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你讓我的生命更完整


© 2011 Wagging Tails All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without written permission of the copyright owners. All images in this book have been reproduced with the knowledge and prior consent of the artists concerned, and no responsibility is aceepted by producer, publisher, or printer for any infringement of copyright or otherwise, arising from the contents of this publication. Every effort has been made to ensure that credits accurately comply with information supplied. We apologize for any inaccuracies that may have occurred and will resolve inaccurate or missing information in a subsequent reprinting of the book. DESIGNED BY Celeste Yang / pihuiyang@gmail.com / 415.279.6287 SCHOOL Academy of Art University BOOK TITLE You Complete My Life SIZE OF BOOK 8” X 10” NUMBER OF PAGES 114 TEXT STOCK Wausau COVER STOCK Wausau TYPEFACES Archer, Verlag SOFTWARE InDesign CS3, Illustrator CS3, Photoshop CS3 PRINTER Epson Stylus Photo 2400 BOOK BINDERY Herring & Robinson / 100 North Hill Dr. Unit 5 Brisbane, CA 94005 / 415.468.0440 / www.herringandrobinsonbookbinders.com


Home Sounds Like a Dream 家像是遙不可及的夢


Table of Contents – 目錄


01 The Stray Dog Problem – 流浪狗的問題

01.1 A History of Stray Dogs – 流浪狗的緣由 01.2 Why Dogs Become Strays – 為什麼會有流浪狗 01.3 Media’s Effect on the Stray Dog Problem – 媒體對於流浪狗問題的影響力

02 Dog Development – 狗的一生

02.1 From Puppy to Adult Dog – 從小狗到成犬 02.2 Survey of Purebred and Mixed Breeds – 血緣調查 02.3 Dog Language – 狗的溝通

03 Choosing the Right Dog – 選擇適合的狗

03.1 03.2 03.3 03.4

09 23 29

45 53 61

The Owner’s Personality and Life – 主人個性和生活 69 Dog Adoption – 領養狗 81 Interacting with a Dog – 與狗互動 91 Introducing Dogs to Children – 讓狗與小孩互相熟悉 103


07 / 08

No. [ 01 ]

The Stray Dog Problem – 流浪狗的問題

THE STRAY DOG PROBLEM 流浪狗的問題

01.1 A History of Stray Dogs – 流浪狗的緣由 01.2 Why Dogs Become Strays – 為什麼會有流浪狗 01.3 Media’s Effect on the Stray Dog Problem – 媒體對於流浪狗問題的影響力


09 / 10

No. [ 01 .1 ]

A Histor y of Stray Dogs – 流浪狗的緣由

01.1

A History of Stray Dogs – 流浪狗的緣由

流浪狗在台灣是相當普遍的問題


12 9

3 6


11 / 12

No. [ 01 .1 ]

A Histor y of Stray Dogs – 流浪狗的緣由

A History of Stray Dogs – 流浪狗的緣由 Typically, there are two reactions to a stray dog. Someone who is not an animal lover may see it for the trouble, noise, and inconvenience a stray can cause. The animal lover feels sorr y for the stray dog, tries to help, and occasionally adopts one. No matter which category you fit into, you have undoubtedly noticed the stray dog problem; yet many do not realize the actual extent of the problem, nor what has been done in the past six years to attempt to solve the problems that contribute to the large number of strays on Taiwan’s streets. The root of the stray problem in Taiwan is almost as old as the country itself. In the 1980s, when Taiwan experienced an economic boom, people bought puppies only to abandon them as adult dogs. Stray dogs may be a common sight in poor, less-developed countries, but more affluent Taiwanese cities are also teeming with them, with official figures showing there are about 180,000 living on the island of 23 million people. Nearly as plentiful as motor scooters that clog the streets are dogs – young and old , large and sma ll – that have no homes . Some are second , third , or four th generation strays, while others were abandoned after outliving their usefulness as high-priced status symbols. These stray dogs are ignored for the most part. Even though dogs are adorable, it is a huge responsibility to raise them, and one should not choose to raise a dog based on whim. Some people complain about the noise and the trouble after only a few days of owning a dog. They either give the dog away or drive it to the mountains and abandon it there. That is truly unforgivable. There is also a strange phenomenon in Taiwan where people will buy a dog whenever a movie about dogs comes to movie theaters. Golden Retrievers, Huskies, Labradors, and Shiba Inu are all examples of stray brand-name dogs left on the street once a dog movie leaves the big screen.

一般來說,人們對於流浪狗會有兩種截然不同的反應,不喜歡小動物的會視流浪狗為吵鬧髒亂的根源。但是對 於愛狗人士來說,流浪狗的存在讓他們感到難過並且會發自內心想要去照顧。流浪狗的問題存在已久但卻被 漠視。根據資料顯示過去六年來民眾對於流浪狗的問題以及解決方案普遍的不了解也不會刻意去關心。問題 的根本基本上跟經濟發展息息相關。 在九零年代過去經濟起飛時,民眾在經濟富裕的同時普遍興起喙養 寵物的風氣,但是風頭一過喜新厭舊的台灣民眾開始對於寵物狗感到厭煩並且開始棄養。基本上來說流浪犬 的普及程度代表一個國家跟社會的先進跟責任感。流浪狗的問題通常不存在經濟以及文化高度發展的國家,但 是台灣官方數據顯示台灣兩千三百萬人口卻有多達十八萬的流浪犬,在這龐大數字的背後隱藏的一個嚴重的問 題,未經結扎的流浪狗大量繁殖造成流浪狗的數量成幾何倍數成長。養狗是一件需要耐心以及長期關注的嗜 好,許多人僅憑著第一印象的可愛卻忽略了養狗需要注意的事項,許多狗是在被購買的數日被丟棄,而原因只是單 純的家人無法適應吵鬧的吠叫以及清理排泄物的煩累。另一個特殊的現象跟電影息息相關,近年來許多狗明星 前仆後繼的在大螢幕上演出,螢幕上美好的演出觸動人心也帶動了喙養寵物狗的風氣,但是風頭一過街上開始 出現許多被丟棄的名貴純種“黃金獵犬、哈士奇、拉不拉多隨處可見”,這些前狗明星被棄之如敝屣。

1980


13 / 14

No. [ 01 .1 ]

A Histor y of Stray Dogs – 流浪狗的緣由

“A dog is the only thing on earth that loves you more than you love yourself.” – Josh Billings

狗大概是這世界上唯一愛你 比愛自己還多的動物


15 / 16

No. [ 01 .1 ]

A Histor y of Stray Dogs – 流浪狗的緣由


( _________ ) .

The Stray Dog Problem – 流浪狗造成的問題 Stray dogs cause motor accidents More and more stray dogs die on the streets every year Strays contribute to unsanitary street conditions that can spread disease Some strays bark too noisily Diseased strays infect other animals, including people If food is scarce, strays might eat other strays Stray dogs sometimes attack people The food chain is disrupted by stray dogs If strays take up too much living space, more mild-tempered animals will have no place to live Stray dogs are caught by traps and severely hurt 流浪狗會造成行車意外 越來越多的狗在街頭發生意外死亡 流浪狗會散播寄生蟲以及疾病 流浪狗的吠叫 聲會造成噪音汙染 帶有疾病的流浪犬會傳染給其他動物和人類 如果食物無法滿足時流浪狗會開始同類相筮 有時流浪狗會攻擊人類 相當程度地改變食物鏈 流浪狗會佔用其他生物的生存空間 流浪狗常會被捕獸夾誤 傷並留下無法抹滅的傷痕


17 / 18

No. [ 01 .1 ]

MOM

A Histor y of Stray Dogs – 流浪狗的緣由

DAD

Dog Overpopulation – 狗的過度繁殖 Pet overpopulation is a tragic problem. Each year, hundreds of animals in shelters must be euthanized because good homes could not be found for them. By age five, a female dog and her female offspring can produce 192 puppies (assuming two females per litter and two litters per year). And this doesn’t include all of the offspring produced by her male puppies. This adds up to a great deal of unwanted puppies and dogs in our community. It’s easy to produce 80 million dogs.

寵物的過度繁殖是一個悲劇也代表著嚴重的問題,每一年收容所都必須強制撲殺未被領養的流浪犬。一般的 母狗在五歲時已經性徵成熟可以開始受孕,經過估計牠可生下大約192隻後裔。以台灣現有數量的流浪狗,不用 幾年流浪狗的數量就會輕易超過八十萬。


12

The First Year – 第一年 Puppies

The Second Year – 第二年

66 Puppies During Ten Years 在十年間

The Third Year – 第三年

382 Puppies

The Fourth Year – 第四年

2,201 Puppies

The Fifth Year – 第五年

12,680 Puppies

The Sixth Year – 第六年

73,041 Puppies

The Seventh Year – 第七年

420,715 Puppies

The Eighth Year – 第八年

2,423,316 Puppies The Ninth Year – 第九年

13,968,290 Puppies

80,399,780 The Tenth Year – 第十年

Puppies

This assumes two litters per year and 2.8 surviving puppies per litter

實驗顯示如果讓一對狗且讓牠們的後裔 無限制的條件下繁殖十年,將有多達 80,399,780的後代。 假設母狗一年可以生兩胎且平均每胎有2.8隻小狗


19 / 20

No. [ 01 .1 ]

A Histor y of Stray Dogs – 流浪狗的緣由

2001

2006

{ 78%

Euthanasia

{ 62% }

}

Euthanasia

2005

{ 73% }

1999

Euthanasia

2002 2002

{ 90% } Euthanasia

{ 63% } Euthanasia

2007

{ 74% } Euthanasia

2003

2008

{ 73% } Euthanasia

Source: Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan

{ 68% } Euthanasia

2004

{ 71% } Euthanasia


Data – 數據

1999~2008

Data on stray dogs in Taiwan according to the Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan 流浪狗的數量根據行政院農委會數據

895,242

Total number of dogs in animal shelters 在動物收容所內的流浪犬

650,095

Number of dogs euthanized 安樂死的流浪犬的數量

139,873

Number of dogs adopted 被收養的數量

105,274

Total number of missing and dead dogs 失蹤以及死亡犬總計

1999

100% 90% 7% 78,686

70,231

5,831

3% 2,574

2006

100% 78% 16% 6% 105,611

82,887

16,091

6,333

2007

100% 74% 15% 11% 124,575

92,107

19,183

10,285

2000

100% 73% 15% 12% 65,636

47,993

9,700

7,041

2005

100% 73% 15% 12% 93,212

68,002

14,24 4

10,066

2008

100% 73% 14% 13% 132,903

96,399

19,04 4

17,462

2004

100% 71% 17% 12% 85,512

60,307

15,341

9,864

2003

2000

100% 68% 20% 12%

Euthanasia

2002

{ 73% }

78,716

53,652

15,816

9,248

100% 63% 20% 17% 67,025

42,222

17,742

11,061

2001

100% 62% 17% 21% 58,313

35,788

10,169

12,356


21 / 22

A Histor y of Stray Dogs – 流浪狗的緣由

No. [ 01 .1 ]

Data – 數據

1999~2008

Data on stray dogs in Taiwan by city and county according to the Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan 流浪狗的數量在各城鄉間根據行政院農委會數據

Number of dogs euthanized 安樂死的流浪犬的數量 Number of dogs adopted 被收養的數量 Total number of missing and dead dogs 失蹤以及死亡犬總計

