufacturing processes

Technology in production and logistics

BOSCH

Volkswagen Autoeuropa

SAGE

EST/IPS

9:00-9:25

I7

J4

E15

K1

9:25-9:50

I8

J5

E16

K2

9:50-10:15

I9

J6

E17

K3

Coffee Break

10:15 -10:40 10:40-11:05

I10

J7

E18

K4

11:05-11:30

I11

J8

E19

K5

11:30-11:55

I12

J9

E20

K6

11:55-12:25

Keynote Speaker - Daniel Brissaud, “What tracks for sustainable production systems in Europe?”

12:25-12:55

Keynote Speaker - Engelbert Westkämper, “Perspectives of manufacturing for reindustrialization and adding value in Europe”

12:55-13:15 13:15-14:30

Closing Session CMS2013 / Open Session PRODUTECH FAREWELL LUNCH PRODUTECH WORKSHOP SESSIONS

14:30 -15:00

José Carlos Caldeira (Produtech), “PRODUTECH – Production technologies cluster: promoting sustainable manufacturing through collaboration”

15:00-15:30

ISQ / CEI, “Intelligent Manufacturing: embedding new functionalities in production systems”

15:30-16:00

INESC Porto / ADIRA, “Manufacturing for Customization: From mass production to mass customization”

16:00 16:15

Coffee break

16:15-16:45

UNINOVA / KYAIA, “Distributed Manufacturing: Value chain management using RFID”

16:45- 17:15

INEGI / SILAMPOS, “Sustainable Manufacturing: Energy efficiency and renewal energies utilization in manufacturing systems”

17:15- 17:45

IDMEC / AZEVEDOS INDÚSTRIAS, “Flexible and Efficient Manufacturing: Methodologies and tools for fast setup and performance monitoring”

17:45

Close PRODUTECH Workshop

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Keynote Sessions

S. Jack Hu, University of Michigan (US), “Evolving paradigms of Manufacturing and the Manufacturing Systems Challenges” António Conde (PT), Managing Director Bosch Termotecnologia SA, “Strategic Factors for Competitiveness” Jaroslav Holecek (SK), Slovak Association for Automobile Industry, "The vision and the strategy of the Slovak automotive industry" George Chryssolouris, University of Patras (GR), “Manufacturing Systems: Skills & Competencies for the Future” Tullio Tolio, ITIA-CNR (I), “Manufacturing Systems Modelling” António Melo Pires (PT), Executive Director Volkswagen Autoeuropa, Lda, “The Relevance of Human Capital to the Contexts of a Sustainable Manufacturing System.” Daniel Brissaud, University of Grenoble (F), “What Tracks for Sustainable Production Systems in Europe?” Engelbert Westkämper, Fraunhofer IPA (D), “Perspectives of Manufacturing for Re-industrialization and Adding Value in Europe”

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Keynote Abstracts

Evolving paradigms of manufacturing: From mass production to mass customization and personalization S. Jack Hu, Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, USA jackhu@umich.edu

This paper reviews the development of the paradigms of manufacturing, including mass production, mass customization and the emerging paradigm of personalization. In each paradigm, we discuss the contributions of scientific principles, manufacturing technologies and systems operations and how they are integrated together to achieve quality, productivity and responsiveness in manufacturing. We also compare the roles of the consumer in each paradigm.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Strategic factors for competitiveness António Conde Bosch Termotecnologia SA, antonio.conde2@pt.bosch.com

“In my experience, there is nothing worse for a company, that wishes to prevail and remain at the cutting edge, than to have no competition.” Robert Bosch, 1861–1942

Since the very beginning of his company establishment, Robert Bosch had the intrinsic value of “competitiveness”, as a challenge to be overcome on a daily basis. Since then, it has been part of the company culture and vision, not as a dogmatic concept, but as a strategy with its contributing factors continuously being developed, adapting to a world that has changed a lot, in the last 126 years of the company’s activity. The focus on the Human Resources, being able to keep the best ones working with high levels of productivity and loyalty; the ability to identify the company’s True North and derive out of that the Strategy to pursue it; to have Quality as part of the company culture, enabling every single associate to strive for it; the daily practice of questioning the standards, braking paradigms, in a Continuously Improving Process; setting the market trend, through Innovative products, which are really Customer Oriented; all of these together are not a recipe for success, but the focus areas where the organisation should invest its “energy”, the Strategic Factors for Competitiveness.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

The vision and the strategy of the Slovak automotive industry Jaroslav Holecek Slovak Association for Automobile Industry jaroslav.holecek@stuba.sk

Automotive Industry of Slovak Republic and It’s Ensure of Competitiveness - Excellent results, successful year, the record numbers – this way we could very briefly evaluate the results achieved in automotive industry of Slovakia last year. Despite the continuing economic crisis the production of the key industries has reached in Slovakia really good balance. Automotive Industry in the Slovak Republic in Numbers - In 2012 in Slovakia a total of 926 555 cars were produced which in comparison with the previous year 2011, means an increase of 44.9%. The excellent result could be achieved also in 2013 even it is anticipated a slight increase of production. Based on these results Slovakia can boast the importance when it comes to the number of cars produced per capita. In 2012, Slovakia produced 171 cars per 1000 inhabitants. To complement – in 2011 there were 118 cars produced per 1000 inhabitants, the second place belongs to Czech republic (113 cars), the third place is occupied by Slovenia (85 cars). The European union’s average is 38 cars per 1000 inhabitants. The automotive industry is a pillar of the Slovak economy. This is evidenced by the fact that 41% of whole sales of Slovak industry, of which 30.5% is the production of cars and the remaining 10.5 percent are other cooperative sectors. The Slovak automotive industry shares with a quarter of the exports of Slovak Republic which the first six of the biggest exporters are the three car manufacturers. The largest exporter is Volkswagen Slovakia. Compared with the previous year the number of work positions has increased in the automotive industry sector. In 2012 there were more than 7400 employees working in comparison with 2011, it means an increase of 3.5%. It is expected that the number of employees is going to be a growing trend which could see an increase of 2000

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

more work positions. Last year the net of suppliers in automotive industry was also strengthened. Currently there are 274 companies in Slovakia which supply components and materials for automobile manufacturers. Their distribution within Slovakia is uneven. Most of companies are located in western Slovakia – 202 companies and the remaining are situated in the eastern region. The principal reason of this situation is the lack of a highway network in Slovakia. Automotive Industry Association of Slovak Republic (AIA SR) - The automotive industry association of Slovak republic is a voluntary association of legal entities doing business and involved in the automotive industry association. AIA SR was founded 22nd June 1993 and currently has 157 members. The main aim of ZAP SR is the sustainability and competitiveness of automotive industry in Slovakia and its strategic objectives for 2013 are especially focused to improving and shaping the business environment, to promote the creation and R & D base for the automotive industry, to improve cooperation with OEMs and subcontractors, to create environmental legislation. The ambition is to activate and expand the membership base, raise awareness about the importance and prospects of the automotive industry and being an active member of international organisations. An extremely important task of 2013 is the needed participation of AIA SR in the orientation of vocational education to ensure the return to the dual system of education for labor market needs and ensure the necessary amendments to the legislation. In addition, it is important to continue the cooperation with technical universities in the preparation of university - educated professionals. The automotive industry association of Slovak republic wants this year to focus on the other priorities: labor law – where it is necessary to ensure that flexible working time will stay part of it. The integration of science and research, particularly in the field of production processes, human resources, materials and technologies. It is also necessary to ensure uniform distribution of sub - contractors and pay more attention to the legislation in the field of environmental protection, particularly in the area of waste. In this case the ambition of AIA SR is to ensure in cooperation with automobile importers and

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

processor of waste until 2015 the conditions for 95% handling of vehicles in the end of life. In the forthcoming period AIA SR will introduce steps to support further economic growth in Slovakia. The absolute priorities belong to the expansions of transport infrastructure - motorways, creating transparent legislation, stability of law and its enforcement and to change the nature of the current economy oriented mainly to the production, the economy of research and production.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Manufacturing systems: Skills & competencies for the future George Chryssolouris University of Patra, Greece xrisol@lms.mech.upatras.gr

Recent studies have presented clear evidence of the relationship between human capital qualifications and competitiveness. At the same time, there have been frequent reports on the shortage of skilled manufacturing personnel. This paper introduces some approaches to building skills and competences in manufacturing. The importance of human capital skills for industry’s competitiveness is first discussed, providing an overview of the current situation in different world regions. Modern approaches to manufacturing education are shortly reviewed. The need for young people to be enlightened about the exciting character of manufacturing, with real life problems being addressed under business conditions, via scientific approaches and cutting edge technologies, is discussed. A “Teaching Factory” paradigm is being introduced as a distancelearning knowledge delivery mechanism of bringing the real factory into the classroom. The activities of the KNOW-FACT project aiming to deliver a pilot implementation of the Teaching Factory paradigm as a 2-way “learning channel” connecting industry and academia are further discussed.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Virtual Factory: An integrated framework for manufacturing systems design and analysis Tullio Tolio Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy tullio.tolio@polimi.it

Competitive manufacturing companies have to effectively deal with the concurrent evolution of products, processes and production systems. This problem, known as Co-evolution, can be addressed only through the integrated use of different methodologies, provided that the digital tools implementing these methodologies can interoperate properly and effectively. This paper presents the concept of an integrated framework to support the interoperability between digital factory tools and shows how it can benefit the business processes along the whole factory life-cycle.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

The relevance of human capital within the contexts of a sustainable manufacturing system António Melo Pires Volkswagen Autoeuropa, Lda antonio.pires@Volkswagen.pt

The Volkswagen Group’s Strategy 2018 sets out how it intends to achieve its goal of becoming the car industry’s global market leader in terms of unit sales and topping the rankings for customer satisfaction and profitability. On top of that, Volkswagen also wants to be the most attractive employer in the automotive sector by 2018. The Group’s business strategy is a multidimensional stakeholder strategy that balances the interests of customers, shareholders, employees and other stakeholders. As the Group grows, so does its responsibility, for it can only meet present and future challenges if its employees – from apprentices to top managers – consistently turn in an outstanding performance to ensure that innovation and product quality remain at the very highest level in the long term. Over 500.000 employees are now working for the Volkswagen Group worldwide. That means over half a million individual contributions to the day-to-day success of the Group and its brands, regions and companies. And Volkswagen fosters each one of these employees. It’s a responsibility we take seriously by focusing on our employees’ health, skills and commitment. Also locally, at Volkswagen Autoeuropa, in Portugal, we are aware that out responsibility is growing – for ourselves as a company and for each individual within it. From vocational training to skills development at home and abroad, and from a forward-looking pay policy to employee involvement, we are working with our employees to set high standards right across its operations. The strength of Volkswagen worldwide and of our Portuguese production site relies crucially on employees’ high skill levels, the company’s capacity for innovation and the principle of employee participation.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

What tracks for sustainable production systems in Europe? Daniel Brissaud Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Laboratoire daniel.brissaud@grenoble-inp.fr

The future of production systems is a big concern in Europe and particularly in France where two national initiatives were started in 2012: a specific ministry of productive recovery and a specific scientific reflexion on research on production systems. A one-year work gave the main ideas for what is significantly moving in production systems to make them sustainable for a long time in a European country. It highlighted three main evolutions that would create the industry of the future quite different to the today manufacturing industry: at first, the production systems would be pulled by the development of the technologies with high added value that emerge from today; Then it was considered that the link of the systems of production and the territories would be a heavy trend of future and thus put forward the evolutions of the organisation. Finally, it could be the revival of the social contract that would pull the evolution of the systems of production. The paper relates the first conclusions of this national work.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Perspectives of manufacturing for reindustrialization and adding value in Europe Engelbert Westkämper Member of the EU-ManuFuture High Level Group, University Stuttgart Engelbert.Westkaemper@ipa.fraunhofer.de

The rate of Manufacturing on the GDP in US and Europe is decreasing permanent. The European Commission is asking for activities to stop the process of de-industrialisation and come back to a rate of 20 %. The EU Technology Platform Manufuture developed Visions and Road Maps for activating the European potential for adding value and Factories of the Future by taking into account actual megatrends and environmental, societal challenges. In this paper, 4 major topics of factories development and research perspectives are presented, which have the potential of high adding value by manufacturing. They are driven by the understanding of manufacturing as a socio-technical system, which has to be adapted permanently to the requirements of the societal system around. Bordering technologies and ICT play a significant role in manufacturing research and development. New paradigms see factories with roots in the public infrastructure. The paper is a contribution to the actual political discussions and orientation of the future research for manufacturing.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Paper and Project Sessions Topics:           

Production and logistic networks Factory and production planning Knowledge and data management in production and logistics Process modeling and process planning Manufacturing processes Product and service development and management Simulation and optimization of manufacturing systems Production systems design and management Process improvement and management Energy-efficient processes and systems Technology in production and logistics

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Production and Logistic Network A1 – Halvor Holtskog and Geir Ringen; Opportunities in the wake of crisis A2 – Andrea Prinz and Thomas Bauernhansl; Risk-Value-Costbased Optimization of Global Value-Adding Structures A3 – Judith Aelker, Hans Ehm and Thomas Bauernhansl; Managing Complexity in Supply Chains: A Discussion of Current Approaches on the Example of the Semiconductor industry A4 – Fang Yu, Toshiya Kaihara and Nobutada Fujii; Coalition formation based multi-item multi-attribute negotiation of supply chain network A5 – Bernd Scholz-Reiter, Jens Hartmann, Thomas Makuschewitz and Enzo Morosini Frazzon; A generic approach for the graph-based integrated production and intermodal transport scheduling with capacity restrictions A6 – Dávid Gyulai, András Pfeiffer, Thomas Sobottka and József Váncza Milkrun; Vehicle routing approach for shop-floor logistics A7 – Mathias Knollmann and Katja Windt; Control-Theoretic Analysis of the Lead Time Syndrome and its Impact on the Logistic Target Achievement A8 – Thiam-Soon Gan and Martin Grunow; Concurrent Product Supply Chain Design & Trade-off Methodologies: A Conceptual Framework & Literature Review A9 – Sisi Yin, Tatsushi Nishi and Guoqing Zhang; A Game Theoretic Model to Manufacturing Planning with Single Manufacturer and Multiple Suppliers with Asymmetric Quality Information A10 – Gisela Lanza, Nicole Stricker and Steven Peters; Ad-hoc Rescheduling and Innovative Business Models for Shock-Robust Production Systems

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

A11– P – Fernando Marchante – Vendors Mangement Inventory (Euroresinas) A12 - Gisela Lanza, Johannes Stoll, Nicole Stricker, Steven Peters and Christof Lorenz; Measuring Global Production Effectiveness. A13 – Dimitris Mourtzis, Michalis Doukas and Foivos Psarommatis ; Manufacturing Network Design for Mass Customization using a Genetic Algorithm and an Intelligent Search Method A14 – Vladimir Modrak and David Marton; Structural Complexity Issues of Assembly Supply Chains: a Theoretical Framework A15 – Enzo Morosini Frazzon, Jens Hartmann, Thomas Makuschewitz and Bernd Scholz-Reiter; Towards Socio-CyberPhysical Systems in Production Networks A16 – Heiko Baum and Jens Schütze; An Organisational Concept for Collaborative Enterprise Networks A17 – Luis Maia Carneiro, Pedro Cunha, Pedro S. Ferreira and Ahm Shamsuzzoha; Conceptual framework for non-hierarchical business networks for complex products design and manufacturing A18 – Günther Schuh, Till Potente and Rawina Varandani;Methodology for the assessment of structural complexity in global production networks

Factory and production planning B1 – Nicole Menck, Christian Weidig and Jan C. Aurich; Virtual Reality as a collaboration tool for factory planning based on scenario technique B2 – Florian Albrecht, Laura Faatz and Eberhard Abele; Multidimensional evaluation of the changeability of interlinked production processes with material flow simulation

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

B3 – Günther Schuh, Till Potente and Christina Thomas; Design of production control`s behavior B4–P – Augusto Vilarinho; Manufacturing Execution System (MES) in a medical devices Manufacturing facility (Critical Manufacturing S.A.). B5 – Pierre E. C. Johansson, Thomas Lezama, Lennart Malmsköld, Birgitta Sjögren and Lena Moestam Ahlström; Current State of Standardized Work in the Automotive Industry in Sweden B6 – Till Becker, Stanislav M. Chankov and Katja Windt; Synchronization Measures in Job Shop Manufacturing Environments B7 – Byung Jun Joo, Yong Chan Choi and Paul Xirouchakis; Dispatching rule-based algorithms for a dynamic flexible flow shop scheduling problem with time-dependent process defect rate and quality feedback B8 – Mohamed Kashkoush and Hoda Elmaraghy; Matching Bills of Materials (BOM) Using Trees Reconciliation B9 – Stefan Silcher, Barbara Seeberg, Erich Zahn and Bernhard Mitschang; A Holistic Management Model for Manufacturing Companies and Related IT Support B10 – Michiko Matsuda and Fumihiko Kimura; Usage of a digital eco-factory for green production preparation B11 – James Baldwin, Christen Rose-Anderssen, Keith Ridgway, Fabian Boettinger, Istvan Nemeth, Kwabena Agyapong-Kodua, Ivan Brencsics, Roland Krain and Marcus Michen; The Evolution of Manufacturing Species – A Cladistic Analysis and its Application

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Knowledge and data management in production and logistics C1 – Daniel Lieber, Benedikt Konrad, Jochen Deuse, Marco Stolpe and Katharina Morik; Quality Prediction in Interlinked Manufacturing Processes based on Supervised & Unsupervised Machine Learning C2 – George Pintzos, Markos Matsas, Nikolaos Papakostas and George Chryssolouris; Production Data Handling Using a Manufacturing Indicators’ Knowledge Model C3 – Christoph Groeger, Mark Hillmann, Friedemann Hahn, Bernhard Mitschang and Engelbert Westkaemper; The Operational Process Dashboard for Manufacturing C4 – Paul Woolliscroft, Dagmar Caganova, Milos Cambal, Lenka Pucikova and Jaroslav Holecek; Implications for optimisation of the automotive supply chain through knowledge management

Process modeling and process planning D1 – Hirohisa Narita; A Study of Automatic Determination of Cutting Conditions to Minimize Machining Cost D2 – Gabor Erdos, Zsolt Kemeny, Andras Kovacs and Jozsef Vancza; Planning of Remote Laser Welding Processes D3 – Jens Jäger and Andreas Kluth; Conceptual design of an off-site industrialisation process for FRP-based transport infrastructure components D4 – Peter Vatter and Raoul Plettke; Process model for the design of bent 3-dimensional free-form geometries for the three-roll-pushbending process

