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~ STUDENT JOURNAL ~ Air Studio 2014 Cecilia Nguyen 586596 Tutors: Brad & Philip

CONTENTS Introduction About me....................................1 PART A: Conceptualisation A.1. Design Futuring....................................4 A.2. Design Computation....................................10 A.3. Composition/Generation....................................16 A.4. Conclusion....................................26 A.5. Learning Outcomes....................................26 A.6. Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches ....................................30 PART B: Criteria Design B.1. Research Field....................................36 B.2. Case Study 1.0....................................40 B.3. Case Study 2.0....................................52 B.4. Technique:Development....................................60 B.5. Technique: Prototypes....................................70 B.6. Technique: Proposal....................................76 B.7. Learning Objectives and Outcomes....................................80 B.8. Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches....................................84

C.1. C.2. C.3. C.4. C.5.

PART C: Detailed Design Design Concept.................................... Tectonic Elements.................................... Final Model.................................... Additional LAGI Brief Requirements.................................... Learning Objectives and Outcomes....................................


Not just a number. Cecilia Nguyen. University of Melbourne. Third Year Architecture Major. From a young age I have always loved designing and whenever I had the chance I would draw. At first these drawings were simply expressions of my ideas as a child. I particularly liked to observe the natural and built environments around me for inspiration.

about 586596

However, now it has become a critical part of my life. It is a method I use to express my thoughts that can be transformed into something feasible; a realisation of my ideas. This interest has developed into a more substantial vision, from a hobby into a potential career path.

In the past I’ve had little exposure to CAD and 3D modelling programs because I have always preferred hand drawing techniques. Even in past projects I have relied predominantly on my drawing skills.



In my first year of the undergraduate course here at Melbourne University I had taken Virtual Environments which introduced us to Rhinoceros. At first I found it very challenging to utilise Rhino, however as I familiarised myself with the commands and possibilities I began to realise its full potential and appreciate it more. So this semester, I look forward to Studio Air and exploring the possibilities in Grasshopper to assist me in my designing. It can be an opportunity for me to enhance my digital programming skills. For Virtual Environments we had to produce a lantern by first using Rhino. The project required us to use basic commands such as lofting and unrolling in rhino, as well as panelling tools to then build a physical model. It was challenging to use rhino at first but it was a new experience that broadened my horizons. Seeing my work grow from a concept to an actual product with the assistance of Rhino gave me a sense of satisfaction. It allowed me to realise that digital modelling programs can improve our design experience allowing us to work more efficiently.

t me

Images: These are the final physical models that I had fabricated for Virtual Environments. Using Rhinoceros and panelling tools to assist me I was able to create a lantern design.




defutu Design Futuring

With the rising concern of the defuturing condition of unsustainability, new technologies have been developed and tested in the search for providing a means to supply and generate renewable energy. There is a vast range of possibilities with various applications of these technologies. They can adopt different mediums that can be integrated with art and design which also offer interesting design solutions. 1

An interesting example of one of these emerging technologies is Piezoelectricity. This process uses the concept of harnessing energy via kinetics. The idea is they convert mechanical strain and transform it into electrical energy. It allows for interaction with users but also benefits the environment in a way that it produces energy with low impact.

REFERENCES: 1) Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg, 2008), p. 1–16

Kinetic energy

2)‘Technology’, Pavegen Systems, last modified 13 March 2014 , http://www.

3) “Pavegen: kinetic energy generation from footsteps”, Design Boom, last modified 13 March 2014, 4) “3D Animation Created For Pavegen Paris Marathon “, Jason Harding Productions, last modified 13 March 2014,

Figure 1: Example of Pavegen techonology being utilised


“Pavegen Systems is a energy harvesting company that converts the kinetic energy of peoples footsteps into renewable electricity.” 2

Figure 2: The installation at Simon Langton School in 2013


uring Pavegen Systems


The company is London based and manufactures tiles which can harvest renewable energy and store it which can then be provided to off grid applications (low voltage). They can be installed at newly developed areas and can be retrofitted into existing flooring systems.

Pavegen Systems was developed in 2009 and until today they have worked with various organisations and clients to promote sustainability by generating renewable energy.

Ideally, these tiles should be installed in areas with lots of people walking/running. With people engaging with the technology actively, it also promotes awareness for sustainable technologies (figures 1 & 4). 3

These pavers are constructed of recycled materials; a recycled rubber top surface, with the base also consisting of about 80% recycled materials. 2

There is also consideration of waterproofing as the tiles can be installed both inside and outside. This shows the depth of research that was taken in order to create a well functioning product that considers engineering, aesthetics and sustainability. It increases the product life span as it creates a more durable final product.

Figure 4: Another realised project by the Pavegen team.

Some of these include: - Johnnie Walker keep walking project - Bestival Festival Isle of Wight - Uniqlo Heattech London and Paris - WWF Earth Hour, London and Singapore - Schneider Paris Marathon 2013 - West Ham station London Olympics (figure 4). 4

One of Pavegens permanent projects is at Simon Langton School. It is a permanent installation only covers a corridoor area of 5 metres. However the aim of this was not to save electricity, but rather to educate the students in ideas of energy conservation (figure 2). 2 The Pavegen installation allows students to engage with the new technologies and helps them realise that there are many opportunities in the future for us to find more solutions to reducing our energy consumption.

Figure 4: Close up of the Pavegen Tiles




“99 dreams I have had, In everyone a red balloon, It’s all over and I’m standin’ pretty In this dust that was a city. If I could find a souvenir Just to prove the world was here And here is a red balloon I think of you, and let it go” 1

99 Luftballoons, Nena, 1984 Design Concept

Application of technologies

This project acquired inspiration from song lyrics (above), in particular looking at the symbolism of the lyrics; “visions of loss, hope, memory, and the perseverance of dreams for a redemptive and meaningful future.” 1 Not only is the project design one that explores various but also a meaningful symbol.

The designers chose to incorporate photovoltaic solar generators in the balloon design; made of an organic resin membrane. These are lined with transparent organic solar cells and are still operable in low and diffused light making it more efficient to harness energy.

A red balloon is chosen as the main design idea as it carries a sense of joy and symbolises the act of celebrating. They are bright red and drifting amongst the sky as a backdrop, acting as a landmark and arouses curiousity for distant viewers. The aim of the balloons is to evoke a response in the park visitors, to reflect upon the site; which was once a waste storage facility. The installation is everchanging as the balloons are constantly fading and reappearing in the sky. This is a result of the interaction of people with the space itself. It is the designers way of challenging the visitors, giving them the opportunity to think about how even just one person has the ability to impact the environment.

REFERENCES: 1) “99 Red Balloons”, Land Art Generator Initiative, last modified 2 March 2014 , < >


The project incorporates liquid crystal technology, allowing the balloons can turn from opaque to transparent . This allows the visitors to be able to see inside the balloon and also understand how they are afloat. Inside each balloon is a solar harvesting system and another smaller balloon made of polyethylene which encloses the helium. Each balloon is tethered at 100 feet in the air to poles and attached to the site with a steel plinth to capture the sun for the solar generating systems. Even at night the balloons can still be viewed. There are LED’s which are installed inside the balloon so it can light up the dark sky. The site has boardwalks which allow visitors to wonder freely through the balloons. As the visitors explore, energy is able to be collected from their footsteps using piezoelectric technology; using the concept of kinetics to harness energy. The idea is that whenever a visitor takes a step, a nearby balloon will fade away adding interaction and interest to the project.

â&#x20AC;&#x153;As the Landfill deflates , a Parkland emerges ...â&#x20AC;?




Figure 1: Interior shot showing teh facade of the Stadium

Figure 2: During the construction of the stadium

param HERZOG & DE MEURON Figure 3: The birds nest exterior facade model


Beijing National Stadium

metric Herzog & De Meuron.

REFERENCES: 1) “Beijing National Stadium – Herzog & de Meuron (2008)”, Nietzkuro, Art Days, last modified 2 March 2014,

The Beijing National Stadium, also referred to as the “Bird’s Nest” was designed as a stadium for the Olympics but one of the main goals by the architects was to create a public space for the Chinese population even after the games have concluded. (figure 2) 2

Herzog & De Meuron

2) “The National Stadium, a new kind of public space for Beijing”, Herzog and De Meuron Basel, last modified 2 March 2014, http://www.

3) “Civil Engineering Specialties”, Beijing National Stadium, last modified 2 March 2014, https://

The structure uses a unique geometry made of steel supports, which creates interesting lines intersecting each other throughout the buildings skin; both the structure and façade can be considered as one single element (Figure 2). 3 These complex geometries appear to be random and placed arbitrarily, however there would be the need of computational processes to create these whilst also addressing the load bearing properties of each of these components.

When observing the façade, each of the elements are converging with one another and sharing the load to create the nest like form following a grid type structure. There is a focus on not only how the components are cutting into each other, but also their dimensions, angles of placement; incorporating structural/civil engineering into the design. It is due to the façade being a structural element that there is a need for this consideration in terms of safety and longevity of the design project. 2

Using computer programs it allows the architects to look at many different solutions and then to compare and choose what final result would be best for the design, whilst still ensuring its structural stability. With the use of computers it shortens the design process, whilst choosing all the element details for the façade. This is achieved by providing much more alternative solutions in a less amount of time (figure 3). 1 If these designs were drawn by hand, it would take an incredible amount of time to complete all the drawings, measurements and analyses of the materials and components. This would lead to less design options for the architects and clients, reducing the variability that a computational design can supply. Ultimately, the incorporation of computers allowed for the finished result to be both complex and pleasing to the eye.


Figure 1: Initial idea and computer modelling

â&#x20AC;&#x153;geom The BMW Welt is located in Munich, Germany and serves as a car deliver centre that provides an interesting experience for customers by designing a building that expressed identity through its architecture.

The inspiration of this design is taken from the form of a cloud (Figure 1). 1 Its unique design appears to float and uses minimal visible columns to support the entire load. To combat this, it is imperative for the architects to consider all the components of the building to construct a building that is stable and secure whilst still pursuing the desired design aesthetic. To be able to successfully conceptualise this design, transforming an idea into an actual building is made much easier with the use of computational design. Especially in this case when the form itself is quite dynamic. There is the ability to explore different spatial qualities, aesthetics and forms for the project (figure 1).1


Figure 2: Shows the interesting patterns utilised.

For this particular project, there is heavy consideration of reducing the environmental impact such as by exploring the possibilities of using solar energy through the roof and facades to reduce energy and costs (figure 2). 2 This implies that the building design is looked at in relation to its functionality to support a more â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;sustainableâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; design outcome. Utilising computer programming as a method to conceptualise how the building will work after its construction is also imperative in seeing if the building wil be able to support its own systems. It also assists with the realisation and assurance that the building will function as desired. If there are any changes that can be made to improve the project, this process helps to achieve that. For example, in the BMW Welt the goal of saving energy was implemented through the use of natural ventilation. In researching possibilites for a more productive system, 3D simulations were undertaken (figure 1). 1

Figure 3: Interior photo of the BMW Welt


metry This BMW Welt uses various materials including glass and steel, and unique shapes and geometries which would be difficult to configure if drawn by hand as well as time consuming (figure 3) 2. 1 Its structure is unique yet still must cater for all of the services.

With parametrics and programming, there is an opportunity to explore the possibilities and follow through with the idea of a cloud like structure; defying gravity. In the design, there are steel sectioned structural elements which is a functional component as it provides air conditioning; they act as ducts and allow for data cables to run through.

For a person to be drawing these out manually, not only would it be a laborious task but also it may not be as accurate as if it were done using computational design programs. If the measurements were inaccurate it could risk building structural failure as it is essential in bearing and distributing the load. REFERENCES: 1) “BMW Welt”, Archello,last modified 3 March 2014, http://

2) “BMW Welt”, Coop Himmelb(l)au, last modified 3 March 2014,

Co op Himmelb(l)au

However, the key point of these is that each of the steel elements are different to one another, each having their own specifications to be manufactured separately. They need to be precise to ensure the forces are distributed evenly to ensure a stable building; particularly because of the odd form.