Taipei City 台北市 98,814

Kaohsiung City 高雄市 40,997

3,480 8% 17,082 17%

11,403 28%

Keelung City 基隆市 19,141

Hsinchu City 新竹市 12,932

875 7%

1,674 9% 3,907 20%

34,451 35%

Taichung City 台中市 28,845

480 3% 3,735 13%

7,030 54%

26,114 64% 13,560 71%

Tainan City 台南市 43,732

3,563 8% 10,524 24%

9,006 31%

5,027 39%

47,191 48%

Chiayi City 嘉義市 13,954

Taipei County 台北縣 152,508

15,482 10% 16,050 11%

Taoyuan County 台東縣 56,889

6,024 11% 7,017 12%

Hsinchu County 新竹縣 10, 389

1,102 10% 2,143 21%

Miaoli County 苗栗縣 9,658

1,167 13% 1,723 18%

Taichung County 台中縣 46,222

3,033 7% 2,290 5%

2,291 6% 3,350 9%

5,761 41% 16,104 56%

7,713 55% 29,645 68%

7,14 4 69% 120,976 79%

6,468 69%

43,848 77% 40,899 88%

Source: Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan

Nantou County 南投縣 37,465

31,824 85%


I come from Taipei City Changhwa County 彰化縣 24,824

Yunlin County 雲林縣 12,922

Chiayi County 嘉義縣 3,505

14 0%

1,809 7% 5,119 21%

3,402 26%

1,289 10% 1,860 14%

Tainan County 台南縣 89,228

5,706 6% 3,307 4%

Kaohsiung County 高雄縣 48,676

4,84 4 10% 3,932 8%

I come from Kaohsiung City

Pingtung County 屏東縣 31,893

Yilan County 宜蘭縣 27,612

1,883 6% 4,225 13% 1,881 7% 8,519 31%

17,212 62% 17,896 72%

9,506 74%

10,356 77%

39,900 82% 80,215 90%

25,785 81%

I come from Keelung City

Hualien County 花蓮縣 21,786

2,127 10% 5,226 24%

Taitung County 台東縣 25,066

I come from Hsinchu City Penghu County 澎湖縣 12,971

808 3% 3,722 15%

I come from Taichung City Kinmen County 金門縣 14,291

708 5% 1,966 14%

Lienchiang County 連江縣 1,222

64 5% 147 12%

5,064 39% 3,091 24% 4,816 37%

14,433 66%

20,536 82%

11,617 81%

1,011 83%


23 / 24

No. [ 01 . 2 ]

Why Dogs Become Strays – 為什麼會有流浪狗

01.2

Why Dogs Become Strays – 為什麼會有流浪狗

流浪狗通常是因為走失或被冷血的主人丟棄


25 / 26

No. [ 01 . 2 ]

Why Dogs Become Strays – 為什麼會有流浪狗

“MY PET IS TOO HIGH– MAINTENANCE” 我的狗養起來太費力了

“I AM TOO SICK TO TAKE CARE OF MY DOG” 我對於照顧狗感到厭煩

“CARING FOR MY DOG IS BEYOND MY BUDGET” 沒錢養狗

“I’M STARTING A FAMILY” 我要邁向人生下一階段– 家庭

Why Do People Abandon Their Dogs? – 為何人類丟棄他們的狗 The issue of dog abandonment has recently become more prevalent in the news, but this has been a problem for quite some time, as evidenced by overcrowded animal shelters. Every day of the week people abandon their dogs at foreclosed homes, anima l shelters , or on the side of the road . There are va lid reasons to give up your canine. If you have a terminal illness, or an affliction that makes it impossible to provide sufficient care, there’s little you can do except find a good home for your pet. But avoid making the decision lightly. After all, your dog considers you his best friend.

流浪狗問題開始出現在新聞的各大版面,但這問題已經根深蒂固在台灣 有段時間,每天都有狗被丟在法拍屋、動物收容所或是路旁。人總有不 同的理由,其中不乏人生已到盡頭,或是無力撫養給予照顧,但在做這件 事前,請想想狗是最忠實的朋友,會這樣對待朋友嗎?


Many people adopt puppies because they are cute and playful, but just as an infant develops into a toddler, and eventually a teenager, a puppy will become an adult. Along the way, your puppy may pick up habits that irritate you. It may start to bark excessively, jump on people, or may develop severe separation anxiety. Depending on the extent of the behavioral issue, many owners lose patience and abandon their pet.

許多人喜歡養可愛的幼犬,但是幼犬跟人一樣會長大並且逐漸成熟,在 這過程中狗會開始大量吠叫、跳躍到人身上或是對於獨處感到不安,許 多人開始感到不耐煩和厭倦,而有了丟棄狗的念頭。 Owners sometimes become too sick to properly care for their canines. So they decide to give up their pets to animal shelters.

狗主人會開始對於養狗感到厭煩,而開始想要把狗送到收容所。 Taking care of your pooch can be expensive. This is why you shou ld ma ke a l is t of t he a n nua l e x pen ses related to dog ownership prior to getting a dog. Such expenses should include veter inar y care, food , toys , treats , grooming supplies , and other essentials. If you find that you are unable to afford the basics, look for less-costly alternatives before you decide to abandon your canine.

養一隻狗的花費可能是你意想不到的。記住!事先計畫可讓你省下一大 筆不必要的開銷,很多瑣碎的事項譬如:獸醫費用、食物、玩具、零食和 梳毛護理都是必須考慮進去。如果發現養這品種的狗超乎你的預算,那 可依照你的預算選擇適合的狗,千萬不要養了才反悔而毀了狗的一生。 Many people think they need to get rid of their canines when they are expecting a baby. They believe having a dog in the home with an infant is dangerous. With the right approach, however, your pet can play a valuable role in your child’s early development. The key is to provide plenty of supervised interaction between the baby and the dog. If your canine has exposure to your child, and understands that your child has more authority than it does in the “pack,” your dog will yield. Plus, as your child grows, he or she’ll likely form an unbreakable bond with your dog.

許多人會因為他們有了新生命而想要丟棄狗,他們相信狗會對嬰兒造成 一定程度的危險,但如果可以適當地教導狗,牠會是你小孩在成長過程中 最好的朋友,關鍵就在應該讓狗跟小孩在你看護下互動,讓牠知道小孩 也是小主人而不是敵人,狗就會順從,讓你的小孩與狗一起長大,你會發 現他們之間會發展出不可思議的感情。


27 / 28

No. [ 01 . 2 ]

Why Dogs Become Strays – 為什麼會有流浪狗

狗不是玩具也不是貓,不能只是定時 餵養或是讓牠自生自滅。養狗是相 當費時的工作,根據不同的品種要求 的照顧時間也不同,但都需要犧牲 個人的時間來照顧。如果無法辦到, 建議你養金魚就好。


24hrs


29 / 30

No. [ 01 . 3 ]

Media’s Effect on the Stray Dog Problem – 媒體對於流浪狗問題的影響力

01.3

Media’s Effect on the Stray Dog Problem – 媒體對於流浪狗問題的影響力

人都是追星族,認為狗是天生的明星不需過度 訓練就可自發性完成所有螢幕上的技巧


31 / 32

No. [ 01 . 3 ]

Media’s Effect on the Stray Dog Problem – 媒體對於流浪狗問題的影響力

我們都知道完美的狗根本不存在,我們應該是以 找尋適合我們的狗為宗旨。


Movie Dogs Are Not Perfect Dogs – 電影明星狗並不是都很完美 As we know, the perfect dog does not exist; rather, we must find the best option based on the person or family looking for one. A side from a ll the breed character istics of a dog, it is a lso impor tant to analyze several other aspects while choosing a puppy. Dogs are great stars, and often several dogs share one role. Nine different dogs played the part of “Lassie” since the show first premiered in 1943 . These dogs are trained for years, by experts, before they are accepted on the set. Special tricks and effects can give animals human–like qualities, but real pets are all too… real, and individuals end up disappointed when the pet they purchased doesn’t behave like their on-screen counterpart. Disappointment quickly turns to annoyance and sometimes can lead to abuse. Besides expert training, many movie dogs require extensive care. Frequently films will feature rare and exotic breeds that are difficult to care for. Chihuahuas, while smart and affectionate, need careful socialization to keep from becoming suspicious of strangers, jealous, and even aggressive! Their tiny frames, while adorable, make them vulnerable to injuries. All of these traits make Chihuahuas an unsuitable companion for children and should definitely be taken into consideration before bringing one home. At times, Holly wood and other movie industries have actually created a breed boom with a movie. Unfortunately this instant popularity can attract the wrong crowd of owners and breeders. There are irresponsible breeders out there who are more interested in making money than careful and humane breeding practices. Their negligence can result in animals of poor health, bad temperament, and inferior structure. Sadly, these breeders are everywhere. It may take a little research to buy a purebred, something impulse buyers like those influenced by the latest Hollywood trend, are unlikely to do.

我們都知道任何事物都沒有完美,包括狗在內。選擇狗的條件應該是以 個人或是整個家庭的需求以及能力為出發點。除了選擇狗的品種,記得 做好相關功課才不會有遺憾。 狗是天生的明星,但在狗電影中通常是 許多狗一起擔綱演出同一角色,最著名的例子就是靈犬萊西,有多達九隻 狗參與演出,為了能夠完美演譯,這些狗通常由專家訓練出類似人的反映 跟直覺,但是我們所購買或是認養的狗,因缺乏後天的專業訓練並不會 有這樣反應,一般人並不了解這一點,而是期望狗能夠跟電影一樣順從 聽話並有特殊的技巧取悅主人,失望開始慢慢蔓延成厭惡,最後變成虐 待。 另一個不為人知的秘密是狗明星需要大量的照顧,通常狗明星都 是從許多稀有品種中挑選,這些狗天生就較為脆弱而需要專業訓練師在 旁給予照料,以吉娃娃為例,吉娃娃相當的聰明以及黏人,但必須在小時 候就讓牠們適當與群眾相處,不然下場就是不信任人,開始有攻擊性並 且會大聲吠叫,另外瘦小可愛的身軀相當容易受到傷害,所以並不適合作 為與小孩子一起成長的夥伴,但因為好來塢電影的大受歡迎,大量的吉 娃娃開始被培育出現在市面上。


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No. [ 01 . 3 ]

Media’s Effect on the Stray Dog Problem – 媒體對於流浪狗問題的影響力

Siberian Husky 西伯利亞雪橇犬–哈士奇

The Siberian Husky “does not display the possessive qualities of the guard dog, nor is he overly suspicious of strangers or aggressive with other dogs.” The free-spirited Siberian Husky is usually good-natured with everyone. They are also very playful, athletic, agile, and light on their feet. Huskies love the great outdoors and require vigorous exercise, especially in cool weather. They should be taken running, hiking, and/or biking every day, always on-leash, for they’re independent and born to run. If something catches a Husky’s interest, it will be gone. Without exercise, mental activity, and lots of companionship, a Husky can be incredibly, massively destructive.

Heat tolerance 熱的忍受度 Cold tolerance 冷的忍受度

西伯利亞雪橇奇犬並不擁有稱職的守門犬的特質,對於陌生人缺乏戒心並容易相處。另一方面哈士奇好奇、運 動、輕巧的特性並不適合居住在狹窄的室內。通常喙養哈士奇,主人需要長時間的陪伴及帶牠們到開闊的戶外, 讓牠們有機會盡情奔跑或是到高山健行,不過切記勿讓哈士奇掙脫項圈,掙脫的哈士奇通常會對環境造成極大 的影響。

Grooming 梳毛 Walking dog 遛狗

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7 Level – 等級 Aggressiveness towards owners – 對飼主的攻擊 Aggressiveness towards children – 對小孩的攻擊性 Aggressiveness towards other dogs – 對其他狗的攻擊性 Ability to protect – 勢力範圍守護 Barks to alert for danger – 警覺吠叫 Excessive barking – 無故吠叫 Destructiveness – 破壞性 Energy – 興奮性 Exercise – 活動性 Playfulness – 喜歡玩耍 Affection – 寵愛需求 Friendliness towards strangers – 對陌生人的親切度 Obedience training – 服從訓練 Housetraining – 如廁訓練


CHECKLIST – 確認事項 A Siberian Husky may be right for you. Huskies are: 西伯利亞雪橇犬或許適合你: Medium-sized and furry, with a wolfish appearance 中型犬、毛量多、帶有狼的特徵 Free-spirited and playful 無拘無束好相處 Athletic and agile and love the great outdoors, especially in cold weather 愛好運動靈巧,愛好生活在寒冷的戶外 Usually good-natured with strangers and sociable with other dogs 對於陌生人以及其他種類犬不會顯露敵意 Made to run full-speed, pull carts and sleds, and/or carry a backpack on a mountain hike 通常被用於雪撬以及高山救援

CHECKLIST – 確認事項 A Siberian Husky may not be right for you. Huskies may possess: 西伯利亞雪橇犬或許不適合你: Medium sized dogs Group: working 中型工作犬

Vigorous exercise requirements 需要大量的運動 Rowdiness and exuberant jumping, especially when young 幼犬相當好動 Massive destructiveness and howling when bored, left alone too much, or not exercised enough 當缺乏運動和陪伴,哈士奇犬會性情大變造成破壞 A desire to escape from your yard in search of adventure 喜歡冒險,會時常離開院子 Tendencies toward heavy shedding 喜歡在陰涼處 Strong instincts to chase and grab anything that runs, i.e. cats 喜歡直覺式的追逐運動中的物體或是動物,尤其是貓 Strong-willed minds of their own, requiring a confident owner who can take charge 自尊心極強


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No. [ 01 . 3 ]

Media’s Effect on the Stray Dog Problem – 媒體對於流浪狗問題的影響力

Labrador Retriever 拉布拉多

The Labrador Retriever is one terrific family dog, given enough vigorous exercise (preferably this would include swimming and fetching games) and not just a walk around the block once a day. Too much confinement and not enough exercise can lead to rambunctiousness and destructive chewing. Labrador Retrievers are one of the best dog breeds for children of all ages; they’re kindly, good-natured, and take most things in stride. They also tend to be independent dogs. Though quite biddable and responsive to obedience training, some Labrador Retrievers can have a noticeable stubborn streak. Some have very thick necks and may barely notice a tug on the leash. The Labrador Retriever matures slowly, remaining a spirited teenager for several years, which sounds fun, but requires patience and training to manage.

