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Post Impressionism  


Futurism Cubism Art Nouveau



Post-Impressionism After Impressionism, there was a period of time that artists changed their point of view. It was the continuation of the Impressionism, but also the turning point. At this point, Post- Impressionist artists kept the vivid color they used. It was not an era but more of a movement in art history. The difference between Impressionism and Post-Impressionism was that artists were not only satisfied with the bright color, but also the exploring of the emotion inside of them. There were some famous artists, such as Georges Seurat, who was familiar with his Pointillism; and Vincent Van Gogh, who was a Dutch artist but finished most of his paintings in France.  

Vincent van Gogh

Vincent Willem van Gogh, who was born in Dutch, was the representative artist of the PostImpressionism. In 1886, he went to Paris for chasing his dream and finding his position from painting and drawing. At that time, Impressionist artists, Post-impressionist artists who were in Paris and also Ukiyo-e had influenced van Gogh. He believed that “love what you love” was his credo. During times, he switched from dark to bright colors and from social realist themes to light-drenched, outdoor scenes. He never gave up on his carrier, even though he just sold one painting in his lifetime. He had a tough life, which was not only infortune of his work, but also emotionally. Therefore, he put everything into arts. Everything we see today in his painting was what he saw and how he felt back to the time.

Artist: Vincent  van  Gogh   Location:  Museum  of  Modern  Art   Created:  June  1889   Dimensions:  74  cm  x  92  cm   Type:  Oil  on  Canvas    

    The Starry Night is Vincent van Gogh’s painting, which is also one of the most famous art works of his. This is a landscape, which is the view from van Gogh’s window. It is the night view of the town where van Gogh lives. The composition of the painting is not well organized. The main figure of whole painting is the sky, which is also the most important part. If we divide the painting horizontally into three parts from top to bottom, the first part would be the sky; the next part is the mountain and the last one is the house with glowing light. The movement starts in the bluish starry sky. It is like all the stars and the atmosphere move into vortex toward to the moon. The movement is also expressed with the brushstroke. In additional, the painting is unbalanced. The sky occupies 3/4 of the painting, and the dry trunk stands close to the painter. Also, the color and light is

really impressiv e. There is barely any dark color in the painting. The stars are shining like the sun of morning. Furtherm ore, the mood of this painting is complex. If the color is the expression of artist’s mood, then this painting is not telling a sad story. It is the explosion of van Gogh’s emotion.The lines are expressed by the brushstroke. This whole painting is composed by lines, which are smooth and short. Also, there is no empty space in this painting. There is full of details and vivid color, which is the one of the characteristic of post-impressionism paintings.

Artist: Vincent  van  Gogh   Location:    Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam   Created:  1888   Dimensions:  72  cm  x  90  cm   Type:  Oil  on  Canvas    

The Bedroom in Arles is the still life of van Gogh’s bedroom. Through the composition, it is easy to see that the bedroom is narrow, small but not chaotic. There is barely any movement in this painting, because this is a place indoor. The room is unbalanced as a whole. The bed is at the right, and there are four paintings above it. However, there are two doors at each side of the room, which is balanced. The color of tone which van Gogh uses is light and impressive. The color of the wall is light blue, it is the color of sky. And all the furniture in the bedroom is in the orange, warm color. This leads the mood of the painting to peaceful and quiet. The color of the painting is simple. However, it is painted with all the primary colors. Also, there is contrast in the color of the wall and other objects. Blue is a cold color, and yellow is the

warm color. They are mixed up into the painting, but it does not look weird. Additionall y, the space of the painting is not well organized. If we divide the painting into two parts horizontall y, the bottom part is emptier than the top part. On the other hand, van Gogh uses his unique brushstroke to expresses the texture of the floor, which is made by wood, try and rough; so does the furniture.

