Studio Air CELINA SUPURNAMI YAPUTRA S EMESTER TWO , 2018 TUTOR : ISABELLE JOOSTE
My name is Celina Yaputra and I am currently in my third year of Environments, majoring in Architecture. Doing the degree wasnâ€™t my first choice- previously I did Economics at the same university for a year and I felt supressed with the routines of creating reports and compulsary mathematical subjects. Since young, I have always enjoyed looking at creative arts such as fashion, animation, films and scrapbooking. It was merely an admiration of the creative industry- I always imagined myself doing demand and supply graphs for a lifetime as all my family members work in commerce, managing retail/banking sectors. I didnâ€™t create many scrapbooks due to the academic commitment of school subjects, but I knew that I craved for something that relaxes me allowing for freedom and flexibility while still requiring creative skills and thoughts. I transferred because I felt that I need to express my constricted brain into anything- it can be through creative writing or series of visual arts. There were no other design majors such as graphic, fashion or interior at this university, and I had no experience with professional painting or printmaking- VCA was off my list.
I took a visual arts short course at RMIT to test the waters before transferring to a creative field and the teacher recommended me to do Architecture. At the beginning of the degree, I struggled with the extensive yet crucial technical knowledge necessary to excel. I was a late learner as I had no experience in hand sketching, Adobe programs nor threedimensional digital modelling. As time goes on, I felt that there were no other creative fields that interests and challenges me as much as architecture. I loved that I was not able to predict on the series of projects that I am going to do- every day brings its fresh set of problems to be solved and surmounted, therefore I felt satisfied with it. So far, architecture have been everything with spices of danger and intrepidity in it, this finally pushed me to create better. Through taking studio Air this semester I am eager to learn more about the relationship between parametric design and futuring in architecture to construct identity and space. Other than developing more of Grasshopper digital skillsets I briefly explored during the previous study of Digital Design and Fabrication, I hope to integrate these cutting edge methodologies into creating architecture narrative addressing questions between the reality and illusion of built environment.
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A M B I VE R T
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content page. A.1 D E S I G N A.2 D E S I G N
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Digital architecture is a paradigm shift and a new style emerged through the development of computational design using algorithms. Tony Fry, within the book Design Futuring, becomes a critical voice within the discourse of practices that fails to take responsibility on sustainable designs. In the results of these cutting edge newly developed methods, technologies are supposed to facilitate architects with the technical skills towards a more favourable future. However, human centeredness has resulted in the exploitation of mother nature resources, causing an urgent alert to the profession that we are in need to be in the vanguard of transformative practice1.The essential pretext of Fry’s Defuturing briefly touched upon this- as human beings we are predisposed to destructive practices as part of the act of production. As such we ‘defuture’ or act to ‘take futures away from ourselves and other living species’.
Sustainability embodies the concept that human is able to consciously contribute towards meeting the needs of the present generation, while ensuring that the needs of future generation is not compromised. The concept is interdisciplinary in nature, which aims at maintaining a balanced ecological, social and economic system. Contemporary design should allow the architecture and nature to combine in both form and spatial awareness.
Figure 1. AA Wooddrift - Summer Pavillion
1. Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg Pubblishers Ltd, 2008), pp.1-5 2. Anthony Dunne & Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press, 2015), pp. 37-38
Parametric design using compoistional scripting in design defines the future of expressing complicated architecture. Relationships between elements are used to manipulate and inform the design of complex geometries and structures, changing the way we generate ideas- and perhaps create more radical but dynamic design possibilities that reflects the way people and nature co-exist.
Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby, states that designers must come to realize that they always deal in fiction, creating things “meeting the imaginary needs of imaginary users.” The reading presented “what if ” scenarios, using the discussions about the kind of future people want (and do not want). Design should contain senses of ideology and values rather than a mere style. Furthermore, speculative design, as what they emphasised for contemporary designers to explore, breaks out of the imposed, putative realism of the current world state and provides “alternatives that loosen the ties reality has on our ability to dream”. In order for architects to realise the possibilities, they first must adopt the idea of using speculative design as a shaping force towards a more sustainable future. 2
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FUTURING CASE STUDIES This precedent will touch on the further symbiotic relationship among human, nature and creation of the built environment. As design innovation becomes the baseline and the standard of green design, these structures imitate natureâ€™s systems, processes and strategies to live sustainably. The following project explore sustainable environmentally-friendly projects that was designed unconventionally with new innovations, and will further become examplars on how recent practices will have to adhere for a more sustainable future.
Figure 2. Eastgate Building by architect Mike Pearce Realised as one of the first building in the world to use a natural cooling and ventilation to this extent. Typifies the best of green architecture and ecologically sensitive adaptation.
PRECEDENT Eastgate Harare,
The Eastgate Centre designed by architect Mick Pearce in conjunction with engineers at Arup Associates is a large office and shopping complex in Harare, Zimbabwe. To minimize potential costs of regulating the buildingâ€™s inner temperature Pearce looked to the self-cooling mounds of African termites. The building has no air-conditioning or heating but regulates its temperature with a passive cooling system inspired by the self-cooling mounds of African termites 3
Termites in Zimbabwe create gigantic mounds inside of which they farmed fungus, which were their primary food source. The fungus must be kept at exactly 87 degrees F, while the temperatures outside range from 35 degrees F at night to 104 degrees F during the day. The termites achieve this remarkable feat by constantly opening and closing a series of heating and cooling vents throughout the mound over the course of the day.