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Manufacturing processes E1 – Dirk Biermann, Markus Steiner and Eugen Krebs; Investigation of Different Hard Coatings for Micromilling of Austenitic Stainless Steel E2 – Wessel Wits, Sander Weitkamp and Johannes Van Es; Metal additive manufacturing of a high-pressure micro-pump E3 – Zhaoyan Fan, Robert Gao, Xiyue Zou and Jian Cao; Pressure Retrieval for Microrolling Process Monitoring E4 – Benjamin Vayre, Frederic Vignat and Francois Villeneuve; Designing rules for additive manufacturing: application on Electron Beam Melting E5 – Juan M. Jauregui Becker, Guido Tossello, Fred J.A.M. van Houten and Hans N. Hansen; Performance evaluation of a design tool for automated design of cooling systems in injection moulding E6 – Dirk Biermann, Henning Hartmann, Ina Terwey, Charlotte Merkel and Dominic Kehl; Turning of High-Strength Bainitic and Quenched and Tempered steels E7 – Christina Schmitt and Dirk Bähre; An Approach to the Calculation of Process Forces during the Precision Honing of Small Bores E8 – Miklós Czampa, Sándor Markos and Tibor Szalay; Improvement the drilling possibilities of difficult to machine materials E9 – Andreas Schubert, Ran Zhang and Philipp Steinert; Manufacturing of Twist-Free Surfaces by Hard Turning E10 – Uday Anna Dabade; Multi-objective Process Optimization to Improve Surface Integrity on Turned Surface of Al/SiCp Metal Matrix Composites Using Grey Relational Analysis

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

E11 – Ulrich Schneider, Manuel Drust, Arnold Puzik and Alexander Verl; Compensation of Errors in Robot Machining With a Parallel 3DPiezo Compensation Mechanism E12 – Alexey A. Vereschaka, Anatoly S. Vereschaka, Sergey N. Grigoriev, Andrej K. Kirillov and Olga J. Khaustova; Technological development and research of environmentally friendly dry machining system with compensation of physical function of cutting fluids E13 – Renato L. G. Monaro, André L. Helleno and Klaus Schützer; Evaluation of Dynamic Behavior of Machine Tools for Sculptured Surface Manufacturing E14 – Doriana Marilena D'Addona and Roberto Teti; Genetic algorithm-based optimization of cutting parameters in turning processes E15 – Marco Schumann, Marco Witt and Philipp Klimant; A RealTime Collision Prevention System for Machine Tools E16 – Adeilton Fernandes, Alexandre T. Simon and Carlos R. C. Lima; Study of the environmental and technical performance of a diesel engine with the alternative use of biofuel obtained from the reutilization of vegetal oil. E17 – João Gandra, Diogo Pereira, Rosa Miranda and Pedro Vilaça; Influence of force and travel speed in the friction surfacing of AA 6082-T6 over AA 2024-T3 E18 – Daniel Weimer, Bernd Scholz-Reiter and Hendrik Thamer; Learning defect classifiers for textured surfaces using neural networks and statistical feature representations E19 – Julius F. Klinger and Martin Bohn; Predicting dimensional deviations of structural vehicle body parts deep drawn from aluminum blanks

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

E20 – Gonçalo Almeida, João Gonzalez, Luís Rosado, Pedro Vilaça and Telmo Santos; Advances in NDT and materials characterization by eddy currents

Product and service development and management F1 – Horst Meier, Thomas Dorka and Friedrich Morlock; Architecture and Conceptual Design for IPS²-Execution Systems F2 – Pedro Marques, Pedro Cunha, Fernando Valente and Ana Leitão; A methodology for developing product-service systems F3 – Bernard Kornfeld and Sami Kara; A framework for developing portfolios of improvements projects in manufacturing F4 – Ana Leitão, Pedro Cunha, Fernando Valente and Pedro Marques; Roadmap for business models definition in manufacturing companies F5 – Nariaki Nishino, Sihui Wang, Nobuyuki Tsuji, Kazuro Kageyama and Kanji Ueda; Five Models of Platform-type Product Service Systems in Manufacturing F6 – Joris Van Ostaeyen, Yves Kerremans, Guy Van Goethem and Joost R. Duflou; A PSS model for diamond gemstone processing: economic feasibility analysis F7 – Gašper Škulj, Rok Vrabič, Peter Butala and Alojzij Sluga; Statistical Process Control as a Service: An Industrial Case Study

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Simulation and optimization of manufacturing systems G1 – Azrul Azwan Abdul Rahman and Günther Seliger - Simulation integrated control system for supporting changes of routing strategy in an automated material flow system G2 – Michael Neumann and Engelbert Westkämper; Method for situation based Modelling and Simulation of Assembly Systems G3 – Erik Lindskog, Jonatan Berglund, Johan Vallhagen and Björn Johansson; Visualization Support for Virtual Redesign of Manufacturing Systems G4 – Marcello Colledani, Marcello Urgo, Walter Terkaj and Giulia Pedrielli; Integrated Virtual Platform for Manufacturing Systems Design G5 – István Németh, János Püspöki, Csaba Haraszkó, Gyula Mátyási, Tibor Nagy, Christopher Freeman, Robin W. Scott and James S. Baldwin; 3D Design Support for Rapid Virtual Prototyping of Manufacturing Systems G6 – Yasuhiro Sudo and Michiko Matsuda; Agent based manufacturing simulation for efficient assembly operations G7 – Richard Hedman, Robin Sundkvist, Peter Almström and Anders Kinnander; Using work study input to object-oriented modeling of manufacturing resources G8 – Mirja Meyer, Marius-Vasile Apostu and Katja Windt; Analyzing the influence of excess capacities on performance robustness in fluctuating job-shop environments G9 – Csaba Kardos, Gergely Popovics, Botond Kádár and Laszlo Monostori; Methodology and data-structure for a uniform system’s specification in a simulation project

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

G10 – Christian Brecher, Simon Müller, Thomas Breitbach and Wolfram Lohse; Viable System Model for Manufacturing Execution Systems G11 – Tobias R. Philipp, Thomas Winkler and Gunther Reinhart; Enhanced Production Control for Prepreg Manufacturing G12 – Sergei Grigoriev, Andrey Kutin and Mikhail Turkin; Modelling complex production processes in aerospace industry based on dimensional analysis G13 – Yuji Yamamoto and Monica Bellgran; Four types of manufacturing process innovation and their managerial concerns

Production systems design and management H1 – Imad Chalfoun, Khalid Kouiss, Anne-Lise Huyet, Nicolas Bouton and Pascal Ray; Proposal for a Generic Model Dedicated to Reconfigurable and Agile Manufacturing Systems (RAMS) H2 – Horst Meier, Stefan Schröder and Niklas Kreggenfeld; Changeability by a modular design of production systems – consideration of technology, organisation and staff H3 – Anna Valente, Andrea Cataldo and Emanuele Carpanzano; A dispatching algorithm and software tool for managing the part flow on Reconfigurable Transportation System H4 – Karel Kruger and Anton Basson; Multi-Agent Systems vs IEC 61499 for Holonic Resource Control in Reconfigurable Systems H5 – Nestor Andres Arteaga Martin, Victor Mittelsaedt, Michael Prieur, Rainer Stark and Thomas Bär; Using movable props as passive haptic feedback in the simulation of manual assembly processes in automotive assembly planning and verification

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

H6 – Maarten Essers and Tom Vaneker; Developing concepts for improved efficiency of robot work preparation H7– P – Carlos Sousa; ProFlex - Evolvable Assembly Systems (INTROSYS, SA) H8 – Robert Riggs and S. Jack Hu; Disassembly liaison graphs inspired by word clouds H9 – Philipp Holtewert, Joachim Seidelmann and Thomas Bauernhansl; Virtual Fort Knox – Federative, secure and cloudbased platform for manufacturing H10 – Lukas Lingitz, Christian Morawetz, Dariush Tavaghof Gigloo, Stefan Minner and Wilfried Sihn; Modelling of flexibility costs in a decision support system for mid-term capacity planning H11 – Hesam Shidpour, Alain Bernard and Mahmoud Shahrokhi; A group decision-making method based on intuitionistic fuzzy set in the three dimensional concurrent engineering environment: a multiobjective programming approach H12 – Bernard Schmidt and Lihui Wang; Contact-less and Programming-less Human-Robot Collaboration H13–P – João Paulo Pimentão; COSMOS - Desing, development and implementation of factory control system (Holos SA)

Process improvement and management I1 – Jose Duarte, Pedro Cunha and Joao Craveiro; Maintenance database I2 – Marcello Colledani and Anteneh Teferi; Impact of Machine Reliability Uncertainty on the Design and Operation of Manufacturing Systems.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

I3 – Kirsten Tracht, Jan Westerholt and Peter Schuh; Spare Parts Planning for Offshore Wind Turbines subject to Restrictive Maintenance Conditions I4 – Tim Mielke and Uwe Dombrowski; Lean Leadership – fundamental principles and their application I5 – Halvor Holtskog; Continous Improvement beyond the Lean understanding I6 – Michael Tisch, Christian Hertle, Jan Cachay, Eberhard Abele, Joachim Metternich and Ralf Tenberg; A systematic approach on developing action-oriented, competency-based Learning Factories I7 – Alexandra Marques, António C. Alves and Jorge Pinho De Sousa; A new approach for integrated design of flexible production systems I8 – Sven Bechtloff, Stefan Seifermann and Joachim Metternich; Cellular Manufacturing – A lean and flexible Approach for Machining I9 – Pablo Guzmán Ferradás and Konstantinos Salonitis; Improving changeover time: a tailored SMED approach for welding cells I10 – Frank Zwißler, Eftal Okhan and Engelbert Westkämper; Lean and Proactive Liquidity Management for SMEs I11 – Lars Krogstie and Kristian Martinsen; Beyond Lean and SixSigma; Cross-Collaborative Improvement of Tolerances and Process Variations - A Case Study I12 – Uday Anna Dabade and Rahul C. Bhedasgaonkar; Casting Defect Analysis using Design of Experiments (DoE) and Computer Aided Casting Simulation Technique

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Energy-efficient processes and systems J1– Egon Müller, Romina Poller, Hendrik Hopf and Manuela Krones; Enabling Energy Management for Planning Energy-Efficient Factories J2 – Apostolos Fysikopoulos, Alexios Papachralampopoulos, Georgios Pastras, Panagiotis Stavropoulos and George Chryssolouris; Energy Efficiency Issues of Manufacturing Processes J3-P – João Pereira; Think Blue. Factory. (Volkswagen Autoeuropa) J4 – Konstantinos Salonitis and Peter Ball; Energy efficient manufacturing from a machine tool to manufacturing systems J5 – Philipp Eberspächer and Alexander Verl; Model-based energy reduction of machine tools through control-integrated optimization techniques J6–P – Philippe Bollinger; LifeSaver - Context sensitive monitoring of energy consumption to support energy savings and emissions trading in industry (AMESEIXAL) J7 – Marcus Andreas Dörr, Sylvia Wahren and Thomas Bauernhansl; Methodology for energy-efficiency on process level J8 – Jumyung Um and Ian Stroud; Total energy estimation model for remote laser welding process J9 – Hong-Seok Park and Xuan-Phuong Dang; A study on the heating process for forging of an automotive crankshaft in terms of energy efficiency

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Technology in production and logistics K1 – Christoph Gröger, Stefan Silcher, Engelbert Westkämper and Bernhard Mitschang; Leveraging Apps in Manufacturing. A Framework for App Technology in the Enterprise K2 – Per Saunders, Bin Cai, Paul Maropoulos and Nick Orchard; Towards a definition of PLM-integrated Dimensional Measurement K3 – Johannes Volkmann and Engelbert Westkämper; Cost Model for Digital Engineering Tools K4 – Frederic Vignat; A New Numerical Chain From 3D Model of Parts to CNC Manufacturing K5 - Alexander Verl, Armin Lechler, Stefan Wesner, Andreas Kirstädter, Jan Schlechtendahl, Lutz Schubert and Sebastian Meier; An approach for cloud based machine tool control K6 – Jody Muelaner, Oliver Martin and Paul Maropoulos ; Achieving Low Cost and High Quality Aero Structure Assembly through Integrated Digital Metrology Systems

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Abstracts Topics:           

Production and logistic networks Factory and production planning Knowledge and data management in production and logistics Process modeling and process planning Manufacturing processes Product and service development and management Simulation and optimization of manufacturing systems Production systems design and management Process improvement and management Energy-efficient processes and systems Technology in production and logistics

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Production and Logistics Networks

A1 – Opportunities in the wake of crisis Halvor Holtskog

a

, Geir Ringenb

a

Gjøvik University College, Teknologivegen, Gjøvik, Norway

b

Sintef Raufoss Manufacturing, Raufoss, Norway

geir.ringen@sintef.no

This study reveals the history of a Norwegian automotive supplier that went bankruptcy during the financial crisis in 2009. The crisis swept through the industry and hit hard for those actors who already struggled to keep up with the cost pressure. A few people kept faith in knowledgeable workers and innovative ideas, and the company arose from the cumbersome situation to become a sole supplier of critical wheel suspension systems to European premium brands. The company managed to ascend and invest in R&D and innovations that save weight, reduce number of components and save cost. The main research question asked in this study is what strategic capabilities are demonstrated when turning a crisis into opportunities. The study shows interesting features about how a supplier can adapt to a completely new market situation by focusing on, and combining, R&D, customer relations, cocreation, employee competency, sustainability and ability to adapt. The essence is that the crisis was not entirely negative - it also gave opportunities for those who dared to invest in human capital, technology and niche markets.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

A2 – Risk-Value-Cost-Based optimization of global valueadding structures Andrea Prinz, Thomas Bauernhansl Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA, Nobelstrasse, Stuttgart, Germany andrea.prinz@ipa.fraunhofer.de

Present methodologies do not adequately take qualitative factors into account in optimizing the distribution of value-added activities. This is where the method currently developed by the Fraunhofer IPA for a risk-value-cost-based optimization of global production networks comes in. Unlike previous approaches, this method considers qualitative criteria comprehensively, classifying them into risks and values, and analyzing them in an integrated manner to determine the global optimum. For comparing qualitative and quantitative factors, a multi-criteria optimization approach is developed, which is the first to deliver consistent results.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

A3 – Managing complexity in supply chains: A discussion of current approaches on the example of the semiconductor industry a

Judith Aelker

, Thomas Bauernhanslb, Hans Ehmc

a

Institute of Industrial Manufacturing and Management, Stuttgart, Germany

b

Fraunhofer Inst.for Manufacturing Eng.and Automation, Stuttgart, Germany

c

Infineon Technologies AG, Neubiberg, Germany

jka@iff.uni-stuttgart.de

The aim of this paper is to analyze the state of the art of complexity management in the area of supply chain management. In this regard, the suitability of Complex Adaptive System (CAS) modeling for making complexity-optimizing supply chain decisions is discussed on the example of the semiconductor supply chain. New global markets, lower manufacturing costs, and sourcing activities have led to a global dispersion of supply chains. However, manufacturers have discovered an unpleasant side effect of global manufacturing: Rising complexity. In practice, supply chain managers react intuitively to the complexity of processes, products and IT. This is partly due to the fact that so far, only little effort has been made to develop tools for quantifying supply chain complexity. But supply chain managers are in need of these methods enabling them to make complexityoptimized supply chain decisions. The quantitative impact of complexity –its value and its costs– has to be effectively calculated to enable supply chain managers to make complexity-optimized supply chain decisions. A promising approach for managing supply chain complexity is the interpretation of a supply chain as a CAS. CAS are systems far from equilibrium, characterized by a large number of interacting and evolving agents, who adapt and learn and thus could be able to solve the complexity dilemma.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

A4 – Coalition formation based multi-item multi-attribute negotiation of supply chain network Fang Yu, Toshiya Kaihara, Nobutada Fujii Kobe University, Graduate School of System Informatics, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan yufang@kaede.cs.kobe-u.ac.jp

In this paper, a coalition formation based negotiation protocol, which aims to reduce the workload and time of the manufacturer agent (MA), is proposed for the material supplier agent (MSA) to find partners to establish a coalition when the order is out of its ability. Concessions among the multi-attribute are considered by MA and MSAs to trade-off the multi-attribute according to their preferences. Stackelberg game is introduced to find the equilibrium of the multiitem multi-attribute negotiation. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed protocol are verified by computational experiments

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

A5 – A generic approach for the graph-based integrated production and intermodal transport scheduling with capacity restrictions Bernd Scholz-Reiter

a

, Jens Hartmannb, Thomas Makuschewitzb,

Enzo Morosini Frazzon

c

a

University of Bremen, Bibliothekstraße Bremen, Germany

b

BIBA - Bremer Institut für Produktion und Logistik GmbH at the University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany c

Industrial and Systems Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil hmn@biba.uni-bremen.de

The performance of global manufacturing supply chains depends on the interaction of production and transport processes. Currently, the scheduling of these processes is done separately without considering mutual requirements, which leads to nonoptimal solutions. An integrated scheduling of both processes enables the improvement of supply chain performance. The integrated production and transport scheduling problem (PTSP) is NP-hard, so that heuristic methods are necessary to efficiently solve large problem instances as in the case of global manufacturing supply chains. This paper presents a heuristic scheduling approach which handles the integration of flexible production processes with intermodal transport, incorporating flexible land transport and maritime transport running a given timetable. The method is based on a graph that allows a reformulation of the PTSP as a shortest path problem for each job, which can be solved in polynomial time. The proposed method is applied to a supply chain scenario with a manufacturing facility in Brazil and shipments to customers in Germany. The obtained results show that the approach is suitable for the scheduling of large-scale problems and can be flexibly adapted to different scenarios.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

A6 – Milkrun vehicle routing approach for shop-floor logistics Dávid Gyulai Váncza

a,c

, András Pfeiffera, Thomas Sobottkab, József

a,c

a

Fraunhofer Project Center at Computer and Automation Research Institute (SZTAKI), Kende, Budapest, Hungary b

Fraunhofer Austria Research GmbH, Theresianumgasse, Wien, Austria

c

Dept. of Manufacturing Science and Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Egry J., Budapest, Hungary david.gyulai@sztaki.mta.hu

In large-scale shop floors and manufacturing environment, different transportation systems are applied in order to satisfy the material requirements of the systems. The limited capacity of vehicles and time consumption of the logistics processes require effective vehicle routing approaches so as to support production without glitches. The paper gives an overview of the appropriate models and the most efficient solver algorithms of the vehicle routing problem (VRP), introduces a novel approach that uses a novel initial solution generation heuristics, and presents a local search method to solve the VRP. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the solution proposed, the implemented software concentrates on the main industrial requirements like quick response, effective layout definition and order handling. A specific layout representation scheme is proposed which ensures interoperability between different factory-, and shop-floor planning software products .