Louis Vuitton Museum

Figure 1: A birds eye view of what the final design looks like


Figure 2: Showing the use of parametric design can be seen being utilised to assist in the deisgn of the buildings skin



Fondation Louis Vuitton Museum Gehry Technologies organizes their firm in a manner that incorporates computational design throughout the design process. Their firm is usually assisted by the use of “engineering or software development”. 1 They explore the architectural possibilities of a project through looking at algorithms and parameters in design. The Fondation Louis Vuitton Museum is located in Paris and is a new museum which displays a collection of contemporary art as well as hosting other exhibitions (figure 1). 2 For the project, hundreds of people were involved, and only through the use of generative design was the synchronisation of this project able to occur. This design has adopted parametric scripting in its design for the structural systems as well as the intricate facade (figure 2). 1 In particular they used Digital ProjectTM ; a computer aided program, as a part of their 3D design approach. With the inclusion of these programs, not only was Gehry Technologies able to realise a project that has such complex geometries but also complete it in a much shorter time. By using the building information model, it enabled many different designers, builders and engineers to participate in the project and create the final structure; this included over “200 building professionals”. 3 It also helps to simulate how the building will be when it is completed and its performance by giving feedback.

whilst still being in their own offices (the main office in Los Angeles and the design teams located in Paris). 4 It is a sufficient method to bridge designers from across the world together. There are many benefits to this design approach, it allows for centralised data to then be redistributed to others and simpler and faster processing of files. All which lead to the acceleration of the process and ultimately towards construction of the building itself. The enclosure consists of a complex panel design made from “folded glass and curved concrete” at such a physical and complex scale that it breaks free from other preceding designs using 3D computational programs. 4 The project is highly innovative and accurate in its design with the use of geometries. Every single of these panels are parametrically designed to be different to the other, forming an impressive geometry containing “19,000 fibre-cemented panels and 3,500 curved-glass facade elements”. 4


etric scripting

The team were able to work together to orchestrate a design that was both interesting and complex but still considering the budget and overall design outcome. To achieve this, there was a concern of creating variety in the design but to accomplish this in a compressed timescale which would be difficult without using generative design techniques. The firm wanted to ensure every single detail was accurate and also provide variability amongst the details to provide a unique enclosure, and they did so by using 3D details called “intelligent components”. 3 By using these intelligent components, the design process was able to be envisioned and the fabrication operations in the future could be ensured precision. The materiality, tectonics and the manufacturing of the design can be explored further. With a multi-disciplinary approach, there was a need for a system which allowed all the parties involved with the project to simultaneously optimise and generating the geometries. The solution was a “cloud model server” which allowed for everyone to work together virtually

Due to the complex form of the building itself, there was particular concern in the articulation of the materials achieving the desired look. In particular with the use of glass, it is difficult to emulate a specific curvature for each panel for such a large scaled project. To do so, Gehry Technologies ensured that during the design process they took in consideration the optimisation of the panels to allow for accuracy when the time comes for assemblage of the design; “a new step in embedded generative intelligence and simulation”. 4 Virtual models are created in order to differentiate the panels of glass which are utilised; adopting a colour coded system to visually present the parameters of each panel (figure 4). 4

To address such a large design that surpasses architectural designs preceding it, Gehry Technologies had to develop a new technology that would be able to customise and detail everything in their project as they wanted it (figure 5). There were no existing programs that could provide the desired solution for the project, so initially it was based off another program Subversion. 4 This program allowed for Digital Project, XSteel, SketchUp, Rhino, and many other platforms to be combined and used by everyone on the cloud server; what Gehry Technologies calls “G-Team”. 4 The team is able to create highly intricate and accurate designs whilst still being scattered across the globe.


Fondation Louis Vuitton Museum

Gener Figure 3: A primary sketch of the building (completed in 2006)

Figure 4: Visualising what the building will look like with the use of modelling

Figure 5: Showing the automation process taken to generate all the panels for the facade

REFERENCES: 1) Peter Brady, “Computation works : the building of algorithmic thought”, Architectural Design 83 (2013) 8-13)

3) “Fondation Louis Vuitton”, Gehry Technologies, last modified 24 March 2014, projects/fondation-louis-vuitton.

2) “Frank Gehry’s Incredible Louis Vuitton Foundation for Creation Is Set to Open Next Year”, Complex Art + Design, last modified 24 March 2014,

4) Tobias Nolte andAndrew Witt, “Gehry Partners’ Fondation Louis Vuitton: Crowdsourcing embedded intelligence”, Architectural Design 84 (2014).


Al Hamra Firdous Tower Similiar to many other firms, Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) runs an “internal specialist group” of computational designers. 1 These groups are independent of the main design team but the two integrate their work with one another throughout the design process. There is a working relationship between all the people involved in the project and it helps to decrease the time frame of work as well as enhance work performance.

Integrating parametric design in this project was imperative when trying to find the best solutions in terms of the design constraints given by the clients. To create an innovative form whilst still considering the constructability of the project, SOM work with with algorithms and parametrics throughout the design process.

rative Located in Kuwait, the Al Hamra Firdous Tower designed by SOM is an impressive structure with a height of 412 metres. It is a functional design in considering how to “maximise views and minimise solar heat gain” but also peaks interest with the unique and complex sculptural like aesthetic (figure 1). 2 In order to follow through with this design intent, towards the south is a monolithic stone wall, with it being embraced by a glass facade. The southern wall is the main structural element of the building, whilst the glass is more for allowing views to the occupants.

The main building form was manifest through the idea of “subtraction”(figure 6). 5 The team began with a simple block form and from there they cut away parts of the building in order to satisfy certain areas of the brief, such as views, light or wind. Whereas when looking at the details of the building; such as the stone panels and the flare walls, the process was completed via computational processes. In particular using point clouds as well as scripting (figure 7). 5 Figure 1: (left) This shows the south wall, utilised as a way of filtering sun with specific openings developed to capture some light.

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill

Figure 2: (middle) The lobby area which acts as a main support for the building.

Figure 3: (right) This shows how the southern wall has various openings to follow the sun path and capture the best sunlight possible


Lama Al Hamra Firdous Tower

The main software programs utilised in the project was Rhino and Digital Project TM, as well as AutoCAD. Each program lending a different aspect of design to the team. Rhino was used to create the basic form of the building and Digital project to assist with the parametric modelling; 5 particularly for certain areas of the building that were more intricate to speed up the design process. An example of Digital Project being used is for the lobby. The lobby area is integrated into the levels above it, and therefore it is essential in supporting the tower. It is composed of â&#x20AC;&#x153;lamellaâ&#x20AC;? geometry whereby there are reinforced concrete columns which intersect through each other, forming an intricate cross bracing structure (figures 2 and 3). 3 With the implementation of the lamella system, it provides greater load bearing properties, and it also makes a grand gesture for the entrance of the tower with the play on light and shadow (figure 4).

More time was taken to do the 3D modelling of the lamella to test its performance and spatial qualities. Alongside this, it was to ensure that the foundations could uphold the entire building. This is particularly important for such a tall tower and a small footprint, there must be consideration of the all the possible loads; wind, dead, live. Its a gruelling process to undertake, but to ensure the structural integrity of the building it is necessary.


Overall, the design is firmly reliant on the use of parametrics in its design to create a reliable and complex building within a shortened timeframe. Optimisation and expansion of ideas are enabled and this design is able to be realised.

Figure 4: (top) A 3D printed model of the lamella system which is integrated in the lobby and entrance of the tower. 5 Figure 5: (bottom) Here is a comparison of the 3D model of the lamella and then the actual construction. We can see the precision behind all the details. 5


Figure 6: (left) This shows the ides of “subtraction” which is used as part of the design for the form of the building. An algorithmic process is applied in order to create the shapes, starting with a prism shape and cutting away parts of the building. Figure 7: (below) Here is the process in which SOM have used parametrics to optimised the panels for the flare-walls. This process is highly beneficial when paired with parametrics as the entire design process length is decreased

1) “Tallest building in Kuwait nears completion”, Phaidon Club, last modified 25 March 2014, architecture/articles/2012/january/09/tallest-building-in-kuwaitnears-completion/ 2 “Al Hamra Firdous Tower / SOM”, ArchDaily, last modified 25 March 2014, 3) “Sculpting the Skyline: Architects, engineers, and contractors tackle a challenging geometry to build a supertall tower with a striking silhouette for a desert city”, Architectural Record, last modified 25 March 2014, projects/portfolio/2012/05/al-hamra-firdous-tower.asp. 4Gary Haney, “Al Hamra Firdous Tower Kuwait City, Kuwait, 2008 – Skidmore, Owings & Merrill”, Architectural Design 79 (2009). 5) “Digital Design: Empowering Innovation and Environmental Response”, Design Intelligence, last modified 25 March 2014,

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill


Figure 1: (top) An aeriel view of the airport which shows the unique geometry with the terminals. Figure 2: (middle) This shows one of the terminals/wings of the airport at night. Each of the wings are symmetrical but have complex curvature and designs to them Figure 3: (bottom) An image of the interior of the Airport which shows the interesting plays on light and shadow with the penetrations, and thought of how to combat the extreme heat in Kuwait. We can see complex vaulting and geometries withing the vaultlike structures of the interior as well

Ku Figure 4: (opposite page) Figure 4: Using a triangle and the concept of invariability and geometries, Foster + Partners explore how rotations and mirroring the triangles create interesting patterns. This leads to the final syymetry diagram of the Kuwait International Airport

REFERENCES: 1) “Kuwait International Airport”, Foster + Partners, last modified 27 March 2014, http://

2) Kristoffer Josefsson, “Symmetry as Geometry Kuwai International Airport”, Architectural Design 83 (2013).

Kuwait International Airport 23

Kuwait International Airport The new Airport is a design which aims to respond to the climate of the area and also consider the local construction as well as look at environmental design. The main geometry of the airport has three wings which are symmetrical, with a canopy that provides shade but also allows some light into the building; keeping out excessive solar heat and radiation (figures 1 and 2). 1

The design for the airport has three terminals, or “wings”, each being symmetrical to one another. In this case, they have taken an equilateral triangle (as an invariable when it is rotated at 120 degrees) and mirrored it through three different axes in order to create the basic form of the airport. By using a program called T-Splines, they were able to use the geometry they created and create “curvature matching of edges”. 2 These provided highly intricate designs which would be very time consuming to create, however with the computer software being used it means that all the wings can be designed at the same time because they are symmetrical. Furthermore, the time spent and errors made throughout the design process are reduced.

For this project, Foster + Partners have utilised computer aided design software extensively as well as the ideas of symmetry and geometry to implement as part of the design of the airports form. The firm has a specialist modelling group within the design team which works with these programs in order to create the final product. Their final design is based on simple concepts, and then transforming them into a complex yet meaningful design that considers the context of their project.

uwait The main concept of symmetry and geometry was inspired by Felix Klein’s Erlangen programme (1872), whereby he describes a geometry as being “exactly the objects of a space that are invariant under – that is, not changed by – a symmetry acting on the space”. 2 Foster + Partners use this idea of invariability in their trefoil plan by exploring specifically invariables when you translate and rotate a geometry. They do this with the assistance of CAD systems (figure 4). 2

The use of computers throughout the design process is an irreplaceable source which would be very difficult to achieve otherwise. This is due to the sheer scale of the project, as well as the complexity of the geometries. This innovative approach is invaluable and paves the way for architects in the future by showing the potential that parametrics can offer. Foster + Partners achieves this through expanding our current knowledge on traditional methods of design, or even mathematical concepts like symmetry, to a realm where computers and 3D modelling software can benefit the overall design process.

Foster + Partners

Figure 4




Conclusion Computational Design With unsustainability emerging as one of the most concerning issues of our time, it has come to a point where we must find a means to continue to co-exist with the planet. Even as individuals we are capable of contributing, whether one person makes a physical change is not the key idea, but rather the collective movement of our thoughts towards the same goal. A good place to start as designers or architects is with developing new technologies that can help us to explore new ways to create buildings, and in the past decades we can see how these technologies have been integrated in practice. With the new range of possibilities we can apply these technologies to benefit and improve the design process as well as having a more consciously aware result. Through computational design, there are a range of benefits which help designers, users and the environment. Multi-disciplinary projects can occur with optimized time frames and extensive possibilities for an array of innovative design solutions.

Concl The programs are incredibly accurate and help to organize large projects making them much more manageable and furthermore can help to visualize the future performance of the building or create prototypes using 3D modelling and printing. These are only a few of the possibilities that computational design can bring forward to the still developing design world.


Learning Outcomes Moving Forward For the next stages of this project, working in a group I intend to utilize these ideas of computational design in order to enhance my designing and solutions. Undertaking research to find different methods to not only create a renewable energy source, but also create a unique and interesting project for the Land art Generator Initiative Competition. Particularly looking at new technologies such as piezoelectricity generation to create energy and incorporate that into a design that is meaningful and functional. By incorporating this design approach with the intended technology method, an entirely original and forward thinking can be manifest. This will allow us to expand our knowledge when exploring various programming techniques for our design project.

