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5th to 10th November 2012 Study visit #5 Marseille France




me in Marseille for the 5th Study visit of the EUGO program!!

We are really glad to have you here! We hope this booklet will help you to understand fully the aims of the EUGO program, of the study visit, and will provide you with all the information you need for your stay in France. The EUGO French team

About the hosting organizations


About the EUGO program


Participants’ profiles


Local context: Marseille and its area


Local Context: Urban gardens in France




Day by day details


Useful numbers


This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.


Hosting organizations

Created in 2002, Pistes-Solidaires is a non-profit association (in accordance with the French Association Law 1901). Its objectives include the development of exchanges in the social, cultural, educational and economic realms, which promote personal, social and environmental respect. Pistes Solidaires practises and promotes popular education, supports the knowledge competences and behaviours which promote justice and equality in an intercultural society and an interdependent world. It intends to increase public awareness of global problems and to demonstrate the potential for change. Furthermore, one of its challenges is to make it possible for people to understand the connections between their lives and those of the entire world. Pistes-Solidaires is working in the field of mobility in order to allow people, at any age, to meet, learn and share their practices, passions, ideas and come back changed. Pistes-Solidaires is a hosting, sending and coordinating organization of European volunteers through the Youth in Action Program. Since 2008, the organization launched a large thinking/acting process about responsible consumption with the Otesha project, a process, which allowed the organization to initiate strong local and international partnerships and to go further on this subject today, through urban community gardens. The organization has, since 2007, developed many projects in the frame of the LLP program, such as Learning Partnerships on immigration and intercultural, and last year worked on intergenerational dialogue in community gardens. The organization supervises also Leonardo trainees and coordinates the sending and hosting of senior volunteers on the subject of youth, immigration and responsible consumption since 2010.

Pistes Solidaires 67 La Canebière, 13001 Marseille Tel: 09 52 86 00 44 mail: contact@pistes-solidaires.fr Web: www.pistes-solidaire.fr


Hosting organisation RJSM The Réseau des Jardins Solidaires Méditerranéens, hereafter “RJSM” , a non-profit association (in accordance with the French Association Law 1901). It is a network which gathers a variety of associative gardens and organizations related to collective gardens in the South East of France. It was initiated after the national conference on community gardens of Nantes, in 1999, to offer to the community gardens of the Mediterranean area a possibility to combine and leverage their experience, their practices and knowledge. The objectives of the RJSM, are: • To lead the network of Mediterranean community gardens; • To develop exchanges and the continuous training of its stakeholders; • To promote the existence of community gardens; • To help elaborate on the projects of new gardens; • To support the existing gardens. The RJSM organization defines its values in accordance with the “Charte du jardin dans tous ses états” (Charter of the Garden in all its forms) which is a charter adopted by the workgroup “Jardin dans Tous Ses Etats”, a national group of regional organizations/networks of community gardens. Each garden is unique but all the gardens of our network recognize themselves in it because they share the same values, based on the respect of human beings, environment and solidarity. Almost 100 gardens are flourishing on the Mediterranean coast of Southern France, 35 were actual active members of the organization in 2011. To this end, the RJSM organizes various activities: - non formal training: “exchanges-meetings”, garden tours, training trips... The participants exchange knowledge and experiences, discover new gardens together. These activities, conducted in a friendly atmosphere and contribute to the development of each of its gardens.

5 - formal training sessions :mainly 2 or 3 days sessions, accessible as part of the continuous professional training and also for volunteers, they aim to allow trainees to complete their projects e.g. "Creating and managing a shared Garden," "Discovery of Therapeutic Horticulture" -support to projects: the network can assist stakeholders (e.g. inhabitant communities, social centers, city councils, and other organizations) in creating their garden project.

Réseau des Jardins Solidaires Méditerranéens 4, cours de la République 13350 CHARLEVAL T: (0033) (0) 9 63 24 55 57 mail : contact@reseaujsm.org web : www.reseaujsm.org

The Charter “Jardin dans Tous ses Etats » : • Strengthening social links, where living conditions have contributed to people being driven apart, with no social life, mutual aid or dialogue; • Allowing citizens, without cultural, ethnic or social discrimination, to take over and enrich their daily environment; • Establishing generous links, as well as being respectful towards our Earth and nature, and acting in a responsible way; • Enjoying the pleasures of creating, tasting, sharing, as new forms of freedom and autonomy;


About the EUGO program EU’GO “European Gardens Otesha” is an European project on urban community gardens. These gardens, «European Urban Gardens Otesha » are seen as innovative tools to work on different themes : • the social cohesion thanks to a better intercultural and intergenerational dialogue • the social and professional (re)inclusion through training • the education to sustainable development and the promotion of healthy lifestyle This two-years project (January 2012-December 2013) was developed by 6 organizations in five big European cities : • Inwole, Potsdam, Germany • KC English, Plymouth, United Kingdom • Cemea del Mezzogiorno, Rome, Italy • Nexes, Barcelone, Spain • Pistes-Solidaires et le Réseau des Jardins Solidaires Méditerranéens, Marseille, France EU'GO has been founded with the support from LLP Programme, Grundtvig Multilateral. It promotes the education for all, at all ages of life. The general idea of EUGO is to create an educational innovation to: • facilitate the integration or reintegration into society, • transfer skills, • promote basic learning, • create bonds between people • exchange knowledge between the project partners and the beneficiaries. EUGO’s final output will be an internet website with a part dedicated to learning about practices in the European urban gardens. The program is constructed in different steps: 1 to write a state of the art of the urban gardens in the 5 participating areas. This