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

A7 – Control-theoretic analysis of the lead time syndrome and its impact on the logistic target achievement Mathias Knollmann and Katja Windt Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring, Bremen, Germany M.Knollmann@jacobs-university.de

The unawareness of production planners about the interaction of the logistic variables (actual and planned lead times, work in process levels, capacities etc.) often leads to problems while trying to improve the logistic target achievement. The Lead Time Syndrome of production control (LTS) represents one of these counterproductive actions, e.g., the aim of improving due date reliability by adapting planned lead times. The result is often an aggravation of due date reliability. The investigation of impacts on the logistic target achievement by the complex and dynamic variable coherences of the LTS requires transferring these coherences into control theory. In addition, the LTS chain reaction has strong similarities to a positive feedback loop of control theory. Thereby, even small system disturbances can lead to an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation. Control theory provides tools to model the behaviour of dynamic systems and to avoid positive feedback by implementing appropriate countermeasures. The overall targets of this paper are to depict variable interactions in the LTS by means of control theory and to derive potential measures by investigating the similarities to the positive feedback loop. Consequentially, a more precise parameterization of the company specific production planning and control will be enabled. Moreover, the improved understanding of LTS variable correlations will enable the selection of situation-dependent measures to improve the logistic target achievement in scope of the LTS in the following steps of research.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

A8 – Concurrent product - supply chain design & tradeoff methodologies: A conceptual framework & literature review Thiam-Soon Gan and Martin Grunow Chair of Production & Supply Chain Management, Technical University of Munich, Germany thiam_soon.gan@tum.de

The capability to concurrently design the product and the supply chain is becoming a key competence in manufacturing companies. In spite of this development, this competence is still underdeveloped in industry. Research has not been able to fill this industrial capability gap partly because there is a lack of convergence of the methodologies for concurrent product and supply chain design in the research community. Moreover, a dominant and practical methodology in concurrent product and supply chain design in the industries has not yet emerged. This paper addresses this gap by introducing a novel conceptual framework termed Concurrent Design Attribute – Trade-Off Pyramid (CDA-TOP). Based on this framework, we provide a literature review with special focus on design trade-off attributes and methodologies.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

A9 – A game theoretic model to manufacturing planning with single manufacturer and multiple suppliers with asymmetric quality information Sisi Yin

a

, Tatsushi Nishia, Guoqing Zhangb

a

Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyona City, Japan b

Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, Canada nishi@sys.es.osaka-u.ac.jp

In this paper, we propose a game theoretic model to coordinate single manufacturer and multiple suppliers under demand uncertainty with asymmetric quality information. The paper addresses the manufacturer and its suppliers who are involved in purchasing and production with uncertain demands. Due to asymmetric information, the quality information of components purchased from suppliers is unknown to the manufacturer. Thus, we investigate two scenarios for the manufacturer to estimate uncertainty of risk. The coordination problem is modeled by Stackelberg game where the manufacturer is the leader and suppliers are followers. An optimization approach is proposed to find an equilibrium under demand uncertainty. Computational results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

A10 – Ad-hoc rescheduling and innovative business models for shock-robust production systems Gisela Lanza, Nicole Stricker,, Steven Peters wbk-Institue of Production Science, Karlsruhe Insitute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany nicole.stricker@kit.edu

Reconfigurability, flexibility, transformability and agility become key enablers of success. This leads to new business models and the necessity of new concepts for production planning along the whole value chain. Adequate methods have to integrate the possibilities of a migration of the network and the changeability of each single plant. Moreover these approaches should be able to cope with uncertainty and reduce the complexity for the decision-makers to a minimum. Consequently, this paper focuses on two major aspects: ad-hoc rescheduling of reconfigurable plants as well as new innovative business models between equipment or component supplier and OEM. Cyber-physical systems will enable new decentralized and autonomously working production equipment and in doing so, reduce complexity and boost up the speed of possible reactions to market shocks. Component suppliers will enrich their portfolio by new bundling approaches including warranties to their products in terms of risk prevention (e.g. warranties for needed time to react to market changes or bottlenecks).

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

A11–P – Vendors management inventory Fernando Marchante EuroResinas – Industrias Quimicas SA fmmarchante@sonaeindustria.com

VMI is being used at EuroResinas on our relationship with one of our major raw material suppliers. On this model the relation with the supplier is very close, like a partnership and the economic advantages on the working capital were very high. EuroResinas is now studying the possibility of implement this same way of work with some of our customers. Heaven if they are customers from the same company group, we at EuroResinas believe that we can have a better global Supply Chain. The target is that the global stocks and the effectiveness of our operation and customers operations, became lean !

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

A12 – Measuring global production effectiveness Gisela Lanza, Johannes Stoll, Nicole Stricker, Steven Petersa, Christof Lorenz Insitute of Production Science (wbk), KIT – Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstraße, Karlsruhe, Germany johannes.stoll@kit.edu

Increasingly shorter product life cycles at an increasing number of variations call for productive, reliable and quality-oriented production systems and networks which are able to meet the turbulence of global demand especially at an expected higher frequency of economic crises. The following paper presents the development of a theoretical measure for an evaluation that integrates all aspects of a globally distributed production system. The work is based on the latest enhancements of the classic OEE figure of the TPM concept.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

A13 – Manufacturing network design for mass customization using a genetic algorithm and an intelligent search method Dimitris Mourtzis, Michalis Doukas and Foivos Psarommatis Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems and Automation, University of Patras mourtzis@lms.mech.upatras.gr

The volatile globalised markets and mass customisation greatly affect modern industries. In this context, the timely and accurate manufacturing network design is an important strategic decision. However, this proven NP-hard problem cannot be approached by exhaustive methods. This research work aims to support the decision-makers by introducing a Genetic Algorithm for the identification of near optimum manufacturing network configurations. The examined problem tackles the multi-stage manufacturing network design for single customised products, through satisfaction of multiple objectives. The performance of the alternative designs deriving from the GA is compared to the results of an intelligent search algorithm with adjustable control parameters, and with an exhaustive search method. The conflicting criteria for evaluating the alternative configurations include cost, time, quality and environmental parameters. The applicability of the proposed method is validated through a case study, utilising data acquired from the automotive sector.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

A14 – Structural complexity issues of assembly supply chains: a theoretical framework Vladimir Modrak and David Marton Faculty of Manufacturing Technologies with seat in Presov, Bayerova, Slovakia vladimir.modrak@tuke.sk

Complexity of assembly supply chains is relatively a new research domain that aims at enabling designers to make a decision about a suitable topology of assembly supply chain. It is because of that that, ASC systems are becoming increasingly complex due to technological advancements, geographically diverse sourcing arrangements and increasing product variety. In this paper, we present a theoretical framework for modeling of assembly supply chains and propose three possible indicators to measure a structural complexity of assembly supply networks. Models of such networks are divided into classes on the basis of the numbers of initial suppliers. Subsequently, we compare proposed indicators and graphically demonstrate obtained results. Finally, pertinent finding of this research are summarized.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

A15 – Towards socio-cyber-physical systems in production networks Enzo Morosini Frazzon Bernd Scholz-Reiter

a

, Jens Hartmannb, Thomas Makuschewitzb,

c

a

Industrial and Systems Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil b

BIBA - Bremer Institut für Produktion und Logistik GmbH, University of Bremen, Hochschulring, Bremen, Germany c

University of Bremen, Bibliothekstraße, Bremen, Germany

enzo.frazzon@ufsc.br

The adoption of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) in production networks enables new potential for improved efficiency, accountability, sustainability and scalability. In terms of production and transport processes, materialising this potential requires customised technological concepts, planning and control methods as well as business models. Even though CPS strongly rely on technological advancements, the creativity, flexibility and problem solving competence of human stakeholders is strongly needed for their operation. This paper introduces and reviews the social aspects of CPS and motivates future research towards Socio-Cyber-Physical Systems (SCPS) applied to production networks. In this frame, context-dependent behavioural aspects and implications related to the human stakeholders are delimitated. As a showcase for the relevance of these aspects the deficits arising from an insufficient communication among stakeholders in SCPS are analysed by means of a simulation experiment. The obtained results substantiate the dependence of SCPS on properly considering the aspects related to human stakeholders together with technology.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

A16 – An organisational concept for collaborative enterprise networks Heiko Baum and Jens Schütze Chemnitz University of Technology, Institute of Industrial Management and Factory Systems, Department of Factory Planning and Factory Management, Germany heiko.baum@mb.tu-chemnitz.de

This article presents an organisational concept for the collaboration of micro and small enterprises. This concept is called Two- LevelCollaboration. This can be considered as a special form of Collaborative Enterprise Networks (CEN). A dynamic role concept is derived corresponding to the inner organisational principle of the Two-Level-Collaboration. CEN can be modularly designed by means of this role concept. The dynamic role concept postulates a conceptual separation of collaborative tasks to be realized and their organisational implementation. The single role-describing elements are defined and based on these, modules for the development of collaborative roles is being derived.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

A17 – Conceptual framework for non-hierarchical business networks for complex products design and manufacturing Luis Maia Carneiro Shamsuzzoha a b c d

a

, Pedro Cunhab,c, Pedro Sena Ferreirac, Ahm

d

INESC Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, Porto, Portugal IPS, Estefanilha, Setúbal, Portugal CENI, Campus do IPS, Estefanilha, Setúbal, Portugal University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland

luis.carneiro@inescporto.pt

The effective creation and management of business networks is more and more an important contribution for the competitiveness and sustainability of European SMEs. In Non-hierarchical networks SMEs join their competencies and resources to grab profitable business opportunities. In these networks SMEs take the leading role and control the business instead of being subcontracted by large companies and traditional supply chains. This paper presents a conceptual framework, including methodological approach, best practices and reference processes aiming at supporting SMEs in creating and managing non-hierarchical networks for complex products design and manufacturing. The framework high level structure and the most specific processes are presented, including: capacity management, collaborative operations planning, risk and event management and performance management. The framework was validated in three pilot networks, from the textile, footwear and machine tools industries

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

A18 – Methodology for the assessment of structural complexity in global production networks Günther Schuh, Till Potente and Rawina Varandani Lab. for Machine Tools and Production Engineering (WZL) Aachen, Germany Rawina.Varandani@wzl.rwth-aachen.de

The structure of production networks is mainly determined by the amount of production sites, the number of people working in these production sites and the distribution of products and production processes. Due to the dynamic and unpredictable changes in global market requirements production networks have become more and more complex driven by the growth of multinational companies through acquisitions and set ups of production plants. This paper presents an approach to design production networks with an optimal level of structural complexity in order to increase the efficiency of production processes around the world. The approach consists of two basic elements: firstly, the structural complexity is captured via characteristic parameters and quantified. The main characteristics of a production network such as the amount of production sites, the number of employees and the product and process distribution form the basis for the quantification. The second cornerstone is set by the intelligent visualization of the structural complexity with respect to organisational and communication aspects. Organisation and communication structure of a company can be optimized comparing different production network scenarios, hence increasing the overall efficiency within global production networks. A validation of our approach is presented using a data set of a recently conducted industry project. Different network scenarios of a global manufacturer in the mechanical engineering field are compared to point out design rules for the optimization of structural complexity within the company.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Factory and production planning

B1 – Virtual reality as a collaboration tool for factory planning based on scenario technique Nicole Menck, Christian Weidig and Jan C. Aurich Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Production Systems (FBK), 67653 Kaiserslautern, Germany menck@cpk.uni-kl.de

Over the last couple of years several factors have changed the behavior of companies to interact and collaborate. This can be attributed mainly to a turbulent environment. In addition, the use of Virtual Reality (VR) as a tool for collaboration to exchange information and data has increased significantly over time in production-related areas. The purpose of this paper is to identify the recent state of application areas and stages for the expedient use of VR as a collaboration tool for factory planning. Therefore, a literature review is given on how to handle factors that influence companies in general, but also regarding the factory planning processes. Based on this, the scenario technique in the area of factory planning is presented. These scenarios can be used as a basis for long-term planning of strategic actions. This technique can be especially helpful in an unpredictable future to support long-term decisions. Furthermore, an overview is provided in regard to the phases of factory planning that are supported by VR applications. In contrast, phases are highlighted where a VR support is needed. The basis for a concept is given that strives towards a continuous VR supported factory planning process

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

B2 – Multidimensional evaluation of the changeability of interlinked production processes with material flow simulation Florian Albrecht, Laura Faatz and Eberhard Abele Institute of Production Management, Technology and Machine Tools, Petersenstr, Darmstadt, Germany albrecht@ptw.tu-darmstadt.de

The increasing length and interconnectedness of process chains – caused by a rising product complexity – forces companies to operate in an environment with a growing number of change drivers interfering in their day-to-day business. These new business conditions characterized by a rising intensity and multidimensionality of changes do not allow covering all potential developments by the flexibility of the production economically. This circumstance requires new approaches for process planning and investment decisions for companies. This article introduces an integrated planning approach to evaluate the changeability of interlinked production processes ex ante using material flow simulation and scenario analysis. Based on the results process chains can be configured robust to future requirements, because changeability enablers for a quick and efficient adoption can be installed systematically. A major advantage of simulating multiple stages of a production process is not only that the changeability of single processes is evaluated, but also the interdependencies within the entire process chain are considered in the evaluation and the configuration of improved processes.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

B3 – Design of production control`s behavior Günther Schuh, Till Potente and Christina Thomas Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering (WZL) of RWTH Aachen University, Steinbachstraße, Germany c.thomas@wzl.rwth-aachen.de

Today, one of a company´s biggest challenge is to achieve a high adherence to delivery dates. The aim of production control is to ensure a robust production process despite of dynamic environmental influences in order to respond quickly to changes and to realize the achievement of logistic goals. Although many IT supporting tools have been developed in the past, employees of production control still have problems with intransparent control principles and run the risk to make wrong decisions. Especially socio-technical aspects are often neglected within the configuration process of production control. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new approach of the configuration of production control which includes socio-technical system effects.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

B5 – Current state of standardized work in the automotive industry in Sweden Pierre E. C. Johansson, Thomas Lezama, Lennart Malmsköld, Birgitta Sjögren and Lena Moestam Ahlström Volvo Group Trucks Technology – Advanced Technology & Research, Götaverksgatan, Göteborg, Sweden pierre.johansson@volvo.com

Standardized work has been one of several larger research topics in the automotive industry over the years. This paper gives a brief view of the current situation of standardized work in the automotive industry in Sweden. The paper is based on recently performed studies at several automotive actors in Sweden. Most of the present research about standardized work focuses on local premises. Therefore, this paper suggests more focus in future research on how to implement standardized work in global organisations focusing on local demands and cultural differences and similarities

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

B6 – Synchronization measures in job shop manufacturing environments Till Becker, Stanislav M. Chankov and Katja Windt Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, Germany s.chankov@jacobs-university.de

The optimal synchronization of the material flow in a job shop appears to be a prerequisite to ensure the constant availability of resources at the manufacturing systems. Synchronization has been extensively studied in many disciplines (physics, biology, chemistry, medicine, etc.). However, research on the presence of synchronization in manufacturing systems is still sparse and it is not yet possible to fully evaluate the effects of synchronization on performance. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a common procedure for measuring and quantifying synchronization in job shop manufacturing. This article aims to do so by presenting two distinct quantification and visualization methods for synchronization and applying them to real production feedback data from job shop manufacturers

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

B7 – Dispatching rule-based algorithms for a dynamic flexible flow shop scheduling problem with timedependent process defect rate and quality feedback Byung Jun Joo, Yong Chan Choi and Paul Xirouchakis Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausann, Switzerland byungjun.joo@epfl.ch

We consider a three-stage dynamic flexible flow shop scheduling problem in which jobs of multiple types arrive dynamically over time, a quality feedback mechanism is present, and the setup timing and the process defect rate are closely related. At each machine in the second stage, a sequence-independent setup operation is necessary to changeover job types. Once a setup is done for a job type at a machine, the defect rate for the job type at the machine is reset to a low and stable phase which will be maintained for a predetermined time periods. However, after the phase, it turns to a relatively high and unstable phase. At the final inspection stage, jobs are inspected and the quality feedback will be given to the previous stage when the accumulative defect rate of each job type exceeds a certain tolerance level. To cope with the dynamic nature of the flexible flow shop scheduling problem, we propose two dispatching rule-based scheduling algorithms which consider the quality feedback as well as the real time shop information for the objectives of maximizing the quality rate and the mean tardiness of the finished jobs. The results of a series of simulation experiments will be given to evaluate the performance of the suggested algorithms. Since there have been few research on the shop floor scheduling problems with quality feedback, we expect that this research will make a contribution to the development of a practical real time scheduling methodology in multi-stage production systems with the consideration of the imperfect process quality.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

B8 – Matching bills of materials (BOM) using trees reconciliation Mohamed Kashkoush and Hoda Elmaraghy Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (IMS) Centre, University of Windsor, Canada hae@uwindsor.ca

A product Bill of Materials (BOM) is a structured tree which represents its components and their hierarchal relationships. The BOMs are traditionally used for Material Requirement Planning (MRP). However, they do have other useful applications in product modeling and variety management. Recent research used graph difference operations, linear algebra and integer programming to match trees of BOM and find pairwise similarity measures for applications such as clustering product variants into families and retrieval of design and manufacturing data. Matching phylogenetic trees has been utilized in biological science for decades and is referred to as “tree reconciliation”. A new application of this approach in manufacturing to match pairs of BOM trees and retrieve the most similar design is presented. This novel method can help speeding-up other downstream planning activities such as process planning, hence, improving productivity and shortening time to market. Assembly of chemical processing centrifugal pumps is used as a case study for demonstration. This novel matching of Bills of Materials uses linear time algorithms, compared to state-ofthe-art algorithms which use integer programming and matrix approximation, hence, leading to more computational efficiency.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

B9 – A holistic management model for manufacturing companies and related IT support Stefan Silcher Mitschang

a,b

, Barbara Seeberga, Erich Zahna, Bernhard

a,b

a

Graduate School of Excellence advanced Manufacturing Engineering (GSaME), University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany b

Institute for Parallel and Distributed Systems (IPVS), University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany stefan.silcher@gsame.uni-stuttgart.de

Life cycle and management concepts are a necessity to compete in current turbulent markets. Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) struggle when realizing such concepts and accordant IT support. In this paper we review different concepts and their similarities and differences are discussed. We focus on Product Lifecycle Management (PLM), Supply Chain Management and Factory Lifecycle Management to integrate them into a holistic management model. Subsequently, we extend a service-based PLM architecture to support the holistic management model to continuously support processes. The usage of standardized technologies allows companies, and especially SMEs, to implement this architecture with low costs and effort.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

B10 – Usage of a digital eco-factory for green production preparation Michiko Matsuda

a

, Fumihiko Kimurab

a

Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Shimo-ogino, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa, Japan b

Hosei University, Kajino-cho, Koganei, Tokyo, Japan

matsuda@ic.kanagawa-it.ac.jp

This paper proposes green production preparation using a digital eco-factory. When a digital eco-factory is used, green performance is examined in addition to productivity and manufacturability at the same time. A digital eco-factory shows green performance with various granularities such as machine level, product level and factory level. A digital eco-factory is a virtual factory and IT platform for sustainable production planning. In a digital eco-factory, the production scenario is examined by simulating manufacturing processes. The digital eco-factory is configured on a digital factory. The digital factory is constructed by applying multi agent technology. In the digital factory, all factory elements such as machine tools and assembly machines are configured as software agents. A digital factory mirrors the structure of the actual factory. At the usage stage, the user of a digital eco-factory can easily customize configuration of the factory, target production scenario, granularity of simulation parameters, etc.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

B11 – The evolution of manufacturing species – A cladistic analysis and its application

, Christen Rose-Anderssena, Keith Ridgwaya, b b c Fabian Boettinger , Marcus Michen , Kwabena Agyapong-Kodua , d e f Ivan Brencsics , Istvan Nemeth , Roland Krain James Scott Baldwin

a

a

Advanced Manufacturing Institute, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK

b

Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA, Stuttgart, Germany c

Precision Manufacturing Centre, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK d

Gamax Kft, Budapest, Hungary

e

Department of Manufacturing Science and Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary f

TEKS SRL, France j.baldwin@sheffield.ac.uk

This research aims to develop hierarchical and cladistic classifications of manufacturing system evolution, incorporating evolving and interacting product, process and production system features. The objectives then are to systematically organise manufacturing systems and their characteristics in classifications Forty-six candidate species of manufacturing systems have been identified and organised in a 4th generation hierarchical classification with 14 ‘genera’, 6 ‘families’ 3 ‘orders’ and 1 ‘class’ of discrete manufacturing. The accompanying cladistic classification hypothesises the evolutionary history of manufacturing, using ‘descriptors’ drawn from a library of 12 characters and 66 states. These are consistent and synthesise many of the established typologies in the literature. From this, it has been possible to develop a useful benchmarking tool which enables users to view manufacturing systems in an evolutionary landscape, gauge performance, and identify strategies and tools for change and improvement. Proof-of-Concept of this application has been demonstrated with several industrial end-users.

