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CENDEP NEWS Summer 2016


\ Contents Introduction4 DEP 15/16 6 Introducing HAP 10 India field trip 12 Colombia field trip 16 Staff & visitors 22 Publications26 Staff research 27 Events34 Dissertations38 PhD research 40 Human Rights Film Festival 42 Alumni44

Cover image. Shelter after Disaster module constructing a transitional shelter. Inside cover, India field trip 2016. Š DEP 2015/16


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Dr Cathrine Brun, CENDEP Director writes, As CENDEP celebrated its 30th year, I was honoured to accept the post as director in the autumn of 2015. Over the past three decades, CENDEP has helped to improve development and humanitarian practice and in the process has trained nearly 1000 students, of whom the majority continue to work and contribute in many different capacities in our field. I am looking forward to building on the legacy of my predecessors and the many colleagues who have been and continue to be part of our community. Reflecting back on the first months at CENDEP, I am grateful for the generous and collegial spirit of colleagues and students, seen not least in the wide range of activities they are engaged in. Since January, we have had two field courses to Colombia and India, arranged the Human Rights Film Festival, co-convened a seminar at the Royal Institute of British Architects on ‘Creation and Catastrophe’, participated in planning a side event ‘Evidence Lounge’ at the World Humanitarian Summit in Istanbul, and completed the end of the year exhibition. Currently, as the newsletter goes to press, we are finalising workshop plans for the end of June where we aim to discuss the use of evidence in knowledge production about humanitarian work. As important as the bigger events and seminars though is the day to day interaction and communication between dedicated researchers, lecturers, practitioners and students in CENDEP which contributes to mutual learning between different people and groups.


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Teaching students on the Development and Emergency Practice (DEP) MA degree is among the most rewarding activities and the ongoing discussions in and outside the classroom contribute to create new and deeper insights in the field of development and emergency practice. We have a long tradition of online learning as part of our contribution to capacity-building for fieldworkers, and I am delighted to announce that from January 2017 we will be running jointly with UNITAR a new MA in Humanitarian Action and Peacebuilding. Research activities are an important part of our day to day activities and as the newsletter shows, CENDEP staff are active in all our four strategic research areas: Conflict and Humanitarian Action; Forced Migration and Human Rights; Shelter after Disaster; and Disaster, Risk and Development. To learn more, follow our newly established CENDEP-blog about our activities and involvements in development an emergency practice.

/ INTRODUCTION


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DEP 15 \ 16


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Dr Supriya Akerkar, DEP Programme Leader writes, This year the DEP cohort came from different countries such as: Lithuania, Kenya, Uganda, Philippines, Rwanda, Japan, USA, Nepal, Colombia, HongKong, and UK. This diversity of participants stimulated rich discussions within the class and facilitated peer learning. In 2015-16 we introduced two new modules to the course, namely Programming and Partnerships; and Improving Humanitarian Action: Responding to Crisis in 21st Century. Both the modules, which are led by experienced tutors and practitioners, have been very well received by the students and have strengthened the course further. This year students organised a Human rights festival on the theme of ‘Women in Adversity’. The festival screened films and held discussions on global struggles of women and girls on themes such as right to education, civil rights such as voting, and livelihoods and security. Ziauddin Yousufzai, father of the Nobel laureate Malala, interacted with the public after the screening of the film: ‘He named me Malala’. Two field trips were organised this year, namely: a) Gujarat, India where students investigated the long term recovery challenges following the earthquake of 2001 in partnership with All India Disaster Mitigation Institute (AIDMI). The students’ findings were published in the form of articles in the special issue of southasiadisasters.net published by AIDMI. b) Colombia, where students conducted research in Valle Del Cauca region. The students spoke with different communities affected by conflict including the campesinos (farmers), cafeteros (coffee producers), indigenous people, Afro-Colombians and the displaced populations.


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DEP students building a temporary shelter as part of the Shelter after Disaster course. Š Amit Bura

DEP staff and students during the 2016 field trip to Colombia and India (opposite). Š DEP Students 2015/16


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Dr Brigitte Piquard, CENDEP Reader writes, CENDEP will be offering a second Master Degree from January 2017: Master in Humanitarian action and peacebuilding. The Master’s degree in Humanitarian Action and Peacebuilding is based on the expertise developed at CENDEP and at UNITAR (United Nations Institute for Training and Research) and particularly their Peacekeeping Programme. At CENDEP, the new Master’s degree will build on the PG Certificate in Humanitarian action and Conflict created in 2011 and upgraded to a full collaborative Master’s this year. Building on the best practices of HAC PG cert, the new master in Humanitarian Action and Peacebuilding will also be founded on its practicebased approach and strong culture of student and practitioner collaboration. From our teaching experiences, field research and consultancies, we reached the conclusion that it was practically and ethically urgent to target national or international workers directly in the field in order to develop further their expertise and practices through work-based teaching programmes and to strengthen local capacities. The new MA is delivered strictly at distance, through online teaching. In the immediate aftermath of conflict, roles and interactions of and in between peacebuilding, humanitarian action and recovery are complex and need to be investigated. It is recognised that a long-term and sustainable peace can only be built by local and national actors – including central governments, civil society, local governments, the private sector and individual citizens. Humanitarian actions and recovery in post-conflict aim to build resilience at the community level; peacebuilding aims to build resilience at the societal and political levels. Humanitarian actors seek to assist local and national stakeholders in developing the ability to adapt and cope with current and future crisis – as do peace builders. Humanitarian assistance providers, after addressing core needs, focus on building the capacity to prevent, mitigate or respond to future humanitarian emergencies. Exploring therefore the links between peacebuilding and humanitarian action is essential to improve understandings and practices. This is the reason why Oxford Brookes University and UNITAR have decided to create the Master’s Degree in Humanitarian Action and Peacebuilding, highly culture-sensitive and aiming at linking the different conceptions of what humanitarian