The structure, however, does not have to look like a termite mound to function like one and instead aes- thetically draws from indigenous Zimbabwean masonry. On the behavior level, the building mimics how the or ganism interacts with its environment to build a structure that can also fit in without resistance in its surrounding environment.
With this system of carefully adjusted convection currents, air is sucked in at the lower part of the mound, down into enclosures with muddy walls, and up through a channel to the peak of the termite mound. The industrious termites constantly dig new vents and plug up old ones in order to regulate the temperature 4
Figure 3 and 4. Termite Mound Cooling System Direction of air movement from outside to inside the porous surface. The termites achieve this remarkable feat by constantly opening and closing a series of heating and cooling vents throughout the mound all day.
INNOVATION Main aim to achieve thermal comfort in the occupied space, whilst limiting capital and running costs. Marginal profit occurs as they used the passive and cooling methods to the maximum which keeps the mound at a precise temperature despite severely fluctuating temperatures of Zimbabwe environment. This was done by creating the void space between the vaulted ceiling and the voided floor above acts as a heat exchanger. The cold night air passing through the void festooned with concrete teeth removes the heat of the previous day and on the following day warm external air is cooled about 3°C by the same teeth before entering the room. As they seeked to minimize energy consumption over time, natural systems appear to use analogous mechanisms that the engineers have artificially created to solve similar efficiency problems.5
Eastgate building uses less than 10 percent of the energy of a conventional building its size. The owners saved $3.5 million on a $36 million building because an air-conditioning plant didn’t have to be imported. The savings have affected down to the tenants, whose rents are 20 percent lower than those of other commercial buildings in the area.
Figure 5. Natural Ventilation for high-rise building (termite model) Chimney directing hot air right out of the building. Vegetation on each sides of the building reduces the intensity of sunlight heating.
3. Wayback Pana, ‘Eastgate Development, Harare, Zimbabwe’ https://web.archive.org/web/20041114141220/http:// www.arup.com/feature.cfm?pageid=292 4.Rebecca Paul, ‘Biomimicry: Design Inspiration from Nature’ (Inhabitant, 2012) https://inhabitat.com/finding-design-inspiration-in-nature-biomimicry-for-a-better-planet/ 5. Abdulmajid Karanouh, Ethan Kerbber, ‘Innovations in dynamic architecture’ (Germany: University of Applied Sciences, vol 3, no.3, p. 185-221, p. 219)
Figure 6. Termites Mound Nests Ventilation is crucial to the overall health of a termite arcology. Air cycles around the interior complex to eject carbon dioxide, replenish oxygen, and retain moisture so that termites donâ€™t suffocate
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PRECEDENT Gherkin London,
STRUCTURE The Gherkin by Norman Foster is a radical project in steel structure engineering. As a free standing diagrid tower, the building has became London’s most widely recognised examples of contemporary architecture. Although its height is far less than other skyscrapers, the prominent location behind the Tower of London makes it one of the most recognizable landmarks in the city. The building follows the principal of the hyperboloid, which refers to the geometric principle of doubly ruled surfaces, and a hyperola is rotated around it’s axis. With each floor offset from the one below by five degrees and diamond shaped glazing, this makes the building appears to spiral. Even though the building appears round, the glass facade is actually all made of flat panels. The only curved piece of glass is the lens that tops the structure. 6
The floor plan of the main office spaces, although in a cylindrical envelope, is divided by six triangular spaces between rectilinear floored areas. These floors in turn rotate by five degrees from the floor below, creating spiral light wells. These light wells reduce the need for artificial lighting in the workspace. 7 These voids allow for the rotation of air in the work space by natural ventilation, again reducing the cost of artificial ventilation. All of the available floor space is column free (Figure 7). Foster has created a humanizing work space where employees are democratized with the they communicate within the working realm. On the sixth floor Foster created an atria which is commonly referred to as the ‘Sky garden’. This garden within the building is used as a natural air filter and provides fresh air to the building.
THERMAL COMFORT Figure 6. Natural Ventilation and flat panels on Gherkin allowing artificial lightning on workspace
Figure 7. Gherkin on front elevation view. The tower is organized by skeletal frame thhat reduces the total cost and total mass. The diagrids have became an image of sustainability, reflecting an optimal use of materials with high embodied energy as a sustainale design feature.