Heat tolerance 熱的忍受度 Cold tolerance 冷的忍受度

Grooming 梳毛

拉布拉多是相當適合家庭喙養的犬類,適量的運動(包括游泳或是飛盤遊戲)才能滿足牠們好動的天性,過度 的制約或是不足的運動常會帶來反效果。拉布拉多是被公認最適合陪伴小孩成長的寵物狗,因為牠們的個性十 分親切、乖巧而且獨立。拉布拉多也易於訓練但由於個性使然,就像青春期的少年一樣永遠充滿活力!聽起來非 常吸引人但是千萬記住喙養拉布拉多需要大量的耐心去訓練。

Walking dog 遛狗

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7 Level – 等級 Aggressiveness towards owners – 對飼主的攻擊 Aggressiveness towards children – 對小孩的攻擊性 Aggressiveness towards other dogs – 對其他狗的攻擊性 Ability to protect – 勢力範圍守護 Barks to alert for danger – 警覺吠叫 Excessive barking – 無故吠叫 Destructiveness – 破壞性 Energy – 興奮性 Exercise – 活動性 Playfulness – 喜歡玩耍 Affection – 寵愛需求 Friendliness towards strangers – 對陌生人的親切度 Obedience training – 服從訓練 Housetraining – 如廁訓練


CHECKLIST – 確認事項 A Labrador Retriever may be right for you. Labs are: 拉布拉多或許適合你: Large and bouncy, with an enthusiastic attitude toward life 相當樂觀、好動 Short-haired with easy-care coats 短毛好照顧 Cheerful, with a tail-wagging nature 據有鼓勵的特質,經常性的搖尾 Full of energy; they thrive on exercise and athletic activities 總是充滿能量,對於運動以及相關活動非常熱衷 Steady-tempered and dependable with everyone 不易怒且與人相處融洽 Peaceful with other animals 與其他動物可和平相處 Medium to large sized dogs Group: sporting 中、大型狩獵犬

Eager to please and responsive to training 易於訓練

CHECKLIST – 確認事項 A Labrador Retriever may not be right for you. They tend to: 拉布拉多或許不適合你: Require a goodly amount of exercise, not just a couple of short walks around the block 需要一定的運動量,簡單遛狗不能滿足牠們的需求 Be rowdy and exuberant jumpers, especially when young or not exercised enough 容易吵鬧並且跑跳,如果再加上運動量不夠這些情況會更加嚴重 Chew objects, and may mouth your hands in play 喜歡咀嚼或是咬物品,有時玩耍會咬主人的手 Shed (average) 脫毛


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No. [ 01 . 3 ]

Media’s Effect on the Stray Dog Problem – 媒體對於流浪狗問題的影響力

Beagle 米格魯

Beagles need much more exercise than most people give them, which is why there are many overweight Beagles with health problems. Though they are often kept in city apartments or condos, they should not be. Beagles require long, frequent walks and a fenced yard wherein they can stretch their legs off-leash. Beagles must be fenced because they’re natural explorers and chasers who will follow their noses wherever that fascinating smell takes them, and since Beagles are endowed with selective deafness, they seldom come back when you call them. In addition, you can’t leave them outside unmonitored, for Beagles are prone to wanderlust and can be adept climbers and diggers. Also, Beagles left outside become bored and may bay and howl or dig holes.

Heat tolerance 熱的忍受度 Cold tolerance 冷的忍受度

Grooming 梳毛

米格魯需要超乎你想像的運動量,這也是為何大部份的米格魯都有過重以及相關的健康問題。米格魯是需要長 途定時的運動並且不適合喙養在狹窄的室內空間,另一方面喙養的空間通常需要圍籬規劃以避免牠們掙脫項 圈後逃脫,還有米格魯是天生的探險家以及追蹤者,當有吸引的味道或不尋常的蹤跡都會引起牠們的興趣。大 部人忽略的特徵是,米格魯的聽力十分有限因此不太常回應主人的呼叫.另一方面牠們不能單獨圈養在戶外以免 走失因為會感到無聊開始鳴叫或掘洞展開探險。

Walking dog 遛狗

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7 Level – 等級 Aggressiveness towards owners – 對飼主的攻擊 Aggressiveness towards children – 對小孩的攻擊性 Aggressiveness towards other dogs – 對其他狗的攻擊性 Ability to protect – 勢力範圍守護 Barks to alert for danger – 警覺吠叫 Excessive barking – 無故吠叫 Destructiveness – 破壞性 Energy – 興奮性 Exercise – 活動性 Playfulness – 喜歡玩耍 Affection – 寵愛需求 Friendliness towards strangers – 對陌生人的親切度 Obedience training – 服從訓練 Housetraining – 如廁訓練


CHECKLIST – 確認事項 A Beagle may be right for you. Beagles are: 米格魯或許適合你: Conveniently-sized, sturdy, and athletic 適合的體型,非常壯碩以及愛好運動 Completely natural in appearance 外表十分自然 Short-haired, with easy-care coats 短毛好照顧 Lovers of exercise, play, and outdoor activities 戶外運動愛好者 Good-natured and peaceful with everyone 個性好易於相處

CHECKLIST – 確認事項 A Beagle may not be right for you. Beagles may require and/or exhibit: 米格魯或許不適合你: An extremely careful search to find good-tempered lines 需要長時間的觀察才能找到適合以及個性好的米格魯 A goodly amount of exercise, not just a couple of walks around the block 需要一定量的運動 Small to medium sized dogs Group: hunting 小型狩獵犬

Destructiveness when bored or not exercised enough 當鬱悶或是運動量不夠時會焦躁並有破壞性 An independent “what’s in it for me? ” attitude – can be obstinate 獨立並具有好奇的個性,有時相當固執 Being kept on-leash or securely fenced 需要狗鏈或是圍籬 A tendency to bay and howl 鳴叫的傾向 Extra time to be housebroken 需要額外的時間教導衛生習慣 Moderate to heavy shedding 需要適度的遮蔽 A distinctive doggy odor 有特殊的體味 Potential breed-common health problems 有基因上的缺陷以及健康問題


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No. [ 01 . 3 ]

Media’s Effect on the Stray Dog Problem – 媒體對於流浪狗問題的影響力

Welsh Corgi 柯基

Spirited and athletic, yet steady and dependable, the Pembroke Welsh Corgi is a true “big dog on short legs.” Herding, obedience, agility, or chasing balls (with surprising speed) are enjoyable outlets (both physical and mental) for the Corgi’s enthusiasm and desire to work. If its days include such moderate exercise, along with the loving companionship of his family, the Pembroke Welsh Corgi is adaptable and easy to live with. He is polite with guests, reserved with strangers, and makes a sensible watchdog. This attentive breed learns quickly and responds well to obedience training. Yet the Corgi has the independent judgment and problem-solving abilities of a true herding breed, a prospective owner need to have the confidence to establish and consistently enforce rules, or he may make up his own.

Heat tolerance 熱的忍受度 Cold tolerance 冷的忍受度

Grooming 梳毛

性格非常穩定並可靠,對四肢短卻體型龐大的柯基一慣的稱讚。柯基喜歡群居並會追逐移動的球類,如果可以 撥出時間陪伴柯基以及帶牠運動,柯基會是好選擇!柯基對於客人相當有禮但是對於陌生人非常警戒,柯基易 於訓練並有獨立判斷以及解決困難的獨特能力,但要當牠的主人必須非常有自信並且堅持原則。

Walking dog 遛狗

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7 Level – 等級 Aggressiveness towards owners – 對飼主的攻擊 Aggressiveness towards children – 對小孩的攻擊性 Aggressiveness towards other dogs – 對其他狗的攻擊性 Ability to protect – 勢力範圍守護 Barks to alert for danger – 警覺吠叫 Excessive barking – 無故吠叫 Destructiveness – 破壞性 Energy – 興奮性 Exercise – 活動性 Playfulness – 喜歡玩耍 Affection – 寵愛需求 Friendliness towards strangers – 對陌生人的親切度 Obedience training – 服從訓練 Housetraining – 如廁訓練


CHECKLIST – 確認事項 A Welsh Corgi may be right for you. The Corgi is: 柯基或許適合你: A “big dog” with short legs, i.e., built long and low to the ground, but with a robust body, heavy bone, and a working dog temperament 體型龐大卻只有短卻強而有力的四肢,但非常適合工作 Spirited and athletic, but needs only moderate exercise to maintain his muscle tone 有活力並好動,跟一般大型犬不同的是柯基並不需要長時間或是大量的運動 Short-haired with an easy-care coat in a variety of colors 多色的短毛非常易於照顧 Steady and dependable 性格穩定可依靠 Polite with guests and makes a sensible watchdog 對客人不會任意吼叫,同是也是被公認為稱職守門犬 Usually fine with other family pets, and especially good with livestock 與其他寵物相處情況良好,尤其是家禽

CHECKLIST – 確認事項 A Welsh Corgi may not be right for you. Corgis require and/or exhibit: 柯基或許不適合你:

Small to medium sized dogs Group: herding 小、中型畜牧犬

Providing enough mental stimulation to fulfill his desire to work and give him something productive to do 需要足夠的耐心跟心理建設,柯基才會開始動作以及做有建設性工作 Destructiveness when bored or left alone too much 當鬱悶及長時間獨處時,柯基會有破壞傾向 Destructiveness when bored or not exercised enough 當鬱悶或是運動量不夠時會焦躁並有破壞性 Territorial aggression toward dogs and cats he doesn’t know 對不熟悉的狗或貓會有強烈的地域性 Strong-willed mind of his own, requiring a confident owner who can take charge 需要自信及負責任的態度來喙養 Chasing and nipping at things that move: children, joggers, other animals, bikes, cars 喜歡追移動的物體或人 Potential for excessive barking 有過度吠叫的傾向 Heavy shedding 需要大量的隱蔽空間


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No. [ 01 . 3 ]

Media’s Effect on the Stray Dog Problem – 媒體對於流浪狗問題的影響力

Shiba Inu 柴犬

Though conveniently sized, easy to groom, clean, quiet indoors, and not a nuisance underfoot, the Shiba Inu is not an easy-to-live-with lapdog; rather, it is a bold, high-spirited, hardy “big dog” in a compact body. This breed is very challenging to raise. They must always be kept on-leash, for they have a high prey drive, quick reflexes, and will pursue any thing that moves. A Shiba Inu can outrun and out-dodge any human. You must stay one step ahead of the Shiba Inu, for it is both dominant and clever. Shibas often try to manipulate through intimidation, and when displeased by something, can emit a loud scream which may catch you (or your vet) totally unprepared. Shibas Inus are also possessive of their toys and food; it is said that if they could utter one word, it would be “Mine!”