Learning Outcome From reading and researching about computers working collaboratively with architects and firms I have come to learn that there are so many solutions made possible. The new method of communicating an idea or design is now translated into different form, however the intent remains.With these new technologies emerging, there is constant review and trials but also new designs are formed that break boundaries and become the model for other architects to aspire to. As more experimentation with the programs and this exposure of the ideas I have learn about since the beginning of this studio I have been able to see the vast possibilities of computational design.

lusion Learning Outcomes

Embedding these principles in my work can easily create a more developed solu-tion in the same amount of time if had otherwise no computational assistance. I could have easily done the same designs in a much shorter timeframe and this could mean more time allowed for exploring my ideas further.




Appen Figure 1: Week one experimentation with grasshopper geometries. Familiarising myself with the commands and exploring the possibilities of various definitions within the program and its relation to Rhinoceros as well.

Figure 2: Here is an example of my own definition created on grasshopper initially created from finding my own data. Taking the data, I was able to translate the set of points into a 3D representation.

Figure 3: The green lines indicate the contours that I have created on grasshopper. This process can be easily done within a short amount of time, which can be really useful when we want to fabricate topographical models.

Figure 4: This excercise is helpful especially when fabricating models. We can create and look closely at joints between two surfaces to ensurethey match up. the green circle is an example of one way of creating a joint.



Algorithmic Sketches Figure 1: During the first week we have been discussing parameters and how new technologies can be implemented in architectural design as a method to benefit the design process and improve their outcomes. Learning about how grasshopper and rhino can work together to manipulate models and create complex geometries works as an introduction to the possibilities for algorithmic modeling.


For the first week, I experimented with polysurfaces looking at the voronoi component which has the inputs and outputs data which is stored inside. Other components in grasshopper can also create date, but most store data. They can be stored and managed as a single item, as a list or as a tree. We have the ability to extract and manipulate the data quite easily after we understand how they work, and through this exercise I have been able to experience grasshopper for the first time and learning the basic tools and navigational requirements. Figure 2: During the second week, we looked at making our own grasshopper definitions using a set of data with three values. Using the data I used them as points and then turned them into curves to be lofted. The final product as seen is a visualisation of the precipitation levels every four years in Copenhagen (the chosen site for this years Land Art Generator Initiative competition). After the geometry was created I experimented with sliders to change the distance between points. This helped me to see how simple data sets could be used to create complex but also interesting designs, similiar to how current practicing firms have been utilising these programs. The process taken to create this allowed me to search and experiment with grasshoppers functions. Figure 3: Using the Intersections menu in Grasshopper, I explore how there are functions which can assist us in fabricating models; particularly looking at joints. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s especially helpful because the results are planar, which make it a lot easier to fabricate. This means we can take the planar geometries and create a 3D model with the joints being precise and on a larger scale the concept can be applied to the designing and construction of buildings.

c Sketches

In this particular example I have produced a 2D component which can identify the specific angle of the joint between the two polysurfaces. As a result I now have a circular disk which intersects the surfaces and can be used as a joining element for fabrication purposes. This was done using the Brep | Brep component with the circle and the surfaces components as inputs to achieve the intersection which is contained within the circle geometry. Using the surface split component, I am able to separate the circle using the angle of the surfaces. If I wanted to take this further, I am able to create some notches in the circle which can then be fabricated and the two pieces can slot into one another. This can be done using the region difference component in the shape menu, whereby a region is identified by grasshopper as a closed planer curve; in this case the circle geometry I created. This component â&#x20AC;&#x153;subtractsâ&#x20AC;? areas that we would like to remove from the circle, resulting in a notch. Using grasshopper as a tool to create these notches are much more time efficient than if it were to be done in rhino, which is a great advantage when it comes to fabrication. Figure 4: This final sketch illustrates how a contour model can be produced easily and quickly by using grasshopper to create contour lines on an existing surface that we have. The contour component in grasshopper inputs the surface and then creates multiple section planes which makes the curves on the surface as seen. The contour distances can be adjusted and this can be helpful if we are looking at various thicknesses of materials for a model.


References List

1) Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg, 2008), p. 1–16 2)‘Technology’, Pavegen Systems, last modified 13 March 2014 , technology. 3) “Pavegen: kinetic energy generation from footsteps”, Design Boom, last modified 13 March 2014, 4) “3D Animation Created For Pavegen Paris Marathon “, Jason Harding Productions, last modified 13 March 2014,

refere 5) “99 Red Balloons”, Land Art Generator Initiative, last modified 2 March 2014 ,

6) “Beijing National Stadium – Herzog & de Meuron (2008)”, Nietzkuro, Art Days, last modified 2 March 2014,

7) “The National Stadium, a new kind of public space for Beijing”, Herzog and De Meuron Basel, last modified 2 March 2014,

8) “Civil Engineering Specialties”, Beijing National Stadium, last modified 2 March 2014, https:// 9) “BMW Welt”, Archello,last modified 3 March 2014,

10) “BMW Welt”, Coop Himmelb(l)au, last modified 3 March 2014, at/architecture/projects/bmw-welt.

11) Peter Brady, “Computation works : the building of algorithmic thought”, Architectural Design 83 (2013) 8-13. 12) “Frank Gehry’s Incredible Louis Vuitton Foundation for Creation Is Set to Open Next Year”, Complex Art + Design, last modified 24 March 2014, louis-vuitton-foundation-for-creation-frank-gehry. 13) “Fondation Louis Vuitton”, Gehry Technologies, last modified 24 March 2014, http://www.


14) Tobias Nolte and Andrew Witt, “Gehry Partners’ Fondation Louis Vuitton: Crowdsourcing embedded intelligence”, Architectural Design 84 (2014). 15) “Tallest building in Kuwait nears completion”, Phaidon Club, last modified 25 March 2014, 16) “Al Hamra Firdous Tower / SOM”, ArchDaily, last modified 25 March 2014, http://www. 17) “Sculpting the Skyline: Architects, engineers, and contractors tackle a challenging geometry to build a supertall tower with a striking silhouette for a desert city”, Architectural Record, last modified 25 March 2014,

ences 18)Gary Haney, “Al Hamra Firdous Tower Kuwait City, Kuwait, 2008 – Skidmore, Owings & Merrill”, Architectural Design 79 (2009).

19) “Digital Design: Empowering Innovation and Environmental Response”, Design Intelligence, last modified 25 March 2014, 20) “Kuwait International Airport”, Foster + Partners, last modified 27 March 2014, http://www. 21) Kristoffer Josefsson, “Symmetry as Geometry Kuwai International Airport”, Architectural Design 83 (2013).




biomim “Innovation inspired by nature.” 1

Today, the emerging ideas of biomimicry is used in design practice as a way to further develop design ideas, which in the past would be overly complex and highly difficult making it almost unattainable to achieve. As designers, we want to take “nature’s best ideas and then imitate[s] these designs and processes to solve human problems”.1 Particularly in more recent times, parametrics and generative design have become more prevalent within architectural design in the form of biomimicry; that is taking inspiration from nature. The interest in this is not purely to copy what nature does, but explore nature and how its biological processes occur.

Biomimetic architectural ideas are becoming more popular because nature provides a good model for architects to take inspiration from. Nature itself has gone through its own refining process for thousands of years. In a way it can be considered similar to the phrase “survival of the fittest”, whereby evolution has taken place and a process of trial and error occurs and through natural selection the “fittest” organisms survive. Harnessing these ideas and transferring them to design methodology has given rise to more technological design solutions and opportunities. Biomimicry gives us a starting point, it acts stimuli for the design process to occur. By looking towards nature as models, measuring its vast abilities of self design and referring to their processes, optimized design solutions can arise. New computational methods can enable designers to explore further into more meaningful and functional designs, broadening design possibilities for future architects as well. Studying the natural processes can allow us to emulate similar design processes in order to create a more efficient solution. Ideas from nature can then be borrowed and incorporated not only in form or physical attributes of architectural design, but using generative design it makes it possible for designs with increased functionality; as we are studying their systems and processes. We have so much to gain from nature, as it has so much to offer. Many disciplines can benefit from the study of biomimicry such as medicine, climate change, energy conservation/generation, agriculture and of course including architecture and design.


Three ways in which designers can take inspiration from nature is by looking at it as a “model, measure, and mentor” 1

Model: Studying models from nature and then emulating the “forms, process, systems, and strategies” in order to apply them to our own ideas.

biological process

Measure: Utilizing an “ecological standard” to be able to assist with our measurements of sustainability, taking nature as inspiration to create innovative design solutions. Mentor: Taking it as a lesson to value nature and realize that we are able to learn about nature and enforce those ideas in our designs rather than just to “extract from the natural world”. 1

An example of biomimetic architecture whereby process rather than form is considered can be seen in the Eastgate Building located in Harare, Zimbabwe (figure 2).1 This is an office building and shopping centre that takes inspiration from termites and the concept of a “self-cooling mound” in order to create an air conditioning system that is more sustainable. 3

A study was conducted researching how termite mounds could keep a constant temperature range. It was particularly interesting because the climate outside was always shifting. The main idea taken from this concept of natural cooling can be described as “constantly opening and closing a series of heating and cooling vents”, and this is echoed in the building design, services and construction of the Eastgate building in order to regulate the indoor temperatures (figure 1). 4 To combat the climate conditions where the diurnal shift impacts the indoor environment and temperature. By adopting the biomimetic design approach, the architects at Mick Pearce worked alongside Arup Associates (figure 2)4 to engineer and design a building that uses a significantly less amount of energy and money. The architects have worked to incorporate this concept of venting out air by using the thermal mass of the building, as it is predominantly constructed from concrete.

micry Biomimicry

By researching these natural processes, it made it possible for this project to achieve an almost completely naturally ventilated and cooled. It is a good example of how architecture can use biomimicry to benefit and create a more environmentally sensitive design solution.

Although biomimetic architecture has been an exciting trend to follow, there has been debate on its application in architecture. This is due to how we utilise the “unified ways in which nature works” as a model for designing. 6 We base it on their processes, however we are neglecting the overall interrelating systems; which should be considered if we want an optimal and cohesive design. We must not only consider the processes of a singular building, but as nature does, we must look at the operative processes of other systems in order for a more reliable outcome.

At times when we incorporate different processes and simply “copy” them to transfer into our work, we don’t assess the possible reactions and this can affect the performance of the building. In short, it is necessary for us to evaluate the entire network of processes rather than taking an individualistic approach. As a result, this could potentially harm the users and lower the performance and capabilities if we are too reliant on imitation of nature. We must realise that, although we are taking inspiration from nature that there should be allowance of human error as well, and this could lead to failure of the entire system. The ideas for biomimetic architecture are new to the architecture realm and reveal promising design ideas, however they are still being practised and trialed in architecture.

REFERENCES: 1) “What is Biomimicry”, Biomimicry Institute, last modified 1 April 2014, html 2) “What is Biomimicry”, Biomimetic Architecture, last modified 1 April 2014, 3) “Termites are smart”, Green Thinkers, last modified 1 April 2014, 4) “BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE: Green Building in Zimbabwe Modeled After Termite Mounds”, Abigail Doan, last modified 1 April 2014, 5) “Eastgate Centre in Zimbabwe : Modeled After Termite Mounds”, ArchiEnvironmental, last modified 1 April 2014, http://nat-envir-sun. Figure 1: (above) This image shows the “venting” concept to allow air flow in and out of the termite mound, which in turn regulates the temperature. Figure 2: (right) An external view of the Eastgate office and shopping complex which utilises natural ventilation and cooling.

6) “The Limitations of Biomimetic Architecture”, Kamila Buraczynski, last modified 1 April 2014,




The Morning Line

fracta “Built from an idealized ‘universal bit’ that can be reconfigured in to multiple architectural forms, The Morning Line uses fractal cycles to build a model of the universe that scales up and down.” 3

Aranda Lasch, Matthew Ritchie & Arup Advanced It is a complex process to endeavor, however by using generative design it can be made possible. Using these programs can enhance the designer’s creative abilities, the final result for this was a performance space for musicians and composers (figure 1). 1

The morning line is a project by architect’s Aranda\ Lasch that incorporates the ideas of architecture with other disciplines such as art, mathematics, cosmology, music and science. 1 It aims to explore new architectural possibilities and break boundaries of computational design and the ideas of biomimicry. Challenging the existing techniques, the architects worked in collaboration with Matthew Ritchie and Arup Advanced geometry unit. Their idea was to create a semiasographic building; whereby the building “directly expresses its content through its structure”. 2

The structure of the project is based on the ideas of geometry taken from fractals. These fractals are recursive and follow a repetitive definition, which can be joined to one another to form the final product. By using an equilateral tetrahedron and the process of truncating with the fractal processing techniques, the morning line project can be realized.