SUSTAINABILITY This unusual yet symmetrical form created a distinctive and consistent silhouette widely visible across London. Marks as a technological achievement in parametric design, but also created emphasis on sustainability. Gherkin building’s shape utilises daylight, reducing the need for additional artificial lighting and providing impressive long-distance views even from deep inside the building. The façade design with advanced double glazing technologies, ventilated cavities and blinds and provides up to 85% solar protection8. This became one of the most widely examplers of commercial skyscrapers and provoke thoughts about alternative ways of designing to better suit office structures. “Diagrid is a series of triangles that combine gravity and lateral support into one, making the building to be stiff, efficient, and lighter than the traditional high rise” Cantor Seinuk, WSP
6. Kerber Karanouh, ‘ 30 St Mary Axe, The Gherkin’ (Designmag, 2013) < http://www.designbookmag.com/thegerkin.htm> 7. Michael Kwok, ‘The Gherkin’s’ distinctive shape is achieved using a diagonal steel structure – a diagrid’ (Arup, 2015) < https://www.arup.com/projects/30-st-mary-axe> 8. Vikram Begani, ‘The Gherkin: Case Study’ (Slideshare, 2015) < https://www.slideshare.net/VikramBengani/thegherkin-case-study>
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D E SIGN
2 1 st C E N T U R Y
COMPUTATION NEW MEDIUM
Development of computer aided programs leads to a new decade of digital in architecture, establishing a symbiotic relationship between design thinking and making. Computers has allowed a significant influence on the creativity of designers and allowed to explored concepts that seemed inconceivable pre-computerised era. Before, architects had no facilities on associating designs with logic and sequence, as projects become a failure at a later stage of construction. Introduction of digital modelling has improved this issue of workflow, accelerated the designing and fabrication process and thus streamlining them without sacrificing quality.9 Kalay Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories and Methods of Computer-Aided Design outlined several stages that could be use when dealing with parametric modelling: analysis, synthesis, evaluation and communication to occur simultaniously. 10
Architects are further not just involved in designing the formation of highly complex built environment and also expected to have the capabilities of computer a engineer, material designer and the surveyor. By inputting material capability data in conjunction with other parameters such as sun angles, architects are able to reconfigure materials used to respond towards volatile environmental conditions and in the future might become the answer towards building resilience. 11
Parametric modelling is capable to create and modulate different elements on a design of façade and building forms.12 Design flexibility will then never be limited by inadequate technology or “unachievable ideas”. Rivka and Robert Oxman stated in Theories of the Digital in architecture (p.6) that arhcitects have the capability to produce a ‘second nature’ using computation design, which implies designers to use the principles learned in nature and create a symbiotic relationship between the built and natural environment, ensuring that we lived in a harmonious and sustainable environment.
9. Kalay, Yehuda E(2004), Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA, MIT Press) 10. Kalay, Yehuda ‘ Architecture’s’ (p. 5) 11. Bradley Peters, Computation Work: The Building of Algorithmic Thought (2013), p. 120
12. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge) 13. “One Main”, dECOi architects, 2016 < http://www.decoi-architects.org/2011/10/onemain>
POTENTIALS Through some argue that computation lacks intiution and limits creativity, turning designers instead into a ‘computer aided modeller’13, there should not be prejudices toward the cutting edge technology itself. Computation has become the solution to reduce constrains and eliminated negotiations when dealing with constant puzzle making and problem solving in architecture. The 20th and 21th century have witnessed a dramatic development in the complexity of design, proving that aided tools are there to fully exploit and display a designer’s idea beyond to human’s imagination capacity. The following precedents examine the outcomes generated by computational means, the potention of effectiveness generated by ideas and benefits of using parametrics during design processes.
Figure 8. Robert-made voxel chair by Barlett, UCL 3d-printed using a continuous line of plastic, making up this intricate chair proves the innovation that digital modelling can create.
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The Kartal â€“ Pendik Masterplan is a winning competition proposal by Zaha Hadid Architects for a new city centre on the east bank of Istanbul. It is the redevelopment of an abandoned industrial site into a new sub-centre of Istanbul, complete with a central business district, highend residential development, cultural facilities such as concert halls, museums, and theatres, and leisure programs including a marina and tourist hotels. The site lies at the confluence of several important infrastructural links, including the major highway connecting Istanbul to Europe and Asia, the coastal highway, sea bus terminals, and heavy and light rail links to the greater metropolitan area.The project begins by seamlessly merging together the basic infrastructural and urban context of the surrounding site. Lateral lines stitch together the major road connections emerging from Kartal in the west and Pendik in the east. 14
The integration of these lateral connections with the main longitudinal axis creates a soft grid that forms the underlying framework for the project. Locally, this net can be bundled to form areas of higher programmatic intensity as well as a vertical build-up of the city fabric. In certain areas the net rises up to form a network of towers in an open landscape, while in other areas it is inverted to become a denser fabric cut through by streets, and at other times may completely fade away to generate parks and open spaces. Some areas extend out into the water, creating a matrix of floating marinas, shops, and restaurants. 18
Figure 9. Masterplan: Hybrid detour net & deformed grid, final urban lay-out of streets and urban fabric.