Heat tolerance 熱的忍受度 Cold tolerance 冷的忍受度

Grooming 梳毛

適合的體型、易於整理、不易吠叫這些都是柴犬的優點,但是卻不容易相處或是喙養。在相對嬌小的身軀隱藏了 自由奔放的靈魂。柴犬必須長時間以鏈子圈養,因為看到任何有興趣的事物就會拉著主人拔腿狂奔,因此必須記 住永遠要比柴犬領先一步到兩步的距離。除此之外,柴犬會大聲吠叫當感到沮喪,並且對於食物以及玩具有強 烈的佔有慾。

Walking dog 遛狗

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7 Level – 等級 Aggressiveness towards owners – 對飼主的攻擊 Aggressiveness towards children – 對小孩的攻擊性 Aggressiveness towards other dogs – 對其他狗的攻擊性 Ability to protect – 勢力範圍守護 Barks to alert for danger – 警覺吠叫 Excessive barking – 無故吠叫 Destructiveness – 破壞性 Energy – 興奮性 Exercise – 活動性 Playfulness – 喜歡玩耍 Affection – 寵愛需求 Friendliness towards strangers – 對陌生人的親切度 Obedience training – 服從訓練 Housetraining – 如廁訓練


CHECKLIST – 確認事項 A Shiba Inu may be right for you. The Shiba Inu is: 柴犬或許適合你: Conveniently-sized, sturdy, and strong 適合的體型並且強壯 Wolf-like (spitz) in appearance, with prick ears, foxy face, thick coat, and a curled tail 外表與狼十分相似,有著聳立的耳朵、類似狐狸的臉部和彎曲的尾巴 Energetic, bold, and spirited – definitely not a lapdog 不是可以放在大腿撫摸類型的狗 Smart and clever 聰明伶俐並善解人意 Swift, moving with light-footed grace 靈巧並擅於應用體型 An alert watchdog 盡責的守門犬

CHECKLIST – 確認事項 A Shiba Inu may not be right for you. Shibas may exhibit: 柴犬或許不適合你: Small sized dogs Group: hunting 小型狩獵犬

Massive destructiveness when bored or left alone too much 當鬱悶及長時間獨處時,會開始有破壞傾向 Excessive suspiciousness when not well socialized 沒適當與同類相處,會開始產生強烈的懷疑性格 Aggression toward other dogs and cats – strong chasing instincts 對於其牠品種的同類和貓,會有強烈地域性並喜好追逐 Containment difficulties, will attempt to escape 難圈養,會嘗試逃脫 The tendency to flee, may be oblivious to your calls when an interesting sight or scent catches their attention 喜歡亂跑,雖會聽從主人的指令,但只要有新奇的事物或是味道出現,就會逃離主人 的掌控 Strong wills which require a confident owner who can take charge 強烈的自尊心需要有自信的主人 Heavy shedding 需要大量的隱蔽空間


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No. [ 02 ]

Dog Development – 狗的一生

DOG DEVELOPMENT 狗的一生

02.1 From Puppy to Adult Dog – 從小狗到成犬 02.2 Survey of Purebred and Mixed Breeds – 為什麼會有流浪狗 02.3 Dog Language – 媒體對於流浪狗問題的影響力


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No. [ 02 .1 ]

From Puppy to Adult Dog – 從小狗到成犬

02.1

From Puppy to Adult Dog – 從小狗到成犬

寵物老去不再可愛或是受掌握時,就是牠們開 始有被丟棄的可能


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No. [ 02 .1 ]

From Puppy to Adult Dog – 從小狗到成犬

The Life Span of Dogs – 狗的生命週期 What is the life expectancy of a dog? How old is my dog in equivalent human years? This is a question that many dog owners often ponder. Although it’s often said that one human year is equivalent to seven dog years, this is an inaccurate and popular misconception. Different breeds of dogs age at different rates. The life span of a dog depends on its adult size and weight. Large dogs, such as the Rottweiler, usually have shorter life spans than smaller dogs, such as the Yorkshire Terrier. This could be because the bodies of larger dogs must work harder, which puts them under more stress than the bodies of smaller dogs. The gender of a dog, as with human beings, is a factor in the life span of dogs. On average, female dogs can live one to two years longer (depending on the breed) than male dogs of the same breed.

關於寵物常見的問題就是”我的寵物可以活多久?”、”換算成人類的年 齡是多少?”通常狗可以活到七歲,但是有許多的特例以及誤解,在此會一 一釐清。不同種類的狗會有不同的年限,一般來說狗的生命週期跟體型 體重息息相關,大型狗與小型狗相比通常生命週期較短。 此外,狗的 性別也是有相關!母狗通常比公狗長壽一到兩歲。

MIXED BREED DOGS TEND TO HAVE LONGER LIFE SPANS THAN PEDIGREE OR PURE BREED DOGS. THIS IS DUE TO GREATER GENETIC DIVERSITY AND THE FACT THAT THEY SUFFER FROM FEWER HEALTH PROBLEMS. 混種的狗類通常有較長的生命週期因為較小的基因差異以及相 對少的健康問題


20 19 18 17

2

1

20 110

3

4

28 32 36

40

5

100

44 48

94 88 84

56 60

16 15

80

14

18

19

7 8

52

1

20

6

76 72 68

13 2 27

64

9

11

12

10

Old Dog – 老狗

3 4

33

39

18

5 45

6

51

17

57 63

110

16

8

69

102 96

15

7

14

90 13

85 12

75

80

18

10

11

20

19

9

Old Dog – 老狗

1 2

16 22

17

3 31

16

4

40

15

5

49 58

14 67

120 13

6

7

76

112 105

12 11

Dog Life Span – 狗生命週期 Dog Life Span vs Human Life Span – 比較人類與狗的生命週期

96 10

85

8

Old Dog – 老狗

9

Human Life Span – 人類生命週期 Small Sized Dogs < 15 kg – 十五公斤以下的小型狗 Medium Sized Dogs 15–40 kg – 十五到四十公斤的中型狗 Large Sized Dogs > 40 kg – 四十公斤以上的大型狗


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No. [ 02 .1 ]

From Puppy to Adult Dog – 從小狗到成犬

Average Cost of Owning a Dog the First Year – 養狗平均一年的花費 Puppy shots (series of 3) – 預防針 $30-$80 Fecal exam and worming – 體檢和除寄生蟲 $8-$25/year Distemper – 狗瘟預防 $15-$28/year Rabies (1, then every 3 years) – 狂犬病 $12-$18 Miscellaneous – 雜項 $30 Spay (one time expense) – 母狗結紮 $50-$175 Neuter (one time expense) – 公狗結紮 $45-$110 Food – 食物 $100-$150 Heartworm check – 心絲蟲檢查 $12-$22/year Preventative pills – 預防藥品 $40-$80/year Total – 總花費

$382-$718

Average Cost of Owning a Dog – 養狗平均花費 A dog, like a child, is completely dependent on its master for food, shelter, medical care and love. The average lifespan of a dog can be anywhere from 10 to 12 years, but smaller breeds tend to live longer than larger breeds. The decision to buy or adopt a dog should not be taken lightly. Speak to a local veterinarian, a representative of your local animal shelter, or a friend who has already owned a dog to help you make your decision. Dogs are living creatures, and if you make a poor decision to take one in when you are not prepared the dog is the victim. No one wants to see an animal euthanized at an animal shelter, so take into account the following factors before buying or adopting a dog.

養狗就像養育幼兒一般,大部份都花費在食物、空間、醫療以及無限的愛,一般來說狗的生命週期大約是十至十 二年,但小型犬通常會有較長的生命週期。 但這不僅是決定購買的唯一條件,做決定之前跟附近的獸醫或是 收容所的志工懇談,或是直接跟有養狗的朋友聊聊,這些有助於你做出聰明的決定。狗跟我們一樣是有生命的! 盲目的決定,下場就是這些狗被強制性的安樂死,我們都不希望看到一個生命被終結,所以請參考以下的建議事 項再決定。


Dogs eat twice a day Morning/evening 狗需要每早晚餵兩餐

Give your dog a bath / Every 2-3 weeks 每兩、三星期請幫狗洗澡

Play and exercise Up to 60 mins per day 每天陪牠玩和帶牠運動至少 六十分鐘

Vaccinations / At least 9 times 預防針至少注射九次

Clean your dog’s bed Keep it clean all the time 隨時保持狗床的清潔

Veterinarians Dog illness 狗生病要看獸醫

Walk your dog Around 3 times a day 大約一天遛狗三次

Use frontline / Don’t bathe your dog for at least 3 days after 接種疫苗三天內不要洗狗

Small to Medium-sized Dogs – 小型到中型犬

Drink / Fill water all the time 隨時注意狗飲用水

Large to Giant-sized Dogs – 大型到巨大型犬

Estimated life span: 14 years 預計生命週期十四歲

Estimated life span: 8 years 預計生命週期八歲

First year: $740 to $1,325 第一年大約花費美金740到1325

First year: $1020 to $1,825 第一年大約花費美金1020到1825

Estimated annual costs thereafter: $500 to $875 預計之後花費美金500到875之間

Estimated annual costs thereafter: $690 to $875 預計之後花費美金690到875之間

Total estimated cost over the dog’s lifetime: $7,240 to $12,700 總計一生花費大約美金7240到12700

Total estimated cost over the dog’s lifetime: $5,850 to $7,950 總計一生花費大約美金5850到7950


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No. [ 02 .1 ]

From Puppy to Adult Dog – 從小狗到成犬

What Is “Old Age“ for Dogs? – 什麼是代表年老的狗 Using the classic formula, “one human year equals seven dog years” is an easy way to calculate your dog’s age, but isn’t the most accurate. Large breed dogs (i.e. Great Danes) are considered seniors at 6 or 7 years of age, whereas small breeds (i.e. toy poodle), aren’t considered seniors until their teen years. It is not uncommon to meet a poodle in the 18 to 20 year age range. Many studies confirm that certain breeds are more long-lived than others, too. Slowing down – You may notice that your dog slows down some with aging. This isn’t always the case, but look for subtle changes in how your dog gets up, lays down, and uses stairs. Is there any hesitation or stiffness? Does a change in the weather (rainy, cold) make it worse? Arthritis is common in dogs as they age, particularly in large breeds. Arthritis can occur in any joint, most commonly the legs, neck and back (spine). There are many different medications available to help ease the discomfort of arthritis – see your vet if you notice any signs of slowing down in your dog. Another potential cause of slowing down is hypothyroidism, an endocrine disorder common in dogs. This condition is easily diagnosed and treated with proper veterinary care. Reduced hearing – Is your dog hard to wake up or become startled easily if approached from behind? Hearing loss or deafness may be the cause. There isn’t a lot that can be done for age-related hearing loss, but a vet exam should be done first to rule out other medical problems, such as infection, growths, or a foreign body in the ear. If your dog does experience hearing loss, take care to protect it from hazards, such as cars and kids that it may not hear (or see). Dogs do learn and adapt well using hand signals to come, stay, sit, and so on. It is a good idea to “cross train” your dog early in life to recognize basic hand signals. Cloudy or “bluish” eyes – As they age, dog’s eyes often show a bluish transparent “haze” in the pupil area. This is a normal effect of aging, and the medical term for this is lenticular sclerosis. Vision does not appear to be affected. This is not the same as cataracts. Cataracts are white and opaque. Muscle atrophy – Mild loss of muscle mass, especially in the hind legs, may be seen with old age. Some muscle atrophy, notably in the head and belly muscles, can signify diseases such as masticatory myositis and Cushing’s Disease.