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Knowledge and data management in production and logistics

C1 – Quality prediction in interlinked manufacturing processes based on supervised & unsupervised machine learning Daniel Lieber

a

, Marco Stolpeb, Benedikt Konrada, Jochen Deusea,

Katharina Morik

b

a

Institute of Production Systems, TU Dortmund, Leonhard-Euler-Str., Dortmund, Germany b

Chair of Artificial Intelligence, TU Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany

daniel.lieber@tu-dortmund.de

In the context of a rolling mill case study, this paper presents a methodical framework based on data mining for predicting the physical quality of intermediate products in interlinked manufacturing processes. In the first part, implemented data preprocessing and feature extraction components of the Inline Quality Prediction System are introduced. The second part shows how the combination of supervised and unsupervised data mining methods can be applied to identify most striking operational patterns, promising qualityrelated features and production parameters. The results indicate how sustainable and energy-efficient interlinked manufacturing processes can be achieved by the application of data mining.

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C2 – Production data handling using a manufacturing indicators’ knowledge model

George Pintzos, Markos Matsas, Nikolaos Papakostas and George Chryssolouris Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University of Patras, Patras, Greece xrisol@lms.mech.upatras.gr

This paper demonstrates the added value of using knowledge modeling for the structure of manufacturing indicators. There is a methodology describing the generation of relevant indicator values, based on knowledge modeling. The model has three different layers, starting from a generic one down to an instance layer. This model can be used for reasoning purposes, where the users can identify pertinent information, regarding the Production Performance Indicators-PPI’s attributes, relations to resources and their connection to other indicators. Furthermore, it can also be used for the generation of queries, for the handling of data streams from the shop floor and their translation into useful information for the higher levels. Both types of functionalities are demonstrated through a specific automotive use case, where energy related data streams, generated from machines, are handled by queries created through this model.

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C3 – The operational process dashboard for manufacturing Christoph Groeger, Mark Hillmann, Friedemann Hahn, Bernhard Mitschang and Engelbert Westkaemper Graduate School of Excellence advanced Manufacturing Engineering (GSaME), Unversity of Stuttgart, Nobelstr, Stuttgart, Germany christoph.groeger@gsame.uni-stuttgart.de

Agility is a critical success factor for manufacturers in today’s volatile global environment and requires employees monitoring their performance and reacting quickly to turbulences. Thus, comprehensive information provisioning on all hierarchy levels is necessary. Yet, existing IT systems, e. g., Manufacturing Execution Systems, scarcely address information needs of workers on the shop floor level. This causes uncoordinated waiting times, inflexibility and costly communication. To address these issues, we present the Operational Process Dashboard for Manufacturing (OPDM), a mobile dashboard for shop floor workers. We identify process oriented information needs, develop technical dashboard services and define IT requirements for an implementation.

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C4 – Implications for optimisation of the automotive supply chain through knowledge management Paul Woolliscroft, Dagmar Caganova, Milos Cambal, Lenka Pucikova and Jaroslav Holecek Slovak University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Slovakia paul.woolliscroft@stuba.sk

During the past two decades, the trend towards globalisation and the continual downward pressure on operating costs to remain competitive has prompted numerous manufacturers to adopt a radical approach to analyse and realign their cost base. Nowhere has this trend has been more prominent than in the automotive industry whereby several manufacturers have switched production to countries with a lower cost base to benefit from FDI incentives from an enlarged EU. Although savings can quickly be realised on an operational level by switching production, more critical to the overall success is the adoption of a holistic approach which encompasses the entire automotive supply chain and considers the integrated and complex nature of the production process. The aim of this paper is to assess the case study of the Slovak automotive sector from a knowledge management perspective. The purpose is to identify the importance of implementing a robust knowledge sharing process as a means of identifying and integrating key component suppliers. Moreover the process will underline the crucial role of knowledge management as a core component for the success of Just-in Time production and as a key driver to enable an organisation to fully capitalise upon all elements of the value chain.

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Process modeling and process planning

D1 – A study of automatic determination of cutting conditions to minimize machining cost Hirohisa Narita School of Health Sciences, Fujita Health University, Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake, Japan hnarita@fujita-hu.ac.jp

Machining cost is a most important factor for manufacturing a product. The machining cost for each machine tool is often estimated from the total cost of a factory according to the conventional method used for industrial management. The total income and expenditure of a factory can be obtained, however the operation status of machine tools is different. That is to say that an accurate machining cost for each part can’t be estimated and then cutting conditions realizing minimum machining cost cannot be discussed before a real machining operation. Hence, an estimation method of machining cost is proposed with using ABC (activity-based costing). The activities related to electric consumption of a machine tool, coolant, lubricant oil, cutting tool and metal chip are considered for total machining cost in this research. Based on the estimation method, the calculation method of cutting conditions achieving minimum machining cost is introduced and discussed. An adequate cutting condition can be obtained by calculating an approximate equation with using least-square method and exploring a cutting condition achieving the minimum machining cost with using iterative calculation in this paper. The feasibility of the proposed estimation method of machining cost and the calculation method of cutting conditions achieving minimum machining cost is demonstrated through some case studies.

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D2 – Planning of remote laser welding processes Gabor Erdos, Zsolt Kemeny, Andras Kovacs and Jozsef Vancza Fraunhofer Project Center on Production Management and Informatics, Computer and Automation Research Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary Department of Manufacturing Science and Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics erdos@sztaki.mta.hu

The paper discusses the technical background of the remote laser welding (RLW) technology, its novel opportunities and implications for planning processes. Our ultimate goal is to develop a complete off-line programming toolbox for RLW which can provide an automated method for computing close-to-optimal robot programs. We suggest a workflow for the complete planning process, and propose new models and algorithms for solving the sequencing of welding tasks in conjunction with path planning, as well as for generating the inverse kinematics of the robot. The paper summarizes results of first computational experiments in an automotive case study using an industrial robot. The proposed method leads to a substantial reduction in the cycle time of the welding operation compared to an earlier approach.

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D3 – Conceptual design of an off-site industrialisation process for FRP-based transport infrastructure components Jens Jäger and Andreas Kluth Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation Fraunhofer IPA, Nobelstraße, Stuttgart, Germany Jens.Jaeger@ipa.fraunhofer.de

Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) are used more and more in new construction structural components. Today already first transport infrastructures e.g. road and pedestrian bridges are built out of such components, using mainly manual and not automated manufacturing processes. In order to develop a cost-effective integrated construction process that will enable the maximum capability of automation of components for transport infrastructures using polymer based materials (carbon fiber, glass fiber, etc.) there is a need to industrialize the whole construction process of the FRP components. Hence the main objective is the conception and development of an automated off-site industrialization process for producing modular FRP-based transport infrastructure components. This overall process will cover the whole production process from the procurement of raw materials up to the transport of the produced components, including the facility layout and the management of involved human resources. This leads to the conceptual design of an off-site industrialization process for the most suitable highly flexible and agile production process at a high automation level as well as for coping different sizes and quantities of FRP components. Within this paper different planning activities for the conceptual design of the off-site industrialization process are presented and a detailed description of each planning phase and their associated planning activities is given. To define a conceptual design of the offsite industrialization process, the components that should be produced and the needed manufacturing processes are shortly

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presented. As a result of this for each component of the bridge, a generic production structure can be assigned and evaluated. Production areas, logistics as well as a rough layout for the factory have been analyzed and finally a variant for the possible final factory layout is presented.

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D4 – Process model for the design of bent 3-dimensional free-form geometries for the three-roll-push-bending process Peter Vatter and Raoul Plettke Manufacturing Technology, Egerlandstraße, Erlangen, Germany peter.vatter@fau.de

Three-Roll-Push-Bending is a highly flexible manufacturing process for the production of 3-dimensional free-form bent tubes. In the scope of this paper the process behaviour for the manufacturing of 3dimensional geometries is investigated. A FE model which considers all of the relevant influences, such as the machine’s kinematic, the friction and the machine stiffness has been developed. A variant simulation investigating the impact of the process parameters on the shape of the resulting helical structures has been carried out. This allows a methodical process design for the manufacturing of 3dimensional free-form geometries.

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Manufacturing processes

E1 – Investigation of different hard coatings for micromilling of austenitic stainless steel Dirk Biermann, Markus Steiner and Eugen Krebs Institute of Machining Technology, TU Dortmund, Baroper Str. 301, Dortmund, Germany steiner@isf.de

(Micro-)Machining of austenitic stainless steel is highly challenging due to the formation of build-up edges, adhesive tool wear and also the ability for work hardening, the low thermal conductivity, and the high toughness. Here, the application of tool coatings is a suitable method to extend tool life and to improve consequently the overall workpiece quality. Yet the qualification of different tool coatings for micromilling austenitic stainless steel has to be analysed. In this investigation micromilling experiments applying two fluted endmills having a diameter of d = 1 mm with different hard coatings were applied. The austenitic stainless steel X5CrNi18-10 (1.4301) served as the workpiece material. The tool coatings were CrN, TiN, AlCrN, AlTiN and TiAlN. Using a constant set of cutting parameters and the same basic tool geometry, the achievable performance of the different coatings was evaluated in terms of the process forces, the tool wear and the achievable surface quality. The application of a TiAlN and AlCrN coating generated very good results regarding the tool wear. Relating to the surface quality, the AlTiN coating provided the best results

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E2 – Metal additive manufacturing of a high-pressure micro-pump Wessel Wits, Sander Weitkamp and Johannes Van Es University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology, The Netherlands Dutch National Aerospace Laboratory, The Netherlands w.w.wits@utwente.nl

For the thermal control of future space applications pumped twophase loops are an essential part to handle the increasing thermal power densities. This study investigates the design of a reliable, leak tight, low-weight and high-pressure micro-pump for small satellite applications. The developed micro-pump uses a piezoelectric disk to create a pressure head and propel the working fluid. The micro-pumps are produced from Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) as a metal additive manufacturing technique. Two types of micro-valve designs are explored, namely (1) no moving parts valves and (2) passive check valves. Experimental validation shows promising results especially for micropumps using passive check micro-valves. Finally, the assembly of the entire micro-pump has been designed for SLM production. In the end, this would enable the future use of micropumps for space applications. Metal additive manufacturing, as relatively new manufacturing system, showcases promising results for both research work and final production.

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E3 – Pressure retrieval for microrolling process monitoring Zhaoyan Fana, Xiyue Zou

a

, Robert X. Gaoa, Jian Caob

a

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, USA b

Deperment of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA rgao@engr.uconn.edu

Microrolling is an advanced manufacturing process for the mass production of miniaturized components. At the micrometer scale, small deviation in material thickness or roll misalignment may significantly alter pressure distribution across the product, resulting in variations in the imprinted texture dimension. An embedded sensing method has been developed to monitor the pressure distribution across the workpiece. A key component of the sensing method is a pressure retrieving algorithm that determines deformation across the roll structure from a limited number of sensing points and converts the data subsequently into pressure distribution, based on the theories of interpolation and back projection. In this paper, a combination of interpolation (Bezier Curve, Thin Plate Spline, and Kriging) and Tikhonov regularization have been investigated to resolve the inverse problem.

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E4 – Designing rules for additive manufacturing: application on Electron Beam Melting Benjamin Vayre, Frederic Vignat and Francois Villeneuve Grenoble-INP / UJF-Grenoble, Av. Felix Viallet, France benjamin.vayre@g-scop.eu

Additive manufacturing (AM) consists in building parts from scratch, usually by stacking layers onto one another. Mostly used for rapid prototyping purposes, several AM processes can use metallic alloys which makes the rapid manufacture of end-use parts possible. Many researches are conducted to improve the manufacturing rate, to assess the environmental impact or to study the mechanical properties of test parts manufactured by such processes. In spite of the large number of studies, there is yet to be a designing methodology to take advantage of these processes. The formalization of the manufacturing capabilities and manufacturing constraints that these processes have has especially hardly been conducted. In this paper we investigate the manufacturing constraints of the Electron Beam Melting process, a metallic additive manufacturing process in order to issue recommendations to the designers. We will review the principle of Electron Beam Melting and look at the manufacturing capabilities designers are offered. Then we will focus on some key manufacturing constraints, the powder removing and the necessity of supporting structures. At last, we will give some recommendations regarding these two topics to take advantage of this process from the designing stage of a part.

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E5 – Performance evaluation of a design tool for automated design of cooling systems in injection moulding Juan M. Jauregui-Becker Houten

a

a

, Guido Tosellob, Fred J.A.M. van

, Hans N. Hansenb

a

University of Twente, Laboratory of Design, Production and Management, AE Enschede, The Netherlands b

Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Produktionstorvet, Lyngby, Denmark j.m.jaureguibecker@utwente.nl

This paper presents a software tool for automating the design of cooling systems for injection moulding and a validation of its performance. Cooling system designs were automatically generated by the proposed software tool and by applying a best practice tool engineering design approach. The two different design methods (i.e. automatic and manual) were applied to the mould design of two thinwalled products, namely a rectangular flat box and a cylindrical container with a flat base. Injection moulding process simulations based on the finite element method were performed to assess the quality of the moulded parts. Results indicate the tool is capable of generating feasible cooling solutions. Recommendations are provided for improving the performance of the tool.

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E6 – Turning of high-strength bainitic and quenched and tempered steels Biermann, D.

a

, Hartmann, H.a, Terwey, I.b, Merkel, C.c, Kehl, D.d

a

Institute of Machining Technology, Baroper Straße 301, 44227 Dortmund, Germany b

Sandvik Tooling Deutschland GmbH – Sandvik Coromant, Heerdter Landstraße, Düsseldorf, Germany c

EZM Edelstahlzieherei Mark GmbH, Nordstraße, Wetter, Germany

d

Georgsmarienhütte GmbH, Neue Hüttenstraße, Georgsmarienhütte, Germany hartmann@isf.de

Technological properties of components can benefit from the application of modern steel grades. For example, a reduction of fuel consumption or an improvement in vehicle efficiency can be achieved by using high-tensile bainitic steels in automotive industry in order to increase injection pressure in fuel supply. To take advantages like technological progress, sustainability or cost savings the machinability of these materials has to be investigated in order to prepare for a future industrial use of steels with a bainitic structure. In this paper, turning of the bainitic steel 20MnCrMo7+BY in comparison to the quenched and tempered steels 42CrMo4+QT and 50CrMo4+QT is analysed.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

E7 – An approach to the calculation of process forces during the precision honing of small bores Christina Schmitt and Dirk Bähre Institute of Production Engineering, Saarland University, Germany christina.schmitt@mx.uni-saarland.de

Honing is an abrasive machining process that can produce very exact results regarding geometry, form and surface quality of the honed work piece. It is mainly used as the final finishing operation for ready-made bores and has to meet high demands regarding process stability and repeatability. As it can create a high ratio of bearing contact area to total area together with a high surface quality it is often used for highly stressed parts. During the process, the honing tool combines three movement components: a rotation around the tool axis, an oscillation along the tool axis and a radial feeding movement of the honing stone. The interface between honing stone and workpiece and the movement of the honing stone are very important for the process. Nowadays, there are two different control strategies for the feeding movement of the honing stone: feedcontrolled and force-controlled honing. While force controlled honing tries to keep a constant process force, feed-controlled honing feeds the honing stone in certain steps in certain time intervals. The forcecontrolled approach can bring better results of the process regarding the quality parameters and the tool wear. But to be able to hone force-controlled the correlation of the process forces has to be known. This paper presents a first theoretical approach to the relations between the forces during the honing process. Some parameters that are needed for the calculation are derived from experimental results.

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E 8 – Improvement the drilling possibilities of difficult to machine materials Miklós Czampa, Sándor Markos and Tibor Szalay Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Budapest, Hungary czampa@manuf.bme.hu

This research paper aims to investigate the drilling capabilities of the sintered powder metallurgy parts. Due to their special properties, these materials are of distinguished importance in today’s world. Exploiting said properties enables us to create selflubricant bushing as well as special alloys. In order to evaluate the investigated parameters, comparative experiments were conducted. Both the tool materials and the application of cooling varied in the experiments, in the framework of which cutting force, drilling torque and tool wear were measured. The hole geometry (diameter accuracy and circularity) was also checked. Owing to the environmentally friendly machining conditions, the experiments can be carried out by means of dry machining, air cooling and minimal quantity lubrication. According to our results, it was the cutting force and the tool wear that the cooling of the tool had the greatest effect on in the case of powder metallurgy materials

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E9 – Manufacturing of twist-free surfaces by hard turning Andreas Schubert, Ran Zhang and Philipp Steinert Fraunhofer Inst. for Machine Tools and Forming Technology, Chemnitz, Germany ran.zhang@mb.tu-chemnitz.de

Currently grinding is commonly used as the finishing operation to manufacture seal mating surfaces and bearing surfaces, especially in the automotive industry. It would lead to more resource-efficient production if the cost- and energy-intensive grinding process could be replaced by machining with geometrically defined cutting edges, such as hard turning. However, turning operations usually cause a twist structure on the surface, which can convey lubricants like a pump. Several methods exist to overcome this problem, for example, tangential turning, rotation turning and turn broaching, etc. Due to the high costs of tools and special machines required by these methods, the industrial application is still limited. This paper describes a more efficient approach by applying a modified feed kinematic. When using this approach, hard turning produces twist-free surfaces. The results of the latest twist test methods have confirmed that the surfaces are free of twist, hence free of conveying effect of lubricant and that they are suitable for application in manufacturing of seal mating surfaces and bearing surfaces. Furthermore, this method requires only minimal investment in any turning machine.