7 state of the art includes a global review of urban gardening in the country and the area, related with historical and social background 2 as part of the state of the art to produce descriptive info sheets on the urban gardens of the areas 3 to collect “Good practices”: all the garden that wanted have fill in “Practice sheet” to describe some of their practices related to: management, organization, activities etc. 4 to test the practices by transferring them between garden As part of this transfer process we organised 5 study visits, one in each country, to give the opportunity to participants of the project to meet and learn from each other Next to come: the participating garden will have to try and implement practices from other country, and give a report on the experiment. We will need a minimum of 2 practices tested in each country (not 2 in each garden!) 5 with all the material collected produce around 25 activity/ practice sheets with the requirement and methodology to implement the practices (minimum requirement is 5 fully detailed sheets per country ) 6 construct the website We are currently (fall 2012) in the middle of the transfer phase. We collected more than 46 practices from the different gardens, but it has not be easy for the gardens to find out what were their “good practices" and we would need your help, participant of the last of the study visits, to complete the existing practices sheets, or to write some new ones with what you see in this visit that you want to bring back to your garden. The EUGO staff will hold at your disposal for you to read : the state of the art (the French part is enclosed in this booklet) The gardens’ information sheets The list of all the practices collected so far The detailed sheet for each practice (when it exists, they’re not all finished) And we will have some blank practices sheets for you to complete during this SV. After the SV with these sheets you will be able either to implement a new practice in your garden, either to help someone implementing in his garden a practice of yours that you described. We hope this visit in France will be fruitful for all of us!


Participants’ profiles: EUGO staff ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Pistes Solidaires

ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): International Projects Coordinator

KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: Very basic , but for me urban gardens represent the future! A interesting opportunity to come back to “nature” in the cities, to come back to biorhythm. A concrete way to interconnect people in the cities, whatever their backgrounds

Alix Bonneau France

WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT? I hope that all of you will enjoy their stay in Marseille, I wish to learn more about european urban gardening, and relationships with institutions and shared gardens in Europe.

9 ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): RJSM and Jardins de l’Espérance ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): In RJSM I’m the European projects manager, I’m also part of the training team In my garden I’m a staff member, I’m dealing mainly with environmental education for children, adults, and disabled persons, I’m also responsible for planning the work in the vegetable garden. KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING:

Viviane Cronier France

Gardening, training, environment and sustainable development , workshops with children and adults, funding and management of urban gardens in France WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT? To share the French experiences with the visitors, to enrich my knowledge of the other European realities To set up practical exchanges

ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Cemea del Mezzogiorno ONLUS ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Staff member in EUGO project KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: I do gardening with plants on my balcony. Not very high knowledge in gardening, but willing to discover the urban garden topic WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT?

Ilenia Zuccaro Italy

To discover the French reality and understand it. Be able to compare the italian system in order to find out solutions and bring innovation from France.


Participants’ profiles: EUGO staff ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Pistes Solidaires

ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Assistant program manager

KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: Not much but lots of interests.

WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT? To meet other people and share our experiences.

Marlène Benzler France ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Pistes Solidaires



WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT? Meet gardeners and stakeholders involved in urban and shared gardening. Improve my knowledge in this topic.

Amandine Mathivel


Speak many languages


ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Projecthaus Potsdam

ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Gardener, teacher, student, improviser...


Angelique Walter Germany

I know some things about gardening with the moon, edible and healing plants and herbs for cosmetic and body care, how to reactivate the soil with effective microorganisms and I’m learning more each day...

WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT? Exchange with the other participants.



KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: The basic skills (for example: how to plant a tree)

WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT? Learn in orther to apply this knowledge, in the best way, in this project. I want to bring:

Isabel Ricardo



Participants’ profile: European visitors ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Orti Urbani Garbatella ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Gardener, Expert of Permaculture KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: Permaculture and synergic vegetable garden WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT?

Carmelo Leotta Italy

Knowledge about urban permaculture I want to see: 1/ Synergic garden: need to deepen 2/ Biodynamic garden: need to know 3/ Urban gardens : Applying urban garden in the so-


Dennis Trewin UK

To gain ideas and knowledge from others. Meet new people I want to see: 1/adapt for disabled guests a shared garden. 2/self financing by garden care services for individual. 3/teaching in a garden school I’m bringing: my experience.


Participants’ profiles: European visitors ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Mount Edgecumbe Country Park ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Volunteer Gardener KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: Requirements of Plant Health. Soil management. Bed Making. Shrub Pruning/Trimming. Lawn Care. Seasonal task planning. Vegetable types and their soil requirements. Watering and irrigation systems WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT?

Lawrence Watkins


Opportunity to understand the ‘Urban Garden’ issues and approaches of a different culture, climate and country. I want to see: 6. “Arts in The Garden” – to understand the synergy of theatre and the garden 21. “Seed Bank” - to understand which seeds are gathered and how they are stored. 41. “Permaculture Course” » - to improve my understanding of the principles of Permaculture and their applicability to my gardening activities. 9. “Let’s open the gardens!” – to assess the methods and success of this approach to social inclusion I’m bringing: A good understanding of the varying political dimensions that shape the nature of Urban Gardening across community members. Extensive experience of vegetable growing and general garden maintenance.