一般廣泛的定義,一歲的狗大約等於七歲的人類,這個公式被廣泛用於計算狗的年齡,但並不是最精確的。成年 的大型犬大約是六到七歲,但成年的小型犬大約是十歲左右,因此小型的貴賓犬可以活到18到20歲,根據數據顯 示某些品種的狗有相對較長的生命周期。 通常老化的特徵就是動作變得遲緩,小心留意狗,看牠是否有上下 樓梯動作遲緩的跡象,或是天氣變化讓動作遲緩。對於大型犬來說老化常伴隨著膝蓋、脖子以及脊椎部位的病 變,幸運的是已經有許多開發的新藥証實可以延緩或是舒緩老化的不適。另一個造成動作遲緩的病因是內分泌 異常,這一類的病變可以經由獸醫投藥來取得控制。此外老化的象徵就是聽力退化,狗是否對於呼喚以及接近牠 變得毫無反應,這可能是聽力損失或是異常所造成的,且無法經由投藥來取得控制。 如果狗有聽力上的問題 請多關心並且讓牠遠離一切可能的危機,狗可經由訓練來得知基本手語,這項訓練可以幫忙指揮聽力喪失的狗。 白內障也是常見的疾病,當眼球水晶體開始變渾濁或眼球顏色開始變成藍綠色,飼主就要多注意並帶到獸醫做 更進一步檢查。除此之外,老化也帶來肌肉的喪失,在頭部以及腹部極為明顯,這也有可能是咀嚼肌炎的前兆。


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No. [ 02 . 2 ]

Sur vey of Purebred and Mixed Breeds – 血緣調查

02.2

Survey of Purebred and Mixed Breeds – 血緣調查

當領養混種犬會發現牠匯集兩到三種狗的優 點,以及較少基因缺陷引起的疾病


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No. [ 02 . 2 ]

Sur vey of Purebred and Mixed Breeds – 血緣調查

Designer Dog – 設計犬 Designer Dog? What the heck is a designer dog you ask? A “designer” dog (as the media has labeled them) is a cross between two purebred dogs. A purebred dog is one that has been bred over many generations to breed true. Meaning each puppy that is born has the same looks, temperament, and characteristics as one another. In most cases a standard is written and breeders must follow this written standard. Only dogs which make the written standard are to be bred. Purebred dogs are beneficial in that when you buy a purebred dog you know what you are getting. You know how big your puppy will grow and you know basically what type of temperament and care the dog will need. You know the dogs limits, whether it is capable of agility, hunting, search and rescue, police work, herding, flock guardian, or just simply a companion dog. You have a pretty good idea if the dog will be good with your kids. You know if they will have a tendency to wander or if they will stick close to home. You have a pretty good idea if they will like strangers, or if they will fear them. When one breeds purebred dogs great care must be taken to insure the lines to not become too thin. Even with all the best DNA testing available, genetic problems can occur, however with the proper testing these problems can be greatly reduced.

什麼是設計犬?設計犬是被主流媒體貼上的標簽,通常泛指混種的狗。純種狗通常是指都沒混雜到其他種類, 並且幼犬幾乎長相、性格都極為類似。純種狗的好處是購買時,知道買的種類不會混淆,以及牠的個性或其他 身體特徵,例如會長大同時也知道狗的各項限制、適合哪一類的活動。也可清楚知道是否可以跟小孩相處良好, 或是牠能不能當稱職的看門狗。但是純種狗通常存在基因缺陷引起的疾病,並需要繁雜的照顧。

MOM

DAD


01. 02. 03. 01. Mixed breed dogs tend to live longer and need fewer surgeries, according to the Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics. Mixed breed dogs tend to be spayed and neutered, so they are not subject to health problems such as cancer of the reproductive organs. Mixed breed dogs can still suffer from illness and disease, but they are not as prone to congenital defects that mar some breeds like the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, which often dies young from heart problems. Purebred dogs are restricted to a limited gene pool, so the chances of mating with another dog with a congenital defect are much higher than it is for mixed breed dogs.

根據科學研究混種犬通常比純種狗長壽,並只需較少的手術花費,例如結紮來延長生命週期,另一方面混種狗雖 較少有基因缺陷引起的疾病,雖然還是有遺傳疾病方面的問題,但跟純種狗比較,此類的疾病發病率已經遠少於 純種狗。

02. Unlike purebred dogs, each mongrel dog has a unique look. While purebred dogs generally have predictable characteristics, mongrels have far more varied body shapes, tail shapes, ear shapes, colors, markings, and coats. Unlike purebred puppies, you never quite know how big the mongrel puppy is going to grow or how much it is going to shed.

每一隻混種狗都有不一樣的獨特外表,身體、外型、尾巴、耳朵形狀、顏色和永遠都不知道牠們會長多大,以及需 要多大的狗屋。

03. Although each mixed breed dog reacts to training and stress differently, mixed breeds generally have a better temperament than purebred dogs. This could be partially due to mongrels getting spayed or neutered more often than pure bred dogs. The wide gene pool of random-bred dogs makes it harder for two dogs with genetic behavior problems to breed. However, a mongrel owner should make every effort to discover what breeds make up a mongrel’s bloodlines, since this information could give clues to any behavior issues that may arise.

雖然混種狗對訓練以及壓力的反應都有所不同,但總體來說牠們個性比純種狗較為善良,這有可能是因為混種 狗通常都會施行結紮手術,但是飼主還是要盡量去瞭解血緣,以做為未來醫療上的參考。


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No. [ 02 . 2 ]

The Truth about Purebred Dogs – 純種狗的真相 Proper raising and training can modify certain behaviors, but if a behavior is “hardwired” into your breed’s genes, it’s harder to change. Don’t expect to easily “mold” a purebred dog into anything you want him to be. To minimize power struggles and stress, look for a breed with a temperament that already sounds very close to what you want. Too many people acquire a purebred dog, and then complain about its built-in characteristics. Sorry, but if you choose, say, a Labrador Retriever, you need to accept that it will shed a goodly amount, will have a large powerful body that can knock over small children when excited, and its enthusiastic tail will occasionally send breakables flying off your coffee table.

通常狗的劣根性可經由訓練跟養育來根除,但與生俱來的個性卻很難去 根除,千萬不要期待可以訓練純種狗到完全聽話,經由現有的資料庫去比 對狗的個性就顯得重要。 大部份人在飼養純種狗時都忽略這點並 抱怨。當飼養拉布拉多就要考慮到所需要的飼養空間以及對年紀小的 幼兒造成的影響,更別提牠強而有力的尾巴對傢俱帶來的破壞。

Sur vey of Purebred and Mixed Breeds – 血緣調查


PUREBRED DOGS CAN HAVE A LOT OF HEALTH PROBLEMS

Over 300 genetic health problems occur in dogs – all kinds of dogs, purebred, crossbred, and mixed – but the risk of these health problems occurring in a purebred dog is higher than in a crossbreed or mixed breed.

純種狗有各式各樣的健康問題 在已知超過三百種常見狗類健康問題中,發生在純種狗的機率遠大於混種狗 Eye diseases that cause reduced sight or total blindness – 眼部疾病造成視力受損或全盲 Heart diseases that drastically shorten a dog’s life – 心臟疾病 Hormonal and endocrine system diseases like hypothyroidism and diabetes – 賀爾蒙或是內分泌失調, 甲狀腺功能偏差以及糖尿病 Seizure disorders such as epilepsy – 癲癇 Skin diseases that cause frantic itching – 皮膚病 Digestive disorders that cause chronic diarrhea and vomiting – 消化異常引起嘔吐及腹瀉 Kidney and liver diseases – 腎臟以及肝部疾病 Blood-clotting diseases – 血管堵塞 Cancer – the number-one killer of many breeds – 癌症 Crippling bone and joint disorders – 骨頭以及關節疾病


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No. [ 02 . 2 ]

Sur vey of Purebred and Mixed Breeds – 血緣調查

Common working behaviors in purebred dogs 一般純種狗的習性


Digging holes in the ground 在地上挖洞

Baying and howling 嚎叫

Hunting dogs and terriers pursuing prey into tunnels, or northern spitz-type breeds who had to dig warm sleeping holes in the snow 狩獵犬和梗犬通常會將獵物追到洞口並 且挖開

Hunting dogs pursuing prey, so the hunter would be able to follow them 狩獵犬追趕獵物藉由嚎叫可讓獵人跟隨 牠們

Putting their noses to the ground and taking off in pursuit of interesting scents 將鼻子貼緊地面追尋氣味 Hunting dogs and terriers 狩獵犬以及梗犬 Aggression toward other animals 對於其他動物有極高侵略性不友善 Fighting, hunting dogs, guardians, and terriers 搜救犬、狩獵犬、看護犬和梗犬 Chasing, grabbing, and nipping at things that move 喜歡追逐各種會動的物體

Carrying things around in their mouths 會用鼻子頂東西 Hunting dogs who retrieved birds and ducks 狩獵犬會銜回鳥和鴨子 Strong desire to do things, to use their keen minds and athletic skills to accomplish something 強烈的慾望去運用她們的好奇心以及運 動技巧來完成事項 Many working breeds 大部份工作犬 Making their own decisions 會自己做出最好的決定

Herding and hunting dogs 畜牧以及狩獵犬

Many working breeds who had to work independently 大部份工作犬可以獨立做事

High energy levels 好動

Acting threatening toward strangers 對於陌生人做出挑釁的動作

Herding, hunting, and sled dogs 畜牧犬、狩獵犬和雪橇犬

Guarding dogs 看護犬


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No. [ 02 . 3 ]

Dog Language – 狗的溝通

02.3

Dog Language – 狗的溝通

狗利用共通的語言–叫聲來溝通情感與事物, 但狗更常用臉部表情配合身體語言


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No. [ 02 . 3 ]

Dog Language – 狗的溝通

What Is My Dog Trying to Tell Me? – 狗想告訴我什麼? As your dog grows, you should learn what she is saying to you, as she learns to take their cues from you. If you rub your puppy’s tummy, and she likes it, she will learn to roll over and “ask” you for a belly rub. If you don’t give the belly rub, your puppy will “ask” again, possibly in a different way. One way is to growl at you, saying “Hey, you. I need a belly rub.” Your dog may “cry” for a belly rub. Almost all dogs will “ask ” to go outside. In some cases, this consists of standing or jumping at a door. If you ignore this request, your dog will make it again, more firmly. This may mean clawing at the door, circling by the door, or even coming to find you to bark or whine at you. At this point, you can hear the dog saying, “Well, how stupid are you? Can’t you see I need to go out?” This works with dogs with doggy doors, who simply want to go out another door to see what’s out there, to take a walk, or just to get your attention. Dogs don’t have the word “want ” in their vocabulary. Everything is “need.” Your dog may have just been out, but for some reason, it “needs” to do it again.

當狗慢慢長大也會漸漸熟悉牠想要的表達,當撫摸牠的腹部而牠也喜 歡,就會翻過身子露出腹部,如果忽略這項動作的話牠們就會再用不同的 方式再表達一次。 幾乎所有的狗都會要求出去運動最常見的就是站 立或是在門邊跳躍,如果忽略的話,牠們就會重複的做同樣動作或是在 門邊匍匐及在門邊繞圈,或是找到你並且吠叫,在這同時牠們要表達的 是,"你不是白癡就是智障怎會忽略我們的要求,看不出來我需要出去蹓 躂嗎?"對於狗來說牠不只是想要出去,牠更是"需要"出去。

PUPPY LANGUAGE IS VERY SIMPLE. IT IS LIKE A BABY’S CRY. THEY BOTH CRY WHEN THEY’RE IN PAIN OR IN NEED OF COMPANY, FOOD, OR SLEEP, ETC. 混種的狗類通常有較長的生命週期因為較小的基因差異以及相 對少的健康問題


A growl is a warning and means your dog is worried or upset. Dogs growl, when they’re too upset to bark, as a warning, or to get your attention in an urgent way. Dogs will growl when they feel threatened or when their territory is threatened. Always pay attention to a growl. A growl is a dog’s way of saying, “I’m going to bite, next.” If your dog growls when you approach his favorite toy, back off, back way off. If your dog growls while playing with a toy, make sure it’s growling at the toy, not at you.