Completed in 2004, it took three years to envision the “17 tons of coated aluminum” structure. 3 The pavilion breaks free from traditional architecture and design methodology by using generative design and creating a structure that performs as a work of art for people to enjoy, not just an enclosure or space for people to occupy (figure 3). 2

In order for the design to be successful, it was inspired and based on the theory on cosmology by Paul Steinhardt and Neil Turok. 3 Their theory led to the development of the visually engaging design of a cellular like structure. Incorporating the most recent ideas of parametric techniques in the design, the architects and engineers are really making a statement with the multi-disciplinary approach to design. The relation to the ideas of cosmology helped to envision an underlying concept for the project where there is no formality like a traditional building would have; “evolution of the universe as a story without beginning or end, only movement around multiple centers.’ 3 The structure echoes this idea as a biomimetic design.

als Figure 1: (top) An image of the project which shows its spatial qualities and the complex yet interesting use of geometries and patterning. A visually aesthetic design is produced which breaks free of traditional architecture Figure 2: (bottom left) Here we can see the different effects of lighting and the interest that can arise from shadows with the interesting geometries of the morning line project. Figure 3: (bottom right) Shows the varying geometries and patterns used within the design created by with the assistance of paramtric design. Each pattern is unique, it shows the intricacy of the design which was considered.

Aranda Lasch

REFERENCES: 1) “The morning line by Matthew Ritchie with Aranda\Lasch and Arup”, Design Boom, last modified 2 April, 2) “The morning line”, Siggraph, last modified 2 April, http://www.siggraph. org/s2009/galleries_experiences/generative_fabrication/04.php 3) “Matthew Ritchie with Aranda\Lasch and Arup AGU – The Morning Line”, Art Contemporary, last modified 2 April, page_2?category=pavilions


four sides

scale - 0.4

scale - 0.3

three sides

scale - 0.5

fracta scale - 0.6

The Morning Line

Step One

The definition begins creating the polygons and specifying the size of the geometries by varying the radius, and the number of sides. By adding sliders for the polygon component we are able to vary the options and bake them for different results as seen in this visual graph (as above, seen from left to right the number of sides increases).


Algorithmic Sketching five sides

six sides


eight sides

seven sides

Step Two

Step Three

There were some difficulties faced when creating the tetrahedron for the replication of the morning line project. As there were more sides the extrusion point in the x-axis would decrease and then it became too â&#x20AC;&#x153;flattenedâ&#x20AC;? to process. In this case, altering the function that is applied to the extrusion can allow the height to be changed as well.

To create the fractals on each of the polygons vertices a scalar slider is applied and from the graph above, it can be seen that as the scalar factor is increased, the complexity is as well. The scaling works by creating polygons at the vertices and then truncating the initial polygon in iterations.


height of cones/size of aperture

number of points

VoltaD Skylar Tibbits

REFERENCES: 1) “VoltaDom Installation / Skylar Tibbits + SJET,” Lidija Grozdanic, eVolvo, 22 Nov 2011, http://www. 2) “VoltaDom Installation / Skylar Tibbits + SJET,” Lidija Grozdanic, eVolvo, 22 Nov 2011, 3) “VoltaDom: MIT 2011,” SJET, 2011, http:// 4) “VoltaDom: MIT 2011,” SJET, 2011, http://

5) “Skylar Tibbits: VoltaDom,” Arts at MIT, date unknown,



Dom VoltaDom

The VoltaDom designed by Skylar and Tibbits uses parametric design to create its vaulted passageway, reminiscent of gothic vaulted cathedrals. Taking inspiration from the cathedrals, their practice has re interpreted the design through the use of computational design. It looks specifically at re creating the vaults in a sculptural approach in order to produce an elegant and contemporary desig, adopting an organic and modern structure.

Relating back to the ideas of biomimicry, the vaults are inspired by voronois; divide space into regions based on a specific set of points. Using these concepts, the layout of the vaults are manifested. A passageway is formed with the inclusion of oculi on each of the cones in the vault to allow light to penetrate through as well as creating interesting views for the occupants. Although the process and final geometries are unique and complex, the firm created a simplified fabrication process. This is achieved through the simplifying of the cone structures and “unrolling” them into strips to be manufactured.

To create the voronoi pattern, you can do so by finding the intersection of a cones within a plane that have been developed and trimmed and results with an “oculus”. These can then be unrolled and are all developable as strips. The main variations for this project are looking at the height of the cones and the variation of points. When altering the height of the cone to be cut at a plane, the size of the aperture also varies. When varying the points for this project, it can be varied in a manual or automatic manner. In this particular case, the use of a component to create a randomly populated region is applied. With the addition of a slider you can then vary the points with ease, as opposed to doing so by physically inputting the points. The slider enables you to vary the number of points as well as the location of the points. When looking at the images above, a visual graph is created to see how the cones are transforming from being much simpler to more complex; in relation to adding more points and varying the height.


varying heights

offset distance

pavili Foreign Office Architects


Spanish Pavilion

ion Spanish Paviliom

The Spanish Pavilion was displayed in the Aichi International Exhibition in Japan in 2005. The main goal was to explore the potential of â&#x20AC;&#x153;central hybridisationâ&#x20AC;? as part of Spanish history as an overarching theme through the form of architecture. Particularly, Islamic and Christian cultures were being used as inspiration for the design forms; using arches, vaults, lattices and traceries. The envelope of the Pavilion is incorporating the ideas of these past cultures to create an innovative design. This is the main focus for this case study, it utilises grasshopper to create a non repetitive pattern as a feature of the design. The project combines hexagonal shapes with a variety of colours to create this non repetitive pattern in order to achieve a highly visual effect. As a result, a highly technical and complex structure is created for the facade of this pavilion. The assemblage of the hexagonal geometries require a lot of skill as each of the pieces are joined in a different manner; ensuring the irregular aesthetic of the external membrane.

For the Spanish pavilion, we can recognise the hexagonal shaped being replicated to form a pattern. In this particular case we are looking at varying the offset distance and the heights of the hexagons using grasshopper. To begin with, this graph looks at how the offset distances can be increased or decreased with a slider. With a slider, the offset distance can be varied to create different effects. These images as seen above are taken from an aerial view to show clearly how the offset component creates varying sizes for apertures in the hexagonal shapes. However to create a more interesting pattern, within this definition, by using an image sampler component there is the opportunity to offset the cells to create a more dynamic surface. From the perspective images of the hexagons we are able to see how there is more variation in the heights. Finally there is the application of both these ideas in some of the images as seen at the bottom right hand corner of this visual graph.


selec Selection Criteria

land art generative initiative

In accordance with the brief, our selection criteria considered the importance of the structure being able to harness energy via capturing energy; the wind on the site at Copenhagen. This selection criteria will be carried on to the following chapters in part b in order to fine tune and devlop a design which meets the desired requirements.

In addition to this, we wanted to ensure that the structure would be relevant and appropriate within the context of the site. To do so, one of the main aims was to blend the design in with its current surroundings but at the same time, being able attract users with its intersting and unique design morphology. These ideas would be inspired by the history of the site as well as our groups past precedents and exploration of biomimicry.

Following our initial ideas of biomimicry playing an integral role in our design, we attempted to create potential designs that could borrow ideas from nature. It also had to be an interesting space for users to occupy through evoking curiousity and interest from visitors who would then be inspired to interact with the space. The tubular forms from the NonLin/Lin Pavilion were thus adapted and further developed through exploring different shapes, sizes and combinations, each being more complex than the next. Although these aspects were to be considered, it was still important for the design to retain the ability to capture sufficient wind to produce energy. The idea of form follows function is relevant in our design, striving for a form that can collect as much wind energy as possible. It was also essential to further incorporate the historical, social and cultural context when considering the design.


ction Iteration 1

Iteration 2

Iteration 3

Above are the most relatable and successful outcomes in terms of the selection criteria our group has chosen in this iteration process. They are all inspired from the NonLin Pavilion as our case study on biomimicry, and are in accordance to the brief requirements for the Land Art Generator Initiative competition. These were specifically chosen as most successful as their properties would be most useful when applied to the later design propositions. For iteration 1, the variation of the geometries were most desirable as it is balanced and looks plausible to be fabricated. Whereas the other solutions within that species showed element which were not even connected, proving not possible to be fabricated. The second iteration taken from the Spanish Pavilion looks at the variation of heights which is able to transform a form into something more interesting and dynamic. The variation can also be helpful in aspects of collecting wind energy.

The final iteration is based off the Voltadom definition and looks at these cone shapes with the openings at the top. The variation and number of points considered is not overwhelming and provides enough space in between each of the cones, but it also has some overlapping areas which is more interesting to explore further. The form of these cones are crucial as they triggered ideas in possible morphologies for future design solutions which are practical; able to harness wind energy. The other solutions from the iterations were either too compact or simply boring as it did not explore the forms and possibilities for variation. As a result it would not be able to fulfill the selection criteria that our group has decided on. By creating a sequence of variations between the geometries it enables us to explore how each can be developed, fabricated and the qualities specific to each. We can instantly compare each of the solutions in order to choose some final and more successful designs.




NonLin/Lin Pavilion The NonLin Pavilion is constructed of aluminium that has asterisk shaped perforations on it’s form. The idea of the pavilion is inspired by coral and its organic forms; as a result tube like shapes generated using computer techniques are the main structure applied to the design.

However due to the high complexity of the structure and its specific nodes, the pavilion there is also an increased number elements required in order to create the morphologically challenging design.

NonL The pavilion is 4-metres high and is a part of the permanent collection at the FRAC Centre in Orleans, France. What is a notable characteristic of the pavilion is that it is so complex yet it is designed to be a structure which can be taken apart and reassembled. This gives the design an aspect of temporality and introduces the ideas of pre assemblage.

Marc Fornes of THEVERYMANY

The Nonlin Project was used as an experimental architectural prototype to create a series of “text based morphologies”. 1 The result of the pavilion is producing a design with interesting formal and sculptural qualities that use customised computational programming protocols. These are all based on the ideas of “form finding (surface relaxation), form description (composition of developable linear elements), information modelling (re-assembly data), generational hierarchy (distributed networks), and digital fabrication (logistic of production).”1 The pavilion form is taken the form of the letter “Y’, using this shape in order to create openings and provide multi directionality for the users to explore the interior. This allows for the further exploration of morphology in adopting the tri-partite relation and the ideas of transformations. As a result, challenges arise when trying to resolve issues involving the connections of the different paths at the centre of the pavilion.

The form is networked in a manner whereby the structure is opening up at the ends and other branches are combined into larger openings to create a sense of an enclosure whilst still being open. These openings have varying radii and each are integral to the structural networking system which are specific to the positioning within the pavilion; intrinsic and extrinsic to the spatial qualities of the pavilion environment. As the model can be reassembled and moved to various locations, it is of high importance for the design team to consider how this occurs. Their solution was to create singular elements that can be unrolled and cut out of flat sheets of aluminium material in order to be reassembled on various sites.


The final product is self-supporting and aims to affect the participants, “while engaging basic notions of limitation, filtration, and spatial depth”. The pavilion is a visual phenomenon which borrows analogies from nature as a process of bio mimicry. Design Intent 1) To create a space that indicates complex morphologies for the overall form of the design. 2) Create an interesting environment for the users to explore; playing on ideas of open/closed spaces. 3) Taking inspiration from coral; bio mimicry 4) Using computational design as a solution for the design problems; the ability to be reassembled and moved Critical Analysis 1) The pavilion uses tubes and variation in form and patterning to produce a complex solution. There is consideration of variation and the ideas of exploring the tri partite circulation path by adopting the “Y” shape model for the design. 2) With the addition of the asterisk pattern surfaces, there is a play on light and shadow. This also contributes to the interest of the design. Alongside this, there is the overall form itself which triggers curiosity within the participants as it is complex and allows you to walk in and around the pavilion to explore the form and space itself. 3) It is a clear representation of the form of coral that is taken into account for the pavilion’s structure. The repetitiveness and the “flowering” of the tubes can be seen clearly as a process of bio mimicry 4) Using computational design, there is added complexity to the design as parameters in their design protocol can be changed and experimented with. This allows for the prototype to be tested and modified for the best solution. The tubes can be varied and altered according to their structural functionality. The idea of the pavilion being able to be reassembled is achieved by creating strips for the construction and deconstruction of the pavilion. Without these, it would be very complex and time consuming to manufacture and create accurate developable strips.