14 ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Ton Steine Gärten ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Gardener, with my kids KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: Gardening with many different people, different social backgrounds, different countries, different ages. Especially with children WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT?

Jutta Leite Germany

I ‘m really looking forward to meet urban gardeners anf garden project all over Europe. To exchange information and skills. Networking and learning from each other. To talk about food politics, to talk about the benefits of local food production. I want to see: Cosmos Kolej and Jardin de Gibraltar. I would like to visit these gardens, because I´m interested how ´s the work with people, who are living with a few money . And I´m interested more to learn about gardening with children of the streets. Because it´s very important for kids to see how something is growing. With plants they have the possibility to take responsibility for their plants and they can learn how to take care of their plants and their lives.

15 ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Roma Capitale (Rome City Council) ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Responsible of the Urban Garden Department KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: Ecologist. In my daily work I meet the urban gardens of Rome that are not legalized and I'm making contact with them. Knowledge about shared urban garden. WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT?

Paola Marzi


To gain new knowledge, in particular about management and assignment of a public space for creating urban garden and gain new ideas from the bureaucratic procedure adopted by others European cities. Cultural growth on the topic. Exchange of ideas and projects with others realities. I want to see: practices related to Biodiversity and natural agriculture, relations between urban gardens and Public Institutions I’m bringing: My willingness to learn ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Hort Mas Guinardó ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Volunteer KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: Knowledge About Agriculture. I give classes of horticulture for the people from the neighborhood. WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT?

Antonio León García


To see experience of other countries, to acquire knowledge about other ways to cultivate in other countries and to discover new techniques that we don’t use in Spain I’m bringing: My knowledge


Paola Turroni


Sheila Taylor


ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): LAVANGAQUADRA-Orto didattico ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Gardener and school teacher KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: How to cultivate the soil. I have a little garden in the backyard of my school that I cultivate in organic and traditional way. Food education, Gardening and theatre. WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT? I would like to know new reality to enlarge my practical and theoretical skills and tools for implementing my good practices in the school and in my garden association. I want to see: educational gardens I’m bringing: Exchange of experience about educational workshops for youngsters, disabled and not disabled children children, to go deeper in and understand permaculture principles, Exchange of ideas on how to manage an urban garden association ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Horticultural Therapy Trust ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Volunteer KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: I’ve been volunteering for two years, at a local park, And at the horticulture healing therapy garden I have an nvq 2 in horticulture WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT? To find out practices of other volunteering projects I want to see: the Pedagogical tools: I would like to find out what this means I’m bringing: Hopefully some new Ideas or an insite into other practices


Sylviane Borghesi


ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Orti Urbani Garbatella ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Gardener, part of the team who started the project KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: Some knowledge of permaculture. Pacciamatura (covering the soil with straw). Association of plants (plants that are happy together). Use of plants as repellant against unwanted bugs. WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT? See different realities and learn from the experiences of other people (both on the etchnical and human side). Discover different ways of functioning within a group of community garden. To learn about the importance and role of the insects in a garden. I want to see: the practices related to biodiversity inside the urban garden and impact on the world around it. I found it fascinating to learn on better practices and to debate the different techniques, the traditional ones and the most recent ones. The essential role of the insects and inhabitants of the soil. Equally important is the impact that this has in the garden and the world around it I’m bringing: My enthusiasm and curiosity in sharing this experience. I hope to bring in the experiences of my friends gardeners of Orti Garbatella in Roma


Participants’ profiles: French gardeners ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Organization : Fédération des Foyers Ruraux 13 Garden: Croq’Jardin ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Garden manager Member of the board of the RJSM

Jean André

My function is to to lead and to manage a team (gardeners and teacher). To stimulate the volunteers, to welcome the public (2000 children and 1000 adults). I develop the project and look for the financing with the administrations and the sponsors. KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: I have created my garden, so I know a bit about every aspects of setting a collective garden, and doing the actual gardening, here in my region This year, I’ve done a prison garden above-ground. It can be also developed in cities or schools without ground. ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): RJSM ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Administrative assistant I’m working with the RJSM since september

Marie-Line Dune

19 ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): RJSM ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Coordinator Working since one year as paid staff for RSJM, I’m dealing with the administrative things, and making link between the gardens and members of RJSM

Alexandrine Fillion

KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: Urban gardens was not my field before I started this job, but I learn every days WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT? To meet other people from different realities and learn from their experiences

ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Formavert ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): president of the board of RJSM Manager of Formavert, a training society trainer. KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING:

Sébastien Gueret

“Formavert” - training center : specialized training in landscape and green spaces work training for health and social sector, on all topics activity of horticultural therapy


Julien Nadreau

ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Organization: Accueil et rencontres Garden: Jardin des Aures : collective, family and educational garden ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Manager of Jardin des Aures I’m working on environmental education workshops for groups visiting the garden, and working for the cohesion of the group of gardeners with plots on the garden I’m supporting the creation of new urban gardens Member of the board of RJSM KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: I work in the field of urban gardens since 1999. I actively contributed to the creation of RJSM. I’m working to develop urban shared gardens since more than 10 years. I have a master degree in environmental sciences and landscaping for public spaces, parks and gardens. I’m also working with the public institutions that want to develop collective shared gardens. WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT? I wish that the European visitors will be happy with what we can bring to them, I’m looking forward for exchanges rich in learning for everybody, and that these first contacts will go further.