拉長聲音的吠叫代表狗非常的擔憂並且鬱悶,想要得到你的注意。狗會長聲吠叫當牠們感受到威脅或是領土被 入侵,最好常常注意這一類長聲的吠叫,這代表著下一步就要咬你。當狗開始長聲吠叫,因為你拿了牠的最愛玩 具,請退後並且把玩具放下。

Your dog won’t stop clawing at furniture or the floor and whimpering or barking. Your dog is trying to tell you that there is something, or some smell, under or in the furniture that it can’t get to. A treat or a toy may be trapped underneath, a crumb you may have dropped, or a bug may be or has been there. You may not see the culprit, but your dog will not stop until you show it what’s there or help him get it out. Dogs have a great sense of smell, and they smell what we can’t see.

當狗對著傢俱或是門口長聲吠叫不止,這表示牠想要提醒你那邊有不尋常的事物。牠不會停止吠叫除非你推開 傢俱打開門去檢查是否有異常。狗的味覺相當靈敏,並且可以感受到我們所看不到的。

Male dogs “mark” their territory. If any dog gets angry with you, they may “tell” you so by peeing on your stuff. Of course this is not to be allowed, but also not to be severely punished. Has anything happened that has changed your dog’s life? Have the neighbors adopted a new puppy that your dog can smell through the fence? If so, he may be marking his territory to tell everyone that this is his house. Have you had company who have dogs or who have handled other dogs? If so, your dog smells the “interloper” and is going to be sure that everyone knows this is his turf.

公狗會用尿畫出界限,當狗感到憤怒時牠會用尿在你物品上的方式告知你。在你用處罰矯正牠們行為的同時也 要留意是否你不經意的改變了牠們的生活習慣,或是鄰居養新的狗讓牠感受到地盤有新威脅,或是朋友身上有他 們的狗所留下的氣味,這時你的狗就會用尿去警告並宣誓地盤主權。


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No. [ 02 . 3 ]

Dog Language – 狗的溝通

Read a Dog’s Body Language – 瞭解狗的肢體語言 RELAXED APPROACHABLE

ALERT- CHECKING THINGS OUT

DOMINANT AGGRESSIVE

FEARFUL AND AGGRESSIVE

放鬆易靠近

警戒狀態

極度警戒有攻擊性

害怕但有攻擊性

01

02 03

04

01

05

01 Tail down and relaxed 尾巴向下搖擺 02 Head high 頭抬高 03 Ears up (not forward) 豎起耳朵 04 Loose stance, weight flat on feet 放鬆的姿勢、俯臥 05 Mouth open slightly, tongue exposed 嘴巴微微張開、 舌頭外露

02 03

04 01

01 02

05 06

Tail horizontal (not stiff or bristled) / tail many move slightly from side to side 尾巴放平、向左右擺動

02 Ears forward (may twitch as if trying to catch a sound) 耳朵轉向前方 03 Eyes wide 眼撐大 04 Slight forward lean standing tall on toes 站姿稍微前傾 05 Mouth closed 嘴巴閉起 06 Smooth nose and forehead 額頭與鼻子垮下

03

04 01

05

060708

Tail raised and bristled / tail is stiff but may be seen to quiver or vibrate from side to side 尾巴豎起、直立

02 Hackles raised 鬃毛豎起 03 Ears forward (may be spread slightly to the side to form a wide V shape) 耳朵向前張開呈現V字型 04 Stiff-legged stance, body leaning slightly forward 四肢伸直並向前微傾 05 Nose wrinkled / forehead may show vertical wrinkles 鼻及臉上產生皺折 06 Lips curied 嘴唇彎曲狀 07 Teeth (and often the gums) are visible 牙齒明顯外露 08 Mouth open and C-shaped. Corner of mouth is forward 嘴巴張開,從側面呈C字型

01 02

03

05

04

06

07 08

01 Tail tucked (little or no movement) 尾巴夾緊 02 Hackles raised 鬃毛豎起 03 Ears back 耳朵貼後 04 Pupils dilated 眼球形狀拉長 05 Body lowered 身體放低 06 Nose wrinkled 鼻子有皺折 07 Corner of mouth pulled back 齜牙咧嘴狀 08 Lips slightly curled (teeth may be some what visible) 舌頭微微彎曲


STRESSED AND DISTRESSED

FEARFUL AND WORRIED

EXTREME FEAR – TOTAL SUBMISSION

緊張或非常不開心

害怕並擔憂

極度害怕–完全投降

01

02

03

04

05 06

01 Tail down 尾巴下垂 02 Ears back 耳朵貼後 03 Pupils dilated 眼球形狀拉長 04 Body lowered 身體放低 05 Sweating through pads 腳掌出汗 06 Rapid panting with corner of mouth back 急速喘氣並且嘴唇角落微 向外延伸

01

02

03 04

05 06 07 08 01 Tail down (may wag slightly) 尾巴下垂微微擺動 02 Ears back 耳朵向後 03 Eye contact brief and indirect 短暫眼神交會 04 Forehead smooth 舒緩伸展的前額 05 Body lowered 身體放低 06 May leave sweaty footprints 會留下潮濕的腳印 07 Corner of mouth back 嘴巴末端向後延伸 08 Licks at face of dominant dog or the air 用舌頭舔佔上風的狗的臉 或是周圍的空氣

01

02 03 04

07

06 05

Rolls onto back exposing stomach and throat 往側邊翻滾並露出肚子跟 喉嚨 01 Tail tucked 尾巴夾起

PLAYFULNESS

快樂 01

02

03

04

05

Dog will usually hold this position for only a moment before breaking into a run in some random direction 短暫保持這姿勢但很快就會 開始奔跑

02 Ears flat and back 耳平貼往後

01 Tail up / tail may broadly wave 尾巴上揚並且大幅擺動

03 Eyes partly close 眼睛半閉

02 Ears up 耳朵豎起

04 Head turns to avoid direct eye contact 迴避以躲避眼神接觸

03 Pupils dilated 眼球形狀拉長

05 Nose and forehead smooth 舒緩的鼻子以及前額 06 Corner of mouth back 嘴巴周圍往後 07 May sprinkle a few drops of urine 會漏尿

04 Front end lowered by bent forepaws 前軀微微放低 05 Mouth open, tongue may be exposed 嘴巴張開舌頭外露


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No. [ 03 ]

Choosing the Right Dog – 選擇適合的狗

CHOOSING THE RIGHT DOG 選擇適合的狗

03.1 The Owner’s Personality and Life – 主人個性和生活 03.2 Dog Adoption – 領養狗 03.3 Interacting with a Dog – 與狗互動 03.4 Introducing Dogs to Children – 讓狗與小孩互相熟悉


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No. [ 03 .1 ]

The Owner’s Personalit y and Life – 主人個性和生活

03.1

The Owner’s Personality and Life – 主人個性和生活

如果養狗,代表這隻狗會成為生命中的一部份, 請思考牠是否可融入現有的生活形態


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No. [ 03 .1 ]

The Owner’s Personalit y and Life – 主人個性和生活

ARE YOU READY TO BE A DOG OWNER? All dogs will need basic medical attention, training, grooming, and exercise.

準備好養狗了嗎 所有的狗都需要基本醫療照顧、訓練、梳毛以及運動

RESPONSIBILITY >> 01- 07

責任 01 Is it meant to be a “toy“ for a child? – 是否表示可當小孩的玩具? Never get a dog if that is the main reason for getting a dog. Get a soft toy instead. 千萬不要因為要給小孩玩具就領養一隻狗 02 Commitment – 使命感 Are you willing to take care of the dog for the rest or its life. (12-15 yeard) 有準備好要照顧你的狗直到牠老死嗎? 03 Training – 訓練 Can you spare the time to train or send your dog for training? 有多餘的時間訓練你的狗或送去訓練機構嗎? 04 On holiday – 放假時 Is there anyone to take care of the dog when you are away on holiday? 當你放假時可以找到人幫你照顧嗎? 05 Medical expenses – 醫療支出 Yearly vaccinations. 每年的疫苗注射 06 Willing to face responsibility? – 可以負起責任 01 Veterinarian care. 02 Make sure your dog does not create unhappy neighbors. > No excessive barking. 03 Willing to clean up after your dog. 01.獸醫照顧 02.確定你的狗不會引起鄰居的厭惡 > 抑制吠叫 03.負起清潔的責任 07 Time – 時間 Will you be able to spare the time to take care of the dog? > Feeding & grooming. 你有時間可以照顧你的狗嗎? > 餵養並且梳理它


WHICH BREED >> 01- 06

品種 01 How often are you available to exercise your dog? – 你多久遛一次狗 If you are unable to spend the time considered taking a dog that does not require much exercise. 應該考慮其他不需大量運動品種的狗 02 Male or female – 公或母 01 Females are general smaller in size. 02 Male dogs are bigger in size. 01.母狗通常體型嬌小 02.相對的公狗體型較為雄偉 03 Age of the dog – 狗的年齡 01 Puppies > Cute but requires lots of energy to take care. 02 Bigger dogs > Calmer and less exercise required but are more set in its ways. 01.小狗 > 可愛但需要非常多的精力去照顧 02.大狗 > 較為成熟並需要較少的運動 04 Grooming – 梳理毛髮 Would you be able to spend the time to groom long haired dogs or would you prefer short haired dogs that requires minimum grooming? 有辦法騰出時間去梳理長毛狗嗎? 或是喜歡短毛狗這樣就可以減少梳理的時間? 05 Temperament – 狗的個性 01 Good with children? 02 Can get along with other pets? 03 Friendly or more aggressive character? 04 Energy? 05 Gentle or strong minded dogs? 06 Trainable? 01.與小孩相處良好 02.有辦法與其他寵物相處? 03.友善或具有攻急性 04.有活力 05.有規矩或非常自我 06 Size – 體型 01 Apartment living, property with a garden or yard. 02 Size of dog you are able to handle. 01.居住空間是否有院子? 02.是否有辦法處理過大體型的狗


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No. [ 03 .1 ]

The Owner’s Personalit y and Life – 主人個性和生活

Take this quiz to see if the time for you to have a dog is now. 先做個小測驗來看是否準備好

Add up your scores – 加總你的分數 01 A:2 ,B:3 ,C:4 ,D:1 02 A:1 ,B:3 ,C:4 ,D:2 03 A:3 ,B:1 ,C:4 ,D:2 04 A:3 ,B:2 ,C:1 ,D:4

05 A:4 ,B:2 ,C:1 ,D:3 06 A:1 ,B:2 ,C:3 ,D:4 07 A:2 ,B:3 ,C:4 ,D:1 08 A:1 ,B:3 ,C:2 ,D:4

01 WHAT DO YOU EXPECT YOUR LIFE TO BE LIKE IN THE NEXT FEW YEARS? 你有想過未來五年的生活嗎?

02 HOW MUCH TIME DOES AN ADULT IN YOUR HOUSEHOLD SPEND AT HOME – AWAKE? 是否平時都會有人在家,不包括睡 覺的時間

03 HOW WOULD YOU BEST DESCRIBE YOUR HOME? 怎樣貼切形容你的家

01

01 Someone is home most of the day. 總是有人在

01 A showplace. 展示廳

02 Somebody is at home, and awake, 3 to 5 hours a day. 大約每天三到五小時都會有人在家

02 Comfortable and lived in. 舒適

I expect it to continue the way it is without any unforeseen crises or surprises. 我期待跟現在一樣沒有任何變動

02 I anticipate that my life will hold any number of possible changes, like a career change, a new baby, travel, or retirement. 我期待未來將有決定性的改變例如 工作、小孩、旅遊甚至退休 03 Years? I don’t know what my life will be like tomorrow. 我連明天的生活是怎樣都不敢想 04 I expect my life to continue the way it is, but if something comes my way, I’m ready. 我希望生活跟現在一樣,但如果有改 變我也已經準備好去迎接

03 There is someone home less than 3 waking hours a day. 有人,但最多就是三小時 04 Somebody is at home, and awake, 6 to 8 hours a day. 每天大約六到八小時都會有人在

03 A chaotic mess. 一團亂 04 New and never lived in. 完全新的還沒入厝


04 HOW WOULD YOU BE AFFECTED IF YOUR DOG NEEDED SURGERY OR SPECIAL MEDICAL CARE THAT WOULD COST IN EXCESS OF $500? 如果你的狗臨時需要超過500元以 上的手術或是醫療照顧,這會影響 到你嗎?