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action and peacebuilding are and what humanitarian and peacebuilding practices should be. The programme is designed mainly for practitioners working in the fields of humanitarian action and peacebuilding, though it is open also to personnel working in relevant fields (such as military and police officers deployed or about to be deployed in field operations, civil servants – including diplomats – in charge of humanitarian affairs, academics teaching humanitarian affairs, journalists, etc.) seeking to develop a more holistic understanding of critical issues related to humanitarian action and peacebuilding. More specifically, the programme allows this group of participants to broaden their perceptions, critically review their role, and develop and refine hard and soft skills needed to work effectively in the fields of humanitarian action and peacebuilding. Main topics covered by the MA in Humanitarian Action and Peacebuilding include: • Conflict and post-conflict contexts of humanitarian action and peacebuilding – including the urban and built environments and their impacts on the nature of humanitarian responses; • Theories and practices related to the different dimensions of humanitarian actions and peacebuilding – with a specific focus on protection actions; • Methods and tools (for mapping, assessment, management, etc.) needed for practitioners working in the fields of humanitarian action and peacebuilding to address current and emerging challenges.

/ NEW MASTER’S DEGREE HUMANITARIAN ACTION AND PEACEBUILDING [HAP]


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FIELD TRIP / INDIA


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Chanel Currow and Austin Snowbarger (DEP 2015/16) write, In January 2016, eight students from CENDEP travelled to Gujarat, India with Dr Supriya Akerkar to undertake field research around the theme of long-term recovery, with special focus on the recovery process following an earthquake in 2001. Returning to both urban and rural affected areas in Gujarat 15 years after the disaster provided the group with a unique opportunity to see how people have rebuilt their lives and how reconstruction efforts have impacted them. Ahmedabad-based All India Disaster Mitigation Institute (AIDMI) hosted the students who also benefited from Dr Akerkar’s first-hand experience resulting from her work with an NGO in Gujarat following the earthquake. Six days of field research in the districts of Kutch and Patan, those closest to the epicentre, allowed the group to gain experience with Participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA) tools. Interviews and focus group discussions allowed interaction with people from a variety of positions within society and various roles in the recovery process including: local women’s groups, teachers, home owners and tenants, salt workers, and government officials. Throughout this field research, the group observed strong livelihood recovery where people were well organised and empowered prior to the earthquake through the presence of organisations such as a women’s artisan group and dairy cooperative. Housing was of primary concern in the earthquake reconstruction, and the field visits emphasised the need to ensure safe incremental construction through design and training. The importance of increasing community satisfaction and social capital through consultation was highlighted along with planning for community spaces. The group learned of the multiple hazards faced by people in this region, and the need for all hazards to be considered when striving for increased resilience and long term recovery. Despite causing large scale loss of life and assets, the earthquake provided an opportunity


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to approach recovery holistically, improve policies, and create awareness of preparedness measures to increase peoples’ resilience to future earthquakes. At the end of the trip, the group shared their findings with AIDMI staff and five articles were eventually written for the South Asia Disasters Net publication, managed by AIDMI. Following the field research, the group attended the Eighth South-South Citizenry Based Development Sub-Academy in Ahmedabad where the theme was ‘Building Urban Resilience: Risk Transfer and Insurance.’ This enabled the students to engage with practitioners from around South Asia. The field trip helped connect theory with practice and was a wonderful learning opportunity.

Housing study sketch book entry by Kate Reilly


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FIELD TRIP / COLOMBIA


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Fatima Hashmi (DEP 2015/16) writes, Symbolic violence is a cause and a consequence of conflict and its impact can lead to dominance through strategies of power, discrimination or social exclusion. It requires a thorough understanding and monitoring for sustainable peace building in order to reduce symbolic violence and help the populations heal. As a result, the ‘Observatory of Symbolic Violence’, an action research project, aims to play a significant role to protect, advocate and build the capacities in the rural areas, affected by displacement of population, presence of fighting groups, forced changes of lifestyles and an overall stigmatisation of different populations. As part of the project in January 2016, a group of students from Oxford Brookes University (UK) in partnership with CERAR (France) conducted a second research field trip focusing on the Valle de Cauca. This was possible with the support of FECOOP (Foundation for Cooperative Education of the Coffee Growers) which is part of the Federacion of Cafeteros, a national institution for coffee agriculture. The aim of this action research trip was to identify the specific issues related to symbolic violence; amongst these the wide-ranging forms of stigmatisation found at four different levels such as society, community, family and self; the need for awareness and the creation of tools for advocacy. For the affected populations, symbolic violence is expressed in land dispossession and displacement; which not only impacts their associated lifestyle but also their social capital and family relationships. The research team focused on engaging with different types of communities who are the direct and indirect victims of conflict such as the campesinos (farmers), cafeteros (coffee producers), indigenous people, Afro-Colombians and the displaced populations. The two week trip took the research team to four different locations within the Valle de Cauca department which had suffered from conflict in different ways.


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The trip began with an exchange of presentations with FECOOP in Cali to gain a deeper understanding of their holistic approach to education through running different programmes in the rural areas for both children and parents. It was also an opportunity for the team to brief FECOOP on the expected outcomes. Whilst in Cali, the team also conducted a focus group discussion with the government department unit ‘Unidad Para la Atencion y Reparacion Integral a las Victimas’ which focuses on a three step reparation process: Prevention, Assistance and Reparation. After visiting Cali, the team travelled to Trujillo, a small rural town nestled beautifully in the mountains, situated in the principal area of the Coffee Cultural Landscape of Colombia (PCC), inscribed in UNESCO’s World Heritage List. Here we conducted participatory research on issues related to stigmatisation with the secondary school pupils and local organisations who thoroughly participated in drawing a tree highlighting the root causes, impacts and consequences of stigmatisation. We also had the privilege to conduct interviews with the Mayor of Trujillo and the local community members. In particular, the team was touched by visiting the memorial of the Association of Relatives of the Victims of Trujillo (AFAVIT), which stands out as a pillar of resistance and as a landmark for justice, truth and reparation.