Figure 10. Global Maya Model of the site The fabric is further articulated by an urban parametric script that generates different typologies of buildings that respond to the different demands of each district. This calligraphic script creates open conditions that can transform from detached buildings to perimeter blocks, and ultimately into hybrid systems that can create a porous, interconnected network of open spaces that meanders throughout the city. Through subtle transformations and gradations from one part of the site to the other, the scripted fabric can create a smooth transition from the surrounding context to the new, higher density development on the site. 17
The Kartal-Penkik plan incorporates a vast quarry that becomes the largest item in a system of parks that are spread throughout the urban field. The rhythmic flow of the urban fabric gives a sense of organic cohesion. The result is an elegant, coherently differentiated city-scape that facilitates navigation through its lawful constitution and through the architectural accentuation of both global and local field properties. This was done to further to institute with the imposition of strict planning guidelines using building lines and height regulation.15
Ordered complexity on this site plan replaces the monotony of older planned developments and the disorienting visual chaos that marks virtually all unregulated contemporary city expansions. For instance, in terms of the calligraphy blocks - a third perimeter block variation that has been designed to both open up the interior of parcels and to cross parcels – Zaha Hadid architects used a continuous facade differentiation that leads from the street-side to the courtyard on the basis of an initial distinction of external and internal facades. Another example of urban parametric modelling is the coordination of landscape and public spaces, and the correlation of the secondary path-system with the disposition of internal navigation systems. 16
Figure 11. Fabric studies 3: split block variations
Figure 12: Fabric Studies 2: calligraphy block variation
14. “Kartal Pendik Masterplan, Masterplan and Towns”, Zaha Hadid Architects, 2018 <https://archello.com/project/ kartal-pendik-masterplan> 15. “ KARTAL – PENDIK URBAN REGENERATION MASTER PLAN”, SKA, 2018 <https://www.saffetkaya. com/portfolio/kartal-pendik-urban-regeneration-master-plan/> 16. Reem Bakri Moustafa. Parametricism In Urban Design (Oxford: Berg Publishers Ltd, 2008), pp. 7-9 17. Tvestan Hristov, ‘Kartal Pendik Masterplan by Zaha Hadid Architects (GH Analysis)’ Grasshopper Algorithmic Modelling for Rhino (revised november 2015) https://www.grasshopper3d.com/profiles/blogs/kartal-pendik-masterplan-by-zaha-hadid-architects-gh-analysis
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Biology offers an unmatched level of adaptation and responsiveness from which to draw inspiration. For Hygroskin Pavilion by Achim Menges, botany exists as a particularly interesting field of investigation, as it offers a rich repertoire of adaptive movements made without muscles. The responsive move- ments of plants can be categorized into two main groups: (1) active cell pressure–actuated systems, and (2) passive systems that are fully independent from a plant’s metabolic trigger mechanism. The conifer cone, or more specifically its cone scales, is an interesting example of the latter. In dry conditions, the cone’s materiality allows it to adjust its moisture content to the environment. 18
The related dimensional change of the material triggers a shape change in the cone scales, which leads to the release of its seeds. As it becomes a biometric examplary design whhich employs nature’s mechanism of responding into climate changes, which is ingrained in the material of a passive plant (cornfier). While many passive plant movements are irreversible, conifer cones retain their responsiveness even after the biological function of seed release is fulfilled. The material responsiveness to environmental conditions is based on its hygroscopic behavior, the ability to absorb moisture from the air and release it back, in pursuit of a constant equilibrium between its own moisture level and that of the surrounding environment. 19
18. Michael Fox, Interactive World Adaptive Archietcture (2016) (New York: Princeton Architectural Press), p. 121 19. Oliver David Krieg and Steffen Reichert, ‘hygroskin: a climate-responsive kinetic sculpture’, Design Boom Magazine (revised April 2014) <https://www.designboom.com/architecture/hygroskin-a-climate-responsive-kinetic-sculpture>
Figure 13. Details on Hygroskin Pavillion facade Aparatures respond to humindity levels ranging from 30 to 95 percent
Figure 14. The hygroscopic material system is based on the biological example of the conifer cone.
Figure 15. Farication of highly precise finger joints, opening responds according the relative hiumidity, regulating the rate of light coming through.
Figure 16 and 17. Panels are irregularly configured, sent to a robotic arm to be manufactured using a sandwich panel form.
20. “HygroSkin-Meteorosensitive Pavilion / Achim Menges Architect + Oliver David Krieg + Steffen Reichert” 09 Sep 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Aug 2018. <https://www.archdaily.com/424911/hygroskin-meteorosensitive-pavilion-achim-menges-architect-in-collaboration-with-oliver-david-krieg-and-steffen-reichert/> 21. Nathan Johnson with Geraldine Chua, ‘Pavilion’s meteorosensitive architecture opens and closes in response to weather changes’, Archhdaily , (revised April 2017) < https://www.architectureanddesign.com.au/news/pavilion-s-meteorosensitive-architecture-opens-and> 22. Fox, p.127
The project taps into design research on robotic prefabrication, component-based construction and elastically self-forming structures using complex formfinding to derive the maximum utility of materials. Furthermore, this pavillion demonstrates on how focusing of the computation on material behaviour rather than geometric shape allows for an unfolding of performative capacities and material resourcefulness that expands the design space towards endless possibilities and alterations of unexplored architectural projects. Design process was developed based on the elasticity of lightweight, yet robust system of thin planar plywood sheets and materialâ€™s related capacity to form conical surfaces according to figure 14. Each component consists of a double layered skin, which initially selfforms as conical surfaces and is subsequently joined to produce a sandwich-panel by vacuum pressing. These materials combined with computing material manipulation uses the performative capabilites of timber and expand/contract according to climatic responsive perforations. Using aided design, architects detailed all of all joints and the generation of the required machine code for the fabrication with a 7-axis industrial robot 20 Afterwards, final form is fitted to precise tolerance levels and finalised through the process of robotic trimming. Using a comprehensive laser scan of the structure, it was revealed that an average deviation of less than 0.5mm between the computationally derived design model and the actual geometry of built form21
Calibrated to a range of 30 to 90 percent relative humidity, the apertures utilize the full spectrum of moderate climate zones. In direct feedback with their local environment, they continuously adjust their degree of openness and porosity, modulating the light transmission and visual permeability of the envelope as seen in figure 16. The pavilion is therefore designed as a unique convergence of environmental and spatial experience.
Together the projects presented here form an examplary of responsive architecture that does not rely on elaborate technical systems. In many ways, they show how an intellectual investment in higher design integration allows for the realization of strikingly simple yet effective systems. In addition, they suggest a promising coalescence of system performance and architectural performativity, as the complex environmental dynamics lead to continuously differentiated spatial conditions.22 HygroSkin pavilion shows how design computation is allowing architects to go beyond the realm of just using a material, instead enabling them to redefine the material .within the designed context. Design computation was used throughout the entire process, from research, to inception, to material production, engineering simulation and robotic manufacturing.