01 It would be a strain financially and might put me in debt. 有可能需要到借錢的地步 02 I could handle it, but I’d have to make some adjustments. 可以安排來解決財物困境 03 It’d pose no problem financially. 對我來說一點問題都沒有 04 I would give the dog away or put it down. 我會把狗送走

05 WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING BEST DESCRIBES YOUR LIVING SITUATION? 下面哪一個答案最符合你的居住 狀況

01 I rent an apartment. 租公寓 02 I rent a house. 租房子 03 I own my own home. 我擁有自己的房子 04 I’m living with someone right now. 我跟其他人住在一起

06 WHAT WOULD BE YOUR SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR YOUR DOG WHEN YOU GO OUT OF TOWN? 下面哪個答案最符合你的居住狀況

0 1 My sister (parent, neighbor, friend, etc.) has offered to dog-sit whenever I’m away. 我的家人、鄰居或朋友可以提供短暫 的照護 02 There’s a good kennel nearby. 附近就有良好的寵物旅館 03 I figure I’ll only go places where I can take the dog. 我只會去能允許寵物進入的地方 04 I don’t know. 我不知道


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No. [ 03 .1 ]

The Owner’s Personalit y and Life – 主人個性和生活

07 HOW OFTEN DO YOU TRAVEL? 你旅行的頻率

08 WHAT DO YOU EXPECT YOUR LIFE TO BE LIKE IN THE NEXT FEW YEARS? 你覺得你未來幾年的生活

01 I don’t get away very much, just a few days here and there. 不常旅遊,通常都是短暫的停留

01 A dog would be a loving addition to my life and our family. 養狗將會對我生活有大的助益

02 I love to travel and am off and running whenever I have the time and money. 我喜歡旅遊並有隨時出發的準備

02 I’m lonely, and a dog would be great company and a way for me to meet people. 我非常寂寞 可是有狗的話可以陪伴 我並且幫助我找到另一半

03 I ‘m out of town for a few days every couple of weeks on business. 我大約每幾天或星期就會出去一趟 04 I go out once or twice a year for vacation. 大約一年兩三次

03 Having a dog will be a great way for my children to learn a sense of responsibility. 養隻狗會對我教導小孩責任感有很 大的幫助 04 Dogs are cute and would be fun to play with. 狗很可愛並且可以跟她玩

IF YOU SCORED >>

如果你的分數落在


8to15 YOU’RE READY - 你已準備好

16to23 MAYBE - 你也許準備好

24to32 YOU SHOULD REALLY THINK THIS THROUGH - 你必須想清楚

You have the right attitude for being a dog owner. You understand the responsibility involved in dog ownership. You are ready to make a lifelong commitment to your dog and you want to have a dog become a loving member of your family. You’re prepared for all of the work this will require and are ready for all of the surprises.

你有成為狗主人的一切條件,了解養狗所具備的責任並對你的狗許下一 生的承諾,在牠踏進家門的那一刻就是家裡成員,已經準備好一切並期 待一切美好的意外。

Your heart is probably in the right place. You think you want a dog, but you still need to seriously consider all the issues involved. It may be best to re-evaluate your circumstances at a later date. If you’re set on getting a dog now, you should make some changes in your lifestyle to prepare yourself for becoming a dog owner, not only for training, but also for the responsibilities and challenges that come with bringing a dog into your family. If you decide you simply can’t commit now, there’re alternatives that may satisfy your dog desires. Spend some time with your friends’ dogs. Offer to dog-sit when friends go out of town. Volunteer at a local animal shelter or kennel. Do some more research; when you’re finally ready, begin making the adjustments to turn your home into a dog’s home.

你已經有準備飼養寵物的心,你需要狗但必須將一切的準備工作考慮其 中,所以最好的方法就是過一段時間,等覺得可以再做一次評估,如果堅 持現在就要養,那生活形態必須做一點改變,不僅做好養育的準備更重要 的是責任心,如果現在不行承諾這些替代方案,花一點時間跟朋友的狗 相處或當朋友出遠門時幫忙帶狗;志願在當地的寵物收容中心工作,多做 一點研究會慢慢發現改變,此時就是你準備好的時候。

Although you may feel strongly about having a dog, stop and reconsider. Rather than answering the question, “Do I want a dog?” turn the question around and ask: “Would a dog want me?” Would a dog be able to depend on you to housebreak it and train it with love, patience, and positive reinforcement, to walk it in the rain, even if you have a cold, to love it through sickness and health, housebreaking accidents, and gnawed table-legs? If not, and you’re in doubt, you’re probably not ready to have a dog. That’s okay; it doesn’t mean you’re a bad person. This may not be the time for you – but think about it again at a later date when either you or your circumstances have changed. In the meantime, enjoy your friends’ dogs or volunteer at a local animal shelter. But don’t give in to the impulse to take one home when a sad and lonely puppy cocks its head and flutters its eyelashes – wait until the time is right.

請停止或重新考慮飼養狗的想法,現在並不是考慮要養狗的問題,而是狗 想要跟我生活嗎?狗可以依靠你並且被愛的訓練、耐心以及正面的回應 或是在雨中散步,或當你生病發生意外時,依舊愛著牠,如果不行的話或是 你對自己的態度有所懷疑,這就代表著還沒準備好來養狗,這沒關係而 且這不代表你是個壞人,只是現在不是養狗的時機,你可以等時間過久 一點再去想,在這同時試著跟朋友的狗玩,或在當地的寵物收容中心當 義工,但千萬不要試著想要帶楚楚可憐對你撒嬌的狗回家生活,再等一下 謹慎一點。


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No. [ 03 .1 ]

The Owner’s Personalit y and Life – 主人個性和生活

Four Ways to Tell You’re Not Ready to Own a Dog – 四種方式讓你得知適不適合養狗

YOU ARE ALWAYS REALLY BUSY WITH WORK AND DON’T HAVE MUCH DOWNTIME 你通常都很忙並且沒多少時間休息

In order for your new dog or puppy to bond with you and properly acclimate to its new surroundings, you’ll need to set a lot of time aside just for him. You can’t just pick out a puppy, bring it home, play with it for a while, and then forget it. You need to spend quality time with your new family member. This means a lot of playtime (especially for puppies), two or more walks outside every day, and obedience training. If you don’t spend time with your pet, you’re just asking for trouble. Neglected pets will often act out by engaging in destructive behavior. Furthermore, if your pet is alone too much, it will not be properly socialized. This may result in its being unduly fearful of strangers and other animals which, in turn, may cause your dog to become aggressively defensive towards them. If you are too busy to spend quality time with a pet, then wait until your life is a little less hectic before you adopt one.

為了讓你的狗能夠熟悉你跟新家環境熟悉,必須花時間,不能夠到寵物店 選一隻喜歡的狗帶回家,然後就忘了後續的責任。你必須要花費一定的 時間跟你的新朋友、新成員建立良好的關係,這代表必須要花相當的時 間來做一切的準備,包括一天必須遛狗兩到三次,或是與狗進行服從訓 練,如果不做只會自找麻煩,更別說小狗常會有破壞的行為出現。另外寵 物太過寂寞,牠在未來將會很難與其他寵物或是人類交流,這會讓你的 寵物防衛心變強,同時多疑。如果真的太忙,就等到有多一點時間時再來 想這一件事。


Dogs are never really free, even if you are given one as a gift. 當你收到狗當禮物時 你必須知道養狗並不是真的免費 First, you have to pay for a good, quality dog food. If your dog is a very small breed, this may not be of much concern. If your dog is a large breed, however, food can cost over $100 a month.

首先你必須要購買食物,如果狗是屬於小型犬,這方面的開銷就不會是 大問題,但如果狗屬於大型犬,必須要有心理準備每個月要花100美金。

Second, you will need to provide your dog with routine medical care, such as spaying or neutering, annual vaccinations and exams, and dental care. You also have to be prepared to pay for any emergency medical services.

你將需要支付定期的醫療保險,結紮、疫苗注射、牙齒保健等項目,同時 也要支付意外項目。

Third, depending on the breed of dog, you may need to have it professionally groomed and this can cost a lot of money. Even if you groom the dog yourself, you will still have to pay for the grooming supplies.

根據品種的不同,會需要不同的花費梳理照顧,就算你自己來還是需要出 錢買梳理用具。

Fourth, you will need to be able to afford miscellaneous items like dog dishes, toys, and other goodies. If you can’t afford to take care of your dog in an appropriate way, then you should put your puppy adoption plans on hold until you are in a better financial position.

你將會負擔許多雜七雜八的事物,例如狗碗、玩具或是其他小物,如果沒 辦法達成這些要求,應該把領養的計畫延後。

YOU LIVE ON A VERY STRICT BUDGET AND CAN BARELY AFFORD TO PAY ALL OF YOUR BILLS EVERY MONTH 你僅有一點預算且負擔不起每個 月的賬單


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No. [ 03 .1 ]

YOU ONLY WANT A DOG FOR PROTECTION PURPOSES 你只想養狗防身

The Owner’s Personalit y and Life – 主人個性和生活

A dog, even one that has been specially trained to guard your home, is more than just a security device. It’s a living creature who deserves to be loved by the people who adopt it. Your dog should be treated respectfully, as a part of the family. Guard dogs need consistent and caring interaction with their owners. Otherwise, those same qualities that make them great at guarding their territory (alertness, aggressiveness, and possessiveness) can turn them into “bad dogs” if left on their own. If you are not prepared to accept a dog as part of your family for the long haul, and to socialize it appropriately, then you should not adopt one. If security is truly a concern, you should have a security system installed in your home.

被特殊訓練成看門犬的狗並不是我們專屬的安全機制,牠們同時也需要 關懷跟愛護以及得到我們的尊敬,看門犬需要與主人有持續和關心的互 動,要不然那些讓牠們成為看門狗的特質(警覺、攻擊姓和地域性)將會 讓轉變成壞狗,如果沒有把牠們視成家庭成員的打算,那麼你真的不應 該有收養的打算,裝警報器可能是較好的選擇。


If your kids are bored and need something to entertain them, then buy them more toys. Don’t buy your kids a dog unless they really want one and can see it as a living creature instead of a toy. Certainly don’t buy your kids a dog unless you want one too. Let’s face it; you may say that the dog belongs to the kids, but the adults in the household will ultimately be responsible for its care, feeding, and medical expenses. Don’t bring a dog into your home unless both you and your kids understand that adopting a dog makes it a part of your family for life.

如果你的小孩感到鬱悶,需要東西打發空閒無聊,應該是買多一點玩具, 千萬不要買狗,除非小孩真的需要以及喜歡牠們,當然也是你也想要養 狗,雖然有藉口說狗是送給小孩的,但醫療支出餵養照顧都是大人來處 理,除非你跟你家人都準備好接納牠們,不然不要養狗。

YOUR KIDS NEED SOMETHING TO PLAY WITH 你的小孩需要東西陪伴玩耍


81 / 82

No. [ 03 . 2 ]

Dog Adoption – 領養狗

03.2

Dog Adoption – 領養狗

當想養一隻狗必須考慮到一些不可預測的因 素,但這些都是互相的,你能給牠好的生活,牠 也會相對的對你好


83 / 84

No. [ 03 . 2 ]

Dog Adoption – 領養狗

“A found dog never takes anyone or anything for granted. Somewhere in the deep recesses of the orphan psyche, never entirely forgotten even after years of good living and kindly, obedient owners, memories of hard times linger. And this ... tends to give lost and found dogs a special appreciation of what the world can offer.” ~ Peter Mayle


被丟棄的悲慘回憶會在狗心中 不斷輪迴也抹煞不去,就算之後被好好 對待也只能減低回憶的頻率, 但當牠們被重新收養,是心懷感激的。


85 / 86

No. [ 03 . 2 ]

Dog Adoption – 領養狗

A Found Dog – 流浪狗 Most people, when thinking about getting a dog, start by thinking small ... as in “puppy.” Puppies are irresistibly cute, playful, and “new.” You also get the chance to bond with it as it grows into adulthood. So why adopt a shelter dog? Dogs in a shelter have, by definition, been abandoned by someone. Someone who decided they didn’t have the time to care for a dog, or decided the new apartment’s location was more important than whether the landlord allowed pets. Sometimes human tragedy makes the dog a victim; the owner dies suddenly, or loses a job, and simply can’t afford to care for it. Sometimes a dog gets lost and is never reunited with its owner. And sometimes a mean person simply grows tired of abusing a dog and kicks it out of the house. For whatever reason, a dog in a shelter needs a home. What do you get in return for this “found dog”? To start with, you can see what you’re getting – its size, coloring, length of coat, and personality. But most important is what you can’t see; these are dogs that are, above all, willing to please. They want to be loved, and they want to love in return. And they will.