Artist: Vincent  van  Gogh   Location:    Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo   Created:  1888   Dimensions:  80.7  cm  x  65.3  cm   Type:  Oil  on  Canvas  

Cafe Terrace at Night is another night view landscape of van Gogh. The composition of the painting is clear. The first view of the painting would be the coffee tables and the corridor, which are lighted in the warm color. The painting can be divided into two parts, the light part and the dark part. The light comes from the left side, which is the café. The dark side is forwarding to the end of the street. Also, the color of the light is bright, which makes a contrast in two parts of the painting. However, the most of objects are united in the lighted side

of the painting. It shows that this is painting is in an unbalanced composition. There are people who are walking on the street of night, they may on the way to the café; they may just finish the talking with friends in the café, and leave to end the night. It is the movement of this peace of artwork. The mood and the atmosphere are friendly and relaxing. The impressive part of van Gogh’s paintings is the color. For example, in this painting, it is amazing how he makes the contrast between light and night. The color of the café is vivid and bright as same as the sun. He highlights the flourish of the café and night by implanting his emotion to the color. Otherwise, there are many geometric shapes in the painting, such as the ground and all the windowpanes. Also, the space between houses is the road, which is also the darkest area of the painting. However, it makes the view looking wide and long, which makes audiences want to see more of this place.

Van Gogh was a remarkable artist, who was suffered in his life. However, the reality made him who he was. All of his paintings were the biography of Vincent van Gogh, which he turned all the words and whispers into brushstrokes and paints, glowing all over the canvas. He was stuck in the time, buried by the crass common customs. Yet, he was still shining in the starry night of art history.

Fauvism Fauvism was not everything, but the beginning of everything, said Henri Matisse. It was not an era in the history of the art; it was only a blip in the journey, lasting from1904 to 1908. Also, it was the first art movement in the twentieth century. Before this, grasses were green, and skies were blue. However, Fauve artists changed replaced them with tomato-red trees and peagreen faces. It was tough and difficult for classical artists to accept those “new creature” of art.

André Derain Andre Derain, who was a French artist, as a Fauve artist, was one of the famous painters. He worked on Fauve paintings with Matisse, who was also a French artist. Their paintings were riveted by the vivid, unusual, strong color of it; Louis Vauxcelles called it the “les Fauves” or “the wild beasts”. As a result, the movement of Fauvism started. Derain’s painting Big Ben is one of his most famous works. It is a landscape of a firework. The composition of this painting is simple, which is a castle, a ship and a bridge on the lake. The main focus of the painting

Artist: Andre  Derain   Location:    Private collection   Created:  1905   Dimensions:  79  x  98  cm   Type:  Oil  on  Canvas  

should be the firework, which is represented by Derain’s special brushstroke which is also as known as pointillist. The unity and balance of the painting is also as simple as the composition. It can be divided into two parts, the sky and the lake. All the buildings are right the middle of the painting. Next, the most amazing part is the light and the color of the painting. The night sky is no longer the dark blue, but the green like the tea tree; the firework covers all over the sky and turns the lake into the same color. Without the color of the building, it would not be easy to tell that this is a view of night. The firework splits into small flakes, tilt into the lake like the stars. This is the movement of the painting. The reflection of the boat and the building looks vogue in the lake, which shows the wave of the water. It is also the movement. If this is a movie, there should be a happy ending with the mood of happy and cheering. But, there is barely any geometric shape in the painting. Things in shapes are the objects like the building and the bridge. Also,

the color in the painting is unusual and strong. Those points can be considered as short lines as well. As a result, the painting is combined with lines and colors.

objects on the desk that is behind him. It is obvious that the place he paints himself is his art studio. The light comes from the left; and the color is not bright. All of these lead the mood of the painting into seriousness and peace. Additional ly, there are geometric shapes in this work. The desk and the wall are in the same shape. The main tone of the painting is brick red. Red should be a warm color, but the brick red is close to brown, which is more a neutral color. Lines are thick and not smooth; it is the characteristic of Fauvism.

The Self- Portrait of Artist: Andre  Derain   Location:    National  Gallery  of  Australia.  Sydney   Derain is also one of his Created:  1903   masterpieces. The composition is Dimensions:  42.2  x  34.6  cm   Type:  Oil  on  Canvas   quite different from the classical   portrait. There is a whole body of his in the painting; and the main focus is no longer the main figure’s face. The movement of the painting is expressed by Derain’s arm. His arm hangs in the air; his hand catches something. Also, the painting is unbalanced and not well organized. The figure stands at the left side of the painting; and there are some

Artist: Andre  Derain   Location:    National  Gallery  of  Art,  Washington   Created:  1906   Dimensions:  100.3  x  80.3  cm   Type:  Oil  on  Canvas  