RESPONSE TO CLIMATE 25
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In conjunction to the previous section on Design Computation, this section would go deeper into the topics of algorithmic thinking, parametric modeeling, and scripting cultures and how this shapes the architectural industry, reacting to this shift from composition to generation of the final built environment. With computer aided design, the symbiosis of human and digital modeelling has indeed proven that designers have increasingly adapted towards new technology which explicitly states each step of the design that enables the easy modification of the steps/ rules back and forthh, allowing the method as proven to be more effecient and ensured precision. Design should be made to follow an algorithm, which is a recipe made of a finite set of rules that are ambigous but simple to follow. Datasets of information generate and capture a multitude of parameters in the form of parametric models, which helps us to explore new design options and speculate on its potential. Generative design is recrusive, each output becomes another’s output and this generates more unexpected design outcomes. This becomes a recolutionaly approach, by deriving several iterations and picking the most optimal/suitable for the design project. 23
23. Peters, p.120 24. Robert Wilson and Frank Keil, ‘Definition of Algorithm’ The MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press, 1999) 25. Hugh Whitehead, ‘Geometry, Form and Complexity’ Foster and Partners (London: RIBA publishing,2008)
The generation of a design response based on performance critera is what sets computationally oriented and traditional firms apart. It is not through desire or intent that the geometrical forms of their designs are develeoped, instead they are a direct response to the performative demands of the building, from conception. Before the inception of performative based script technology, such as Grasshopper and its various entities, a designer would have to manually edit to influence the design directly. The contemporary choice of typologies, construction options and styles is simply too large to expect the underlying pragmatic logics to become legible and thus a generated computational design should be opted for concept development. Parametricism is able to further coordinate pragmatic concerns and articulate them with all their rich differentiations and relevant associations. The danger of overriding real-life richness is minimized because variety and adaptiveness are written into the very genetic make-up of parametricism 24
However, regardless of results generated, designers must constantly test their ideas in practice through building and not result to the lone gun mentality as desicribed by Hugh Whitehead. â€˜Lone gunâ€™ mentality is defined as being caught up with computational skills, that it unknowingly causes one to deviate from the real design obbjectives, degenerating scripting to an isolated craft.25 Other drawbacks of relying on generative design also includes less tangible aspects of light, circulation, and interactivity that could not easily be engineered or defined. We will now explore two precedent projects to investigate the generative approach and critique its advantages and sortcomings.
Figure 18. Parametric design- NWI Youth Football Generated model and site environment concept
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PRECEDENT Chaise Museum
of Science, Boston,
Architect and artist Neri Oxman created complex geometric patterns using the newly develeloped Variable property design (VPD) as a design approach, a methodology and a technical framework by which to model, simulate and fabricate material assemblies with varying properties designed to correspond to multiple and continuously varied functional constraints. Such capability is here termed ‘synthetic anisotropy’ – an ability to strategically control the density and directionality of material substance in the generation of form. In this approach, structure is applied to a tiling algorithm using Voronoi cell tessellation. The material used inside the prototype precedes shape/aesthetics, and it is the examplar of how materials can become an important design function that anticipates the chaise’s form. Theoretical and technical foundations for this approach have been furthermore termed as ‘materialbased design computation’. 26 The structure is made from a single continuous surface acting both as structure and skin, locally modulated to provide for both support and comfort. This design for a chaise longue corresponds to structural, environmental and corporeal performance by adapting its thickness, pattern density and stiffness to load, curvature and skin-pressured areas respectively. Stiffer materials are positioned in surface areas under compression, and softer, more flexible materials in surface areas under tension. 27
Figure 19. Beast- Prototype of a Chaise Lounge Patterned with five different materials color-coded by elastic moduli. Stiff and soft materials are distributed according to the user’s structural load distribution; soft silicon ‘bumps’ are located in regions of higher pressure.
Figure 20. Material distribution charts illustrating a range of potential solutions informed by size, scale, direction and ratio between soft and stiff materials. The charts are computed on top of an optimised unfolded representation of the frontal and dorsal planes of the patientâ€™s hand and refolded following material assignment to construct the element.
Figure 22. Deviations of materiality, a iterations of scales using Variable property design (VPD) and Vernoi Cell Tesselation
Figure 21. Physical model of prototype. In this particular prototype, stiff materials constrain the lateral bending motion at the wrist, and can be identified by the oblique trajectory of dark and stiff materials. Soft materials allow for ergonomic wrist support and comfort through movement.
MATERIALS AS STRUCTURE Since its emergence in the 1960s, computer-aided design (CAD) in its many transformations has afforded the designer an almost effortless manipulation of shapes generally detached from their fabrication in material form. Such processes promote the application of material subsequent to the generation of form. Even when supported by high-fidelity analytical tools for analysis and optimisation, these processes are predominantly linked to geometrical manipulations in three dimensions. The work presented here calls for a shift from a geometric-centric to a material-based approach in computationally enabled form-generation. Variable property fabrication of materials with heterogeneous properties across a wide array of scales and applications holds a profound place in the future of design and engineering. The ability to synthetically engineer and fabricate such materials using VPF strategies appears to be incredibly promising as it increases the product’s structural and environmental performance, enhances material efficiency, promotes material economy and optimises material distribution. 28
26. Bruce Sterling, ‘Architecture Fiction: Neri Oxman and her principles’ (Wired, 2012) <https://www.wired. com/2012/12/architecture-fiction-neri-oxman/> 27. Neri Oxman, ‘Structuring Materiality: Design Fabrication of Heterogeneous Materials’ (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2010), pp. 78-83 28, Oxman, pp. 84-85
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Antoni Gaudí’s unconventional style was characterized by freedom of form, voluptuous color and texture, and organic unity. Much of Gaudí’s work drew associative relationships with the nature (biomimicry). One of Gaudí’s most famous works, the Expiatory Church of La Sagrada Família, features four types of main forms : hyperboloids, hyperbolic paraboloids, helicoids, and conoids. Organic architecture uses nature-inspired geometrical forms in design and seeks to reconnect the human with his or her surroundings. According to Kendrick Bangs Kellogg, a practicing organic architect, states “above all, organic architecture should constantly remind us not to take Mother Nature for granted – work with her and allow her to guide your life. Inhibit her, and humanity will be the loser.” principle, which is that form should follow flow and not work against the dynamic forces of nature.