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Located on the beautiful hills of Trujillo, the team had the opportunity to meet the cafeteros at the Asociacion De Agricultores De Venecia. The coffee farmers unravelled the steps of harvesting coffee and their programmes for the youth to be specialised in coffee farming. One of their major concerns is that the stigmatization faced by coffee farmers is impacting the youth who are moving to the urban areas in search of employment.

During the weekend the research team travelled to the Centro Cafetero de Capacitacion, a beautiful resort in Restrepo with lush green mountain views. Here the team met with a group of women from the Association of Displaced Women of Restrepo to conduct participatory research, bringing to light the steps for resilience and recognition of the efforts made by displaced women to be full part of the society. Before arriving at our final destination, the team visited Bajo Calima, situated in the municipality of Buenaventura which is one of the most biologically diverse ecosystems on the planet. The University of Tolima (Forestal Department) organised a group discussion with the Consejo Comunitario de la Comunidad Negra del Bajo Calima and the team also conducted interviews with the Afro-Colombian community members. It was hard not to the notice the high level of poverty amongst the community because of low income levels, high unemployment levels in


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the formal market and unmet basic needs. The region also suffers from forest degradation due to intensive second growth forest logging. A tour of the village brought to light the lack of access to drinking water where each household collects rain water and stores it in tanks. With the dense forest and beautiful landscape Bajo Calima has the potential for tourism and alternative medical plantation with the immense knowledge that comes from the local environment. However, the stigmatization of place as a result of conflict between the armed groups causing mass displacement and for being the main route for drug traffickers to reach the port of Buenaventura have had a negative impact. The last leg of the research trip was to Florida, situated in the red zone of the south-eastern corner of the region of Valle de Cauca which has witnessed over 20 years of violence resulting from clashes between guerrilla groups, national armed forces and the civilian community. Whilst visiting one of the schools run by FECOOP, the team conducted participatory research with the school children as well as focus group discussions with the teachers and parents. The process of normalization of the prolonged violence was noticeable among the youth who have borne the brunt war, attacks, fear and death. The trip concluded with a debrief presentation to FECOOP in Cali, highlighting the elements found to be extremely important such as fighting stigmatisation and normalisation, and youth as agents of change. As a result of the findings we came up with the ultimate outcomes: 1. Short Film: 6-8 minutes short film, presenting the issue of stigmatization and hope as an awareness programme of the issue. 2. Pedagogical Tools: Two posters to be used together. The first, communicating the idea of symbolic violence and the second resilience. Aimed at secondary school children to support learning in the classroom on symbolic violence and resilience. 3. Architectural Installation: Aim is to create a game children would be able to play within the courtyard/playground in order to address some of their issues in a lighter way.


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STAFF \ VISITORS Dr Supriya Akerkar, Senior Lecturer and DEP Programme Coordinator Jeni Burnell, Research Associate Matt Bannerman, Associate Lecturer Dr Cathrine Brun, CENDEP Director Dr Richard Carver, Senior Lecturer Ian Davis, Visiting Professor Dr Simon Fisher, Associate Lecturer Bill Flinn, Associate Lecturer Nabeel Hamdi, Emeritus Professor Dr Lisa Handley, Visiting Research Academic Paul Knox-Clarke, Associate Lecturer Charles Parrack, Subject Coordinator, Shelter After Disaster Dr Brigitte Piquard, Reader in Humanitarian Action and Conflict Hugo Slim, Visiting Professor Caroline Tindale, Programme Administrator Regular contributors and visitors Coree Alvarez, Kate Angus, Andy Bastable, Peter Bauman, Camillo Boano, Summer Brown, Jade Chakowa, Ian Davis, Helene Delomez, Johan Eldebo, Emma Fanning, Bernard Hacourt, Dr Barbara Harrell-Bond, Dr Lisa Handley, Rachel Hastie, Jemma Houston, Aloysius John, Rumana Kabir, Martin Knops, Rumana Ksurovi, Dr Helia Lopez Zarzosa, Richard Luff, Tom Newby, Sarah Pickwick, Jamie Richardson, James Salt, Susanne Sargeant, Yara Sharif, Coree Steadman, Maggie Stephenson, Caroline Sweetman, Lisa Wain


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Supriya Akerkar led two modules for the MA DEP programme, namely ‘Critical inquiry in development and emergencies’; and ‘Disasters, vulnerability, risks and climate change’. She also engaged in research on inclusion of Age and Disability in humanitarian responses and made presentation on age and disability inclusion in humanitarian responses during a conference organised by University College London and Tohuko University, Japan on 23rd October 2015. Supriya also acted as an external examiner to the MSc Emergency Planning and Management, offered by Coventry University, UK and Middle East College, Oman. Jeni Burnell completed the ‘Time to Talk: Digital Storytelling Project in the Leys’, which was funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund. This included being part of the ‘40 Years, 40 Objects’ exhibition at the Museum of Oxford, Oxford Town Hall. She also developed the Shed Space exhibition, which was shown at Arts at the Old Fire Station in central Oxford (2016). This involved working with art and architecture students from Brookes to design whimsical model sheds as part of the installation. Finally, Jeni was a guest lecturer for undergraduate architecture students where she shared her knowledge on creative community engagement techniques. Cathrine Brun joined CENDEP in October and has acted full time as director since January 2016. She came from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology where she was Professor in Human Geography, director of research and director of the Norwegian Researcher School in Geography. Since she arrived at CENDEP, her main research activities have been to continue her research on protracted displacement which has taken her to Jordan where she works with Anita H. Fábos from Clark University, US. From January to May, Cathrine gave talks on humanitarianism at the American University of Beirut (City Debates), at the Royal Institute of British Architects (Creation and