Figure 1 (above): This shows a digital prototype of the NonLin Pavilion and helps us to understand the scale and form of the pavilion. Figure 2 (below): These photos show interior shots of how the scale is in comparison to the users and the use of light and shadow. Alongside this, there is the additional idea of the astericks shaped cutouts on the form to introduce intricacy and evoke interest.

REFERENCES: 1) NonLin/Lin Pavilion by Marc Fornes/ THEVERYMANY, dezeen magazine, last modified 27 April 2014,


Reverse Engineering 1) Using rhino, circles are drawn to create the desired form (just an initial experimentation of an arch form which is similar to the NonLin Pavilion). There is consideration of the angles of these circles in order to provide the variation and increase the complexity to be as similar to the case study as possible. 2) These are referenced into grasshopper and lofted. It was proved quite difficult to recreate the “puckering” effect of the tubes at the ends of the openings, as well as the joints of the tube forms. As a result, this solution was abandoned and a different approach was attempted.

exoske Step 1

By analyzing the idea of creating a tri-partite form and circulation pattern of the NonLin Pavilion, the current shape being re-engineered is using the “Y” form as well. Drawing out arches on rhino in this manner creates the inhabitable space in which the visitors can explore inside. The polylines are used to recreate these members and are repeated in this case as an experiment.

NonLin/Lin Pavilion Marc Fornes


Step 2 These arches are then joined in a random manner as an attempt to create variation and increase the complexity of the form. Continuing on from here, there are added lines which extrude from the initial arches to try and create more “branches” for the tubes. For the nodes of the NonLin Pavilion to be reverse engineered there could cause problems if there are too many connections. This was taken into account and each joint would not have more than three lines connecting to ensure the joints would not be too big

Step 3 Here, the use of grasshopper and kangaroo is integral in creating this exoskeleton structure of the form. It takes the curve inputs from rhino and creates a base mesh. From the exoskeleton component, there is the opportunity to vary the sides, thickness, nodes, knuckle bumpiness and division length along the tubes. The result is a mesh which is further explored in the next step.

eleton Step 4

Using the mesh, the forces for relation can be altered according to the nodes to create a physics simulation using the Kangaroo plugin. It uses the points around the exterior edges as anchors in order to make the interior edges into “springs”. By incorporating a slider, you can change the mesh to more or less relaxed (varying the length of the springs by the original length). By using this function, the final outcome creates a more funnel like tube which is similar to the pavilion.


NonL rhino, grasshopper, weaverbird and kangaroo...

Showing the process of the reverse engineering project using the exoskeleton component in grasshopper in conjunction with the kangaroo and weaverbird plugin to create the tube forms similar to the NonLin Pavilion.



Reverse Engineering

Parametric Process Create curves and reference in grasshopper.

Remove duplicate lines that are similar in the list with one another.

Thicken the wireframe using the exoskeleton component.

Add sliders to allow for variation and convert to a mesh.

Using weaverbird to join the meshes and weld into single list to make mesh lighter.

Remove duplicate lines that are similar in the list with one another.

Take the mesh edges to find their end points and create a set.

Make interior edges into springs and insert into kangaroo for a simulation.

Below (from left to right): The nodes where are the tubes are connected are shown whereby the joint is smooth achieved with by “relaxing” the mesh. The second image indicates how the pavilion looks like inside, how there is an attempt to recreate the “Y” model form. This final image shows the similar arch like structure that NonLin/Lin Pavilion has created.

Similarities & Differences


The final outcome can be compared to the NonLin Pavilion and there are obvious differences. However the case study allowed for the exploration of the use of many different computer programming techniques; rhino, grasshopper, weaverbird and kangaroo.

To move on from the NonLin/Lin Pavilion and extend the possibilities of this definition further, the exploration of varied shapes and forms can be explored. The definition provides a lot of opportunity for these variations; panels, thickness of the members and the jointing system.

It proved to be quite a challenge to reverse engineer this project as it is so complex and uses computational design extensively in the design and fabrication process. The general idea of creating a “Y” shape model was adopted in our reverse engineering, however the actual members which are tube like were varying in diameter, aperture and positioning and much too complex for us to recreate. The pavilion mimics the form of coral and is much more organic in its form whilst our final outcome is too organised in its layout. The panels for both are still quite complex, however we did not attempt to recreate the asterisk patterning as it was much too complex with the form already providing a lot of difficulty.

The original form of our case study looks specifically at the tri partite as the basic module, however this can be significantly altered and the form can take a much different approach. Using the selection criteria and the brief for the LAGI competition, the form can be responding to each of these requirements in order to create a most pleasing and functional design. The idea of the NonLin Pavilion being an enclosure which is set up indoors means that there is little consideration of the weather and external conditions. These factors will definitely be a concern if not resolved on the LAGI site, particularly wind forces as the project will be focusing on collecting wind energy.




iterat Technique Development

Species 1


Paramaters - Species 1 & 2 Panels/Sides Diameter/thickness Joints/node size Knuckle Bumpiness Spacing/Division length Goal length percentage

Set 1 5 6 7 0 20.4 0.5

Set 2 8 9 0 6.1 20.4 0.5

Set 3 6 8 3 3 11.1 0.89

Parameters - Species 3 & 4 Panels/Sides Diameter/thickness Joints/node size Knuckle Bumpiness Spacing/Division length Goal length percentage

Set 1 7 2.5 4.5 2 30 0.5

Set 2 7 2 5 2.5 27 0.89

Set 3 3 1 3.7 1.1 30 0.5

Species 2


tions Species 3

Species 4

For species 3 and 4, the geometries for the iterations are based off the wind rose plot diagrams from the LAGI website. These diagrams indicate the wind direction, speed and strength, so as a result the forms are based on where the wind can be best captured.


boole Species 1

Parameters - Species 1 Panels/Sides Diameter/thickness Joints/node size Knuckle Bumpiness Spacing/Division length Goal length percentage

Set 1 10 1 1 0.7 8 0

Set 2 7 10 10.3 4 5 0.5

Set 3 3 1 3.6 0 3.1 0

Set 4 3 2 0 0 15.1 0

Parameters - Species 2 Panels/Sides Diameter/thickness Joints/node size Knuckle Bumpiness Spacing/Division length Goal length percentage

Set 1 10 7 12.8 5.1 10.1 0

Set 2 8 13 10.8 0 16.2 0

Set 3 4 4 7.6 0 20 0

Set 4 9 11 13 0 16.8 0

Parameters - Species 3 Panels/Sides Diameter/thickness Joints/node size Knuckle Bumpiness Spacing/Division length Goal length percentage

Set 1 10 8 0 0 30 0.5

Set 2 10 9 5 0 30 0.5

Set 3 10 11 4.7 0 30 0.5

Set 4 10 10 4.9 0 22 0.6

Parameters - Species 4 Panels/Sides Diameter/thickness Joints/node size Knuckle Bumpiness Spacing/Division length Goal length percentage

Set 1 8 13 10.8 0 16.2 0

Set 2 3 10 7.7 0 3.3 0

Set 3 10 17 20.5 0 12.2 0

Set 4 10 17 20.5 0 12.2 0.5

further iterations

Species 4


Species 2

Species 3


Technique Development


iterat Technique Development Species 1

wind rose data

Parameters - Species 1 Panels/Sides Diameter/thickness Joints/node size Knuckle Bumpiness Spacing/Division length Goal length percentage

Set 1 6 1 12.8 0 30 0

Set 2 10 1 25 10 30 0.5

Set 3 3 1 3.6 0 3.1 0

Set 4 6 1 12.8 0 30 0

Parameters - Species 2 Panels/Sides Diameter/thickness Joints/node size Knuckle Bumpiness Spacing/Division length Goal length percentage

Set 1 3 4 0 0 10 0

Set 2 10 19 28.7 10 30 0

Set 3 6 1 12.8 0 30 0

Set 4 10 18 27.5 10 10 0

Parameters - Species 3 Panels/Sides Diameter/thickness Joints/node size Knuckle Bumpiness Spacing/Division length Goal length percentage

Set 1 6 29 30.4 0 30 0

Set 2 10 19 12.8 10 2.4 0

Set 3 3 1 85.5 10 30 1

Set 4 10 35 0 10 30 1

Parameters - Species 4 Panels/Sides Diameter/thickness Joints/node size Knuckle Bumpiness Spacing/Division length Goal length percentage

Set 1 3 1 0 0 0.9 0

Set 2 6 1 12.8 0 30 0

Set 3 3 1 0 0 0.9 1

Set 4 10 2 24 10 30 1


tions Species 2

Species 3

Species 4


itera Further Iterations

Species 1

Species 2

Species 3

Species 4


Species 5

ations exploration of grasshopper REFERENCES: 1) Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25

As specified in Part B.2. the selection criteria for our project is mainly considering the site and its contextual settings, the LAGI brief and our case study of the NonLin Pavilion in accordance to biomimicry. As a result of these, our group intends to create a functional yet aesthetically pleasing design that has the ability to lure visitors in and provide a space in which they can inhabit. We intend to look at a number of different criterias for our final solution: - Functionality of the space and the structure - Buildability and realisation of project - Ability to harness energy via the use of wind - Aesthetics and relation to the site - Relating back to the ideas of biomimicry - Use of materials and textures - Light and shadow, creating an emotive response Kalay states “search(ing)” comprises of “Finding or developing candidate solutions, and evaluating them against the goals and the constraints” . The process involves producing a series of potential solutions, and then choosing the most appropriate one to further evaluate and develop . In this context, it is crucial to ensure that each iteration is thoroughly reviewed on the premise of fulfilling the selection criteria. As specified in the reading, search methods should abide to the following: Depth first, Breadth first and Best first . Through following these rules, we were able to explore each iteration thoroughly and shortlist the most promising options with the most potential for further development.

Parameters - Species 1 Panels/Sides Diameter/thickness Joints/node size Knuckle Bumpiness Spacing/Division length Goal length percentage

8 8 33 6.5 27 0.3

The relative item component is used and is useful for patterning on surfaces.The offsets {rows, columns}can be specified. In this case by {0;0} and {1;1}.

Parameters - Species 2 Panels/Sides Diameter/thickness Joints/node size Knuckle Bumpiness Spacing/Division length Goal length percentage

8 8 33.7 6.8 30 0

This second species was also produced using the relative item component. The offsets in this case are {0;0}, {1;2} and {2;1}.

Parameters - Species 3 Decay of charge potential Radius of circle Divide curve points Steps (number of samples) Count (segments)

Set 1 1.5 0.15 15 450 4

Set 2 1.5 0.15 15 450 10

Parameters - Species 4 Lofting surfaces: lofting the curves to create a surface and using the surface to produce a set of points in order to create new polylines from. Parameters - Species 5 Delaunay edges: adding points to the curves using divide curves component and then usin delauney to connect the points with polylines.




proto Summary of computational process for prototype:

1) Create polylines (removing duplicates 2) Create an exoskeleton by thickening the wireframe 3) Using weaverbird to join the meshes & create springs 4) Explore variations & simulate in kangaroo for comparisons

Top View

Front View



Digital Prototypes

Panelling and strips

Digital Prototyping

unrolling developable strips

Our concept incorporated the use of piezoelectric crystals to harness wind as a source to harness energy which was mentioned in the selection criteria. This meant that there would be a double layer; one for cladding and the crystals within the tubes. Using this approach, the wind can be collected in the tubes working with the venturi effect; whereby wind pressure is applied using the varied diameters of the tubes in order to increase the wind velocity. With this technique echoed in our designs chosen form, the ability to harness wind energy is increased as the wind speed is increased. This idea is similar to how a wind tunnel works, the constriction at the nodes of our form help to increase the velocity by reducing the pressure. For the digital prototyping phase, there is exploration of various fabrication and assemblage methods in order to find the best possible solution for the design. The prototypes are taking only one of the members in the entire design to work with as a starting point as the entire design is so complex and each of the tube are varied, however still adopting the same connection type.

The various methods and possible assemblage processes we have decided to explore in this prototyping stage include both digital and physical solutions: - Paneling and strips, using tabs to connect the pieces - Metal framing system with fabric cladding - Timber faming system with varied weaved materials These all vary in their materiality and construction, which is a deliberate decision as we wanted to explore as many different possibilities to ensure the final would be the best solution. For the digital prototypes, it was difficult to solve how the joints would occur so the physical models were used in order to experiment with the possibilities. When designing the prototypes in grasshopper and rhino, the model is merely in a plane for us to build. However in reality the design needs to be applied to the site and there needs to be consideration of how the structure will be supported, and prevention of it collapsing. As a result, the materials we chose are all quite light and the joinery quite detailed. Our group has found a lot of difficulty in this area and we intend to further develop this to ensure a structuraly stable design.


mater Physical Prototypes

Physical Prototyping The fabrication process allowed us to see many flaws in the joints of the digital prototype. There is to be much more exploration of the joints to resolve the connection issues.