Dominique Reinosa

Aline Grosjean Aline.grosjean@yahoo.fr

ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Organization: Cosmos Kolej Gardens: Les Jardins de Foresta, le Mail ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Garden coordinator I’m working directly with the new gardeners to start the gardening, and going on with the elderly on diversifying cultures, seeds, discovering others gardens, meeting artists in “residence” in our theatre company or in different places near Marseille KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: Personal experience of urban garden (I have a plot in a family garden) and professional experience in conducting projects, and scientific mediation

ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Organization: Accueil et rencontres Garden: Jardin des Aures ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): staff KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: to introduce people to discover natural and garden ecosystem's through adapted (for different ages) ludic, scientific, artistic, practical, etc. activities to organize events to make people meet in the garden WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT? To discover other urban gardening functioning : to exchange about practices, tools, activities in garden


Alexis Jan

Steffie Blasius

ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Organization: AMIEU Gardens: le Jardin des Néréïdes Le jardin de Pont de Vivaux le jardin des tuileries, le jardin de l'école du Plan d'Aou, le jardin des Escourtines, le jardin de la Rouguière, le jardin du centre social Kalliste - la Granière, le jardin de la placette (cité de Michelis), ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Garden Coordinator Member of the board of RJSM KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: fieldwork skills through three years leading of five collective and educational gardens WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT? To make a meeting between inhabitants and foreign peoples and share different points of view about the garden ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Organization: L’artichaut Garden: jardin de Gibraltar ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Volunteer, founder member KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: I founded this organisation and garden with the example of the intercultural gardens in Germany. We started with youth exchanges with Germany. We work a lot with youngsters out of formal structures

23 ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Organization: à fleur de pierre Gardens: le Jardin des Cerises Le jardin des phacélies Le jardin des grelinettes

Françoise Eymard-Duvernay

Ali and Louisa

ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Chief gardener, organizer of the compost station process KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: Organization of the space, preparation of the soil, care of the plants (including vegetables), etc… WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM THIS VISIT? For me urban gardens are a chance for the city people : to be in a natural environment, take action about what they can grow then eat, realize what needs to be done to meet their objectives, accept nature’s constraints, discover and marvel at nature’s ways and beauty, appreciate fully the results of their work by eating them ! share their experience with fellow gardeners , I want to share this

ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): Organization: L’artichaut Garden: jardin de Gibraltar ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION/GARDEN(S): gardener KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS ABOUT URBAN GARDENING: Gardening of my plot, participating in the garden activities


Local context: Marseille and its area Marseille and its area:

The EU’GO project takes place within the PACA region in France : ProvenceAlpes-Côte-d’Azur. It’s a Mediterranean region with a mild climate. The region is divided into six « départements » (French territorial NUTS-3 division). The three coastal ones are the « Bouches-du-Rhône », the « Var » and the « Alpes Maritimes ». The two alpine ones are the « Hautes Alpes » and the « Alpes de Haute Provence ». The « Vaucluse » is a continental département. PACA is very densely populated with 4,882,913 inhabitants in total and 155 inhabitants per square meter. The PACA region is, on one side, a very urbanized area, with 94,3% of its inhabitants living in the major cities, like Marseille, Nice, Toulon or Avignon. On the other side, the alpine and continental areas are more rural, and don’t face a big density of population. The main activities of this region are : - tourism (1st hosting place for French tourists, and 2nd in terms of foreign tourists) with a large offer of services: nautical activities, mountain sports, Natural protected areas, cultural activities; - agriculture (wine, olive-trees, flowers, market gardening);

25 - industry (petrochemical industry, nuclear, naval shipyards, metallurgy, oil refinement). This region in not homogeneous in terms of density of population, and therefore in terms of job opportunities, integration, life quality, health, education, etc. For example, the unemployment rate reaches 9.1 % at the end of 2011, which is higher than the national rate (7.2%) and the “Bouches-du-Rhône” has a 10.2 % unemployment rate, the higher of the PACA region. Marseille, capital of this département, is a multicultural city with a lot of people coming from Maghreb, Western Africa, Comores, etc. which give a very special cultural frame to Marseille. Marseille has a peculiar spatial organisation, constrained between the Mediterranean on the west, and the hills that are surrounding the city.

The city itself is divided between richer neighbourhoods in the south of the city, with smaller buildings, and individual houses, and poorer areas in the North, with high density of inhabitants. Marseille was composed of scattered neighbourhoods, usually around a parish church and the urbanisation of the last century resulted in big blocks of housing being constructed between those neighbourhoods.

26 In the Northern part of the city you can find areas called “cites”: large high-rise housing estates build from the 50’s to 70’s of HLM (low rents housing). These cites are physically quite closed around themselves, with few entrances leading to the center. In them live people with low social level, with a high percentage of people from immigration background.

Local context: the urban gardens in France and RJSM Collective gardening is has a rich history in France, and can be traced back to at least the middle ages where communal lands are owned by an entire village for example. In the past two centuries collective gardening has mean mainly worker gardens, “Jardins ouvriers” that where developed by employers’ philanthropy and charity, mainly in the North. The fact to “offer” a garden to a worker contributed to provide food for the often miserable workers, but was also be a way to pay less the workers and make them even more dependant of the factory, like was often the fact of providing housing. At the end of the XIXth century there was a new dimension of morality in the development of those gardens: for the social Catholicism of that period the world of factories corrupts both minds and bodies and attributing a garden to the chiefs of families is as much a charitable help for food as an intent to occupy them with healthy practices, far away from pubs and syndicalist meetings. The abbot Lemire (Member of the parliament for the city of Hazebrouck, North) created in 1896 the “Ligue du coin de terre et du Foyer”, “League of the patch of land and Dwelling » to promote and federate the worker collective gardens, and promote the idea of each worker family installed in a house with a garden.