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Catastrophe), at Oxford Brookes university (Centre for Global Politics, Economy and Society), at the University of Manchester (The Global Development Institute) and at the Department of Social and Economic Geography, University of Uppsala. Richard Carver completed the book ‘Does Torture Prevention Work?’ with Dr Lisa Handley, published by Liverpool University Press in July 2016. Among a number of presentations he made on torture prevention throughout the year was one to the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture in Strasbourg. Richard also completed a litigation manual on international media law and freedom of expression for the Media Legal Defence Initiative and advised Ombudsman institutions in Turkey and Macedonia on developing their capacity and effectiveness. He taught at the University of Ankara’s human rights summer school. Bill Flinn has been working with the CARE UK global shelter team for the past twelve month. This year has seen more than its fair share of earthquakes and cyclonic storms along with conflict and the consequential migration crisis in Europe. In response, Bill was deployed by CARE to Vanuatu and Fiji in the aftermath of devastating cyclones; to Ecuador after April’s earthquake; and to Nepal and the Philippines. Throughout this, he continues to develop the shelter sector’s understanding of self-recovery and how the humanitarian community can best support those families that use their own resources to recover after the devastation of a major disaster. Charles Parrack is currently working on three research projects: testing earth mortar reinforcement for better seismic resistance in Nepal, evaluating how self rebuilders build back safer after disaster, and understanding appropriate shelter for displaced populations in protracted conflict. He was part of the organising committee for a ground-breaking symposium at the RIBA on ‘Creation and Catastrophe’, bringing together humanitarian practitioners with professional institutes and private sector representatives to discuss effective post-disaster reconstruction. He continues to represent CENDEP in IFRC/UNHCR training courses on coordination and shelter technical training which are accredited by Brookes.


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Brigitte Piquard has kept on developing action research projects on Symbolic Violence in Colombia and in Ukraine focussing specifically this year on the issue of stigmatisation and the youth. This has led to partnership with the University of Los Andes in Colombia and Fecoop, the federation for education of the coffeeproducers. She has also developed a partnership with UNITAR (United Nations Institute for Training and Research) which has led to the validation of a new MA in Humanitarian Action and Peacebuilding. Brigitte has been also appointed visiting professor and member of the board of the MA in International Humanitarian Action at the Universite Aix-Marseille Paul Cezanne at Aix-en-Provence.

/ Dr Lisa Handley joins CENDEP as a Visiting Research Academic Lisa is a political scientist focusing on democracy and elections, minority rights and methodology. She has a PhD from George Washington University and has taught political science courses at several US universities, including the University of Virginia, George Washington University and the University of California, Irvine. Lisa is a specialist in research methodology and statistical analysis. She has designed methodologies and statistical techniques for carrying out a variety of sophisticated research projects, including determining if an electoral system discriminates against minorities and measuring the relative impact of prevention mechanisms on the incidence of torture. The latter project has produced the book, Does Torture Prevention Work? (Liverpool University Press 2016) with Dr Richard Carver of CENDEP. In addition, Lisa has written numerous articles and books on minority rights and elections. Lisa’s current projects range from advising the National Electoral Commission of Sierra Leone on behalf of UNDP to conducting statistical analyses to support a legal challenge to minority vote dilution in the United States. At CENDEP, Lisa plans to develop her research on torture prevention further, addressing issues such as the protection of women in custody from state violence. She will hold seminars on research methods to help students prepare for their dissertations and will be available to advise students on designing and presenting their research.


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\ PUBLICATIONS Akerkar, S. (2015) Development of normative framework for disaster relief: learning from colonial famine histories in India, Disasters 39 (S2): S219−S243. Brun, C. and A.H. Fábos (2015) Making Home in Limbo? Domestic Practices and the Meaning of Home. Special issue Refuge vol 31, no. 1. Brun, C. (2016) Dwelling in the temporary: the involuntary mobility of displaced Georgians in rented accommodation. Cultural Studies 30(3): 421–440, Special issue on (Im)mobilities of Dwelling, edited by L. Meier and S. Frank. Carver, R. (2015) Freedom of Expression, Media Law and Defamation, Media Legal Defence Initiative and International Press Institute. Carver, R. (2016) Training manual on international and comparative media and freedom of expression law, Media Legal Defence Initiative. Carver, R. and Handley, L. (2016) Does Torture Prevention Work?, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.

In the past three decades, international and regional human rights bodies have developed an ever-lengthening list of measures that states are required to adopt in order to prevent torture. But do any of these mechanisms actually work? This study is the first systematic analysis of the effectiveness of torture prevention. Primary research was conducted in 16 countries, looking at their experience of torture and prevention mechanisms over a 30-year period, and data were analysed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The results show that prevention measures work, but some are much more effective than others. Most important of all are the safeguards that should be applied in the first hours and days after a person is taken into custody. Notification of family and access to an independent lawyer and doctor have a significant impact in reducing torture. The investigation and prosecution of torturers and the creation of independent monitoring bodies are also vital. An important caveat to the conclusion that prevention works is that it is the actual practice in police stations and detention centres that matters – not treaties ratified or laws on the statute book.

Richard Carver is Senior Lecturer in Human Rights and Governance at Oxford Brookes University.

Cover image: Anti-torture mural, Bethlehem, West Bank. Photo credit: Rory Carnegie

Richard Carver Lisa Handley

www.liverpooluniversitypress.co.uk

and

Lisa Handley is a Visiting Research Academic at Oxford Brookes University and an independent consultant for the United Nations and other organizations.

Does Torture Prevention Work?

Does Torture Prevention Work?

Does Torture Prevention Work? Richard Carver and Lisa Handley


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/ CENDEP research on building safety in self recovery Charles Parrack, Shelter after Disaster lecturer, writes CENDEP is collaborating with CARE International UK to investigate resilience and safety in post disaster reconstruction for self rebuilders. ‘Self recovery’ has only recently become part of the common vocabulary in shelter projects after disasters, but is still the most widespread practice in recovery. There is little documentation on self recovery because most studies concern the work that humanitarian actors do rather than what people themselves do after a disaster. After a disaster, building back safer buildings that can withstand the shock of potential recurring disasters is the aim of disaster risk reduction. However, where people build back themselves, there is a need to understand how safety can increase in existing building practices. Consequently, the challenge of safer self recovery is technical, cultural, social and economic. CENDEP and CARE are undertaking a research project to establish the current knowledge on building safety in post disaster self recovery.