Traditional architecture involves lines, twodimensional figures and regular polyhedrons combined with spheres, ellipses and circles. Gaudí’s observation of nature led him to see that these regular forms either do not exist in nature or, if they do, only rarely. He used the forms of nature in his architecture just as they are in reality, and not as artistic intellectualization. 30 “If an architect looks for the functional in his work, he will ultimately arrive at beauty. If he looks for beauty directly, he will only reach art theory, aesthetics, or philosophy,” -Gaudi
ART AND MATHEMATHICS
The previous traditional form for the Sagrada Familia was Gothic architecture, which Gaudí modified and improved on to offer a new architecture containing a central nave flanked by four aisles, forming a Latin cross. Closed by a semi-circular apse at the top of the cross, the basilica also contains three new monumental facades of archhitecture, each one representing one of the three crucial events of Christ’s existence: his birth; his passion, death and resurrection; and his present and future glory. 29
Figure 23. Sagrada FamĂlia Design was unfinished, Roman Catholic church in Barcelona, designed by Catalan architect Antoni GaudĂ
Fig 24 and 25. The helicoid is “a ruled surface generated by a straight line that revolves according to a spiral around a vertical axis”. In nature, helicoids can be observed in tree trunks. The helicoid, according to Gaudí, represents the ascending movement that relates earth and heaven.
Fig 26. The hyperboloid is “a surface generated by a hyperbola which revolves around a circle or ellipse”. According to Gaudí, hyperboloids were symbolic of the movement and properties of light. Consequently, he used hyperboloids on all the points where light had to pass through to be diffused and transmitted from one part of the church to another.
The complex geometries of La Sagrada Família coincide with its architectural structure that the church gives the appearance of being a natural object in complete conformity with nature’s laws. Even though Gaudi was constricted on realising the building during hims time due to construction methods and technology available, architects can easily fabricate the building in modern day using parametric tools to generate the shapes of three dimensional forms and shape of triforium columnets. 32 34
Fig 27. A conoid is “a surface formed by a straight line which is dis-
Fig 28. The fourth rule surface, the paraboloid, is “a twisted
placed above another straight line and above a curve”. To construct a
surface of parabolic sections which is the result of displacement
conoid, “a sinusoidal guideline is traced on the ground and a straight
of a straight line above two other lines that cross in the space”
bar placed at a certain height as a second guideline.”
Webs formed by tendons between the fingers of the hand are a
Resting on these two guidelines,one a straight line and one a curve, are
natural example of a hyperbolic paraboloid. Generally the shape
the straight lines that generate the surface, which are the whole group of
is bound by four straight lines and
tensed strings linked to the upper bar that seek the line marked below to
can be generated from a twisted quadrilateral, a
act as a guideline for wall raising.
quadrilateral with the four sides in different planes. 31
29 Rennie Jones. “AD Classics: La Sagrada Familia / Antoni Gaudi” 16 Oct 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Aug 2018. <https://www.archdaily.com/438992/ad-classics-la-sagrada-familia-antoni-gaudi/> 30 . “The Sagrada Família.” La Sagrada Família. 31 Oct. 2011. <http://www.sagradafamilia.cat/sf-eng/index.php>. 31 Joan Basedall Noel. Antonio Gaudi: Master Architect. New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 2000. 32 Jeremy Roe. Antoni Gaudí. New York: Parkstone Press International, 2009.
A . 4
Through exploration and research of the prevelance of digital and computational design technologies e.g Paramteric modelling, it is clear that the landscape in which we practice architecture is changing. By applying constraints and rules into our design proceess, we are able to curate the most ideal and satisfying solutions among the range of solutions presented. We have a need to respond to the changing world around us, and combat defuturing with innovative and unique techniques, as seen in part A.1. Throughout the parts, I have specifically focused on using Biomimicry as design techniques, created and applied.The proposed structure will become a habitat location for my client, a Leadbeaterâ€™s Possum, with form and function intertwining to create a functional and aesthetic luxury accomodation. The way their designs react to their landscape, whilst fitting it with it, is something I am keen to explore. I believe it is significantly important to design in a way that enhance green architecture, as a way of bettering the future.
In A.2 , with the emergence of highly sophisticated digital design technologies, we as architects are able to manipulate materials, create our own materials, develop software to dictate facade treatments or develop continuous iterations based upon performative data running alongside changes in our modelled design. By engaging in computational design, the process has allowed architecture to become a collaboration amongst all sections within the built environment industry. Furthermore, it was through research of materials in A.3 Three that I found the method of construction for biomimicry. The development of software indivudal to a specific brief, and the creation of prototype through CNC Milling/ AR to reimagine the whole iterations using vernios (digital) as seen in Neri Oxmanâ€™s creations. Computation will be used to enhance effectiveness of creating the whole structure, and grasshopper specifically, to create sseperate iterations, then combining these results of design alternatives using parametric modelling.