It also valorises the “free” work of the gardener, master of its time and production process against the industrial work and the “slave” work of the peasant. In 1921 that ligue create the first attempt at a national network: the “Fédération Nationale des Jardins Ouvriers de France”.


Garden of the Cité St Pierre district, Lens 1906

Gardens of Wazier, minig city next to Douai

The worker gardens developed in the first half of the XXth century, and through the second World War. They are re-Christianized “Jardins Familliaux” ie “Family gardens” in 1952 but lot of them disappeared in the reconstruction after the war, where land is taken to build/rebuild houses. Their federation becomes the “Fédération Nationale des Jardins Familliaux”, “National federation of family gardens”. In the 70’s they become more protected by the law (a municipality wanting to take the land for construction must provide the same surface elsewhere) they are re-legitimated by the discovery of the hard poverty that strikes a growing part of the French population. In 2006 the federation becomes the “Fédération Nationale des Jardins Familiaux et Collectifs”, “National federation of family and collective gardens”. Those gardens are generally located on the peripheries of cities, with plots of average surface 50 to 150 m2, typically fenced and with a small shed. They have internal regulation that can refers to among others the type of plants to be cultivated (eg: only vegetables, vegetables at least 80%-flowers, one fruit tree per plot...), the shape of the shed, the percentage of soil to be cultivated on the plot (eg: no lawn, least than 20% not cultivated …). Their main objective is to produce food, although they tend to open to new activities like environmental education. Another form of collective gardens is the gardens related to the national railways company SNCF: The worker gardens attributed to SNCF staff are grouped in the organization “Jardinot, Jardin du cheminot”. Those gardens located close to the railways or stations were originally restricted to SNCF staff but are now opening to anyone although most of the plots seem to be still cultivated by SNCF staff or their families. Those gardens do not exist in all the parts of France, but the organization is

28 active on all the national territory offering field trip, meetings and exchanges between members, as well as gardening advices. In the end of the 70’s a new current branches from the “classical” collective gardening: the Second World War and its deprivations has encouraged urban inhabitants to invest public space to grow what was missing in stores. In the mid 70s, in New York and in cities across North America, popular initiatives invest vacant places turning them into garden area. Over 750 community gardens are created in New York City! Those are not only about producing food, but also about meeting on common ground and collective projects. Soil and ideas are shared. In the mid-80s, in France, some social workers, grassroots activists and other gardeners were interested in these practices of collective ownership. The “Fondation de France” , (a national foundation that administrate many funds and foundations in France) saw this as an opportunity to develop social ties, while taking into account, even partially, the concerns of self-sufficiency. The Fondation de France helped funding several trips overseas to study the conditions for the emergence of such initiatives in France. Small groups worked on these issues and adapted, among other practices, North American practices to our urban and sociological data, in different parts of France. They met during two conferences in Lille (1997) and Nantes (1999) several hundred people involved in similar initiatives or wishing to develop them and that was the start of the national network of shared gardens, called JTSE “Le Jardin dans Tous Ses Etats” (“The Garden in all its Forms”). Numerous different terms are used to describe those gardens: Jardins communautaires (Community gardens), jardins de proximité (proximity gardens), jardins collectifs d’habitants (collective gardens for inhabitants), jardins de voisinages (neighbourhood gardens), jardins de pied d’immeuble( foot housebuilding gardens), Jardins solidaires (solidarity gardens) are used in differents parts of France or in differents contexts, but the national group choose to use the term of shared gardens, Jardins Partagés. The RJSM, our local organisation, was created as part of this “JTSE” dynamic but in its case the reference term is more “Jardin solidaire” “Solidarity gardens” because it was chosen prior to the national term, and kept.

29 The 90’s correspond in France with a renewal of the garden and the gardening: gardens and gardeners are visible in medias, gardening is a trendy leisure, garden shops are developping fast, gardening is no longer limited to specialised magasines.The gardening world has its yearly events, from the very chicexhibition to the local plants and cuttings barter. The ministry of culture created th national days of gardens “Rendez-vous au jardin” which take place every first week end of june since 2001.The 90’s were also a period with economical facilities for the non profit associations, with special contracts, the “emplois jeunes” for young people easily available to create a new activity. In this context numerous initiatives of collective gardening flourishing around the country took the form of association with one or few employeers assuring the quality and perennity of the project. However the situation has been changing dramatically recently for the associations, with the end of the “emploi jeunes” in 2005, the global diminution in subventions in all sectors, and the harsh reduction of financial help to employement in the last 2 years. Consequently numerous structure have desappeared or been in difficulties. This has forced the gardens and the association to devise new ways of doing the things to survive and be creative to adapt. In 1998 the French government created two integration special devices: -Insertion par activité économique: Integration by economical activity to employ unemployed persons with social or particular professional difficulties called “chantier d’insertion”. In that system the employee has a real work contract for a 6 month to 1 year period, and the employer receive finacial support from the government. -social integration actions: to socially integrate people that can not, at a time, integrate the economical activity. The activity is supported finacially by the government and the participating persons are helped by social services. Some gardens developped in those two systems. Two main networks exist in France: Reseau Cocagne is constituted by vegetable farms, Chantier ecole can group organisation creating and maintening gardens and green spaces among other activities developped in those integration systems. As integration is often one of the diverse activities of a non profit organisation that manages a garden many collective gardens can be part of those networks. References and sources 1 Census 2008, INSEE Pluvinage and Weber, Les Jardins Familiaux, histoire d’une esthétique ouvrière, in Le cahier des Jardins Rhône Alpes n°2, CAUE du Rhône, Mai 1999