/ RESEARCH


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/ Torture prevention research reaches conclusion Dr Richard Carver, CENDEP Senior Lecturer writes, The four-year, multi-country research project has reached its conclusion with the publication of the book Does Torture Prevention Work? by Liverpool University Press. The book is written by CENDEP Senior Lecturer Richard Carver and Visiting Research Academic Lisa Handley, with contributions from 12 country research teams. The research uses a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the impact of various torture prevention measures in 16 countries over a 30-year period. The clear conclusion was that safeguards provided to detainees in the first hours and days after arrest offer the most effective protection against torture. These include an end to unofficial detention, prompt notification of family or friends, access to a lawyer and doctor, and prompt presentation before a judge. When courts reduce their reliance on confession evidence this also provides an important disincentive to torture. The research also examined three other sets of prevention measures: investigation and prosecution of torturers, bodies that monitor places of detention and imprisonment, and independent complaints mechanisms. While the two former sets of protections had a discernible and positive effect in reducing torture, no evidence was found to show that complaints mechanisms had a preventive impact. For all measures, but especially for detention safeguards and prosecution of torturers, there was found to be a significant gap between laws on the statute book and actual practice. The mere existence of legal protections did not, in itself, have any noticeable effect in reducing torture. It is actual practice on the ground that matters. The findings have been met with considerable interest. Richard and Lisa were invited to present their conclusions to the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture in November 2015 – the Council of Europe’s anti-torture treaty body. In April 2015, they present a paper at the First International Conference on Human Rights Indicators in Mexico City, on the subject “Evidence-based indicators for torture prevention.”


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Dr Supriya Akerkar, DEP Programme Leader writes, I am currently the principle investigator on behalf of CENDEP for the Age and Disability Capacity Programme (ADCAP), an initiative of a group of seven agencies working to promote age- and disability-inclusive humanitarian assistance: CBM, DisasterReady.org, Handicap International, HelpAge International, IFRC, Oxford Brookes University, and RedR UK. The programme is funded by DFID and USAID. The project has developed Pilot version of the Minimum Standards for Inclusion of Age and Disability in humanitarian responses. The main outcome of this initiative is to develop methodologies that can be used by mainstream organisations for inclusion. Towards this end, the project is developing inclusive methods for humanitarian programming in two country contexts: Pakistan and Kenya. I am engaged in action research investigating the relation between technical strategies used by the project and their outcomes – namely to what extent have they furthered inclusion of age and disability in humanitarian programming. In November-December 2015, I have led the mid-term evaluation of the ADCAP project.

15 years after the 2001 earthquake in Gujarat, MA DEP students travelled to affected areas of Kutch and Patan districts to study the long term recovery challenges. They conducted interviews with affected persons, undertook transect walks, used used sketches to delineate changes. The findings are captured in this special issue of southasiadisasters.net published by AIDMI and includes articles by DEP students on various themes allied with post-earthquake recovery challenges. All India Disaster Mitigation Institute (2016) Youth Leadership in Long-term Recovery, Issue No. 143, March 2016.


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Dr Brigitte Piquard, CENDEP Reader writes, We are currently setting up the first Observatory of Symbolic Violence. This action research project aims to research a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of symbolic violence, its impacts and ways for the population to adapt to it and to reduce it. The first pilot project has been running in Palestine since 2010, identifying various spatial and cultural aspects of this form of violence but also coping strategies and modes of resilience of affected populations. Since 2014, we have started a second pilot project, this time in Central Colombia. In Colombia, all spaces have been affected by different forms of violence during decades of conflict. Our observatory is targeting in particular rural areas, affected by displacement of population, presence of fighting groups, forced changes of lifestyles and an overall stigmatisation of different populations, particularly indigenous, Afro-Colombians, and coffee producers. This year, we worked in particular in schools and with the youth to understand the type of stigmatisation they were facing but also to understand how the process could be reversed. The observatory has been also presented in Kiev, Ukraine to artists and scholars in residence working on the rehabilitation of the town of Mariupol.

EUHAP

This year we have been also working with a consortium of European Universities on a project called EUHAP (European Humanitarian Action Partnership). The project aims to promote the exchange of best and innovative practices as well as to improve the quality and the efficiency of education in order to boost competences, increase employability and enhance opportunities and professionalization. Our role in the project is to contribute to the monitoring, collection and review of open resources useful for humanitarian education as well as the creation of online exercises.


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Events

In July 2015: participated in the Artists in Residence programme about the platforms for cultural activities in Izolyatsia, Ukraine (online) http://izolyatsia.org/ en/foundation/. Talks on symbolic violence and mentoring of the artistic projects. In September 2015: participated in the international conference ‘Urbanism and Architecture for Peace and Reconciliation’, organised by DEARQ, Unversidad de los Andes, Bogota, Colombia. Presented a paper titled ‘From Symbolic Violence to Symbolic Reparation. Strengthening Resilience and Reparation in ConflictAffected Areas through Place-(re)making. Case Studies of the West Bank and Colombia’. In June 2016: participated in the international conference: ‘Walls, Borders and Violence’, Chaire Raoul-Dandurant en études stratégiques et diplomatiques Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM), Canada. Presented a paper titled ‘Is Symbolic Violence a Means for Normalising Walls and Fragmentation of Spaces?’


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\ RESEARCH / CENDEP UK Jeni Burnell, CENDEP Research Associate writes, In July 2015, the ‘Time to Talk: Digital Storytelling in the Leys’ project team worked in the Blackbird and Greater Leys neighbourhoods in Oxford. We recorded local people’s stories, past and present, to create a series of digital stories that share the unique heritage and character of the estate. Storytelling gives people an opportunity to tell their story in their own words. A digital story is a short film (2-3 minutes long) told in the first person that, when combined with photographs and local footage, shares insights about a person and their life. ‘Time to Talk’ celebrates life in the Leys. It also aims to discover if community arts projects can influence how people understand a place. Findings from the project relating to better understanding the role of participatory arts, and in particular digital storytelling, as a catalyst for change in community development will contribute to my CENDEP research. Developed in collaboration with StoryWorks UK, Museum of Oxford, Oxford City Council and Leys CDI, the project received a Sharing Heritage grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund. Apart from being available online, the completed stories were exhibited at the Museum of Oxford, Oxford Town Hall, as part of their ’40 Years, 40 Objects’ exhibition, which started on the 28th of September 2015 and ran until February 2016.