OUTCOM E S
Learning through this studio with the aid of using grasshopper for the first time was extremely beneficial, not only for enhancing my tehcnical profficiency at computer aided drawing programs, but also for my knowledge of the changing landscape of architectural design through learning about these precedents. As Parametric and generative designs are relatively new to me and architecture as a creative industry is always- constantly evolving. Digital tools like Grasshoper and other Rhino plug-ins helped me to become more critical of the brief, parameter set and the relationships between real world and possibilities of using imagination.
From generating forms through performative data input, to generating and creating a new material based on the inherent capacity of old materials, the possibilites are endless. Taking this subject with Studio Gamma in this semester made me think about how I can reconstruct and remodel a real house using the aid of Grasshopper and increase interactivity between spaces and architecture.
R E F E R ENCES
Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) pp. 1-9, 33-45 Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) pp 3-62 Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 Schumacher, Patrik (2011). The Autopoiesis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 1-28 Fry, Tony, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice [Oxford: Berg, 2008] Knippers, J. 2013. ‘From Model Thinking to Process Design’, Architectural Design, 83: 74-81 Menges, A. 2012. ‘Material Resourcefullness’, Architectural Design: 34-43’ Oxman, R., and R. Oxman. 2014. ‘Introduction: Vitruvius Digitalis’, in Anonymous Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1-10 Wayback Pana, ‘Eastgate Development, Harare, Zimbabwe’ https://web.archive.org/web/20041114141220/ http://www.arup.com/feature.cfm?pageid=292 .Rebecca Paul, ‘Biomimicry: Design Inspiration from Nature’ (Inhabitant, 2012) https://inhabitat.com/findingdesign-inspiration-in-nature-biomimicry-for-a-better-planet/ Abdulmajid Karanouh, Ethan Kerbber, ‘Innovations in dynamic architecture’ (Germany: University of Applied Sciences, vol 3, no.3, p. 185-221, p. 219) Karanouh, Kerbber , ‘ 30 St Mary Axe, The Gherkin’ (Designmag, 2013) < http://www.designbookmag.com/ thegerkin.htm> Kwok, Michael, ‘The Gherkin’s’ distinctive shape is achieved using a diagonal steel structure – a diagrid’ (Arup, 2015) < https://www.arup.com/projects/30-st-mary-axe> Begani, Vikram, ‘The Gherkin: Case Study’ (Slideshare, 2015) < https://www.slideshare.net/VikramBengani/thegherkin-case-study> “Kartal Pendik Masterplan, Masterplan and Towns”, Zaha Hadid Architects, 2018 <https://archello.com/project/ kartal-pendik-masterplan> “ KARTAL – PENDIK URBAN REGENERATION MASTER PLAN”, SKA, 2018 <https://www.saffetkaya. 38 com/portfolio/kartal-pendik-urban-regeneration-master-plan/>
Moustafa, Reem Bakri . Parametricism In Urban Design (Oxford: Berg Publishers Ltd, 2008), pp. 7-9 Hristov, ‘Tvestan “Kartal Pendik Masterplan by Zaha Hadid Architects (GH Analysis)’ Grasshopper Algorithmic Modelling for Rhino (revised november 2015) https://www.grasshopper3d.com/profiles/blogs/kartal-pendikmasterplan-by-zaha-hadid-architects-gh-analysis Peters, B. 2013. ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83: 8-15 ---2013. ‘Realising the Architectural Idea: Computational Design at Herszog & De Meuron’, Architectural Design Journal: 56-61 Michael Fox, Interactive World Adaptive Archietcture (2016) (New York: Princeton Architectural Press), p. 121 Oliver David Krieg and Steffen Reichert, ‘hygroskin: a climate-responsive kinetic sculpture’, Design Boom Magazine (revised April 2014) <https://www.designboom.com/architecture/hygroskin-a-climate-responsivekinetic-sculpture> “HygroSkin-Meteorosensitive Pavilion / Achim Menges Architect + Oliver David Krieg + Steffen Reichert” 09 Sep 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Aug 2018. <https://www.archdaily.com/424911/hygroskin-meteorosensitivepavilion-achim-menges-architect-in-collaboration-with-oliver-david-krieg-and-steffen-reichert/> Nathan Johnson with Geraldine Chua, ‘Pavilion’s meteorosensitive architecture opens and closes in response to weather changes’, Archhdaily , (revised April 2017) < https://www.architectureanddesign.com.au/news/pavilion-smeteorosensitive-architecture-opens-and> Wilson, Robert and Keil, Frank, ‘Definition of Algorithm’ The MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press, 1999) Whitehead, Hugh ‘Geometry, Form and Complexity’ Foster and Partners (London: RIBA publishing,2008) Sterling, Bruce, ‘Architecture Fiction: Neri Oxman and her principles’ (Wired, 2012) <https://www.wired. com/2012/12/architecture-fiction-neri-oxman/> Oxman, Neri ‘Structuring Materiality: Design Fabrication of Heterogeneous Materials’ (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2010), pp. 78-83 Jeremy, Roe. Antoni Gaudí. New York: Parkstone Press International, 2009.