30 Baudelet, Basset, Le Roy, Jardins Partagés Utopies, écologies, conseils pratiques, Terre Vivante 2008 Larbey V., personal communication www.jardin-partage.org www.jardinot.fr www.jardins-familiaux.asso.fr www.reseaucocagne.asso.fr www.fnars.org www.chantierecole.org

Urban gardens networks: We have identified four main networks of collective gardens in France: - The “Fédération Nationale des Jardins Familiaux et Collectifs”, “National federation of family and collective gardens” - “Jardinot, Jardin du cheminot” - Network of integration organisations: “Jardins de Cocagne” “Chantier Ecole” - The JTSE “Jardin dans tous ses Etats” of which the RJSM is member. As the RJSM is part of the JTSE network we will be working mainly with shared gardens although the EUGO project is also an occasion to work with the other forms of urban gardens.

The National Network JTSE: United by common values, formalized in a Charter, the members of the national network represent most regions of France, where they act to promote the implementation, by the people, of shared gardens. Managed by a group of regional structures, associations and cooperatives, the JTSE is a recognized interlocutor by the various official bodies, proposal force behind many publications, training or meetings about the issue of shared garden. Nowadays the national network of shared gardens can no longer rely on financial support of the beginning (“Fondation de France”), but is running more on a volunteering system. The JTSE holds generally 4 annual 2 days meetings a year, each regional network hosting in turn. The JTSE is now a recognized interlocutor for various official organizations and is still working on different themes related to the shared garden. It is organizing again this year,

31 2012, a major national conference on the theme of urban gardens and the citizen initiatives to feed the cities, to be held in Strasbourg in October. Regionally, there is a wide variety of situations: In some region a clear public policy supports the emergence of shared gardens and local administration organize a network or strongly help financially the organization in charge of the local networks, but in other parts of the territory the networks do not have such opportunities. In some areas the organization in charge of the network develops and creates new gardens which become part of the network. In our area (the south of France, Mediterranean region) the network was constituted by grouping together pre-existing gardens/structures. The RJSM organization relies on a group of active volunteering structures which lead the network; some structure or garden can assume an important role in the life of the network for a moment then become less implicated and then become again more implicated, depending on for example capacity or interest of the staff members. The regional council of the R茅gion PACA supports the network. The RJSM is the representing JTSE in Provence Alpes- C么te d'Azur and has members in the Gard and Herault. The RJSM headquarters is located in Charleval, a small village in the Bouches-du-Rhone (48 km from Marseille). The RJSM is represented by local correspondents

The different kinds of gardens: There is a wide variety of urban gardens are in the territory of RJSM. Most of those gardens are related to a non-profit organisation (French Loi de 1901system) which gives a legal status to any group of person registered with the local prefecture. A few other garden are related to a social/educational structure like a school, a hospital or a centre for special needs people and very few have no special status but are only the fact of some people being together to garden. Each garden is unique, distinguished by his example by location or by the type of activities that are practiced there but we can try to categorize them by their kind of activities or the public they aim to.

32 Educational gardens: Devised for environmental education, they usually have employees receiving the school/groups in the garden or going inside the schools and centers to do some activities related to the garden or the environment or sometimes to install gardens inside the structures. They often include vegetables and flowers gardens, sometimes orchard, and often “wild” flora areas.

Jardin des Aures, Marseille

Jardins de l’Espérance, La Ciotat

Inclusion gardens: The garden is a resourceful place, conducive to the resumption of confidence in oneself and others, and a springboard to employment. These gardens can be for social inclusion, in that case the coordinator is employee, but the beneficiaries are volunteers; or for job inclusion, in that case the beneficiaries are employees as well, with special contacts with funding by the government.

Jardins de l’Espérance La Ciotat

Jardilien Aubagne

Coté Jardins Solidaires Nîmes


Inhabitant gardens This is a shared space (usually public), hosted and managed by a group of residents in a dynamic development of neighbourhood life .

Jardin de Gibraltar, Marseille Shared gardens These gardens often mix individual and collective plots, most of them have a professional coordinator, at least part time, that helps organising the life of the garden, there is a social objective which is supported by the owner of the land, usually a public institution, or a social landlord.

Jardins du Vieux Moulin Salon de Provence

Jardin des cerises Digne les Bains

Jardin des Aures Marseille

34 Family gardens These gardens include individual plots for cultivation and collective facilities. They usually don’t have paid staff and are run by volunteers in a non profit organization, or sometimes directly by a city council.

Comm’un Jardin de Mey Meyrargues

Les Jardins de la coudoulouse Pertuis Thematic gardens

A garden may also specialize to be therapeutic, culinary, artistic, experimental, conservatory of rare plants or useful, heritage, etc. These kind of garden can be part of our network if there are managed and cultivated with collective participation, in the form of non profit organization.