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\ EVENTS Creation and Catastrophe Symposium 2016

A half day symposium hosted by RMIT, CENDEP, DPU and IFRC at the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA), Thursday 7 April 2016.

Katie Reilly (DEP 2015/16) writes, This symposium was designed in response to the recent RIBA exhibition ‘Creation from Catastrophe’. Leading academics and industry professionals came together to explore the relationship between professional practice, education and research; and the role of built environment professionals in humanitarian and development contexts. During the half-day event, four themes were explored inviting panel and participant discussion on- ‘Current, Emerging and Needed Roles for the Built Environment Professional- Before and After Disaster’, ‘Shelter: Process or Product? Enabler or Provider? Outcome or Output?’, ‘Research and Training Challenges for Design and Development Professionals working in the Humanitarian Sector’ and ‘Stories from the Field’. Approximately 60 people attended from the public and private sectors, universities, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and professional bodies. Plenary discussions followed, concluding proposals for steps forward to better integrate built environmental professionals seeking to offer their skills in disaster risk reduction (DRR), climate change adaptation, disaster and conflict risk management, and recovery and reconstruction in both developed and developing countries. The symposium discussed reasons for the gap between built environment professionals and humanitarian and development


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contexts, with specific focus on education and design preconceptions. It was agreed that there needs to be more communication between humanitarian practitioners and professional institutions in order to share knowledge that can inform the role of built environment professionals in the field; including training of the next generation and integration of those already qualified. This event was innovative in its nature and has already inspired further communication between UK built environment professional bodies and the humanitarian community to respond effectively to the world’s challenges.


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Shed Space Exhibition

An art exhibition from May - July 2016 at Arts at the Old Fire Station, Oxford

Jeni Burnell, CENDEP Research Associate writes, This project was created by myself and Brookes’ alumnus Patrick Stimpson as part of our architectural practice Space Program Ltd. We created Shed Space to celebrate the humble garden shed and its role in creative industries, past and present. A full-size garden shed with a living roof has been built in the gallery. Inside the shed is an elaborate scale model of a garden scene. These sheds are a mix of realistic and whimsical architectural designs, which were created by art and architecture students from Oxford Brookes. They include a ‘Sweetie Shed’ designed by architecture and DEP student Katie Reilly. It is an “An edible escape for children in a yummy playhouse at the bottom of the garden where imagination runs wild and friendships blossom”. Other sheds include ‘Bike Shed’ made from recycled bicycle parts including chains, cogs and spokes. ‘Nature Shed’ inspiring

Shed Space © Picture by Oxford Mail


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quiet contemplation under a canopy of woven willow while ‘Music Shed’ creates a lively and light band rehearsal space within the confines of ‘home sweet home’.

Suitcase Shed by Mick Scott

Several of the miniature shed designs have a developmental theme in keeping with CENDEP's focus. ‘Beds in Sheds’ highlights rogue landlords in Oxfordshire who build unlawful shed housing with the aim of taking advantage of vulnerable people and profiting from their misfortune.

Sweetie Shed by Katie Reilly

With worldwide displacement of people due to war and persecution at an all time high (United Nations),‘Suitcase Shed’ explores the chaos and transitional nature of migration. It was designed Mick Scott who is an architect and associate lecturer in the School of Architecture at Oxford Brookes. His MPhil research, carried out in association with CENDEP, concerns 'Sustainable Spatial Strategies in the Occupied West Bank of Palestine towards Conflict Transformation, Resilience, and Resistance.' Shed Space has been great fun to develop and build. We hope people visiting the exhibition will enjoy exploring the shed designs and feel inspired to make something fun in their gardens this summer.

Bike Shed by George Williams

\ EVENTS


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6 dissertations were submitted in January 2016. These included: / Experiences of Forced Migration. An understanding of coping, adaptation and resilience strategies in the Hazara community in Oxford Fatima Hashmi Coping, adaptation and resilience strategies of Hazara communities in Britain, and specifically Oxford, are explored in this dissertation. Four main areas of discussion were social capital (bonding/bridging/linking), transnationalism, religion and refugee community organisation. The two major elements found extremely important were: (a) the significance of social capital, particularly bonding capital being the most prominent one but also linking social capital through their own refugee community organisation and transnational links with other Hazara communities; (b) the impact of Britain’s asylum and immigration policies on the coping, adaptation and resilience strategies of the Hazara community. / International, diaspora, and national humanitarian actors in presentday Syria: The interactions between Médecins Sans Frontières and the Union Des Organisations Syriennes De Secours Médicaux. Massimiliano Rebaudengo The Syrian crisis is today’s largest humanitarian emergency in the world; yet it remains highly underserved. Less than half of the requirements necessary to respond to the population’s needs have been met by the international humanitarian response. This dissertation explores the rationale and the challenges that shape the interactions between international and Syrian aid organizations. The research concludes that within the confines of these challenges, INGOs and Syrian aid organizations may develop strategies that build mutual trust, acknowledge each other’s strengths, and mutually benefit from them. Syrian actors can benefit from the knowledge and experience of INGOs’ working in conflict-affected zones. As well, INGOs may learn how to support and complement the work of their Syrian counterparts, rather than duplicate it.