We have come to realise that the overall complexity of the design will be much easier to fabricate using printing services rather than manually cutting out the members and elements manually. This ultimately requires more development of the digital prototypes in order to create a model which joins perfectly.

The physical models explore how light and shadow can be used as a visual effect by varying the different materials used can create these effects. This helps to create an atmosphere, turning a simple space into a memorable space. The patterning of lights and play on textures create intrigue and allow visitors to explore through the site; relating back to the NonLin Pavilion and its aim to evoke curiosity in the users.

Prototype 1 This prototype utilises MDF laser cut boards as the structure, with the wire framing for support. The pieces are layed out with the wires being coiled around in order to create the form of the model. In reality we intend to fix these joints to one another using plates, but for the purposes of this prototype it is just to show the relationship of the two materials being connected. After the structure is created, the fabric is coiled around the wire framing as if it is a skin. This is the outer layer which is also the cladding of the tube. We chose fabric which is slightly transparent in order for the wire frames to be visible, and the piezoelectric crystals which are connected to secondary wire frames within the tube. The fabric also works well as it can stretch and bend according to the form easily.


riality fabrication and assembly Prototype 2

Trying to test the materiality of the design and the flexibility of the materials, this prototype explores variation of textures and the idea of overlaying strips. This was based off the strips from the panelling in the digital prototype exercise. The strips proved to be useful as they allowed for the materials to wrap around the tube in one direction alone (horizontally), catering for the complexity of the form.

A combination of hand cut balsa as well as the laser cut MDF circles with notches are used to create this timber structural system. The prototype proved to be quite strong, however the joints need much more development as the angle of each of the studs vary which creates a lot of problems when producing notches for the circular elements of the tube form. This process of flat fabrication has proved to be insufficient in terms of providing accurate joints for fabrication. If it were to be built in real life there is to be much more consideration to ensure structural stability. As for the cladding, various materials were explored in order to create a more unique texture and tactility to the structure. These woven strips enhance visual interest with the design.




Proposal on site

Perspective 77


Technique proposal Studying the LAGI site for this competition in Copenhagen, Denmark there are consistent readings of the weather and in particular the wind; important to our proposed design which uses wind and kinetic energy. Our research of the area shows that there are existing wind turbines on dikes which are near the site, this implicates that the strong winds are suitable for collection. These turbines are all facing the South West direction, which is where our proposal is also collecting most of the wind energy from.

Visualisation of how the piezoelectric crystals will look like on the inner layer. The wind is collected from the opening and then this allows for it to travel through the tube and cause reverbrations. The crystals are then able to collect the kinetic energy

To enhance the ability to collect the stronger winds, our structure is to be located on the site facing the south west. The varying heights of the tubes are to accommodate for the varying wind speeds according to the height (wind rose of Copenhagen taken in 2014 used as the reference for the heights and placement of the tubes). With the tubes facing the dominant winds, the vibrations and the winds pushing through the tubes to create a venture effect allow for the piezoelectric crystals to collect energy from movement. The crystal panels are attached to an inner structural frame and are able to vibrate and move freely; joints only at the top to allow them to â&#x20AC;&#x153;flapâ&#x20AC;?.

posal These crystals are made visible with the consideration of cladding that is not completely solid, as a result it allows the visitors to see how the energy is created; turning the invisible into something visible. This is also creating a visual interest and our intent is to intrigue visitors to explore the structure further.

fine tuning techniques




Feedback and Interim Review After the presentation, the main points that arouse after the presentation are based on: - The use of grasshopper and integrating our ideas - Improving the inhabitable space for visitors - Further developing the form of the proposed design. These points require us to develop our understanding of grasshopper in order to design what we desire using the program, not just physically building the model. There needs to be more thought of the energy harnessing aspect in terms of the form, whether or not the form can be altered in order to enhance its abilities and at the simultaneously provide a space for the users to enjoy. Our group intends to continue using our existing project, however we understand that we must work on developing it further in response to this feedback.


extension of technique


Learning Objectives Direction of design After reviewing the faults and learning from the difficulties and errors of the prototyping phase, it is clear that there needs to be a lot of consideration made towards the detailing of our design. By experimenting more with grasshopper, a design solution for the connections that compliments and enhances the structure can be discovered and implemented. Through the physical fabrication processes attempted, we have concluded that panels and strips using computer printing devices is the best solution for building the model, rather than manually cutting the members. This is due to the high complexity and variation of the form that our design has. These changes can be made all with our initial selection criteria in mind, remembering to address the site, the LAGI brief and our ideas being inspired by our case study and biomimicry. It is vital that the piezoelectric crystals be incorporated in the design, however it should be resolved in a clearer manner. This is especially in relation to the form of the design, for example by considering how each are connected to one another.

Now reaching the end of Part B I have managed to garner new skills in using grasshopper, broadening my understanding and capabilities. However I believe it is still short of the potential outcomes and possiblities that grasshopper can offer. The main difficulty that is prevalant is the use of grasshopper and communicating my ideas via computational design. Our group had attempted many different solutions but were held back by our inability to showcase them using grasshopper. This challenges us to improve, but also prevented us from generating more possibilties in our design solution. Our selection of the NonLin Pavilion as a case study was very intriguing but also a great challenge for our group. We reached many dead ends, and it was apparent to us that we needed to continue exploring grasshopper and dedicate more time to it. By reverse engineering the project we have been exposed to other parametric tools aside from rhino and grasshopper; weaverbird and kangaroo. This has broadened our abilities but at the same time I believe that we need to continue experimenting with the programs in order ot have a better understanding of how to use them.

dback To be able to move on and develop our design further we can also use other programs such as Gecko and Ecotect to test the models further. This can be useful in aproximating the winds and testing their levels virtually. We need to be able to support our design and its form by showing evidence that it is capable of collecting energy from the wind. If not then it will be necessary to make alterations to the design in order to meet this requirement; such as varying the diameter of each of the tubes to increase the potential for energy collection. The current form that our group has chosen is unique and we would like to keep this form, however to do so it requires for us to be able to still meet the minimal requirements.




Algorithmic Sketches


algorithmic sketches

Figure 1: An exploration of panelling on surfaces using the relative item component. This was achieved via using the tree menu and variations were made which can provide a range of solutions. This is just one of the many possibilites that I came up with.

Figure 4: After watching the evaluating fields video, I decided to try and apply the same rules to my own geometries which I had produced using data collected from the Copenhagen wind rose.


Figure 2: As part of the iteration process I decided to look into other components to create interesting outcomes. This uses the delaunay edges component and creates an interesting panelled surface.


ences 1) “What is Biomimicry”, Biomimicry Institute, last modified 1 April 2014, http://www.

2) “What is Biomimicry”, Biomimetic Architecture, last modified 1 April 2014, http://www.

3) “Termites are smart”, Green Thinkers, last modified 1 April 2014, blog/2008/01/termites_are_smart.html 4) “BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE: Green Building in Zimbabwe Modeled After Termite Mounds”, Abigail Doan, last modified 1 April 2014,

5) “Eastgate Centre in Zimbabwe : Modeled After Termite Mounds”, ArchiEnvironmental, last modified 1 April 2014, 6) “The Limitations of Biomimetic Architecture”, Kamila Buraczynski, last modified 1 April 2014, 7) “The morning line by Matthew Ritchie with Aranda\Lasch and Arup”, Design Boom, last modified 2 April, 8) “The morning line”, Siggraph, last modified 2 April, experiences/generative_fabrication/04.php

9) “Matthew Ritchie with Aranda\Lasch and Arup AGU – The Morning Line”, Art Contemporary, last modified 2 April, 10) “VoltaDom Installation / Skylar Tibbits + SJET,” Lidija Grozdanic, eVolvo, 22 Nov 2011, 11) “VoltaDom Installation / Skylar Tibbits + SJET,” Lidija Grozdanic, eVolvo, 22 Nov 2011, 12) “VoltaDom: MIT 2011,” SJET, 2011, 13) “Skylar Tibbits: VoltaDom,” Arts at MIT, date unknown, 14) NonLin/Lin Pavilion by Marc Fornes/ THEVERYMANY, dezeen magazine, last modified 27 April 2014, 15) Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25




Interim Feedback The main feedback that we received after the interim presentation was in relation to further developing our ideas. These ideas were specifically tied to our work on the projects form, materiality, energy generation and inhabitation ability. The main suggestion in order to move forward from this was to look further at solving our problems with parametric tools, particularly supporting our work with the use of grasshopper and further incorporating other possible programs to optimize our design. All of these elements that needed to be reviewed should be connected in their designing and concepts. It requires the close consideration of each of their interrelations with one another for the outcome of the design to be cohesive, and simultaneously sound like a plausible case to put forward. As mentioned in the Part B reflection, our group had wanted to continue developing and maximizing our possibilities with the wind tunnels. We assumed this could be done by addressing the effects of how our form can better respond to the wind on site.

The ability to capture solar energy has been considered in the redesigning of the form, but also the selection of materials; some may be more beneficial than others. In order to cater for our ideas of varying materiality in part b as well as the highest performance, we have come to realize that our grasshopper definitions also needed to allow for the parameters to vary; such as the material thickness. This change to the design technique allows us to experiment a lot with materials and test which ones are most suitable for our design in terms of our selection criteria we have set in Part B of the design phase. It can also allow us to quickly visualise the aesthetics of each possibility; in this case, for an interesting design we wanted something that looks lightweight and quite thin but could still be structurally stable to support its own weight and other loads. For the presentation, our design did not convey the ideas of an inhabitable space very well. There was much consideration of how to extend our design further, transforming it from being a sculpture to more of a space for the visitors to be able to enjoy and occupy. We decided to incorporate a shelter-like aspect which acted like a pavilion working in collaboration with our existing form of the tubes as a skeletal frame. The shelter incorporates the new photovoltaic panels we intend to install in order to harvest solar energy.

feedba But following a lot of consideration, we came to the conclusion that changing our energy source from wind to solar energy would be best. This was due to the lack of wind energy that could be harvested from the thin wind tunnels. Not only could we still keep the bone like structure by making this decision, but the remaining structure could be adopted as the frame of the design. With a main structural frame developed, other additions such as the incorporation of solar PV panels to collect solar energy can be used for a more conceivable design solution.

design proposal, concepts & techniqu 89

New Design Concept For the new design concept, the chosen method of harvesting energy was changed to Solar Energy. This led to the refinement and reconstruction of the structure and overall design to enable the incorporation of photovoltaic panels. The reasoning behind this drastic change in this last stage of the design development was due to the previous design lacking in the ability to capture wind energy, and with this new change it is much more productive. Our previous supporting arguments for wind were not convincing enough, however we were intent on keeping our existing aesthetics with the thin-like wireframe system. As a part of the aesthetics for this project, we wanted to create a futuristic forest. This idea was developed from the bone like structures which are created from the exoskeleton component. This can be seen in our new parti diagrams. It shows the main elements that we are focusing on changing and how we have implemented that using the programs. Continuing on from this idea of a forest, it would be obvious to consider that there would need to be the implementation of hundreds of trees in order to create a similar atmosphere.

As seen in the design method diagrams on the next page, new techniques using rhino, grasshopper and kangaroo are utilised in collaboration to create a new and interesting design; each system responding to one another for a cohesive form to be built. This process illustrates the various programs and techniques and how they are used in order for the final design to be created. Taking all these separate elements, our group attempts to further explore and combine them, and then produce a design which can adequately produce energy. Following the basic design and structure of the modelled tree we developed, there are variations and changes made in eight differing species which will make up the entire futuristic forest for our project. These are mostly varying in height, branches and the number and sizes of photovoltaic panels; other details or jointing systems remain consistent in order to supposedly be produced at a large scale. To make these changes, it was easily done using grasshopper and varying those using sliders. The trees could be attained much more swiftly with good results.


Keeping the bonelike structures from past design

Adding some form of shelter

Studying Forest growth plans

Addition of radial distribution on site



Species and Variation Algorithmic Design Method






Tapered for its structural integrity and function; mimicking a tree trunk. It is produced by piping in rhino.

All the branches are angled and evenly distributed based on a simple L-System that is used; linked to biomimicry.

The joints are then made into a solid form using the exoskeleton component. This is purposely done to contrast with the branches.

Triangular geometry is then derived from each of the branches, using the delaunay patterns from grasshopper.

Finally the framing system for the panels and glass shelter is derived from piping on rhino (further details on next page).