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E10 – Multi-objective process optimization to improve surface integrity on turned surface of Al/SiCp metal matrix composites using grey relational analysis Dr. Uday Anna Dabade Department of Mechanical Engineering, Walchand College of Engineering, Vishrambag, Sangli, India udabade@gmail.com

The utilization of Al/SiCp metal matrix composites in different engineering fields has undergone a tremendous increase due to its tailor-made properties that can be achieved by varying the size and volume fraction of reinforcement. However, the difficulty in machining of metal matrix composites (MMCs) arises not only from the excessive wear of the cutting tools but also from fracturing of the reinforcement particles which leaves pits and cavities. These characteristics in machining of MMCs affect the machined surface integrity. Hence, the objective of this study is to identify the optimum process parameters to improve the surface integrity on Al/SiCp composites. The machined surface integrity have been analysed as a function of processing parameters, such as feed rate, cutting speed, depth of cut and cutting tool geometry. Surface integrity is associated with surface roughness and sub surface damage. Both these response variables are governed by the cutting forces, surface finish, residual stresses generated on the machined surface and microhardness variation beneath the machined surfaces. Thus, to improve the surface integrity on Al/SiCp composites multi objective process parameter optimization is performed using grey relational analysis. Experiments on Al/SiCp composites of four different compositions are performed using L27 orthogonal array as per the Taguchi method. Analysis of experimental results indicates that the surface roughness is more sensitive to a change in size than a change in volume fraction of reinforcement. Investigations on subsurface integrity involving micro-hardness variation have shown that depth of altered material zone (AMZ) changes with a change in size of abrasive reinforcement in MMCs. The grey relational analysis

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shown that wiper insert geometry with 0.8 mm tool nose radius, 0.05 mm rev-1 feed, 40 m min-1 cutting speed and 0.2 mm depth of cut are optimized machining conditions that enhances the surface integrity on Al/SiCp composite within the scope of the experiments performed.

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E11 – Compensation of errors in robot machining with a parallel 3D-Piezo Compensation Mechanism Ulrich Schneider, Manuel Drust, Arnold Puzik and Alexander Verl Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA, Nobelstrasse, Stuttgart, Germany ulrich.schneider@ipa.fraunhofer.de

This paper proposes an approach for a 3D-Piezo Compensation Mechanism unit that is capable of fast and accurate adaption of the spindle position to enhance machining by robots. The mechanical design is explained which focuses on low mass, good stiffness and high bandwidth in order to allow compensating for errors beyond the bandwidth of the robot. In addition to previous works [7, 9], an advanced actuation design is presented enabling movements in three translational axes allowing a working range of each axis up to half a millimeter. Based on the presented theoretical dimensioning and finite element simulation translational moves with higher bandwidth can be enabled, due to the parallel design approach of a 3D-Piezo Compensation Mechanism. For realization aspects piezo actuators are chosen due to their fast dynamics and high forces. The realization of the control loop is further outlined. In order to enable a good control performance the set-up of sensing the extension of the piezo actuator is detailed as well as the spindle position used in fast real-time environment. As a result the 3D-Piezo Compensation mechanism unit allows an active adaption of the spindle position in the range of micrometers. A description of the deployment of the compensation unit to a robot machining system as well as first experimental results conclude the paper and prove the proper functioning of the approach and outline the potential of the entire system. Measured robot paths are applied to the compensation unit and analyzed with respect to the reduction of robot path errors.

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E12 – Technological development and research of environmentally friendly dry machining system with compensation of physical function of cutting fluids Alexey A. Vereschaka, Anatoly S. Vereschaka, Sergey N. Grigoriev, Andrej K. Kirillov and Olga J. Khaustova Moscow State Technological University Stankin, Vadkovsky per, Russia ecotech@rambler.ru

This paper presents the results of researches on development of technological system of environmentally friendly dry cutting with compensation of physical effects of cutting fluid. The proposed technological system includes cutting tool with nano-scale multilayered composite coating, generating device of ionized gas environment which supplied to the machining area and the exciter unit of ultrasonic vibrations that enhance penetrating ability of ionized gas environment into the contact areas of cutting tool. The conducted researches have shown high efficiency of the developed technological system of environmentally friendly cutting not only in comparison with dry cutting, but also in comparison with traditional technologies using cutting fluids.

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E 13 – Evaluation of dynamic behavior of machine tools for sculptured surface manufacturing Renato L. G. Monaro, André L. Helleno and Klaus Schützer Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba - Rodovia Luiz Ometto, Santa Bárbara D'Oeste, SP, Brazil prof.renatomonaro@gmail.com

The production sector of molds and dies is under a continuous pressure for process optimization due the high lead time required for the production of complex tools. In recent years, to improve this sector, numerous studies have been aimed at optimization of the CAD/CAM/CNC chain. However, despite recent technological innovations such as development of cutting tools, machine tools, and process simulation systems, the machining step still represents a major bottleneck in this process. The current generation of Numerical Control (NC) programs that represents the tool path do not consider the dynamic characteristics of the machine tool in the decisionmaking process to choose the most appropriate cutting strategies, resulting in NC programs that do not reach levels of excellence. The main objective of this paper is to present the development of a reference index based on the dynamic characteristics of the Machine Tool to support the NC programming with a commercial CAM system. This index considers the Machine Response Time (MRT) of NC controller, the acceleration and deceleration on the axes of the machine tool and the tool path segment (size and inclination). The index makes possible an experimental evaluation of relationships between the programmed feed rate for the tool path and dynamic performance due to movements of the machine axes, thus becoming an important decision-making factor in choosing the best machining strategy and consequently a better plan of the production process in die and mold industries.

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E14 – Genetic algorithm-based optimization of cutting parameters in turning processes Doriana Marilena D'Addona and Roberto Teti Department of Chemical, Materials and Production Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio, Italy daddona@unina.it

An optimization paradigm based on genetic algorithms (GA) for the determination of the cutting parameters in machining operations is proposed. In metal cutting processes, cutting conditions have an influence on reducing the production cost and time and deciding the quality of a final product. In order to find optimal cutting parameters during a turning process, the genetic algorithm has been used as an optimal solution finder. Process optimization has to yield minimum production time, while considering technological and material constrains.

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E15 – A Real-time collision prevention system for machine tools Marco Schumann, Marco Witt and Philipp Klimant Institute for Machine Tools and Production Processes, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer Straße, Chemnitz, Germany marco.schumann@mb.tu-chemnitz.de

Manufacturing processes become more and more complex. Therefore collisions within the working area of the machine tools occur more often. Those collisions often lead to tool and work piece damage. Especially when machining very large and complex work pieces, e.g. in the Aerospace Industry, where such a work piece damage is very expensive. Additionally, these collisions could cause the breakage of the whole machine, which will lead to downtime and high costs; especially the commissioning of the machine tool and the work piece involves high risk of collisions caused by manual machining. In order to solve this problem manufacturers offer different specialized crash protection mechanisms which have certain constraints or a lack of generality. Within this paper we present a collision prevention system based on a hull concept which monitors all machine axes regarding risk of collision without using physical sensors. It is necessary to consider a sufficient stopping distance for all moving machine parts to avoid a crash. These distances can be seen as hulls around the components depending on the maximum speed and deceleration values. Consequently, we present an approach to create these hulls, based on the CAD data of the machine tool, work piece as well as the tools. This leads to a virtual collision model which can be used as input data for the collision prevention system. The advantages as well as the current limitations of the introduced collision prevention system are discussed based on a machine tool in operation.

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E16 – Study of the environmental and technical performance of a diesel engine with the alternative use of biofuel obtained from the reutilization of vegetal oil. Adeilton Fernandes, Alexandre T. Simon and Carlos R. C. Lima Methodist University of Piracicaba - UNIMEP, Rod. Santa Bárbara –Brazil crclima@unimep.br

The aim of this work is to provide an environmental assessment of a diesel engine by analyzing the emissions of CO, CO2 and NOx that result from the combustion process, as well as analyzing technical performance related to consumption and the development of power and torque in a laboratory test rig. Biodiesel fuel was produced from vegetable cooking oil. The intention of this work is to evaluate the best method for the production of biodiesel in reference to an analysis of the peculiar features of this process of procurement and control of the physical environmental variables that may result in better performance of the engine under the conditions of the use of biodiesel blends with commercial diesel. The use of cooking oil as a raw material for biodiesel production has proven to be of significant value as compared to other raw material choices of various origins such as the oilseed crop since cooking oil is available in large quantities without any defined application. Gains related to the reduction of emissions of toxic gases resulting from combustion processes were remarkable, mainly in terms of the large reduction of CO and CO2 emissions.

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E17 – Influence of force and travel speed in the friction surfacing of AA 6082-T6 over AA 2024-T3 J. Gandra

a

, D. Pereirab, R. M. Mirandab, P. Vilaçac

a

Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisboa, Portugal b

DEMI, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal c

Department of Engineering Design and Production, School of Engineering, Aalto University, Aalto, Finland joao.gandra@ist.utl.pt

Friction Surfacing is a solid state coating technique with applications in hardfacing, corrosion protection and repair. Since it doesn’t require the fusion of the materials involved, it is suitable to join aluminium alloys while avoiding several of their processing difficulties. The present study addresses the deposition of AA 6082-T6 coatings on AA 2024-T3 substrates, while focusing on the effect of process parameters, such as, axial force, rotation and travel speed. Sound aluminium coatings were produced with limited intermetallic formation at bonding interface. It was observed that low travel and rotation speeds contribute to an increase of coating thickness and width. Bonding at coating edges deteriorates for faster travel speeds. The axial force is determinant in achieving a fully bonded interface.

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E18 – Learning defect classifiers for textured surfaces using neural networks and statistical feature representations D. Weimer

a

, H. Thamera, B. Scholz-Reiterb

a

Intelligent Production Systems (BIBA), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany b

University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany

wei@biba.uni-bremen.de

Detecting surface defects is a challenging visual recognition problem arising in many processing steps during manufacturing. These defects occur with arbitrary size, shape and orientation. The challenges posed by this complexity have been combated with very special, runtime intensive and hand-designed feature representations. In this paper we present a machine vision system which uses basic patch statistics from raw image data combined with a two layer neural network to detect surface defects on arbitrary textured and weakly labeled image data. Evaluation on an artificial dataset with more than 6000 examples in addition to a real microcold forming process showed excellent classification results.

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E19 – Predicting dimensional deviations of structural vehicle body parts deep drawn from aluminum blanks Julius F. Klinger and Martin Bohn Daimler AG, Benzstrasse, Sindelfingen, Germany julius_friedrich.klinger@daimler.com

Because of the extensive manufacturing chain in the present automotive mass production environment, deviations can have a large impact. Rerouting knowledge about deviation behavior back from production into development is crucial for the quality of the product. This study aims to make deep drawing deviations of aluminum body sheets more traceable. Geometrical measurements of a sample part are compared to the part’s topology. Similarities between local stiffnesses and deviations can be detected and quantified by a higher-order polynomial, making it easier to predict deviations. Moreover, the standard deviations and mean values are analyzed regarding the topology.

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E20 – Advances in NDT and materials characterization by eddy currents G. Almeida

a

, J. Gonzaleza, L. Rosadob,c,d, P. Vilaçaf e Telmo G.

a

Santos a

UNIDEMI, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa,2829-516 Caparica, Portugal b

Instituto Superior Técnico (IST),Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal c

Instituto de Telecomunicações (IT), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal d

Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Investigação e Desenvolvimento, Lisboa, Portugal e

Instituto de Engenharia Mecânica (IDMEC), Lisboa, Portugal

f

Department of Engineering Design and Production of the School of Engineering, Aalto University, Finland telmo.santos@fct.unl.pt

New materials and production technologies demand improved nondestructive techniques for inspection and defect evaluation, especially when critical safety applications are involved. In this paper a new non-destructive testing (NDT) system is presented. The innovative system is composed by a new type of eddy currents probe, electronic devices for signal generation, conditioning and conversion, automated mechanized scanning and analysis software. This new probe provides enhanced lift-off immunity and improved sensitivity for defects detection. The IOnic system was developed mostly to be used for the defects detection on aluminum solid state processed alloys as Friction Stir Welding (FSW) and Friction Spot Welding (FSpW), however recent studies revealed IOnic probe good capacities on other applications. This study evaluates the capacity of the IOnic probe on detecting buried defects under the surface of Graphite and Stainless steel AISI 304 alloys extending the probe

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application to other materials and defect morphologies. In order to evaluate its performance results, a comparison with results from conventional EC probes is discussed.

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Product and service development and management

F1 – Architecture and conceptual design for IPS²Execution Systems Horst Meier, Thomas Dorka and Friedrich Morlock Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr., Germany morlock@lps.rub.de

Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS²) are a new way of providing customer value and therefore represent globally competitive manufacturing systems. Multiple networked partners are involved in the delivery of the IPS², i.e. the customer, the IPS² provider and suppliers. The information provided by the partners and the supplied resources need to be coordinated, controlled and managed by a software system. In this paper, an architecture and a conceptual design for such a system, called IPS²-Execuion System, is presented. For this architecture, the structure of the IPS² organisation, among others, has to be taken into account.

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F2 – A methodology for developing product-service Systems Pedro Marques Leitão

a

, Pedro F.Cunhaa,b, Fernando Valentea,b, Ana

a

a

Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, Estefanilha, Setúbal, Portugal

b

CENI - centro de integração e inovação de processos, Setúbal, Portugal

pedro.marques@estsetubal.ips.pt

Servitization of manufacturing is getting more importance in our global economy due to the need of manufacturing companies to maintain their sustainability, promoting this way a more long term relation with their customers, and innovating and supplying added value with their products. Therefore, manufacturing companies are challenged to move into a paradigm shift that is to go from considering independently products and services and start to consider them integrated. To integrate services, in their core products, and to support this, process organisational changes are required, and methodologies that integrate the product and services development processes. An effective integration of these processes creates a potential for product-service innovation, that being exploited, contribute to increase competitiveness and to ensure sustainable businesses. In this article, we propose a new methodology for the development of product-service systems (PSS) that promotes the execution of processes for designing products and services, as a parallel sequence of activities, which leads to a consistent product-service development. The proposed methodology contributes for a clear understanding about the processes to be used in product-service design and development, the required organisational changes, and the integration of product-service design with business model definition.

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F3 – A framework for developing portfolios of improvements projects in manufacturing Bernard Kornfeld and Sami Kara School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia s.kara@unsw.edu.au

The outcome of improvement programs such as Lean Manufacturing or Six Sigma is only partially determined by the success or failure of its individual projects. Also of significance is how well the program and its projects are aligned to the company’s strategy. Frequently practitioners will select projects on their individual merits, rather than with proper reference to their contribution to business strategy. In this manner, it is therefore possible to build portfolios of projects that are at best suboptimal and at worst counter to the company's overall strategic direction. The construction of project portfolios is thus a critical step in effective program management and this would suggest that organisations would benefit from a framework to assist them with the selection of projects and portfolios that are aligned with the company’s overall strategy. While tools such as Critical to Quality Flow-down are available to translate the voice of the customer to metrics and goals, practitioners do not have a structured approach to construct and assess portfolios. In this paper we present a framework to assist program managers to develop portfolios of improvement projects targeted to fulfil their company’s strategic needs and also align with the organisation’s objectives and measures. Consideration is given to quantitative and qualitative aspects of strategy and how these may best be related to provide a set of orthogonal and common metrics.

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F4 – Roadmap for business models definition in manufacturing companies Ana Leitão Marques

a

, Pedro F. Cunhaa,b, Fernando Valentea,b, Pedro

a

a

Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, Estefanilha, Setúbal, Portugal

b

CENI - centro de integração e inovação de processos, Setúbal, Portugal

ana.leitao@estsetubal.ips.pt

With the globalization and the volatility of the markets there is a huge pressure for manufacturing companies to be more innovative and competitive in delivering value to their customers. The evaluation of overall value chain, designed and implemented to supply a specific product or service, should support changes in the existing business model or in the definition of new business models that ensures higher levels of customer satisfaction. The business model is at the core of the competitive response of any company to the market, defining the value proposition, the required activities, resources and partners, and knowledge of customers, costs or profits related with its overall operation. The relevance that integrated product and services is assuming nowadays, allowing manufacturing companies to achieve a longer and more stable relationship with their customers, determines new approaches to product service development and methodologies or tools to support the review and definition of appropriate business models. In this paper we propose a roadmap to support the development of new business models, their implementation and evaluation. For the roadmap a set of tools are proposed to support each stage from business model design to its evaluation. The roadmap validation is made through a case study.

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F5 – Five models of platform-type product service systems in manufacturing Nariaki Nishino a

Kageyama

a

, Sihui Wanga, Nobuyuki Tsujib, Kazuro

, Kanji Uedab,c

a

School of Engineering, The Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

b

Research into Artifacts, Center for Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Japan c

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan nishino@tmi.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

This study proposes five kinds of game theoretic models of platformtype product service systems considering manufacturing viewpoints. Recently, manufacturing industries face a strong trend towards servicizing. One possible solution to manufacturer's servicizing is a fusional framework incorporating products and services. Such a fusional product service system is able to enhance product functionality and consumers' satisfaction by constructing appropriate formation of them. Along with this background, our preceding study presented categorization of actual business and three basic models, especially focusing on platform-type business like smart phones, online music stores and electronic books (Nishino et al. 2012). The current study presents an extension of the models and conducts its game-theoretic analysis. Constructing five kinds of platform-type product service system models, the present study derives the theoretical equilibrium of each model. Then we discuss the characteristics of each model and manufacturers' strategy in platform-type business.

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F6 – A PSS model for diamond gemstone processing: economic feasibility analysis J.Van Ostaeyen

a

, Y. Kerremansb, Guy Van Goethemb, J. R. Dufloua

a

KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan, Leuven, Belgium b

WTOCD, Plaslaar, Lier, Belgium

joris.vanostaeyen@cib.kuleuven.be

The diamond gemstone industry is characterized by a highly fragmented value chain and its reliance on skilled craftspeople. Since the Middle Ages, the city of Antwerp in Belgium has been a global center for diamond cutting and polishing, but over the last decades a major share of the production has shifted towards new cutting and polishing centers in Asia, predominantly in India and China, due to the fact that these processes are very labour intensive. A recent technological innovation, grain independent polishing (GIP), allows polishing diamonds independent of the polishing direction in a cold process, such that for the first time in history a fully automatic diamond polishing process becomes a possibility. One possible valorization scenario of this technological innovation is the development of an Product-Service System (PSS) business model, whereby a service center is set up in Antwerp that provides a diamond cutting and polishing service charged ‘per finished carat’. This scenario has been investigated in a case study described in this article, whereby the added value of GIP has been analyzed in a stochastic simulation model. The effects on cost as well as lead time, quality and risks have been evaluated and a sensitivity analysis has been performed. Estimates for the input parameters were gathered through structured interviews with diamond processing companies and industry experts. The described case study illustrates how the economic feasibility of a PSS business model can be investigated in a structured way and shows how the global competitiveness of a novel manufacturing concept can be analyzed during a technological innovation project.