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/ Ways in which social capital provide insights into the wellbeing of older people in Mongolia Robyn Gason This study uses the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development Framework on Social Capital Interpretations to analyse the impact of social connections on elderly wellbeing. A case study of Mongolia was used to explore with twenty four older people, aged sixty five years and over, the meaning attached to their wellbeing and associated social connections. The three constructs used to explore wellbeing were self-evaluation, affect and eudemonic wellbeing. The findings confirm the importance of individual and collective forms of social capital concepts in understanding subjective wellbeing. / The Social Effects of Drone Warfare on the F.A.T.A. and wider Pakistan Stephen Pine The FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas) of Pakistan have a long history of conflict and have been used as something of a proving ground for U.S. drones, operated jointly by the USAF (United States Air Force) and the CIA. This dissertation evaluates the social effects of drone strikes and drone surveillance upon the civilian population of the FATA as well as other regions of Pakistan. This dissertation finds that, far from achieving the aim of eliminating militancy within the FATA, drone strikes have acted as a recruitment tool for the Pakistani Taliban (TTP) and have harmed the local civilian population.

\ DISSERTATIONS


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/ PhD RESEARCH Zoe Jordan, CENDEP PhD student writes, the title of my PhD is ‘The role of humanitarian response in supporting refugee hosting networks in urban areas during protracted displacement’. Forced displacement to urban areas, and protracted refugee situations are becoming increasingly common. The majority of forcibly displaced people now live in urban areas. As of the end of 2014, forty-five per cent of refugees were living in protracted displacement, having been in exile for five years or longer (UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) 2014) and with no prospects to move on. Working in these contexts represents a significant challenge for humanitarian actors, who have yet to fully grasp the complexity of urban environments, how this affects their operations, and how they themselves influence urban experiences; and who are constrained by dominant narratives of protracted displacement that portray refugees as being in limbo, static, and waiting for a durable solution before being able to continue their lives. Displaced families living in urban areas are often taken in by a family from the host country. In addition to shelter, host families often help refugees meet their basic needs and provide important emotional support. Some hosting relationships, however, can also be exploitative or damaging. Humanitarian agencies have a limited understanding of hosting at the household level, though the practice plays a vital role in supporting millions of forced migrants across the world. The functioning of hosting networks and the de facto integration achieved by many displaced persons, outside of official assistance regimes and often despite the hostility of the host governments, demonstrates that refugees in situations of protracted displacement are anything but passive (Brun & Fabos 2015; Loescher & Milner 2009; Overseas Development Institute 2015; Zetter & Long 2012). My research focuses on identifying how humanitarian assistance can support existing urban hosting mechanisms for refugees in situations of protracted displacement, focusing on the experiences of refugees and host families living in Amman, Jordan. The research will describe how refugees and hosts experience


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hosted displacement in situations of protracted displacement in urban areas and the processes by which they create and maintain hosting relationships. It will then identify a wider network of urban actors who are directly involved in mediating and facilitating hosting relationships and consider the impact of increasingly protracted displacement on these networks. Finally, I will critically assess the role of humanitarian actors in supporting urban refugees in relation to hosting networks, so that humanitarian actors can find better ways to work with and build on local knowledge and existing community support mechanisms.

Street Kyeshero, Goma where Zoe ran an urban programme.


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/ HUMAN RIGHTS FILM FESTIVAL Katie Reilly (DEP 2015/16) writes, In its 14th year, the Oxford Human Rights Festival brought together the local and wider communities of Oxford to engage with a culture packed festival. Through a variety of media including film, craft, performance, workshops and debate we aimed to raise awareness of worldwide human rights issues. Coinciding with the ‘Women in Adversity’ exhibition at Oxford Brookes, the festival covered the theme of ‘Adversity’ in four sub-themes; Women in Adversity, Environmental Adversity: Climate Change, Fleeing Adversity: Refugees, and Adversity Closer to Home. With the recent refugee crisis so prominent, we wanted to reflect on this in the festival; while reminding people that struggles such as this are not happening a million miles away but can actually be felt here in the UK, if we open our eyes. For the four day festival we wanted to offer a varied programme to appeal to all. The programme included; the exhibition, feature length films, shorts and documentaries, a Dabke dancing workshop with Ahmed Masoud, a performance by Ice and Fire and a local business fair on the Saturday. The ‘Women in Adversity’ exhibition represented different groups of women throughout the world who express their daily struggles through craft. Just as their human rights inequalities varied, so did the craft which included Palestinian history tapestries, Peruvian weaving and a modern day Suffragette banner. Open to the public for one month, it was a unique opportunity for the local community to understand women’s daily strifes of war, inequality and poverty through beautiful expressions of their craft skills.


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Highlight events included our opening night with a screening of ‘Suffragette’ including a Q&A session on women’s rights and Feminism with Sumita Mukherjee, Katherine Bradley and the director of ‘Suffragette’ Sarah Gavron. With women’s rights headlining the news recently over the UK gender pay gap, the screening was fully booked and an inspiring opening to the four day festival. Another highlight was the fantastic opportunity to collaborate with the Oxford Brookes Documentary Club in screening ‘He named me Malala’. The moving documentary about Malala Yousafzai, a Pakistani girl who stood up for her rights to female education, was complimented by a thought provoking Q&A with Malala’s father Ziauddin Yousafzai and Paul Inman, Pro-Vice Chancellor and Dean of TDE. These events enabled the community to engage with real life human rights issues and we hope everyone was able to appreciate the value of recognising their importance in this rapidly changing world.

‘Women in Adversity’ exhibition © Rebecca Smale


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/ ALUMNI


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Hellen N. Atiol (DEP 2013/14, Brookes Alumni Fund) writes, Since achieving my Masters in September 2014, I was able to secure a position in Democracy International, working on the SUCCESS program, which focused on supporting civil societies through the provision of grants to actively engage with—and hold accountable—government representatives and legislators at the local and national level, and to strengthen engagement of citizens by promoting inclusive participation and amplify their voices through advocacy initiatives. Currently, I work as the civil society coordinator for ADRA South Sudan, where I support the organisation in incorporating civil society and advocacy programming within all its various projects by mapping potential civil society actors/groups, and developing guidelines to facilitate advocacy efforts. My goal is to assist ADRA in raising the level of community participation, empowering them in the identification and analysis of their problems, improving the level of ownership of the projects, and lastly improving the sustainability of projects. The CENDEP programme has contributed significantly to my understanding of what is essential in development. The courses have encouraged me to think critically about sustainable development. I particularly remember the concept of ‘Rightsbased approach’ and participatory development, which focuses on encouraging the most vulnerable in implementing their own development initiatives. We have debated in class the concept of foreign aid and the dependency risk, which has broaden my viewpoint in life and work, in which I believe building the capacity of individuals in communities and empowering them is the only way to bring effective change. Therefore, my goal will continue to be providing the right skills, tools and attitude, in order to encourage, strengthen and support local efforts. Left: Hellen at the ADRA compound in Juba, South Sudan, 2016