I M A G E
Figure1. Willock, Nathan 2009 Summer Pavilion | The Architectural Association, <https://www.arch2o. com/2009-summer-pavilion-the-architectural-association/> [9 Augst 2018] Figure 2: Pearce, Mike, Easgate Basic Data, <http://www.mickpearce.com/Eastgate.html>, [6 August 2018] Figure 3: Doan, Abagail, Inhabitat Web Magazine, Biomimicry’s Cool Alternative: Eastgate Centre in Zimbabwe https://inhabitat.com/building-modelled-on-termites-eastgate-centre-in-zimbabwe>, [6 August 2018] Figure 4. Doan, Abagail, Inhabitat Web Magazine, Biomimicry’s Cool Alternative: Eastgate Centre in Zimbabwe https://inhabitat.com/building-modelled-on-termites-eastgate-centre-in-zimbabwe>, [6 August 2018] Figure 5. Doan, Abagail, Inhabitat Web Magazine, Biomimicry’s Cool Alternative: Eastgate Centre in Zimbabwe https://inhabitat.com/building-modelled-on-termites-eastgate-centre-in-zimbabwe>, [6 August 2018] Figure 6. Doan, Abagail, Inhabitat Web Magazine, Biomimicry’s Cool Alternative: Eastgate Centre in Zimbabwe https://inhabitat.com/building-modelled-on-termites-eastgate-centre-in-zimbabwe>, [6 August 2018] Figure 7. flickr, Elipse, flickr<https://www.flickr.com/photos/flaneur/506496272/in/gallerydteil-72157623533074447/> [9 August 2018] Figure 8: Souf, Rima Sabina, Robot-made Voxel chair designed using new software by Bartlett researchers <https://www.dezeen.com/2017/05/17/robot-made-voxel-chair-new-software-bartlett-researchers-designfurniture-technology-chairs-robots/> [9 August 2018] Figure 9. Zaha Hadid Architects, KARTAL PENDIK MASTERPLAN, Archello BV <https://archello.com/ project/kartal-pendik-masterplan> [9 August 2018] Figure10. Yasici, Zevil, ZAHA HADID ARCHITECTS KARTAL - PENDIK MASTERPLAN, Divisare-Atlas of Architecture<https://divisare.com/projects/16796-zaha-hadid-architects-kartal-pendik-masterplan> [9 August 2018] Figure 11. Yasici, Zevil, ZAHA HADID ARCHITECTS KARTAL - PENDIK MASTERPLAN, Divisare-Atlas of Architecture<https://divisare.com/projects/16796-zaha-hadid-architects-kartal-pendik-masterplan> [9 August 2018] Figure 24-28. Sebastiam Jordana, “UK Pavilion for Shanghai World Expo 2010/ Heatherwick Studio”, Archidaily, <https://www.archdaily.com/58591/uk-pavilion-for-shanghai-world-expo- 2010-heatherwick-studio> [9 August 2018]
Figure 12. Yasici, Zevil, ZAHA HADID ARCHITECTS KARTAL - PENDIK MASTERPLAN, Divisare-Atlas of Architecture<https://divisare.com/projects/16796-zaha-hadid-architects-kartal-pendik-masterplan> [9 August 2018] Figure 13. Sebastiam Jordana, “UK Pavilion for Shanghai World Expo 2010/ Heatherwick Studio”, Archidaily, <https://www.archdaily.com/58591/uk-pavilion-for-shanghai-world-expo- 2010-heatherwick-studio> [9 August 2018] Figure 14. Vlad Tenu, TEX - FAB EXBITION 2011, Vlad Tenu, <http://www.vladtenu.com/2011/ tex-fabrepeat-exhibition-2011/>[10 Augest 2018] Figure15. Greg Lynn FORM, “Blobwall,2006-08 Greg Lynn FORM”, Greg Lynn FORM, <https://onlinelibrarywiley-com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/doi/epdf/10.1002/ad.861> [9 August 2018] 33 Figure 16. The university of Melbourne, “Greg Lynn Lecture: Fast Forward from Animate FORM” , the university of Melboure. <https://msd.unimelb.edu.au/events/greg-lynn-lecture- fast-forward-from-animate-form> [9 August 2018] Figure 17. Sucker Punch, “Greg Lynn FORM”, Sucker Punch <http://www.suckerpunchdaily. com/2010/01/10/ blobwall-pavilion/> [9 August 2018] Figure18. Alison Furuto,‘Minimal Complexity Vlad Tenu’, ArchDaily <https://www.archdaily. com/94612/ minimal-complexity-vlad-tenu> [9 August 2018] Figure 19. The university of Melbourne, “Greg Lynn Lecture: Fast Forward from Animate FORM” , the university of Melboure. <https://msd.unimelb.edu.au/events/greg-lynn-lecture- fast-forward-from-animate-form> [9 August 2018] Figure 20. Sucker Punch, “Greg Lynn FORM”, Sucker Punch <http://www.suckerpunchdaily. com/2010/01/10/ Figure 21. Sebastiam Jordana, “UK Pavilion for Shanghai World Expo 2010/ Heatherwick Studio”, Archidaily, <https://www.archdaily.com/58591/uk-pavilion-for-shanghai-world-expo- 2010-heatherwick-studio> [9 August 2018] Figure 22. Sebastiam Jordana, “UK Pavilion for Shanghai World Expo 2010/ Heatherwick Studio”, Archidaily, <https://www.archdaily.com/58591/uk-pavilion-for-shanghai-world-expo- 2010-heatherwick-studio> [9 August 2018]
A 6 .
T R I A NGULATIO N/VERNOI
Experimentation on creating habitatable space out from triangulation iterations
L O F T ING/
Singular seperated component into a podium arranged and lofted at different lengths and widths.
Part A- Conceptualisation