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F7 – Statistical process control as a service: An industrial case study Gašper Škulj, Rok Vrabič, Peter Butala and Alojzij Sluga University of Ljubljana, Department of Manufacutirng Systems and Control, Aškerčeva, Ljubljana, Slovenia rok.vrabic@fs.uni-lj.si

Strong operations support is one of the key requirements for competitive success of modern manufacturing organisations. An important aspect of operations support is Statistical Process Control (SPC); the use of statistical methods for monitoring and control of manufacturing processes and products. However, implementation of SPC requires a certain amount of statistical knowledge and understanding. Although this is not an issue for big companies (e.g. in automotive sector), smaller companies are unable to provide the required knowledge in-house. In this paper, a service-driven approach for SPC is proposed, in which SPC is outsourced through the use of modern information and communication technologies, such as web services. This Statistical Process Control as a Service approach is illustrated and discussed through an industrial case study.

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Simulation and optimization of manufacturing systems

G1 – Simulation integrated control system for supporting changes of routing strategy in an automated material flow system Azrul Azwan Abdul Rahman and Günther Seliger Technische Universität Berlin, Pascalstr. 8-9, 10587 Berlin, Germany rahman@mf.tu-berlin.de

Increased demand for customised products, sophisticated scheduling requirements caused by shorter product life cycle and hardly foreseeable disturbances have created a new challenge for the manufacturing industry. Planned production schedules often become ineffective in actual execution on the shop floor. If forecasts become less and less accurate, support for continuous changes is helpful. Given the high degree of automation in manufacturing systems, automatic control systems have become central to shop floors’ responsiveness. However, their state-of-the-art architectures are unable to cope with the challenge successfully. Improvements in information and communication technology makes the integration of simulation and control system more promising. The paper proposes an approach for supporting changes of routing strategy in an automated material flow system by utilising the integration. The approach includes (re-)planning of the automated material flow system, commissioning its logic control and controlling the material flow.

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G2 – Method for situation based modelling and simulation of assembly systems Michael Neumann

a,b

, Engelbert Westkämpera,b

a

Graduate School of Excellence advanced Manufacturing Engineering – GsaME, Nobelstr, Stuttgart, Germany b

Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation – Fraunhofer IPA, Nobelstr, Stuttgart, Germany men@ipa.fhg.de

This paper presents our on-going research steps aiming at the development of a method for situation-based modeling and simulation of assembly systems. The focus lies on the employed modeling language and the modeling procedure as well as their integration into the whole method. After motivating the research the overall approach will be introduced to constitute on overview. In the following the modeling language used in this approach and the conceived modeling procedure will be described in detail. This paper concludes with a roadmap that defines the next steps and activities.

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G3 – Visualization support for virtual redesign of manufacturing systems Erik Lindskog Johansson

a

, Jonatan Berglunda, Johan Vallhagenb, Björn

a

a

Chalmers University of Technology, Product and Production Development,, Göteborg, Sweden b

GKN Aerospace Engine Systems Sweden, Production Research/System, Trollhättan, Sweden erik.lindskog@chalmers.se

Rapidly changing products and market demand call for manufacturing systems to be continuously adapted and developed. The process of modifying manufacturing systems requires large amounts of planning involving contributions from personnel across an organisation. These people need a shared understanding of the future system, including but not limited to its design, functions, and expected performance. One common representation in the virtual manufacturing system domain are 2D CAD layouts. Typical problems with such traditional 2D models are that only experts understand the content fully. For increased understanding, 3D CAD models could bridge the gap between different areas of expertise. However, creating 3D models representing the complete system is traditionally time-consuming, resulting in oversimplified models or limited to parts of the system. Furthermore, such models normally contain uncertainty about building-related geometries that could incur costly mistakes if used as basis for decisions, e.g. realizing during installation of a machine that roof-beams interfere with the planned placement. This paper evaluates what type of problems can be solved with better visualization support, e.g. issues concerning workshop-layout, production flow, workplace design, etc. The evaluation is based on two case studies at different manufacturing sites during ongoing system redesign processes. The case studies implemented visualization using a combination of CAD models and 3D laser scanned as-built data of the current

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system and facility. The vision is to implement the Lean concept of “Go to Gemba” for a future state in a virtual environment. Bringing this concept into the early phases of manufacturing system redesign has the potential to facilitate the creation of a shared understanding of the future system within cross-functional project teams.

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G4 – Integrated virtual platform for manufacturing systems design Marcello Colledani Urgo

a

, Giulia Pedriellia,b, Walter Terkajb, Marcello

a

a

Politecnico di Milano, Via G. La Masa, Milan, Italy

b

Istituto di Tecnologie Industriali e Automazione, Via Bassini, Milan, Italy

walter.terkaj@itia.cnr.it

The design of manufacturing systems is a critical task to be addressed throughout the factory life-cycle phases, including the early design, detailed design, ramp-up, reconfiguration, and monitoring. An efficient and effective system design platform may have a relevant impact on the profitability of industrial companies facing these challenges. Although several commercial applications are available for supporting different activities within the manufacturing system design and operation these stand-alone tools are usually supplied by different software vendors and cannot be easily integrated, thus entailing a massive and time-consuming integration effort. This paper proposes the integration of heterogeneous software tools supporting factory design activities over a common platform. A virtual factory environment, based on a shared data model providing to all the applications a common language to exchange data, is developed. A test case is presented that shows the integration of five methods and the related software tools to support different activities for the design of a manufacturing production line, hence the benefits derived by the application of this integrated approach in industry.

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G5 – 3D Design support for rapid Virtual prototyping of manufacturing systems

, János Püspökia, Csaba Haraszkóa, Gyula Mátyásia, a b b Tibor Nagy ,Christopher Freeman , Robin W. Scott , James S. István Németh Baldwin

a

b

a

Department of Manufacturing Science and Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary b

Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre with Boeing, University of Sheffield, Advanced Manufacturing Park, Wallis Way, Catcliffe, Rotherham, United Kingdom inemeth@manuf.bme.hu

The paper presents several 3D layout configurator software tools and a library of manufacturing system components to rapidly build up the 3D models of manufacturing systems; some analysis tools to analyze the created 3D models; and some methods to rapidly create 3D models from point cloud of scanned manufacturing facilities. Within the configurators the user can define the following data as input: production process (e.g. type and order of operations), type of production equipment, type of material handling systems (e.g. robots, conveyors), type and sub-type of layout, and some spatial constraints (e.g. distance between machines, spatial arrangement). The configurators are able to create the 3D model of the manufacturing systems based on the selection of an appropriate layout template. The layout templates are defined by the species identified with a cladistic classification system or by the sub-species where each sub-species inherits the characteristics of its species. Based on the selected layout template and the defined production process the appropriate elements of the manufacturing system can be selected by the user from a predefined component library. Such library includes the 3D models and technical data of workstations, machine tools, material handling equipment, etc. Two analysis tools have been developed to evaluate the created 3D models: a collision elimination tool and a robot programming tool. The paper also presents two solutions to rapidly create 3D models from point cloud

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of scanned manufacturing facilities; as well as an application to automatically create a simplified quasi-volumetric point cloud model that can be used for collision detection.

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G6 – Agent based manufacturing simulation for efficient assembly operations Yasuhiro Sudo and Michiko Matsuda Kanagawa Institute of Technology, 1030 Shimo-Ogino, Atsugi, Kanagawa, Japan sudo@ic.kanagawa-it.ac.jp

This study experiments with the manufacturing efficiency by layout change of a factory by means of agent-based autonomous production scheduling, using the virtual factory on a multi-agent simulation system. As infrastructure software for agent based simulation, the artisoc(c) is used. In this virtual factory, three types of agents are equipped. Users can alter a configuration such as input new jobs, adjusting a machine setting, etc, with monitoring conditions of agents. As a result, by adjustment of the agent's behaviour with shop floor detail, the assembly schedule becomes more effective. The experiment is carried out to show that local negotiations contribute to global optimization when resources in the factory are effectively distributed and shared. In this paper, the effectiveness of job-list clean-up method is shown. In addition, the scheduling influence is simulated by the communication range of agents. A part agent chooses a machine, by the length of a job list and the conveyance cost. But the communication cost between agents increases with the size of the communication range. From experimental results, when extending the communication range simply, the conclusion is reached that optimization did not necessarily result in progress.

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G7 – Object-oriented modeling of manufacturing resources using work study inputs Richard Hedman, Robin Sundkvist, Peter Almström and Anders Kinnander Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden richard.hedman@chalmers.se

Resources are the core of manufacturing models. They provide information about the people and equipment that perform activities on the shop floor. Comprehensive representations of equipment are common but human resources are often defined to a very limited extent. This paper presents how work study data can be applied as input to detailed modeling of human manufacturing resources. The purpose is to provide a valid representation of manual work tasks on a shop floor level. If implemented in manufacturing models the valid representation will contribute to improve planning, control and execution of production. It also facilitates and encourages production improvement initiatives.

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G8 – Analyzing the influence of excess capacities on performance robustness in fluctuating job-shop environments Mirja Meyer, Marius-Vasile Apostu and Katja Windt Global Production Logistics, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, Germany mi.meyer@jacobs-university.de

To keep up a high performance and to stay profitable, manufacturing systems need to be robust against fluctuations and disturbances. In this paper we present a brief overview on robustness measures in manufacturing and investigate the trade-off between robustness of operational performance and cost-efficiency. We further conduct a simulation study on a real world manufacturing system to analyze the influence of capacity adjustments on the performance robustness of different operational key figures.

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G9 – Methodology and data-structure for a uniform system’s specification in a simulation project Csaba Kardos Monostori

a

, Gergely Popovicsa, Botond Kádára, László

a,b

a

Fraunhofer Project Center for Production Management and Informatics at The Computer and Automation Research Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Kende u, Budapest, Hungary b

Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Műegyetem rkp., Budapest, Hungary csaba.kardos@sztaki.mta.hu

In the last few decades the evaluation and analysis of manufacturing systems’ behavior and their performance became very important. Digital enterprise technologies, as for example discrete-event simulation (DES), are effective tools both in production related decision making processes and in structure and performance analysis of manufacturing systems. However, building a discreteevent based simulation model of a manufacturing system is a difficult task and requires special competence. The majority of simulation studies are aimed at analyzing a certain problem by a specific simulation model created by experts with a relatively high financial expenditure. The paper introduces an ongoing research aimed at developing a framework to reduce the efforts spent on draft simulation studies by simplifying and accelerating the process of model building. The proposed modeling methodology uses a uniform data structure which is a production oriented implementation of the ANSI/ISA-95 standard and supports the creation of models without simulation software specific knowledge. The supporting data structure enables the development and application of proprietary simulation engines tailored for specific problems. The paper compares the traditional and the proposed methodologies and also introduces the first experiments gained on specific test-cases. In our approach the simulation models are created automatically and independently from simulation tools which will be presented through the examples of both commercial and self-developed applications.

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G10 – Viable system model for manufacturing execution systems Christian Brecher, Simon Müller, Thomas Breitbach and Wolfram Lohse Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering (WZL) at RWTH Aachen University, Steinbachstr. Aachen, Germany s.mueller@wzl.rwth-aachen.de

The complexity of automated production systems results in a variety of different objectives that have to be considered in the ramp up phase. In regard to planning and control of production processes the underlying optimization problem is multi-dimensional. In order to reduce efforts especially in production ramp-up, methods to automatically adjust to new environments and new objectives are required. This paper focuses on the modeling and integration of a production control unit for automated production systems that are structured according to the Viable System Model.

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G11 – Enhanced production control for prepreg manufacturing Tobias R. Philipp, Thomas Winkler and Gunther Reinhart Institute for Machine Tools and Industrial Management (iwb), Technische Universität München, Boltzmannst, Germany tobias.philipp@iwb.tum.de

Fiber-reinforced plastics are a lightweight material with outstanding mechanical properties. On the one hand the application of those materials can have an outstanding contribution to product performance (e.g. energy efficiency). On the other hand fiberreinforced plastics are not used very frequently due to their high manufacturing costs. At the same time, industrial production faces megatrends within a turbulent environment asking for highly individualized products and very short and reliable delivery times. Motivated by the combination of those two aspects, we propose an enhanced production control method for the manufacturing of preimpregnated fiber (prepreg) parts based on a survey among manufacturers of such parts.

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G12 – Modelling complex production processes in aerospace industry based on dimensional analysis S.N. Grigoriev

a

, A.A. Kutinb, M.V. Turkinb

a

Department of High-effective Machining Technologies, Moscow State Technological University Stankin, Moscow, Russian Federation b

Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Moscow State Technological University Stankin, Moscow, Russian Federation aa.kutin@stankin.ru

This paper looks at the application of the principals of dimensional analysis to identify relations between key parameters of the production system in order to construct a process model that can quantitatively describe the influence of manufacturing process variables, type of technology employed and the material flow on the integral productivity for both batch and flow production architectures of the aerospace production facilities. This process model allows the construction of closed cycle production chains for aerospace parts that form critical path in the assembly sequence of the final product. This approach has been successfully applied to solve the problem of the manufacturing process sequence and material flow optimization for gas-turbine compressor blades production. In conclusion one can say that the developed production process model allows to obtain a numerical assessment of the change in integral productivity as a result of controlled variation in parameters of the manufacturing system which in turn allows to design effective production systems based on optimization of the system parameters.

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G13 – Four types of manufacturing process innovation and their managerial concerns Yuji Yamamoto and Monica Bellgran School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden yuji.yamamoto@mdh.se

Manufacturing process innovation (MPI), an organisation-wide effort involving radical redesign of manufacturing related processes and systems to achieve dramatic improvements in critical manufacturing performance measures, encompasses various kinds of activities. Some MPI initiatives focus on technological innovation and others may intend to change work processes and organisations’ behavioural routines. Some organisations adopt new technological solutions or work methods that are externally available, while others may develop and adopt novel technologies or organisational routines which are new to the state of the art. Different focus in MPI initiatives requires different approaches and preconditions for achieving desired outcomes. However, MPI has been mostly treated as one type of innovation in literature and further classifications of MPI have not been made. This paper presents four types of MPI and discusses what managers can expect and prepare for each type of MPI. Basic strategic directions in terms of what type of MPI can be conducted at a specific organisation is also discussed. The four types of MPI is developed through a literature review of various research fields, for instance manufacturing strategy, process innovation, organisational innovation, typology of innovation, and new product development.

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Production systems design and management

H1 – Proposal for a generic model dedicated to reconfigurable and agile manufacturing systems (RAMS) Imad Chalfoun Bouton

a,b

a,b

, Khalid Kouissa,b, Anne-Lise Huyeta,b, Nicolas

, Pascal Raya,b

a

Clermont University, French Institute for Advanced Mechanics, Pascal Institute, Clermont-Ferrand, France b

CNRS, Aubière, France

imad.chalfoun@ifma.fr

This paper proposes a generic model for Reconfigurable and Agile Manufacturing Systems (RAMS). This model is based on a decomposition of RAMS along two axes. The first, horizontal, axis concerns the system’s structure and its configurations. The second, vertical, axis distinguishes the logical part and the physical part. Secondly, we propose a formalization and representation for each component of this model. In addition, we will represent RAMS in a modular manner. High-level meta-models for structure, configuration and operations will be presented using the systems modelling language SysML. Finally, an assembly process will be introduced to implement this approach.

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H2 – Changeability by a modular design of production systems – consideration of technology, organisation and staff Horst Meier, Stefan Schröder and Niklas Kreggenfeld Chair of Production Systems, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstraß, Bochum, Germany Schroeder@lps.rub.de

The steadily alternating and unpredictable requirements for industrial companies implicate the challenge to enhance production systems. As a consequence, the need for action leads to a paradigm shift in production. A transformation from a flexible production to a changeable company occurs. In this context, changeability will be decisive for the desired success. Production systems are used for the purpose of manufacturing products and are attributed to sociotechnical systems. A production system is a unit used to realize the production and can include a single machine as well as a complete production area or the whole factory. The staff is also part of production systems and does not only assume organisational responsibilities but also technical tasks. Many already known drivers of change, e.g. new innovations in technologies, have an impact on these socio-technical systems. One chance to react to changing requirements is to apply the principle of modularization. Conventionally, modularization is considered in a technical context. The consideration of staff and organisation is disregarded. This article introduces a new approach to design changeable production systems on the basis of modularization, including the dimensions of technology,

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H3 – A dispatching algorithm and software tool for managing the part flow on Reconfigurable Transportation System Anna Valentea

a

, Andrea Cataldo b, Emanuele Carpanzanoa

a

SUPSI ISTePS – Institute of Systems and Technologies for the Sustainable Production, Manno, Switzerland b

CNR-ITIA – Institute for Technologies and Industrial Automation, Milan, Italy

anna.valente@supsi.ch

Reconfigurable Transportation Systems – RTSs rely upon modular transportation units, standard mechatronic interfaces and distributed control solutions. These solutions are frequently preferred in production environments characterized by a very high adaptability, meaning that the production equipment can be adjusted in its own configuration and set points in a very short time to match the realization of a specific product family. The process, the system settings and the production management cannot be handled statically on the basis of a-priori knowledge of the part family demand, thus requiring real-time production and control approaches to support their efficient management over time becomes instrumental. The current work proposes an algorithm and the related software tool for the dispatching of parts on RTSs while minimizing of the parts’ lead time and transportation time. The proposed algorithm has been tested with regard to a production pilot system realizing the re-manufacturing and de-manufacturing of Printed Electronic Boards.

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H4 – Control of the feeder for a reconfigurable assembly system Karel Kruger and Anton Basson Dept Mechanical and Mechatronic Eng, Stellenbosch Univ, Stellenbosch, South Africa ahb@sun.ac.za

Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems hold promise to satisfy the requirements of dynamic and competitive modern manufacturing. A holonic control architecture is often used for the control of such reconfigurable systems. In this research, software agents and IEC 61499 function blocks are evaluated as alternative strategies for implementing holonic control for a modular feeder subsystem of an experimental Reconfigurable Assembly System. The strategies are evaluated through four reconfiguration experiments. The evaluation is based on qualitative and quantitative performance measures. The results show that agent-based control is more suitable in this specific case study.