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/ DEP graduates found Refugee Youth Service in The Jungle, Calais Ben Teuten and Jonny Willis (DEP 2014/15) write, We have in the year succeeding our Masters at Oxford Brookes University in Development and Emergency Practice, founded Refugee Youth Service (RYS), the leading agency for child protection in the Calais camp nicknamed ‘The Jungle’. We decided to go to the Jungle to volunteer for six weeks. Once there we noticed neglect in support for teenage boys and with the help of another young man, Aske Kreilgaard, set up ‘Baloo’s Youth Centre’. In the ensuing months ‘Baloo’s Youth Centre’ has evolved into the ‘Refugee Youth Service’ as the organisation has expanded its work and reach.

/ ALUMNI


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The cornerstone of the organisation is the Youth Centre itself that acts as a safe, protective environment for 10 – 18 year olds in the camp, where they can come and relax away from daily stress and adult influence. Originally started as just a safe space, our service soon branched out to incorporate both sports and education. In November 2015 we founded a football team nicknamed ‘Jungle United’ by the youth and were soon holding football matches three times a week with their latest opponents being Fulham Boys School in May 2016. Education quickly followed as the Service began to provide schooling from three times a week to one hour a day for boys who had not been to school in over a year. We are increasing this further by developing the programme with the help of our educational coordinator who plans to collaborate with other schools in the camp to ensure one-to-one teaching is available all day every day for those who want it. A large part of Refugee Youth Service’s work occurs outside of the Youth Centre. In December 2015, we created and developed a tracking and monitoring system that allows us to check up on individual boys week in, week out to ensure they are safe and emotionally stable. We have since expanded this as the role of the Service has moved increasingly into the child protection. With up to 150 youth in the system, the tracking and monitoring notifies the Service when one individual needs extra support.

Left: Jonny Willis and Ben Teuten, of the Baloo Youth Centre, inside the Jungle camp at Calais. Photograph by Felix Clay for the Guardian

Acting as a referral network, we coordinate with the specialists in that field to ensure that the child is given the best support available. As well as this, the tracking and monitoring also notifies us when one child has left the Jungle. The team then attempts to contact the missing individual to ensure that they are safe. If no contact is made, we work alongside the French authorities to file a missing persons report. This is vital as the children in the


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camp have gone ‘under the radar’ so to speak and the state is often unaware of their presence, thus neglecting their protection. RYS are now also working in coordination with the legal teams in the camp to aid the youth in family reunification when appropriate. As well as this, we are working alongside the French asylum system to aid those wishing to settle in France, which involves weekly visits to accommodation centres in the Pas-de-Calais to provide the youth with additional support. It is an incredibly exciting time for us as the organisation has evolved rapidly in the six-months it has been around. RYS is now the leading agency for child protection in the Calais camp and the team has expanded from the original three to eight international volunteers and two community members, with a third expected in the near future. As well as this, we have partnered with Medecins Sans Frontières to create a ‘youth only’ area in the North of Camp that will hold the Youth Centre as well as an educational space and psychological and legal centres. Although recent violence has postponed this move it is still expected to go ahead in the coming weeks. Finally, RYS is looking to replicate its Calais service in the La Liniere Camp in Dunkirk. Currently in its embryonic stage, our team aim to develop the support systems needed there to aid social development and protect the young people from the dangers that they face daily.


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The Jungle, Calais © bbk.ac.uk

The Jungle, Calais © thescottishsun.co.uk


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Thom Banks (DEP 2012/14) writes, My MA in Development and Emergency practice was a big step in providing the skills and practical experience that have helped further my career in the humanitarian and international development sector. After a year working with a local NGO, I am currently Project Manager on an Ebola vaccine trial at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. This is a challenging role within a challenging context that includes working in both our London HQ and in Sierra Leone, where the majority of our field work takes place. A large scale safety and immunogenicity study is taking place in Sierra Leone that will help us learn as much as possible about how the vaccines work in people who live in an area affected by the disease. Volunteers in the trial are first given the ‘prime’ dose to prepare the immune system to defend itself against the virus if it comes into contact with Ebola. Two months later they receive the ‘boost’ dose in order to increase the immune response, with the goal of potentially strengthening and optimizing the duration of the immunity to the Ebola virus. This ‘prime-boost’ approach is already used in many routine immunizations around the world, including the polio immunization given in Sierra Leone. There is no doubt that the skills learnt on the DEP MA course have been a huge help in assisting me secure the role and now, are furthering my ability to be effective in it. The practical skills, including logistical frameworks, monitoring and evaluation tools and project planning, that I was able to strengthen during modules such as ‘Practice of Theory’ have been incredibly useful in helping me manage this complex project work.


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The modules in conflict, human rights, and disaster and vulnerability have given me valuable knowledge that has helped me unpick the context in which our work takes place. Furthermore, the opportunities I had to carry out field work in the Philippines and Haiti while on the MA has given me valuable experience in working in other cultures. I am grateful to CENDEP for providing, real practical focused learning that has helped to further my career and allowed me to be a better Development and Humanitarian Practitioner.

/ ALUMNI

Idrissa Kamara receives the first prime dose in Kambia, Sierra Leone Š Alexandra Donaldson


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Centre for Development and Emergency Practice (CENDEP) School of Architecture, Faculty of Technology, Design and Environment Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane, Oxford, OX3 0BP UK cendep@brookes.ac.uk | @cendepBrookes architecture.brookes.ac.uk/research/cendep/

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