The Charing Cross Bridge is also a cityscape of Derain. The composition is more complex than last two. The painting is divided by the bridge that is right the middle; the top part is the shadow of city, the bottom is the river. The painting is balanced horizontally, but not as well as vertically. Also, the color is vivid impressive. All the lights spilt into dots as the expression of the movement. The color of those dots and blocks of color is exaggerating and strong. It is also catching audiences’ eyes. Overall, the mood in a down above the river is quite and warmRed and Orange are the color of passion, sun and warmness. Derain represents the sky of down with pink and violet paints, and also some bright yellow. But, he uses red and orange on the surface that is only the left side of the river. As a result, that is where the light comes from. Also, that is the reflection of the bridge. The building

and objects, which are close to audiences, are painted in violet; the city in the back is painted in a brighter color. Next, the space in the between two bridge piers is lighter than others. It is also the only space in the painting, which is not occupied by other objects. Also, the city is like the mirage, and it is in shape. There are not many details of those objects in the back; even the sky is not detailed. However, it is how Fauvist looks like. The particularity of Fauve paintings is that artists can expose all of their feelings by using whatever color they want to, to create the fantasyland of their dreams. Thank Derain and Matisse who brought a whole new world of art to that generation; as a result, we can all involve and travel back to and in the old time, to feel the moment of flowers of mind’s blossom.

Futurism Futurism was another artistic movement after the Fauvism. It was originated in Italy in the 20th century. The Futurism was the end of the old thought, and the prospect of the new life, which included technology, speed, youth and violence. Umberto Boccioni was one of the representatives of Futurism. Umberto Boccioni was an influential Italian painter and sculptor. He helped shape the revolutionary aesthetic of the Futurism movement as one of its principal figures. After he graduated from Accademia delle Belle Arti di Firenze, he started being interested in the art the first time. Then he traveled to Rome to get the degree of painting and drawing. In 1907, he started to develop the idea of futurism; at the same time, he met one of Futurist leader Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. Boccioni became the main theorist of the artistic movement. "Only when Boccioni, Severini and a few other Futurists traveled to Paris and saw what Braque and Picasso had been doing did the movement begin to take real shape" (New York TImes, Nov. 3, 1989 - Out of the Past, the Spirit of Italian Futurism by Michael Kimmelman). A Strada Entra Nella Casa, also as known as The Street Enters the House is one of Boccioni’s masterpieces. The composition of the painting is complex and disordered. But it is not difficult to see that it is a cityscape; also it happens in the market of the town. The figure, a lady stands on a balcony, watching at the busy market. The movement is everywhere. In the street, those houses are pitched; it is like that they fall into the ground. Also, there is number of people in the street. But, they look similar to each other; it is the shadow of

Artist: Umberto  Boccioni   Location:    Sprengel  Museum,  Hanover,  Germany Created:  1911   Dimensions:  100.0  x  100.5  cm   Type:  Oil  on  Canvas  

their movement. The light comes from the top of the painting, which is bright and golden. The color represents the light and shadow. For example, the lady stands in the shadow, because the color around her is darker then the house right the middle of the painting. Furthermore, there is no balance or unity in the painting. The whole frame is like the chaos, which is hard to distinguish where the street and houses are. It leads to the fact that the mood of this painting is hard to express. The atmosphere is lively; and the street looks crowded. The painting is painted in geometric shapes, such as all the houses and windows. Lines are straight, such as the outline of the houses. Also, the color of the painting is vivid. There are three primary colors, blue, red and yellow.

Artist: Umberto  Boccioni   Location:    Private  Collection Created:  1913   Dimensions:  unviable   Type:  Oil  on  Canvas  