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H5 – Passive haptic feedback for manual assembly simulation a

Néstor Andrés Arteaga Martin, b

Rainer Stark ,Thomas Bär

, Victor Mittelstädta, Michael Prieur a,

a

a

Production oriented product validation - Daimler AG, P.O, Ulm, Germany

b

Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology IPK, Berlin, Germany nestor_andres.arteaga_martin@daimler.com

In this study movable props representing an object were used to try to achieve realistic movements of a worker during completion of a manipulation task in an assembly-like scenario recreated in a mixed reality environment. The form and the weight of the movable props were adjusted to different resemblance levels. The effect of these levels on the experiential fidelity of the worker and on the action fidelity of process observers was studied. Results showed that increasing the fidelity of the movable props does not necessarily result on better performance, e.g. simulating the weight of the actual object only seems to improve the experience if the prop also resembles the form of the actual object. Further study is suggested to better understand the effect of other factors.

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H6 – Developing concepts for improved efficiency of robot work preparation Maarten Essers and Tom Vaneker Laboratory for Design, Production and Management, Dept. of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands m.s.essers@utwente.nl

SInBot[1] is a large research project that focuses on maximizing the efficient use of mobile industrial robots during medium sized production runs. The system that will be described in this paper will focusses on the development and validation of concepts for efficient work preparation for cells of intelligent mobile robots that execute medium sized production runs. For a wide range of products, the machining tasks will be defined on an appropriate level, enabling control over the robots behavior and performance. When the system, system operator, and robots have more experience with a product the system can be controlled on a higher level (i.e. the subsystems or even robots can start allocating and executing tasks by themselves). Different test beds are used to test the diversity of aspects involved in the development of the SInBot system. The initial test bed used for this research is a combination of two Lynxmotion AL5D robots and a Samsung SUR40 multi-touch environment. In this paper, novel work preparation concepts will be described and an experiment setup is proposed to validate the model for definition and generation of tasks from a CAD file.

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H7-P- ProFlex - Evolvable assembly systems Carlos Sousa Introsys, SA carlos.sousa@introsys.eu

Inspired in Evolvable Assembly Systems, ProFlex project is aimed to build an automated robotic system of universal application to different approaches and control philosophies. This system is constituted by two symmetric robotic cells, using two electrical and electronic standard approaches. This project will provide an innovated methodology with a universal control philosophy, valid to all production systems from this sector, regardless of the norms and standards forced by end users, keeping operational gains and efficiency. The key assumption of the ProFlex project is that a universal methodology to implement monitoring and control solutions will ensure agility, adaptation, flexibility, reconfiguration and software reutilization. In this way, the developed solutions will be able to cope with manufacturing systems new requirements for flexibility, cost reduction, time to market, performance improvement, increased product complexity and reduced lifecycle. Other important objectives need to be referred, such as the development of a new architecture to the control system through the modularization of it, using the creation of generic software classes. Also, the development of methods to obtain and check the economic gain to evaluate advantages and disadvantages of both control philosophies systems in time effective and cost effective fields. The development of a new model to create an advanced diagnostic and fail detection system capable of performing an analysis in a global level without the need to evaluate component by component is also an important objective. This project is also seen, at the end of the development, as an industrial training system, to allow and proportionate sessions and workshops to train new engineers to increase the process of learning.

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ProFlex will bring not only new technical developments for equipment manufactures but also for whom acquires them. The way of implementation of this project will cause a mentality change in industry through an adjustment of methodology between costumers. Through the conception of an automated reconfigurable assembly system with the capacity of incorporating several techniques and some processes of some customers, it is conceivable to companies to acquire a higher knowledge and to be able to compare these two philosophies of control and decide which one has more advantages. At the end, what this project is expecting to create and prove through real results, is an innovative system capable of revolutionizing, in a first moment, automotive industry, extending, in the future, to other areas of the industry such as aeronautic. A system capable of harmonizing equipment utilized by several customers, intending to place them face to face in terms of methodology and used equipment, in order to be possible to transform this heterogeneous market into a homogeneous one, bringing advantages to everyone. Furthermore, this system can be seen as a valuable tool capable of adapting to several situations, allowing customers to have reusable equipment, which is not seen in this area of industry.

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H8 – Disassembly liaison graphs inspired by word clouds Robert J. Riggs

a

, S. Jack Hua,b

a

Industrial and Operations Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA b

Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

jackhu@umich.edu

Liaison or connection graphs depict physical mates between components in a graphical representation but do not incorporate any precedence relations or order of assembly or disassembly of components. For the context of disassembly, we developed a method to graphically show not only the physical mates between components but also the disassembly precedence relations amongst all the components. The transformation of a liaison graph into a weighted liaison graph (WLG) is inspired by the generation of word clouds from the visual design domain where component nodes are weighted and colored to depict disassembly precedence relations. A WLG allows users to quickly comprehend the order of disassembly and component embeddedness.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

H9 – Virtual Fort Knox – Federative, secure and cloudbased platform for manufacturing Philipp Holtewert, Joachim Seidelmann and Thomas Bauernhansl Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionstechnik und Automatisierung, Stuttgart, Germany philipp.holtewert@ipa.fraunhofer.de

In future the engineer and IT world will grow together. Networking and linking of information from the physical production and the digital world enable an optimization in manufacturing. Within the research project Virtual Fort Knox at the Fraunhofer IPA in Germany, a federative, secure and cloud-based platform for distributed serviceoriented applications in plant operation is developed. The challenge is to establish a platform for the manufacturing to improve data processing and intelligent, cooperative networking. Data and information have to be saved, read and used on a flexible, simple and scalable way. This paper presents our research work in developing the platform by the description of the transformation process to the networked factory. The main aspects are consistent, integrated security across all components, community cloud for ITdecentralization respectively data, cooperation and competence distribution.

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H10 – A group decision-making method based on intuitionistic fuzzy set in the three dimensional concurrent engineering environment: a multi-objective programming approach H. Shidpour

a

, A. Bernardb,, M. Shahrokhic

a,b

Ecole centrale de Nantes, 1, rue de la Noë, Nantes, France

c

Engineering department, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

Alain.Bernard@irccyn.ec-nantes.fr

This paper proposes a group decision-making process by using multi-objective programming to address three-dimensional concurrent engineering (3D-CE) problems involving product, process and supply chain design. This paper uses opinion of decision makers to evaluate of the candidate suppliers and to determine importance of criteria by considering lack knowledge/information in the early design stages. For identifying impact of the lack knowledge/information on selecting the best configuration of product design, assembly/manufacturing process and suppliers of components, a numerical example is represented for two states of intuitionistic fuzzy and fuzzy. The evaluation showed that the configuration selected for two states are completely different.

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H11 – Modelling of flexibility costs in a decision support system for mid-term capacity planning

, Christian Morawetza, Dariush Tavaghof Gigloob, b a Stefan Minner , Wilfried Sihn Lukas Lingitz

a

a

Fraunhofer Austria Research GmbH - Division Production and Logistics Management, Theresianumgasse, Vienna, Austria b

LS Logistics & SCM, TUM School of Management, Arcisstraße, Munich, Germany lukas.lingitz@fraunhofer.at

Nowadays manufacturing companies are coerced to become more flexible to adapt their internal processes quickly and economically to the volatile external situations. In this paper, we develop a cost model with respect to the capacity envelope concept. Generic flexibility measures are used and described by numerous influence factors and constraints. Furthermore, the cost model will be demonstrated as a mixed-integer linear model and is finally integrated in a decision support system for mid-term production planning. The resulting problem can be solved with commonly available standard solvers. Finally, we will show numerical results from practice.

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H12 – Contact-less and programming-less human-robot collaboration Bernard Schmidt

a

, Lihui Wanga,b

a

Virtual Systems Research Centre, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden

b

Department of Production Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology , Brinellvägen, Stockholm, Sweden bernard.schmidt@his.se

In today’s manufacturing environment, safe human-robot collaboration is of paramount importance, to improve efficiency and flexibility. Targeting the safety issue, this paper presents an approach for human-robot collaboration in a shared workplace in close proximity, where real data driven 3D model of a robot and multiple depth images of the workplace are used for monitoring and decision-making to perform a task. The strategy for robot control depends on the current task and the information about the operator’s presence and position. A case study of assembly is carried out in a robotic assembly cell with human collaboration. The results show that this approach can be applied in real-world applications such as human-robot collaborative assembly with human operators safeguarded at all time.

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H13–P –COSMOS - Desing, development and implementation of factory control system (Holos SA) João Paulo Pimentão Holos SA pimentao@holos.pt

The main objective for COSMOS is the design/development/ implementation of a control system for factory management with a flexible, modular and evolvable automation approach which will permit to increase the assembly factory productivity by 20% without losing flexibility, focused on wind turbine assembly process although the solution will be suitable for other sectors. Cost models will be defined to assist in establishing the economically optimum factory’s configuration and automation level. COSMOS system features will be i) Autonomous behaviour of the factory units, ii) Multilayer decentralised control. The control will work in three interconnected levels.- Interoperable connectivity with factory units’ equipment/devices; iii) Local intelligence (selfadaptation to different parts conditions without human intervention) and iv) Collaboration among equipment/devices to complete specific tasks.

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Process improvement and management

I1 – Maintenance database a

José Caldeira Duarte

, Pedro F. Cunha a,b, João T. Craveiro c

a

Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, Estefanilha, Setúbal, Portugal

b c

CENI, Campus do IPS, Estefanilha, Setúbal, Portugal

MIIT, Av. Elias Garcia, 123-5º Esq, Lisbon, Portugal

jose.duarte@estsetubal.ips.pt

Maintenance activities represent an increasingly high cost in any manufacturing system or in different types of structures. Its achievement or not has a major impact on availability of equipment or structures. Nowadays cost reduction, minimizing downtime and ensuring reliability levels are central objectives in any sector of industrial activity and maintenance is observed as an important service. To achieve these goals, decision support systems should be available, optimizing the exploration and maintenance plans and ensuring companies meeting their goals. For this it is necessary to make collections of reliable and consistent data. Its analysis and treatment will allow to compute reliability values, to validate FMECA and re-plan production and maintenance. This paper focuses on the need for the existence of a maintenance database and proposes an architecture for connecting the multiple vertices that generate information to feed the database. The architecture presented should drive developments in building a platform that ensures data to be collected and processed and to link OEM, customers and maintenance providers, as shareholders of maintenance database and with the responsibility in feeding it with data during different phases of the product life cycle. The existence of a maintenance database will provides reliable information for analysis and will contribute significantly to plan the installation phase of equipment and its use.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

I2 – Impact of machine reliability uncertainty on the design and operation of manufacturing systems. Marcello Colledani and Anteneh Teferi Politecnico di Milano, Mechanical Engineering Dept, Milan, Italy marcello.colledani@polimi.it

Decision making in the design and operation of advanced multi-stage manufacturing systems is more and more supported by digital manufacturing tools. In order to be effective in their scope, such tools have to be based on high-fidelity virtual representations of the real system. To achieve this goal, they are continuously fed with process and system data directly collected from the field. Once validated, these digital tools can be used to evaluate and generate alternative system improvement actions and optimized re-designs of the system, based on scenario analysis. Traditionally, manufacturing systems engineering methods suitable to this scope include analytical methods and simulation. While evaluating the performance of the system under a given configuration, they typically assume that machine reliability parameters (Mean Time to Failure and Mean Time to Repair) are precisely known. However, in practical situations, these parameters are either estimated from real life data or based on experts’ knowledge. In both cases, they are subject to estimate uncertainty. This paper investigates the risks and the potential performance losses due to design and operation decisions derived by neglecting machine reliability uncertainty in the digital manufacturing tools. The proposed method paves the way to the online adoption of digital models for manufacturing system continuous improvements.

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I3 – Spare parts planning for offshore wind turbines subject to restrictive maintenance conditions Kirsten Tracht, Jan Westerholt and Peter Schuh University of Bremen | Bremen Institute for Mechanical Engineering, Badgasteiner Strasse , Bremen, Germany Schuh@bime.de

The use of offshore wind energy is supposed to play a significant role in future energy supply. Because offshore wind farms will be built in greater water depths and distances to shore according to other already realized offshore projects, maintenance is far more influenced by different restrictive factors. Limited availability of vessels, dependency on meteorological surrounding conditions, such as wind speed and weave height, as well as a complex logistical process chain require adjustment of up to now implemented maintenance concepts. In this context ensuring a reliable and costeffective supply of spare parts is of great importance. This paper describes an approach for spare parts planning by considering restrictions that exist in the field of offshore maintenance. The model developed is used to show how restrictive factors influence maintenance and operation costs and how spare parts supply processes can be adopted. Scenario analysis will be used to estimate time of preventive maintenance activities and to investigate stock out costs caused by the restrictive accessibility.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

I4 – Lean leadership – fundamental principles and their application Tim Mielke and Uwe Dombrowski Technische Universität Braunschweig – Institute for Advanced Industrial Management, Langer Kamp, Braunschweig, Germany tim.mielke@tu-bs.de

Lean production systems (LPS) have become state of the art in today’s production facilities. But still, few enterprises succeed in maintaining a sustainable continuous improvement process (CIP). In many LPS, solely methods and tools are in focus of the implementation. But they merely represent the superficial elements of LPS. The actual key success factor is the involvement of employees in daily improvement. This can be achieved through a different way of leadership, the lean leadership. Although the importance of lean leadership has already been emphasized by many authors, so far no consistent structure or definition of this approach exist. Therefore, a literature study has been carried out, aimed at identifying the relevant principles of lean leadership. A subsequent survey reveals the application of lean leadership and points out future possibilities for improvement. The majority of participants confirms the particular importance of lean leadership and claim to apply almost all its elements in their enterprises. But the results also indicate that some elements have been misinterpreted and others are not used as thoroughly as they should.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

I5 – Continuous improvement beyond the lean understanding Halvor Holtskog Gjovik University College,Teknologiveien, Gjovik, Norway halvor.holtskog@hig.no

Continuous Improvement is seen as a cornerstone in Lean Thinking, but the improvement process of operations has been done long before Lean entered companies’ agenda. This paper will draw the historical line of continuous improvement in one of Norway’s most important automotive industry clusters, where continuous improvement has been an issue over decades. A survey of over 600 respondents shows that continuous improvement is felt like a natural part of the tasks in the daily work-life. But there are differences of what is so natural according to what role a person has in the companies. Similar there are differences between companies in what continuous improvement actually is done when the companies are in the same industry. These results show that the simplified notion of continuous improvement is far from simple and has a cultural foundation in which the Lean tradition speaks little about. Workers union involvement is crucial for success of improvements at the factory floor. This argument will have the Nordic work-life model as a back-drop and help to explain how to deal with cultural foundation in highly automated production lines.

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I6 – A systematic approach on developing actionoriented, competency-based Learning Factories M. Tisch Tenberg

a

, C. Hertlea, J. Cachaya, E. Abelea, J. Metternicha, R.

b

a

Institute of Production Management, Technology and Machine Tools, Petersenstraße, Darmstadt, Germany b

Depatment of Technical Teaching and Learning, Darmstadt, Germany

tisch@ptw.tu-darmstadt.de

As a next challenge, in terms of enhancing employees’ improvement abilities with the use of Learning Factories, existing education and training programs are remodeled by the means of a competencyoriented, scientific-founded didactic concept. Therefore, based on a multi-level study on Learning Factories focusing on their design and use, a systematic approach to further develop quasi-real, effective learning environments in the field of manufacturing systems is conceived. As a result competency-oriented Learning Factories meeting the industries’ requirements can be implemented with the use of fewer input resources and an increased success in applied competencies in real situations.

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I7 – A new approach for integrated design of flexible production systems Alexandra F. Marques

a

, António C. Alvesa, Jorge P. Sousaa,b

a

INESC Tec, Porto, Portugal

b

Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

alexandra.s.marques@inescporto.pt

The paper presents a holistic methodological approach for designing flexible production systems, integrating the management of the production resources, operations planning, internal logistics and quality. The proposed methodology relies on lean principles and encompasses a series of stages and tools that may be used to design and to assess the robustness of the production system for tackling small series and frequent changes in the productive processes due to customized production. This approach has been applied to the redesign of the production system of a Portuguese machinery manufacturing industrial company. Results show that it effectively led to a new flexible production system and a new industrial layout capable of responding to diverse future scenarios of products demand.

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I8 – Cellular Manufacturing – A lean and flexible approach for machining Sven Bechtloff, Stefan Seifermann and Joachim Metternich Institute of Production Management, Technology and Machine Tools, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Petersenstraße, Darmstadt, Germany bechtloff@ptw.tu-darmstadt.de

The ideas of Group Technology and Cellular Manufacturing have been a research topic for decades. Although widely implemented in assembly, the principles of flow production as central element of Lean Production have not often been transferred successfully to machining areas yet. In times of continuously rising hardware complexity Cellular Manufacturing is an alternative approach to enable both, flow production and volume flexibility in machining, but can rarely be found in Europe. Current research activities focus on identifying relevant performance indicators to evaluate economic fields of application of Cellular Manufacturing using the example of milling.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

I9 – Improving changeover time: a tailored SMED approach for welding cells Pablo Guzmán Ferradás and Konstantinos Salonitis Manufacturing and Materials Department, Cranfield University UK k.salonitis@cranfield.ac.uk

Short changeover times have always been critical in manufacturing business. Set-up duration reduction initiatives have been associated with Shingo´s ‘Single Minute Exchange of Die’ (SMED) method. Although a great number of companies have initiated SMED, some failed on implementation. The main reason is that strict application of Shingo´s SMED methodology is not the most efficient way to reduce set-up times in all situations. In the present study a tailored methodology is presented that has been developed specifically for an automotive supplier. The validation of the proposed method was done through implementation on an industrial welding cell for a period of four months. The main finding is that in addition to SMED tailored methodology, appropriate strategy definition and preparatory activities are key enablers for success. That includes project targets and timescale definition, selection of the appropriate team and coordinator, allocation of specific roles and responsibilities to each team member, training of team and shop floor staff on the new methodology and changeover standards. By implementing the new tailored SMED improvement program, the company achieved 33% reduction on changeover time.