Monday 5th

Tuesday 6th


Breakfast in the rooms Meeting time: 8:45: program presentation

Meeting time 8:30

8:30-9:30: travel to Garden #2 Cosmos Kolej 9:30-10:30: participants’ interviews 10:30-11:30: discussion group “dialogue be11:30 – 12h:15: Visit of the gar- tween shared gardens & instituden tions” 11:30-13:00: Visit & presentation of the garden & of informal transmission of gardening knowledge


9:00 -10:00 travelling to garden #1 Croq’Jardin 10:30-11:30: participants’ interviews -

Lunch afternoon

Arrival times: In the garden or in the restauTrain/bus station rant « Grain de sel » Around 14:30 Lawrence 14h30 – 15h30: Dennis 4 thematic workshops: Sheila See detailed progr. p36-37 Carmelo 15:30 – 16:00: coffee break Paola 16h00 – 17h00 Angelike Antonio 21:45 Jutta: 23:00


Around 23:30 Ilenia Paola Sylviane


Diner in restaurant or in the rooms

In the garden (catering ) 14h30: train to La Busserine

Leaving 17:30

Garden #3 Jardin d’Adam Mobilisation of gardeners through art Optional possibility Garden #4 FONT OBSCURE Handicap and dialogue with institutions

18:30 back to hotel Writing daily diary/ free time

Around 18:00 Social center Merlan Writing daily diary/ free time

20:30 restaurant Jo & Elsa Back in metro or tram

Buffet in Social center Back in bus/metro or tram

4 thematic workshops: See detailed progr. P36-37


Tuesday 8th

Friday 9th

Saturday 10th

Breakfast in the rooms Meeting time 8:30 8:30 - 9h30 travel to Garden #5 Néréides

Meeting time To be defined together

Departure time:

Airport 10:00 Practice #11: meeting of gardeners


11:30 Visit of the garden

Lunch In the garden or social center (catering ) 14:30—16:30 Participant interviews -

10:55 Jutta

Free lunch go were you want, have touristic time if wished

16:40 Lawrence Dennis Sheila

19:25 Ilenia 16:30 meeting in Pistes Paola Solidaires Sylviane Carmelo Deciding on implementation of GP in your countries Paola

Evaluation Perspectives for the follow- Tourist visit & lunch possible ing of the project with Viviane 16:30 travelling back to city centre 17:30 Writing daily diary/ free time 19:00 meeting in Pistes Solidaires

19:00 Writing daily diary Exchanging photos

Public Forum; meeting with French gardeners, Buffet Back walking or tram

20:00 Farewell party Restaurant Jo & Elsa Train 21:30 Antonio


Tuesday 6th We are starting the visit with one day out of Marseille to visit Croq Jardin, in La Roque d’Anthéron, the garden of Jean (participant in SV3, Roma) and Gonzague (participant in SV2, Kingsand) We will spend the morning with presentation from some of the European visitors, but keep some for the next days, and the visit of the garden. It will made like a kind of “interview”, by asking 3 of you about their gardens and practices. Unfortunately we will not have a projector for computer, but we’ll print some picture if needed. Lunch should be provided by the garden, except if the weather is too bad For the afternoon we propose different workshop, you will be able to choose 2 from: A) gardening with disabled people: what is the interest of hotitherapy, what are the characteristics of a garden for hortitherapy B) having a workhop in your garden: “to build an insect house” C) having a workshop in your garden about composting D) the practices of Croq Jardin related to work with teenagers E) having some educational activities with children in the garden We would like to offer to you to exchange with some of the French gardeners about their practices, but also about yours, the aim of each of these workshop being to write together an “activity sheet” to be use by you if you want to implement this practice in your garden, and to be the basis of the activity sheets that will be put on the EUGO learning website next year.


Croq’Jardin Croq’jardin was born in 2000. Today, in 2012 the garden is composed of : around 20 plots forl families or groups (close to UK allotment system) A botanical walk about the history of plants and vegetables An educational pond A garden of herbs and medicinal plants A pathways about water and irrigation devices An orchard Greenhouses A small conference room A Composting area for professionals A solar kitchen, a pizza oven, and spaces for pique-nique Dry toilets These installations allows us to receive school groups of every ages for workshops about composting, insects, biodiversity, colours and dyeing plants, etc. We propose a free information session on compost every first Saturday of the month. We hold an annual festival each first week end of May calle “tous au jardin” ie everybody to the garden, with workshops, conferences, exchanges of seeds…

Croq Jardin Quartier les Bouygons 13640 La Roque d’Anthéron FRANCE http:// www.foyersrurauxpaca.org/Croq-jardin


Wednesday 7th A day in the northern districts of Marseille: We would like to spend this day on the following topics: How to rally gardeners to a project of urban garden, how to transmit knowledge (about gardening but also other topics) in these gardens We’ll go first to the district of Saint Antoine, to Cosmos Kolej, a garden set up by a theatre company in one of the difficult northern « cités » of Marseille and meet there Mrs Mireille Gouiran, who is the responsible of the Service for urban gardens of the City, and then go to the districts of Le Merlan, La Busserine, to meet the people from SAFI, and discuss with them the use of art to bring people inside the gardens In Cosmos Kolej, like on Monday, we will take a time to “interview” two of you about your gardens and projects. We may have a projector for computer. In the evening we will stay in this area and have a buffet diner there, this should provide you some time to exchange about your practices, and experiences, and to write on our “practice sheets” for the website. We won’t go back to the hotel before sleeping time, so make sure to take all you need with you!