Dynamism of a Man's Head is another Boccioni’s well-known peace. The composition of the painting is complex. According to the name of the painting, the main figure is a head of a man. However, it is separated into parts, which are not balanced and united. There is also movement with the brushstroke, which is wild and chaotic. The color is simple, and it is hard to see the light through the painting. The mood of the painting is the blossom of artist’s emotion, which is strong and meaningful. Boccioni uses such simple color to express the painting. There are mainly three colors: yellow, black and white. The interesting thing is that yellow parts are pasted with newspapers or book pages. It is new. The face of the man is divided into several geometric shapes. Also, there is only one part that is recognizable as a face. Furthermore,

lines are stick and not as meticulous as those classic paintings. In addition Boccioni’s another painting Dynamism of a Soccer Player is another classic model of Futurism. The composition is compact. All the figures are united together as a ball of fire. And the structure of the painting is balanced, not as random as Dynamism of a Man's Head. The movement is sportive. It spreads form the middle of the painting like a flower. Light comes from two sides of the painting. The light is yellow; the soccer players are red and orange. In conclusion, the mood of the painting is passionate and sportive, Furthermore, there are lines in the painting, which are presented by color Artist: Umberto  Boccioni   patte Location:    Dynamism  of  a  Soccer  Player rns. Created:  1913   Dimensions:  193.2  x  201  cm   Also, Type:  Oil  on  Canvas    

the light is represented in shapes. In additional, the color of the painting is combined with primary color. Futurism is the expectation of the “new world”. It is also a movement with all the strong emotion and blossom of them.


Cubism is an early-20th-century Avant-grade art movement pioneered by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, and later joined by Juan Gris, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, and Femand Leger. This movement revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture. Cubism has been considered the most influedntial art movement of the 20th century. The term is broadly use in association with a wide variety of art produced in Paris and Puteaux during the 1910s and extending through the 1920s. They pursued the reorganization of frames in the painting. Artists wanted to produce objects from different angles and layers, to make it jumped into three dimensions. It began between 1907 and 1911. Pablo Picasso’s 1907 painting les Demoiselles d’Avignon has often been considered a proto-Cubist work. Pablo Picasso was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer who spent most of his life in France. As one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century he is widely know for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co- invention of collage and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler is one of Picasso’s paintings.

Location:  Art  Institute  of  Chicago Created:  1910   Dimensions:  45  5/8  x  45  5/8  inches   Type:  Oil  on  Canvas  

The composition is complex and chaotic. It is a portrait; but it is hard to see. There should not be movement in a portrait. But with all the layers of square, the whole frame looks like moving around. The painting in united in separated parts, but not balanced. The color in the painting is in the same tone. It is a dark and depressed, such as the mood of the painting. The color of the painting is like the color of the metal, which is not vivid but strong. As the Cubism, the portrait is separated and re-organized with geometric shapes. Those shapes are divided into layers, which make the painting solid. Also the value of this painting is seriousness, which is also Picasso’s feeling of Kahnweiler.

Location:  Musee  d’Art  Moderne  de  la  Ville  de  Paris Created:  1911   Dimensions:  65  x  54  cm   Type:  Oil  on  Canvas  

e pigeo n aux petits pois is another Cubist painting of Picasso. The English name of this painting is the pigeon and Little Peas. It is in a café, which can be defined by the words on the painting. Also, it is hard to identify to frame or the scene of the painting. And the movement is not obvious. The balance and unity of the painting are really vague. Furthermore, the light and color of the painting is monotonic, which is based on yellow and white. The mood of the painting should be quiet and peace. But those geometric shapes make the frame disordered. It is also the wonderful of this painting. Lines in the painting are straight and thin, which are dexterous. In addition, the color of the painting is similar. The tone of it is light but not vivid. It is the Picasso’s way of painting. Portrait of Ambroise Vollard is another portrait, which is painted by the


Picasso. As a portrait it is flattering, not least in its implication that Vollard is one of a tiny elite who understand cubism. The composition is no longer where is the head or where is his hand. The more you look for a picture, the more insidiously Picasso demonstrates that life is not made of pictures but of unstable relatio nships betwee n artist and model, viewer and paintin g, self and world. As a portrait, there should not be many movem ents in the paintin g. Howev er, the shaped Location:  Pushkin  Museum  of  Fine  Art,  Moscow Created:  1910   faces make Dimensions:  92  x  65  cm   the Type:  Oil  on  Canvas   painting   moving with our eyes. The color and light of the painting is not as obvious and ancient paintings. Also, the mood of the painting is serious and solemn. It is united into the painting, like the unit and balance. Even though the painting is not balanced, but it is well organized. The lines represent the shaped and color pattern.

Cubism was the whole new movement during that time. Picasso was not only focused on Cubism, but also other style of art. He is one of the masters of the Art world.

and designs. Bieres de la Muse is Mucha’s poster for an advertisement of the bear.

Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau is French for “new Art”. It was and international philosophy and style of art, especially the decorative arts. Art Nouveau was most popular during 1890-1910. It was also known as Modernisme in Spain. The style was influenced strongly by Czech artist Alphonse Mucha. When he produced a lithographed in streets of paris as an advertisement for a play. It popularized the new artistic style and its creator to the citizens of Paris. Alphonse Mucha was a Czech Art Nouveau painter and decorative artist, known best for his distinct style. He produced many paintings, illustrations, advertisements, postcards,

It is Created: 1900   a   lady who dresses in an ancient dress with a hyperbolic headdress; this is the composition of the poster. The unity of the poster is cantered at the middle. The color of using makes the poster look ancient and nostalgic. The interesting part is that the wheat on the headdress is also a symbol of the raw material of the bear. According to the lady’s facial expression, the mood of the advertisement is relaxing. The hair of the figure is represented in curves. The line is vivid and detailed. It reminds the texture of the hair, which is submissive.

Mucha does not use many geometric shapes. Instead, there are many round shapes, such as the title of the advertisement. The light comes from the left side of the painting. However, it is not obvious. The tone of the painting is yellow. The color of lady’s skin and the background is similar. Also, there is no contract in the painting. Another poster of Mucha is Austrian Pavilion, Paris. It is the poster for one of the Paris Exposition. The poster has two parts, which is balanced. The left part is about two characters, and the right part is the graph of the architecture from several different angles. The figures are quiet and elegant. The figure in the back holds the front character’s hair. They both closed their eyes, which looks peaceful. The movement of the poster is the fall of the clothes. According to the color tone of the poster, there is no representation of the light. However, the color is in a tone of vague. It is the color of yellow and pinky red, which is also the warm color. The poster is divided into several geometrical shapes. The texture of the poster is fine and smooth. As an advertisement, it highlights the main purpose of the poster- the publicizing of the Austrian Pavilion. At the same time, it also has the sense of art. Almost each piece of Duch’s work is “female-dominated”. F. Champenois Imprimeur-Éditeur is another piece of poster. Different from other two pieces, this one is more colorful and more vivid. The main figure sit in the middle, with a huge book opening on her hand and knees. The texture of her dress is soft and fluffy. It is clear that is full of detail on her dress. Those details are painstaking lines. Those lines are golden yellow, which look luxuries and elegant. In the

Location:  Private  collection back Created:  1897   grou Dimensions:  72.7  x  55.2  cm   nd, Type:  Lithograph     there is a circle, which can let the poster be balanced. The organization is simple but integrated. However, it is hard to see the light in the poster. Although the color of the background is dark, those red flowers, which are red and shine like the stars in the night skies. The shape of the circle is also full of flower, which is a pattern. Art Nouveau is the start of modern art. During that period, people are impressed by the passion. I like Much’s style. The human figure of Much’s is skilled and beautiful.

ABSTRACT Abstract art uses a visual language of form, color and line to create a composition, which may exist with a degree of independence of visual references in the world. Abstract art, nonfigurative art, nonobjective art, and nonrepresentational art are loosely related terms. They are similar, but not the same. Abstraction indicates a departure from reality in depiction of imagery in art. Both geometric abstraction and lyrical abstraction are often totally abstract. Robert Delaunay is a French artist who cofounded Orphism art movement, noted for its use of strong colors and geometric shapes. However, his late works were more abstract. His key influence related to bold use of color, and a clear love of experimentation of both depth and tone. Premier Disque is Delaunay’s masterpiece of Abstract. It is like a target. However, it is painted with different colors. There is the contract in the painting, which is also divided the painting into two parts. The top side of circle is in vivid and light color; another part’s tone is darker. There is no movement in the painting. Yet the paint makes the texture highlighted. The shape of the object is geometrical. It can have different meanings. Literarily, this is exploring of feelings and emotion. On the other hand, the painting is united; cause there is only one object. Simultaneous Windows on the City is another piece of Delaunay’s abstract painting. According to the title, it is a windowpane, which is organized in the middle of the canvas. The window is a geometric shape, rectangle. Also, the movement is with the brushstroke, which is scrubbled.

20th century art Movement  

1st project

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