PV Panels





Full Tree


Varying Species

Each of the panels are supported by a thin carbon steel frame which serves as the main structure. It is connected by the unique exoskeletal jointing system our group developed on grasshopper to the rest of the structural frame (the branches). The varying species seen above all differ in these number of branches (which have been randomly selected and deduced from the basic l-system we have used).


This means that the PV Panels are also varied as they are derived from the ends of each of the branches. However, with the addition of hundreds of trees on site, these eight species are being repeate randomly. Alongside these changes, variations the height of the trees are considered in order to create a unique â&#x20AC;&#x153;forestâ&#x20AC;? experience wherever one may be. These heights range from 6-10 metres tall.

Structure & Development These panels can use the suns energy to provide electrical power. They have low operational and maintenance costs, and are also used as a means of providing shade on our site. As a support for the panels and/or glass, these spider joints stabilise the components. It is most useful for its superior load beraing capabilities. These will be made of carbon steel as it can withstand high pressures whilst the pipes are still made much thinner than steel. For the joints there was consideration of different materials but in the end we opted for a uniform aesthetic and chose steel as well. These joints are the same in each of the branch connections for each species.

The branches of the tree are made from hollow steel members for its strength and versatile properties. The steel is lightweight and are thin enough to emulate the aesthetic that our group desires.

The main body of the tree is supported by a concrete core; works similar to how a column would in a pier footing system. The load is transferred all the way to the ground. This will be encased by steel in order to match the rest of the steel tree.

Black carbon steel

Copper joints & steel

Steel Frame & branches

Further exploration of materials for the joints were made to compare aesthetics. There was consideration of black steel for variation of colour and degradation of copper over time. However the final decision was to choose steel in order to show uniformity in the choice of materials


Site Distribution process GRID Using SrfPt component in grasshopper just to generate some evenly spaced points on the site. This was part of an initial process to explore basic layouts. It shows the

growth of the site plan and the distribution of the trees on site.




In an attempt to make it more interesting, a 2D radial grid was applied.

It was to add complexity and interest in the design, and explored to see how there could be areas of concentration and others of dispersion.




In order to create an experience for the users more interesting, we tried to randomise the points with the jitter component as seen in the third image below. It produced a more interesting design, however we found that it was not dispersed enough.

Our final layout was chosen as a result of our explorations from all of these other three possiblities. It combines all the ideas for a moe interesting design which can create a more forest like environment.


Above and top left: The site showing the placement of the trees with circulation being indicated by the use of colour and its varying intensity. The free flowing plan shows that there can be exploration throughout the entire site.

radial dis


e map

Considering the Site

The site for the LAGI competition is considered, and we discover that there is intended urban development as well as a lot of current recreational areas. This infers that there are and will be lots of people walking nearby the site. This is showing an importance to the consideration of circulation paths on the site to access our design and that the numbers can vary drastically. As a result of these findings, our site will be adopting a free flowing plan that allows the users to choose their own path. With the new tree designs as a basic guide; whereby the light that shines through the canopy acts as an attractor towards the stage area (north west of the site). The varying density allows for people to gather in groups or even relax alone. As for the entrances, visitors can come from any direction and still reach the design; opening up the design to the public (which can be seen in the site plans and mapping of circulation on the previous page). The overall topography of the site is quite flat as it is reclaimed land; was a basin in the past and now itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s filled with reused building materials and landfill.

This idea can be further developed by altering the previous placement of the design and dispersing trees across the entire site, it creates intrigue and allows people to explore freely; reflecting an atmosphere similar to that of a forest. In order to incorporate these ideas with grasshopper, we want to explore with attractor points component to experiment with this idea of diffusion. As the visitors reach the water, the trees will be more concentrated and this area can be inhabited as an architectural space, with the addition of an increased sheltered area where the stage will be located. This shelter is a continuation of the PV panels from the trees. It is using grasshopper to be parametrically designed by using the Delaunay surfaces component as our group had been experimenting with in Part B. Not only is our team providing for the users during the day, but we are also exploring how the effects of temporality and change from day to night effects our design. We intend to install lights which uses the energy harnessed from the solar panels to form a selfsustaining design.

However to enhance the overall atmosphere and idea of traverse and journey within the site there have been changes in the topography. This idea is incorporated with the ideas of prospect and refuge, with the higher topography where the stage is located, allowing viewers to see the water and across to the other side as well. Once reviewing the Refshaleøen site, we decided to spread out design across the site in order to make the most of the large area; following the ideas of radial distribution with more concentration at the stage area (these explorations can be seen on the previous page). However, a concern may be attracting people to walk and explore the site as the design is located at the edge of the water; away from the main entrance. We tried to combat this by drawing people towards the water with it being where the hill (intentional topography change) and stage is also located.

stribution based on forest growth 94

techn Proposal on site

Above: This shows the other distribution patterns explored and how the use of ladybird is also showing the optimisation process of sunlight.

Above: An aerial view showing the placement of the new trees on site. It covers most of the area with a particular concentration around the stage area (north west) where more shelter is provided for people to stay longer on site. Our study on forest dispersion and urban sprawl in Copenhagen shows that there is gradual movement spreading outwards from an originating point (in this case, its the stage on our site). The trees dissolve as they cross the site in a radial manner.



Considering the Site

nique Above: This image depicts the final placement of all the trees on our site. It shows the different species that were created, all randomly selected and placed on site. The radial distribution is acting as the key element which determines the siting of each tree and has been implemented after our research on the forest growth. Points were plotted on the site using grasshopper to experiment and vary the numbers easily (aproximately a total of 150 trees).

After points were made on site to located each tree, we manually â&#x20AC;&#x153;plantedâ&#x20AC;? them. Throughout this process it was necessary to ensure that each tree would be different in its location, height, orientation and species in order to gain as much variety as possible; making the trees all look more seemingly different. Once again, colour is used in this image to depict the locations with the numbered species.

considering the site and circulation


As a result of the major changes to the design we had to reconsider what new elements would be required, how they would be produced using parametrics, what programs would be utilised and how they would be connected/jointed in order to complete the design. In order to test and optimize the design for solar panels, Ladybug was used (as a plugin in Grasshopper) to analyse the amount of sun that could be harvested on site on an annual basis. This was measured in kWh/M2 (kilowatts per hour/metre squared). These were done in order to estimate the amount of energy that could possibly be produced in order to resolve the amount of panels that would be required.

solar These calculations can be shown graphically using a colour chart as seen on the next page. As a result of these, our group decided to install PV panels on all the areas that could harvest 570.86 kWh/M2 or more (warmer colours), whereas the other panels would be fixed glass acting as skylights to allow an interesting pattern of light enter the â&#x20AC;&#x153;canopyâ&#x20AC;? of the tree forms. Further exploration of the productivity rates was considered by using archsim; an energy modeling plugin for grasshopper, which can help to visually the results of the most sun exposure therefore also the largest opportunity to harvest energy.

An approximation for this could be proposed: APROXIMATELY 150 TREES WITHIN PRESENT PROPOSAL 150 X 119kWh/an = 17,850 kWh/an

solar photovoltaic panel analysis REFERENCES:

1) Archsim Energy Modeling for Grasshopper, last modified 1 June, 2) How to calculate the annual solar energy output of a photovoltaic system, last modified 1 June 2014, http://


Solar Energy & Optimisation






Using grasshopper and a basic l system, we created this wireframe as the driver for our projects form. This method is repetitive and is based on the ideas of plant growth and biomimicry; starting with an initial branch using the construct point component as the origin, and creating a basic line from that. Using deconstruct point to act as a guide, the vector display can help us to see the direction in which we are going. Then we are able to replicate the branches further by adding more vectors on the ends of each of the other branches. This is all done in the XZ Plane (as a control of the direction for the system) to make the trees more 3-dimensional.

Once the basic wireframe structures are complete, they are baked and are piped using rhino. We know that because the l-system is repetitive, all of the branched will be the same and this means that each is a standardised length and width. In reality, the thickness of these pipes are 100mm in diameter. The branches act not only as part of the tree aesthetic, but also as a structural frame for in order to hold the PV panels in place; spreading the load across evenly and down to the ground. These piped branches are connected at various different points which make it somewhat a challenge to construct, therefore we realised there must be consideration of some kind of joint at the intersections.


Structural System



Transferring back into grasshopper, these joints where then made to connect the branches using the exoskeleton component ( a continuation of our exploration of kangaroo physics in part b). Each of these joints are the same throughout the tree of each species as the l systems allow for this standardisation to occur. Experimenting with the variations on the exoskeleton component we came to a final decision as seen above (this image is just for one of the species). The nodes are using the same wireframe of the l systems that the branches were based off, therefore the angle of each of them are consistent and the connections will fit automatically.

Taking the end of each of the branches, points were added and used as the references for the delaunay component to be produced. The delaunay creates an interesting pattern using a triangulation method; the PV panels and glass elements will also take this shape. It is a useful compnent as it automatically connects the points from the branches and creates triangles which maximise the angles of all the triangles; avoiding very small or skinny triangles which is ideal for the constructability of the design. With each of the points of the branches being quie similar based on the l system standardisation, the panels are also repeated to an extent; whilst still having a unique aesthetic.


These show the other nodes which are repeated for the other species of trees. These show the other nodes which are repeated for the other species of trees. These show the other nodes which are repeated for the other species of trees. These show the other nodes which are repeated for the other species of trees. These show the other nodes which are repeated for the other species of trees. These show the other nodes which are repeated for the other species of trees. These show the other nodes which are repeated for the other species of trees. These show the other nodes which are repeated for the other species of trees. These show the other nodes which are repeated for the other species of trees. These show the other nodes whic other species of trees.

These show the other nodes which are repeated for the other species of trees.



Unrolling & Assemblage Measurements 1) Joint length 2) Joint thickness 3) Piping length 4) Pipin thickness Note: This particular branch is taken from one of the species just to portray the dimensions. It is the same as the physical model. Other branches are the same with the exception of different joint lengths in accordance to the branches as well as the angle of each.

joints (1)


structural model and joint unrolling (4)


The jointing system acquired for our project focuses on the exoskeleton node and the piped branches. With the use of l-systems, each of these elements in all of the species are able to line up and can fit into each other at the same angle. With the use of grasshopper, variations can be made to the thickness and length of these elements. This is useful as each of the elements are dependent on one another.

For the tectonic model, our group has attempted a 1:5 (of the joints and their connections to the branches) and a 1:50 model (of the entire tree). The 1:5 scale model focuses mainly on the node and is fabricated by unrolling. Whereas the 1:50 looks at the delaunay surface we created for the PV panels; also done with unrolling methods. The models are all based on one singular species and shows the concept of repetition of the elements for all the species as the l system is basic and allows for members to be the same.


L-SYSTEMS: Construct points at XY plane

Add sliders for the x, y, z coordinates

Using the original point and the newly constructed point to create a line

Take the end points of each of these lines

grassh BRANCHES: Select all of the branches and pipe (100mm)

FOR THE JOINTS: Using the curves from the l-systems as an input

Divide curves and split along curve for the joints to fit in. (shorten the pipes from branches)

Thicken the wireframe using the exoskeleton component

Unroll joints ready for sending it to the Fab Lab

DELAUNAY: Determine end points from curves of branches

Use end points as points for Delaunay Edges input

Manually adjust points to optimize triangles for the panels



Parametric process

Use a vector to determine the direction of the following â&#x20AC;&#x153;branchesâ&#x20AC;?.

Reverse the vector to ensure it is in the correct direction of the Z plane (used as a guide)

Repeat the process of creating lines using the guide vector and guide point.

Bake the results and use curves for the exoskeleton.

hoppe Add sliders to allow for variation and convert to a mesh

Join the meshes with weaverbird and weld into a single list

Take the mesh exterior edges to find their end points and create a set to be used as anchors

ms, exoskeleton and delaunay

Make interior edges into springs and insert into kangaroo for a simulation


mode Here we can see the detail of the branches and joints connecting. Each of the piped branches are the same length in all the trees;


Final Digital Model

elling new futuristic forest aesthetic In Part B our approach for producing a design was purely based on an exoskeleton and our case study on the Non-Lin Pavilion. We explored the project and how it could have been parametrically designed in order to fuel our own design, however I believe we were not willing to explore and stray from the initial definition we had created. The project was not substantial enough and lacking in its ability to harvest energy and fulfill the briefs requirements. As a response to this, after receiving feedback we are striving to move forward from this point in part c. We gathered the information and techniques that were adopted before and expanded them further by combining them with other possible grasshopper components; more than one system being explored which are connected to one another.