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I10 – Lean and proactive liquidity management for SMEs Frank Zwißler, Eftal Okhan and Engelbert Westkämper Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation, Nobelstraße, Stuttgart, Germany frank.zwissler@ipa.fraunhofer.de

The liquidity requirements and the available liquidity are aspects that are influenced by order-independent and order-specific business processes; they represent dynamic parameters over time, making it difficult for many companies to plan and ensure liquidity. Apart from the complexity of material and financial flows, it is the time gap in the flows of the order fulfillment process which complicates the determination of future liquidity requirements. This paper presents a causal model based on cause-and-effect networks, which takes an integrated look on the material and financial flows derived from the value creation process to identify future liquidity requirements.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

I11 – Beyond lean and six-sigma; Cross-collaborative improvement of tolerances and process variations - A case study Lars Krogstiea

,c

, Kristian Martinsena,b

a

Gjøvik University College, Gjøvik, Norway

b

SINTEF Raufoss Manufacturing Raufoss, Norway

c

NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Lars.Krogstie@hig.no

Good tolerance- and variation management is essential to achieve high value adding products with cost-effective processes. The link between Tolerance Engineering and popular manufacturing improvement philosophies such as Lean and Six Sigma is, however, not always that clear. The possibilities and limitations of these two approaches on Tolerance Engineering are discussed in this paper. The case describes cross-collaborative improvement work within industry on tolerance and variation management which is similar to a work model called “Closed Loop Tolerance Engineering” (CLTE). The case is focused on the process of revising existing drawings and tolerance specifications for the manufacturing of products with a long lifetime. Although both Lean and Six-Sigma have been important for the improvement work in the case company for several years, there is still a gap to be filled on tolerance and variation management. The novelty of this paper is found in the link between an industrial case on improvements and an academic model (CLTE) for crosscollaborative engineering on variation and tolerances.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

I12 – Casting defect analysis using design of experiments (DoE) and computer aided casting simulation technique Uday Anna Dabade and Rahul C. Bhedasgaonkar Department of Mechanical Engineering, Walchand College of Engineering, Vishrambag, Sangli, India udabade@gmail.com

In this paper the design of experiments and computer assisted casting simulation techniques are combined to analyze the sand related and methoding related defects in green sand casting. An attempt has been made to obtain the optimal settings of the moulding sand and mould related process parameters of green sand casting process of the selected ductile iron cast component. The green sand related process parameters considered are, moisture content, green compression strength, and permeability of moulding sand and mould hardness (in horizontal direction). In first part of this paper Taguchi based L18 orthogonal array was used for the experimental purpose and analysis was carried out using Minitab software for ANOVA and analysis of mean (AOM) plot. ANOVA results indicate that the selected process parameters significantly affect the casting defects and rejection percentage. In the second part, shrinkage porosity analysis is performed using casting simulation technique by introduction of a new gating system designed, solid model developed for four cavities mould. Number of iterations using casting simulation software was performed for mould filling and solidification analysis to reduce the level and intensities of shrinkage porosities in cast component. With new gating and feeding system design reduction in shrinkage porosity (about 15%) and improvement in yield (about 5%) is observed.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

Energy-efficient processes and systems

J1 – Enabling energy management for planning energyefficient factories Egon Müller, Romina Poller, Hendrik Hopf and Manuela Krones Department of Factory Planning and Factory Management, Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, Saxony, Germany Institute of Industrial Sciences and Factory Systems, Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, Saxony, Germany romina.poller@mb.tu-chemnitz.de

Due to the reasons of sustainability, energy efficiency becomes a more and more important objective for industrial companies. Among others, the term “energy management” is often mentioned as a practical instrument to raise energy efficiency. Because of the longterm influence at an early stage of the factory life cycle, factory planning provides an important contribution to realize company goals regarding energy efficiency. Until now, there is a lack of methodical concepts considering the combination of energy management and factory planning. In this paper, the interaction between both of these topics is described and by this, the meaning of energy management as an integral part of energy-efficient factories is underlined. Generally, energy management is used in the phase of factory operation to improve the energy performance, including energy efficiency, energy supply security, energy use and energy consumption. Besides, the integration of energy-related tasks in the factory planning process should also be realized as far as possible, e.g. regarding the purchase, distribution, storage and use of energy. This leads to a more systematic and holistic consideration of energy efficiency in organisational and technical processes of a company.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

J2 – Energy efficiency issues of manufacturing processes Apostolos Fysikopoulos, Alexios Papachralampopoulos, Georgios Pastras, Panagiotis Stavropoulos and George Chryssolouris Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University of Patras, Patras, Greece xrisol@lms.mech.upatras.gr

A critical review on the energy efficiency of important manufacturing processes is presented in this study. Relevant conventional and nonconventional processes, utilized in the three major industrial sectors of aeronautics, automotive and white goods are briefly discussed. Information related to their energy efficiency is provided. The conclusions of both the analysis and the discussion comprise some practical aspects and recommendations for the energy efficient use of selected processes.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

J3–P – Think blue factory João Pereira Volkswagen Autoeuropa, Lda Joao.Pereira@Volkswagen.pt

With the program “Think Blue. Factory.” Volkswagen brings the “Think Blue.” concept into the production sites. “Think Blue. Factory.” is an holistic and cross-functional program for the Volkswagen production sites worldwide, which embraces the goal to implement measures towards energy efficiency and emissions reduction in the production processes. Until 2018, Volkswagen aims to become the economic and ecological leader of the automotive sector. Assuming its responsibility within the production processes’ sustainability, Volkswagen established a goal of 25% reduction of the environmental impacts in all its production sites by 2018. The “Think Blue. Factory.” energy efficiency program is based on four intervention areas: a) Management of the society’s expectations regarding the company’s activity; b) Energy efficiency through 25% reduction in 5 key performance indicators: energy, water, waste, CO2 emissions and VOC emissions; c) Renewable energy supply; d) Employee engagement within the strategy implementation. The “Think Blue. Factory.” program started to be implemented in 2011 and in Portugal, Volkswagen Autoeuropa assumed its commitment towards the increase of the plant production processes’ energy efficiency. Volkswagen Autoeuropa is a multi-brand and multi-product production site, for it produces the Volkswagen models Sharan, Eos and Scirocco and the SEAT Alhambra.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

J4 – Energy efficient manufacturing from a machine tool to manufacturing systems Konstantinos Salonitis and Peter Ball Manufacturing and Materials Department, Cranfield University, UK k.salonitis@cranfield.ac.uk

Energy efficiency is one of the key drivers for sustainability. Within manufacturing environments, energy efficiency importance has grown, and it is now considered among other decision-making factors such as productivity, cost and flexibility. However, in most cases the energy consumption of the various components of the manufacturing systems, such as machine tools, are considered using average energy consumption models for the needs of discrete event simulation. The paper presents an overview of energy efficiency approaches, focusing in both production and machine tool level and how these two can be integrated together. Furthermore, the main challenges towards energy efficient manufacturing are discussed identifying the major barriers from both technology and cultural point of view.

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46rd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems Setúbal, Portugal, 29th – 31st May 2013

J5 – Realizing energy reduction of machine tools through a control-integrated consumption graph-based optimization method Philipp Eberspächer and Alexander Verl Institute for Control Engineering of Machine Tools and Manufacturing Units (ISW), Seidenstraße, Stuttgart, Germany philipp.eberspaecher@isw.uni-stuttgart.de

Industrial manufacturing has started focusing on the topic of energy efficiency already some years ago. Nowadays, even machine controls are equipped with possibilities to switch the machine into energy saving modes or even to shut it down entirely based on fixed time intervals or manually. The developed combination and modification of state-based consumption modeling with graphbased optimization theory enables the control to choose the energy-optimal state sequence for given unproductive times. The approach is presented in detail and its saving potential is demonstrated by a usage scenario from an industrial setup.

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J6 – A study on the heating process for forging of an automotive crankshaft in terms of energy efficiency Hong-Seok Park and Xuan-Phuong Dang Lab for Production Engineering, School of Mechanical and Automotive engineering, University of Ulsan, South Korea phosk@ulsan.ac.kr

This work studies the in-line induction heating process before hot forging of an automotive crankshaft to find the potential solutions for improving the energy efficiency. We optimized the process parameters and proposed an insulating system to reduce the radiation and convection losses at the open spaces between adjacent heaters. The results obtained from the analytical model of the heat transfer show that using insulating covers can roughly reduce 9% of heat losses compared to the energy stored in the work piece. Approximately additional 6% of energy can be saved by process parameters optimization.

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J7 – Methodology for energy-efficiency on process level Marcus Andreas Dörr, Sylvia Wahren and Thomas Bauernhansl Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA, Stuttgart, Germany marcus.doerr@ipa.fraunhofer.de

Today, energy efficiency issues are becoming more and more important within organisations. Many problems arise when these organisations take the challenge of producing with fewer resources, like materials and energy. There is no general procedure to integrate these aspects in everyday organisational practices. The international standard ISO 50001 defines general requirements for the operational and organisational structure for companies but the standard gives no information about how to realize energy efficient processes on productive or non-productive level. The energy consumption of processes is rarely known because of an insufficient existing infrastructure and missing measuring devices. Furthermore, often there is a lack of manpower and knowledge about new and innovative technologies. If any expertise exists, it is linked to individual positions and not systematically integrated in projects or structures for the improvement of production processes. The integration of know-how in energy performance such as energy efficiency, energy use and consumption in organisations needs a knowledge management system and a procedure for the consideration of energy aspects. The new approach is to link a systematic methodology for the identification of energy saving potential to the proposal of measures for their improvement. This approach requires a detailed analysis of the technical and structural facts in production processes. The outcomes of this analysis combined with a database of common measures are generating company-specific measures. The measures are going to be evaluated by defined criteria. The results will be provided for the different roles in an organisation. Examples are user-specific checklists or processes for individual tasks. With this approach it is possible for organisations to recognize and to document their

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knowledge about energy efficiency and to build up a base for a continuous improvement process.

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J8 – Total energy estimation model for remote laser welding process Jumyung Um and Ian Stroud EPFL-STI-IGM-LICP, Lausanne, Switzerland jumyung.um@epfl.ch

The issues in the energy-efficiency process have much interest for the automotive industry. The energy criteria are also important in machine selection as well as productivity when new equipment is introduced on a shop floor. Remote laser welding having benefits for productivity and for energy saving is receiving attention in automotive assembly lines, but introducing this innovative equipment is a significant decision because of high initial cost in spite of the advantages. This paper specifically provides an estimation model of the total energy which is consumed by a robot arm, laser source, and cooling system. It considers the energy determined by robot operation parameters, arm path, and welding parts instead of the one for the laser melting phenomenon. Operational parameters and kinematic models are adjusted by comparison with experimental data of a car door assembly process. By developing an estimation model the major factors and devices determining consumed energy were found. This model will contribute to finding the effective process which will be improved by applying remote laser welding robot to legacy welding processes.

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Technology in production and logistics

K1 – Leveraging apps in manufacturing. A framework for App technology in the enterprise Christoph Gröger, Stefan Silcher, Engelbert Westkämper and Bernhard Mitschang Graduate School of Excellence advanced Manufacturing Engineering (GSaME), University of Stuttgart, Nobelstr, Stuttgart, Germany christoph.groeger@gsame.uni-stuttgart.de

Apps on mobile devices like smartphones have become the core of the digital life of consumers. Apps are used, e. g., for shopping or communicating in social networks. Recently, apps are gaining more and more attention in enterprises as enabler for agile process optimization. In this article, we discuss the potentials and challenges of exploiting this technology with a focus on the manufacturing industry. We come up with a framework for apps in manufacturing companies and identify major areas that need further investigations to fully leverage apps. Moreover, we present existing and novel apps across the product life cycle.

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K2 – Towards a definition of PLM-integrated dimensional measurement P. Saunders

ab

, B. Caic, N. Orchardb, P. Maropoulosa

a

University of Bath, Bath, UK

b

Rolls-Royce plc, Filton, Bristol, UK

c

Manufacturing Technology Centre, Coventry, UK

per.saunders@rolls-royce.com

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) enables knowledge about products to be captured and reused. Since dimensional measurement is used to determine the size and shape of the products about which PLM is centered, we contend that it is an important process to integrate. Building on emerging industryaccepted standards, a framework was developed in an effort to define what integrating dimensional measurement with PLM involves. Following a survey of the state-of-the-art against this framework and a critical review, technology gaps are identified, and key challenges and research priorities are highlighted.

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K3 – Cost model for digital engineering tools Johannes Volkmann and Engelbert Westkämper Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA, Stuttgart, Germany johannes.volkmann@ipa.fraunhofer.de

Most factories see the necessity and the high potentials to be gained when introducing integrated digital engineering tools into their planning and execution environment. Next to the design of suitable adaptions of the existing legacy systems in the IT landscapes, one of the biggest challenges they face is the situation based evaluation of the economics of any selection of digital engineering tools for the envisioned adaption. This paper discusses the applicability and adaptability of different variants of process costing methods for the evaluation of digital engineering IT landscapes as a major part of the digital factory economics method for an approach to a reproducible method for the evaluation of IT landscapes. Afterwards, the required adapted cost type plan is designed through a requirements analysis of the digital engineering specifics and an outlook is given for the upcoming work and validation.

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K4 – A new numerical chain from 3D model of parts to CNS manufacturing Frederic Vignat Grenoble-INP / UJF, Grenoble, France frederic.vignat@grenoble-inp.fr

Today CNC machine speed and agility has been widely increased. However, at the same time the numerical chain in the process from design to manufacture has not been subject to significant changes. A large number of machines are still using low level text language to control the execution of machining operations. For complex machining operations this leads to a lack of precision and to jerky movements. This paper is presenting a project carried out in our laboratory to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a revised numerical chain leading to enhanced flexibility while meeting or improving the challenges of productivity and product variability. This new numerical chain concept will first be presented and discussed. This numerical chain aims at using recent development in machine control hardware and CAD/CAM environments. The goal is to simplify and improve reliability of machining operations and to allow higher optimization of toolpath.

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K5 – An approach for cloud based machine tool control

, Armin Lechlera, Stefan Wesnerb, Andreas c a d c Kirstädter , Jan Schlechtendahl , Lutz Schubert , Sebastian Meier Alexander Verl

a

a

Institute for Control Engineering of Machine Tools and Manufacturing Units (ISW), Seidenstr., Stuttgart, Germany b

kiz University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee, Ulm, Germany

c

Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering (IKR), Pfaffenwaldring, Stuttgart, Germany d

High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS), Stuttgart, Germany

Jan.Schlechtendahl@isw.uni-stuttgart.de

Versatility and scalability are the major factors for meeting the requirements of a flexible production of the 21st century. A versatile production can only be realized if the machine control infrastructure is also versatile and scalable – current machine controls are not. Limitations in areas like e.g. reconfiguration ability, security and computational power demand for a radically new concept for machine controls. The approach presented in this paper is to split the physical location of the machine tool control from the machine tool itself. The approach moves the control in a cloud providing machine control as a service (MCaaS).

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K6 – Achieving low cost and high quality aero structure assembly through Integrated digital metrology systems Jody Muelaner, Oliver Martin and Paul Maropoulos Laboratory for Integrated Metrology Applications (LIMA), Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Bath, UK j.e.muelaner@bath.ac.uk

Measurement assisted assembly (MAA) has the potential to facilitate a step change in assembly efficiency for large structures such as airframes through the reduction of rework, manually intensive processes and expensive monolithic assembly tooling. It is shown how MAA can enable rapid part-to-part assembly, increased use of flexible automation, traceable quality assurance and control, reduced structure weight and improved aerodynamic tolerances. These advances will require the development of automated networks of measurement instruments; model based thermal compensation, the automatic integration of 'live' measurement data into variation simulation and algorithms to generate cutting paths for predictive shimming and drilling processes. This paper sets out an architecture for digital systems which will enable this integrated approach to variation management.

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Technology and Knowledge for Processes and Organisational Innovation

CENI - Centro de Integração e Inovação de Processos, Assoc.I&D (www.ceni.pt) is a private and non-profit research and development association acting in the areas of industrial logistics and organisational processes at both the national and the European level. It started at Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal as a research group and it was formally created as an association in May 2007. In CENI’s strategy the integration of research, education and innovation support a broad view approach to development and to contribute to the sustainability and progress of manufacturing in Portugal and worldwide. CENI has been carrying out research, technology transfer, consultancy and training activities and delivering high value to industrial companies and professionals. The results of research projects have been published and presented in international research publications and at conferences in the fields of digital manufacturing,

manufacturing

systems,

automation

and

production

management. CENI’s research areas of excellence are the production planning and control, analysis of materials and energy flow, manufacturing system design, process analysis and reengineering, design of production networks, business models innovation, quality, environment and energy management and performance management. CENI is an active member of two national Poles of Competitiveness, the Pool-Net - Portuguese Tooling Network (www.toolingportugal.com) and ProduTech - Tecnologias de Produção (www.produtech.org). CENI is currently involved in the national R&D projects “Operations Management and Logistic for Customized Products”, “Advanced Tools for New Product, Systems and Services Development”, “New Business Models and Support Tools”, “High Performance Sustainable Production” and “Methodologies, Organisation and Processes Systematisation”, the later for

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the mould industry. In the 7FP, CENI has recently participated in the project with the title “Innovative Networks of SMEs for Complex Products Manufacturing” (FP7-CP-FP229278-2, www.netchallenge.org), mainly in the development of methodologies and reference business processes to support collaborative networks. CENI was also involved in the Interreg IV B Sudoe project “DINAMIC” (SOE1/P1/E110, http://dinamic.inescporto.pt) with the goal of promoting research, development and innovation projects in SMEs by training people in innovation management. Within the worldwide scientific community of CIRP - Int. Academy for Production Engineering, (www.cirp.net), CENI organised the 3rd International CIRP conference on Digital Enterprise Technology (DET2006)and is currently organising the 46th International CIRP conference on Manufacturing Systems (CMS2013) focused on the economic development and wealth through globally competitive manufacturing systems, to identify the scientific advances and other improvements taking different perspectives and innovative approaches and envisioning future trends. CENI has been designing and running postgraduate training courses in Innovation and Technology and in Lean Operations Management, as well as several training actions and workshops. To support its training activities based on the experimental learning concept, CENI created its “Learning Factory”. The Learning Factory disseminates lean thinking principles and techniques through simulation of real scenarios, to people from industrial and service companies (http://www.ceni.pt/learning-factory/enquadramento).

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College International Pour La Recherche en Produtique The International Academy for Production Engineering

CIRP (http://www.cirp.net) is the world leading organisation in production engineering research and is at the forefront of design, optimization, control and management of processes, machines and systems. The Academy has restricted membership based on demonstrated excellence in research and has some 600 academic and industrial members from 50 industrialized countries. As a scientific Academy CIRP is organised along the lines of a number of Scientific Technical Committees (STCs) and Working Groups (WGs), covering many areas of production science and technology and it’s aims in general at: i) Promoting scientific research, related to manufacturing processes, production equipment and automation, manufacturing systems and product design and manufacturing; ii) Promoting cooperative research among the members of the Academy and creating opportunities for informal contacts among CIRP members at large; iii) Promoting the industrial application of the fundamental research work and simultaneously receiving feedback from industry, related to industrial needs and their evolution. CIRP was founded in 1951 with the aim to address scientifically, through international co-operation, issues related to modern production science and technology. In the late 1940s it was becoming increasingly clear that the development of new production techniques was being hampered by the lack of appropriate analysis methods and it was realized that, in view of the importance and scale of the problems to be tackled, only international cooperative action would be effective. Therefore it was decided that efforts should be made to bring together research workers studying the application of scientific methods to production technology. This initiative led to the foundation of the International Institution for Production Research (CIRP), named today "The International Academy for Production Engineering".

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Economic Development and Wealth through Globally Competitive Manufacturing Systems