Cosmos Kolej : Cosmos kolej is a kind of Cultural center in the Northern neighbourhood of Marseille, set up by a theatre company. It is an artists residency: theatre, circus, arts, musicians, film makers. Staff: 9 cultural workers (1 specific for gardens). garden is one of the activity of the organisation: 3 gardens, plots for 62 families + 4 childcare classes. Main activities:

Cosmos Kolej La Gare Franche 7 chemin des Tuileries 13015 Marseille +33(0) contact@cosmoskolej.org www.cosmoskolej.org

-Workshop “Du jardin à l’assiette”: 4 groups of 24 pupils come 4 times during the year and discover the links between what is growing and what we eat. -Gardening initiation week for youngsters with their educators + presentation to the neighbours. -Seasonal meetings with gardeners: share information, wishes, collective tasks: clean the paths, small repair activities.


SAFI SAFI stands for « du Sens, de l’Audace, de la Fantaisie 80 Rue Léon Bourgeois et de l’Imagination », you know (or you will learn this week) 13001 Marseille that French people do love acronyms. This translate as assosafi@free.fr « some meaning, nerve, imaginativeness, imagination ». It is a non profit organisation of artists, people creating art exhibitions, art experiences, and scenography. They aim to bring into scene and lignt the relation between men and their territories. Dalila Ladjal and Stéphane Brisset

Jardin d’Adam:

Groupe “Femmes en action”

The shared garden began in 2008 on the remains of au centre social Agora the gymnasium of the school district, burned in 2005. This 34 Rue de la Busserine is a group of women called "Women in Action" which saw 13014 Marseille the abandoned gymnasium as an opportunity to realize the garden of which they all desired. The garden is born of this desire and of the desire to transform the gymnasium become a dangerous playground for children. The women's group broke the concrete using a jackhammer and cleared the rubble to reach the ground. They made compost with SAFI and used it to make the land fertile. many people became involved in the construction and to sustain the garden. This garden allows users to share friendly moments: “Garden sale” (like a car boot sale but for gardens!) are held each year at the initiative of the "District Committee". All gardeners of the district are invited to exchange and / or sell their seeds and plants


Thursday 7th In the eastern district of Marseille Today we’ll go to meet the organisation AMIEU, which supports the creation of garden at the foot of the big housing blocks. They want to share their practices of managing these kind of garden with you. We’ll join their monthly gardener meeting at the garden « Jardin des Néréides » (Néréides being the name of the housing estate). You’ll meet with Alexis, one of the staff of AMIEU, and the gardeners. We’ll have lunch there, and take the afternoon to go on with our interviews of all your projects and gardens, and share more practices withe AMIEU. We ‘ll be able to have some computer projector there. You’ll have a bit or free time in the afternoon (except for thos writing the daily diary) but you’ll have to be at 19:00 in Pistes Solidaires, 67 La Canebière for a public forum where we invited gardeners and garden staff from Marseille and the other parts of RJSM to meet you. The aim is for you and them to exchange about your activities. We plan session of photo and film projection, discusion groups, a buffet of course and much more. This would also be the right time to go on reading all the « good practices » already collected in the program… and why not complete them with more information.



AMIEU 66 rue d’Aubagne 13001 Marseille +33 (0)4 91 31 54 93 amieu@free.fr http:// jardinspourtous.amieu.overblog.com/

Amieu stands for “L'ATELIER MARSEILLAIS d'INITIATIVES en ECOLOGIE URBAINE” (more o less: workshop of urban ecology in Marseille). It is a non profit organisation created in 1992. 80 members, among them 15 active volunteers, 4 paid staff. The idea is that if somebody is not interested in the place where he/she lived it may only be because she/he doesn’t now it. Amieu try to enrich the link between inhabitants and their street/district/city. To learn about the history, geography and nature of the place is the first step toward being active in its own environment and life. Our projects thus lead us into using urban garden as a wonderful tool to involve people in the life of their district, to better their close environment, and thus to better their life.

Jardin des Néréides:

Cité des Néréïdes – Bosquet Chemin de la Granière 13011 Marseille FRANCE

Background: Requested by the city Council Amieu began to work on awareness of forest fires (the forest on the hills is quite close) with the school "école des Néréïdes" and with the neighbourhood (district called "Bosquet et Néréïdes"). After three years, the community garden was created in an attempt to involve the families in the project. The Amieu also convinced Habitat 13, the social landlord, to accept social inclusion projects on its territory. Today the forest fires have decreased significantly. This garden opened February 15, 2009 Management of the garden: Work with the group of gardeners: monthly meetings with the gardeners, organisation of collective tasks (cleaning, planting, size of olives and olive gathering, festive events in the gardens: meals, ...). educational garden: every week our garden hostess welcomes several classes in the educational garden. 3 people of Amieu work about 2 days each week in that territory.


Friday 9th To define together :










Location map:

Small location map for the main places you’ll be in the city centre.


Accomodation Adagio Marseille République http://www.accorhotels.com/fr/hotel-7525-adagio-marseille-republique/ index.shtml

30 rue Jean Trinquet 13002 MARSEILLE Tel: +33 (0)4 96 11 67 00 Public transports:

Tram line 2, République Dame

Metro 2: Jules Guesde

Metro 1: Colbert

Profile for CEMEA CEMEA

BOOKLET Visita di Studio FRANCIA  


BOOKLET Visita di Studio FRANCIA