The overall aesthetic of the new design is more controlled and constructible with the use of l systems. It uses the concept of biomimicry to mimic the form of a tree with the adoption of thin branches for the aesthetics; a contrast to the thicker nodes making it a more prominent feature. This makes it ideal for onstruction as all the components are standardised, as opposed to the tube like forms we had before This drastic change proved to be a challenge but we are now embracing this new skeletal form as it is creating a much stronger presence, working both as a structural system as well as aesthetic. The new aesthetic is a contrast to the nature and the subject of trees in our design; a recreation of a futuristic forest. The atmosphere is a complete change from before, especially in consideration of the materials and colour scheme of the project.



unrolling & flat fabrication For the branch members which are piped in rhino, our group needed to get or make pipes which were 20mm in diameter for a model at the scale of 1:5 in order to represent steel pipes. In this case, we bought pipes at the nominated diameter and painted them silver to better represent the materiality of steel.

For the joints we had developed using grasshopper and exoskeleton, we attempted to flat fabricate it by unrolling and laser cutting the indivudal pieces. This was sucessfully done particularly with score lines, which were conveniently produced when the joints were created as meshes on the computer.


With each of the unrolled pieces connected, we work on joining the node with the piped members. In reality we intend on these elements being slotted into one another as seen in the photos, and then welded into place for a more secure finish. The joints as seen in the photo are hollow to allow for this.

Detail Model - Joints

er cut Scale 1:5

Prototype of joints from branch to branch. This prototype has been taken from only ONE of the species we had created in rhino and grasshopper.





unrolling & flat fabrication Once again, to show the connection of these supporting spider joints to the branches we needed to use pipes. These are the same scale and adopt the same method in order ot be painted and cut for this detailed model.

After researching spider joints, we adopted two spider fittings at each of the faces where the panels/glass meet. These joints all have two arms each in order to support the load above. As seen in this image, we used pipes in order to emulate the spiders and the pieces interlock into one another similar to how the branch joints work.


The spider fittings are connected to the steel branches via bolting/welding and works in a simliar manner to a glass curtain wall. The arms are have sealant on the end with a cap to conceal the bolted glass connection. In our model we attempt to create a similar form using paper to represent the panel.

Detailed Model

er cut Scale 1:5

A prototype of the spider joint which holds the panels and glass; connected to the branch. This prototype has been taken from only ONE of the species we had created in rhino and grasshopper.



unrolling & flat fabrication For the branch members which are piped in rhino, our group needed to get or make pipes which were 20mm in diameter for a model at the scale of 1:5 in order to represent steel pipes. In this case, we bought pipes at the nominated diameter and painted them silver to better represent the materiality of steel.

For the joints we had developed using grasshopper and exoskeleton, we attempted to flat fabricate it by unrolling and laser cutting the indivudal pieces. This was sucessfully done particularly with score lines, which were conveniently produced when the joints were created as meshes on the computer.


With each of the unrolled pieces connected, we work on joining the node with the piped members. In reality we intend on these elements being slotted into one another as seen in the photos, and then welded into place for a more secure finish. The joints as seen in the photo are hollow to allow for this.

Final Model

er cut Scale 1:50

Prototype of an entire tree. Once again this prototype has been taken from only ONE of the species we had created in rhino and grasshopper.


final mode distribution of tree design on site

Left: A top view showing the distribution of the trees across the entire site (without the panels). A change in topography can be seen as well as areas of concentration and dispersion Below: Looking from left to right, the images indicate the different shadows cast when the sun is shining from the sunrise to sunset.

Sunrise 117


Final Model


Top of Model


Sunset 118

On site

aerial view model on refshaleøen site

Top: This image shows how the condensed area of our design can have intense effects on the light and shadow, triggering interest in the users on site.

Bottom: This particular photo attempts tp show the dispersion of the trees. From this view, the trees closest are spread out and scarce in comparison to the background.



Birds eye view

Perspective 120



Section Drawing

A section cutting through the length of the site to show the topography and gradual dispersion of the trees in the forest.


light that filters through the trees



“Komorebi” lterally translates to “light that filters through the trees” from Japanese. It is a conceptual idea that combines these two elements of nature which allow for us to appreciate the beauty in simplicity.

In nature, it can be seen that there are always patterns which occur, the same goes for forest growth. This concept is designed into our site with the distribution and layout of the Komorebi. Typically, for a successful old-growth forest, there will be minimal signs of human disturbance to the area. However for this project it shows the juxtaposition of the materials chosen and the concept of a natural forest as a statement on coexistence of humans and their impact on nature.

orebi The name reflects this project in the ideas of playing with light, using the sun as a source of collecting and providing energy and the artificial trees are scattered across the site. Our ideas of biomimicry and adopting the forest distribution as well as the tree forms as the drivers for this project represent the forest atmosphere by recreating a similar experience; creating an interplay between the sunlight and the spaces in between the trees. A normal forest would have its own unique ecological features, our forest also displays a distinctive aesthetic; in relation to a futuristic and artificial approach which is created by humans rather than nature. Komorebi consists of a total of 8 species of trees which are all originating from the ideas of plant growth to echo a forest with its diverse tree related structures and wild habitat. There is control over these species which are an indication of the restrictions of materials and structure. The concept of the forest is based on a large canopy with canopy openings which allow for light to shed through as well as the consideration of variation of heights of the trees.

As a result of this, the situation of each of the trees for the Komorebi forest are dispersed across the entire site with a single point of concentration; where a stage area is located with seating that shows vistas of the bay. This irregular distribution is controlled within the site with spacing that is large enough to allow people to freely meander through as an artificial composition. The light that shines through the canopy that is created acts as a guide drawing people into the site, rather than having a man-made pathway which constricts people to walk in certain directions.


Day Render

During the day the forest allows for people to expore through the site. Through the dense trees you can see the water in the distance, creating intrigue.

Night Render

This shows the lights and how they are contributing to creating a somewhat mysterious atmosphere on site. They are strategically placed to lure people in.

komo Ground view looking up

This shows the light shining through the canopy openings, it really captures how light plays a role in this project. The solar panels are also able to harness energy.


Energy and the environment The canopies of Komorebi are where photovoltaic panels are installed; ranging from 7-10 metres high at varying angles to capture energy. Not only is the canopy a reflection a forest canopy, but it also ensures that the panels are not overlapping each other and therefore preventing the optimal amount of sunlight which can be collected. The panels work by converting solar radiation in order to generate electricity. These panels consist of cells which are composed of photovoltaic materials. They also provide shade for users on site to enjoy whilst reflecting the atmosphere of a forest canopy. The steel components that form the crown of the trees act as the main structure which supports the panels as well as represent the branches in a tree. They are all identical in terms of materiality, sizes and construction methods for ease of production (steel pipes welded to the joints). These are then attached to a main trunk and allows for the loads from the panels to be transferred to the ground. As each of the species of trees are repeated many times across the site, the components are also repeated. Although each of the trees are varied, all of the concepts behind its construction are the same. There are ground lights which are installed on the ground which illuminate the forest at night, this enhances the aesthetics of the site but are also powered by the energy that is harvested from the solar panels. This cycle is a physical manifestation of the energy that is collected and used on site. This light replaces the sun during the day as a guide for users towards the stage area by the water.


overall environmental impact


Estimate of annual kWh generated per annum

Environmental impact statement

Above is the formula our proposal has adopted in order to estimate the amount of energy that Komorebi could produce.

Komorebi is a self-sustained and low impact design which considers the effects on the environment. The proposal itself, although does produce and use some energy is referring to a metaphorical and symbolic approach to the topic of climate and the environment. It acts as a reminder of human disruption in nature and our contribution to the degradation of nature.

WITH APROXIMATELY 150 TREES WITHIN THE PRESENT PROPOSAL: - 150 X 119kWh/an = 17,850 kWh/an USES OF THE ENERGY: - Onsite lighting at night - Onsite electrical utilities

However, in an attempt to portray a positive message for people to see about nature and human is the constant interaction and reliance of both for one another. We see how nature plays a crucial role in human life. Komorebi is returning to the ideas of biomimicry in order to emulate forests and their growth to provide a solution for the distribution and layout of the photovoltaic panels in this project. This is an example which shows the people of Copenhagen the first step towards a more sustainable future.


1) Custom Made, Gaia Solar, last modified 1June, http://www.

2) Surface Finishing, Integrating Global Trade Leads, last modified 1 June 2014, carbon_steel_pipe.html 3) Steel pipes, last modified 1 June, steelpipe.html

4) Glass Spider System, Steel Products, last modified 1 June 2014, 5) Precast reinforced concrete column, Styl comp, last modified 1 June 2014,

For this proposal, it considers the environmental impact by assessing and predicting the effect of the design on the environment but also on people. With a unique aesthetic, Komorebi strives to attract people into an escape. The trees are part of a refuge for users to enjoy the spaces and relax. Whilst the stage area allows for more public events where a stage is settled in. This caters for various activities from groups to individual activities.

dimensions of the members


Dimensions and Primary Materials Photovoltaic panels/ fixed glass varied according to species that is 8mm thick (double glaze)

Spider joint 00mm in diameter Carbon steel framing 20mm in diameter

Steel joints average length of socket 250mm, material thickness is 25mm and opening at 100mm

energy Flat steel strips for trunk cladding 600mm in width Hollow steel pipes 100mm in diameter with average length of 1700mm

Concrete column 300mm at top with 1000mm base (tapered form), height ranges from 6-10 metres tall


C.5. Learning Objectives and Outcomes


Learning Objectives and outcomes Objective 1: Using digital technologies as a manner of optioneering for this project can be reflected in the many iterations produced. For these to be created are an example of possibilities which could be preoduced, but the importance of these are their relation to the brief. Looking at how the brief can be a design trigger to drive the design outcomes is best when considering the options. From part b of the project, the optioneering process was not as succesful as it lacks this relationship, however in part c there is more investigation of the brief and analysis of the site. This demonstrates the exploration and advance in the process of optioneering. Objective 2: Through the use of parametric modelling, it is no doubt the design process is more efficient but also more accurate in solving details and technical issues. In this case using parametrics are not only useful in the form and structure of the design but also when considering the design space and exploring the site.

Objective 5: Reflecting upon the proposal enabled us to work on our flaws, fix our mistakes and justify our designs. Throughout this subject, we are constantly challenged by the tutors, the brief and the theory which we researched or were provided. Each have different views and can be applied, but ultimately it is us who has to develop those ideas further or if we chose to reject them. This allows for critical thinking and the enhancement of our own ideas and of this proposal. Objective 6: Through the various case studies I was able to freely explore areas of parametric design that interested me but also challenged my learning and skills. This projects also inspired the proposal in its underlying concepts but also its own parametric processes. It provides a good starting point for me to begin analysing and designing in conjunction with digital technologies.

komo Objective 3: In order to create this project physically and virtually, other techniques and programs were required for fabrication purposes and the extension of the algorithmic process for a final solution. I learnt to use grasshopper much more efficiently and new scripting techniques such as l-systems, exoskeleton and using ladybug and kangaroo as plugins for further optimisation of the design.

Objective 7: Throughout the course, I have been exposed to many different programs and techniques (grasshopper, kangaroo, weaverbird and ladybird) which has given me the opportunity to experiment freely. Although there are many different types of programming, each were explored to an extent which allowed me to develop my model and perhaps not dwelve deeper. This can perhaps be seen in the advance in the iterations created for the matrices in part b of the project to the change in part c.

light that filters through th

Objective 4: This proposal allows for us students to work as groups in order to manufacture something that could possibly be submitted for the LAGI competition. This opportunity allows for us to extend our knowledge of the project and move beyond what we learn by applying them to other possiblities. This can be tested and is done so through the physical models. It allowed for us to search for and justify our design solutions making us think about the relationships betwee narchitecture.


Objective 8: By experimenting with many different programs and plugins, although not all were succesful and easily achieved it still allowed for me to learn about how to develop a basic model. Each of the applications are different in optimising the design, however because they are specific to their function it also helped me to understand which programs would be best to use for certain areas of the design.

References 1) Archsim Energy Modeling for Grasshopper, last modified 1 June, 2) How to calculate the annual solar energy output of a photovoltaic system, last modified 1 June 2014, 3) Custom Made, Gaia Solar, last modified 1June, 4) Surface Finishing, Integrating Global Trade Leads, last modified 1 June 2014, http://www.weiku. com/products/9903736/low_carbon_steel_pipe.html 5) Steel pipes, last modified 1 June, 6) Glass Spider System, Steel Products, last modified 1 June 2014, php 7) Precast reinforced concrete column, Styl comp, last modified 1 June 2014, http://www.archiexpo. com/prod/styl-comp/precast-reinforced-concrete-columns-59272-173208.html


he trees



Air Studio student journal