大部人想要飼養的狗都是小型或是幼犬,幼犬有著難以抗拒的可愛特質,還有你有機會跟牠從小培養感情。會有 疑問:為何要到動物收容所去領養? 收容所的狗都是被丟棄的,因為有些人覺得沒有時間去照顧或是搬到一 個不能養寵物的地方,另一個原因就是主人被裁員,沒辦法負擔飼養的費用。有時狗狗走失,但最可惡就是厭倦 養狗的辛苦,然後只想丟掉牠。不管什麼原因被丟到收容所,牠們有共通的信念就是“我需要一個家”,收容所義 工們會事先把狗的大小、種類、顏色以及性格分類清楚,更重要的是牠們珍惜每次被愛被疼的機會。

If you will be getting a new dog anytime soon, here are some reasons to consider adopting a homeless animal. 如果你最近會養狗,以下是一些是有關去收容所領養狗的建議:

You’ll save a life 你救一個生命

A mixed-breed dog might have fewer health issues 混種狗有較少健康問題

Purebreds also need rescuing 純種狗也需要被救助

There’ll be more unique dogs to choose from 會有更多獨特的選擇

The initial cost is less 花費將會大幅減少

You can find a dog that is already trained 你可找到已被訓練過的狗

You’ll not contribute to the pet overpopulation problem 你不會造成過度繁殖的問題

$$$


Size: 尺寸

Length of Coat: 毛的長度

Personality: 個性

( S小 )

( Hairless無毛 )

( Active活潑 )

( Independent獨立 )

( M中 )

( Short短毛 )

( Affectionate可愛 )

( Intelligent聰明 )

( L大 )

( Medium一般長度 )

( Alert警戒 )

( Loyal中心 )

( Long coat長毛 )

( Attentive善解人意 ) ( Obedient服從指令 ) ( Brave勇敢 )

( Plucky有膽識 )

( Determined有決心 ) ( Protective保護特性 ) ( Fearless不畏懼 )

( Quiet安靜 )

( Friendly友善 )

( Responsive擅於回應 )

( Gentle有禮貌 )

( Very friendly非常友善 )

( Good natured善良 )

IT’S ME!!!


87 / 88

No. [ 03 . 2 ]

Dog Adoption – 領養狗

When it comes time to get a dog, some people consider adoption over purchasing. If you’re one of them, why not consider an adult dog? Puppies are a lot of work and adult dogs bond just as well as puppies. Besides, there are quite a few advantages to getting an adult dog.

有些人會在領養和買狗中選擇領養,如果你是其中之一,為何不考慮成犬? 成犬跟幼犬有許多的優點。此外,成犬不用花費很多的時間去照顧。


Nine Reasons to Adopt an Adult Dog – 領養成犬的九種原因 An adult dog has an adult bladder. Puppies can only be expected to “hold it” for as many hours as they are old, plus one. Therefore, a four-month-old puppy can only be expected to hold it for five hours. You probably plan to be home for the first weekend — even a long weekend — when you bring your dog home. But what about after that? Have you made arrangements to walk your new dog or let it out every three, four, five, six or seven hours over the next six months? Is there someone home during the day with your dog? If not, consider an adult dog. They can be housetrained even if they’ve never been housetrained before. And best of all, they can hold it until you come home.

成犬有發育成熟的膀胱。幼犬無法忍受憋尿的痛苦,一般來說幼犬的憋尿時間大約是牠歲數加一的小時數。因 此,四個月大的幼犬只能憋五小時左右。當決定帶狗回家時的第一星期,你最好都待在家,但你必須知道過了第一 個星期,必須每天隔三、四個小時就需遛狗一次。當你不在時,有人可以照顧嗎?如果沒有或無法達成以上的要 求,那你最好飼養成犬,因為牠們可以忍受較長時間。 An adult dog is past the puppy chewing stage. This stage, from two months to two years of age, is when much of the home destruction happens. Chewed cabinets, sofas, shoes, windowsills, and clothing can cost you plenty. But an adult dog, given chew toys and bones to keep him occupied, is no longer in a chewing frenzy.

在跨入成犬的階段前,幼犬會有強烈慾望去咬東西。這一段期間大約會維持兩個月到兩年,並造成傢俱、鞋類、 衣物類的損傷。在成犬的階段只要給牠玩具或是骨頭,就可克制牠想咬東西的慾望。 An adult dog is as big as it’s ever going to get. With puppies – especially puppies whose heritage is unknown – you never know. Many apartments have weight restrictions on the dogs they’ll allow, so if you rent, you may need to get a smaller dog. In addition, food, vet care, and boarding are all more expensive for bigger dogs. If you’re sure you can’t end up with a bigger dog, get an adult.

選擇成犬的原因是牠們的體型不會再改變。但幼犬卻很難預測,因為不同品種的幼犬會有不同的體型限制,除非 很清楚的知道牠的血緣以及家族歷史。除此之外,在許多公寓都有對飼養狗的體重限制,因此小型犬會比較適 合。大型犬的食物、醫療保養、寵物旅館都相對昂貴,如果你決定不養大型犬那就飼養一隻小型的成犬。


89 / 90

No. [ 03 . 2 ]

Dog Adoption – 領養狗

Adult dogs are better able to focus and this comes in handy during training. Although puppies can and should be trained, ask any trainer and she’ll tell you that it’s often easier to train a mature dog. And don’t give in to fears that an adult won’t bond to you, or that you can’t teach an old(er) dog new tricks. Both assumptions are false. Every day is a whole new day for dogs, and the bonding that takes place during training (or retraining) is every bit as rewarding as that with a puppy. Plus, you don’t have to get up in the middle of the night to take him out!

成犬的專注力比幼犬來的好並顯著的反應在訓練上。雖然幼犬需要訓練,但是每個訓練員都會跟你說,成犬的 訓練會較為容易,千萬不要被騙,像是成犬訓練後就不會黏你或學習新招。每天對狗來說都是新奇的,並能夠黏 著主人對牠們來說是主人所賜與的獎賞。此外,訓練後也不用每天都要晚上帶著狗出去。 What you see is what you get. Some dogs are very active as puppies, then mellow out considerably as adults; others are very cuddly and passive as puppies, then develop the energy of a squirrel. An adult dog’s baseline personality is pretty well set, and shelters are full of dogs who became the “wrong” match as they grew up.

你永遠無法預測幼犬成熟後的個性。牠有可能有跟小時候完全不同的性格,小時候頑皮,長大卻慢慢穩重。或是 小時候很黏人,長大卻變得陌生。成犬的個性已經定型不會有起伏。 The first year is a lot less expensive with a grown-up dog. All those trips to the vet to give your new puppy round after round of innoculations can really add up. A healthy adult should only need to go to the vet once a year.

飼養成犬的第一年開銷遠小於飼養幼犬。飼養幼犬需要一次又一次的往返獸醫處去接受各式的檢查,這些花費 看似眇小,但是日積月累卻是相當吃不消。健康的成犬平均只需要到獸醫處接受每年一次的檢查。 Most adult dogs are already socialized. Puppies must make mistakes and be corrected by dogs and humans to learn how to interact with others. Most adult dogs have already had run-ins with other dogs, so they know how far they can go. They want to keep the peace and this is what socialization is about.

大部份的成犬都熟悉與其他寵物和人類相處的模式。但是幼犬必須從錯誤中學習,必須及時被同類和人類糾正 所犯的錯誤。大部份的成犬經歷過大風大浪,知道怎樣收放。有正確的相處模式與其他同類和平相處。


Instant companionship is yours when you get an adult dog. Puppies have to wait until they get their last round of shots before they should be around other dogs. They can’t run very far and are easily knocked around by kids and other dogs. They are uncoordinated, untrained, and must eliminate, eat, and sleep often. An adult dog can go running with you today!

當你有一隻成犬代表你同時得到立即的夥伴。幼犬必須等到牠們接受完最後一次的檢查,才能與其他同類相 處,牠們不能跑太遠,同時也很容易被小孩不經意的動作而受傷。另一方面幼犬需要大量的餵食以及睡眠,這些 都是成犬所不需要的。 If you’re adopting a dog to save a life, consider this. Most people get swept away by the cute factor of puppies. They come to shelters looking for puppies, therefore most puppies in shelters have a much better chance of being adopted than most adult dogs. When you adopt a dog, you’re saving a life. Why not save a life that’s running out of time, with fewer chances at being adopted? Many people say, “the dog knows.” Owners of adult adopted dogs often say that these dogs are grateful and happy dogs. One thing’s for sure; you’ll never regret it.

如果收養狗是為了拯救生命,那請考慮以下的建議。大部分的人都被幼犬可愛的外表跟稚氣的動作所吸引,因此 牠們被收養的機會比其他成犬高出許多。如果你是以拯救生命為出發點,那應該考慮收養那些成犬,把牠們救出 收容所,這些被救出的成犬都是懷著感恩的心並十分開心,你不會後悔的。


91 / 92

No. [ 03 . 3 ]

Interacting with a Dog – 與狗互動

03.3

Interacting with a Dog – 與狗互動

通常小狗或是大型的混種犬會對你以及你周 邊人的生活造成一定程度的困擾


93 / 94

No. [ 03 . 3 ]

Interacting with a Dog – 與狗互動

Your Dog’s Mind – 狗的心靈 Dogs share a range of needs, feelings, and emotions with people. They are sociable and thrive on companionship, with their own kind and with us. They enjoy mental and physical exercise. They respond to rewards and develop bad habits when bored. They are always learning, not just when they are being schooled. However, dogs are not people in disguise. Each dog has its own personality, intelligence, tolerance, and susceptibility to dog obedience training. Despite centuries of selective breeding, your dog still thinks like its wolf ancestors, and learning how to train a dog successfully means you need to remember this. Your dog is a pack animal wanting to know its place in the pack and how to respond to the pack leader’s commands. In your dog’s mind you and your family are pack leaders. You make decisions and your dog complies. Understand how your dog thinks, follow these dog training tips, and learning how to train your dog will be enjoyable for both you and your dog.

狗與人有許多相似的地方。大部份有主人陪伴的狗比較能與同類和人 類和睦的相處,牠們喜歡身心運動,對於獎賞的反應出乎意料之外,但是 要記住牠們會因為寂寞而開始有壞習慣。狗每天都在學習但是牠們並 不是人類,狗對於訓練都有牠獨特的個性、智慧和容忍度。雖然經過幾 世紀的演化,狗仍然認為牠們是狼的後代,在訓練時這點必須牢記在心, 狗是群體動物,牠們會積極去聽從指令並服從領袖。 在你的狗心中, 你以及你家人都是牠的領袖,你必須做出最好的決定。瞭解狗的需要並 且牢記這些訣竅,這樣就可以好好享受與狗訓練的樂趣。

AWOO!

Training dogs is simple and logical – but as you learn how to train a dog, just remember you’re training a wolf in disguise, not a quasi-human. 訓練狗是簡單並富有邏輯性的,但是你必須記住你訓練的是一隻偽裝的 狼而不是類似人類的動物。

Dog obedience training: 狗的服從訓練

01. 02. 03.


把幼犬帶回家是最簡單的部份。訓練 牠你必須有極大的耐心跟訓練,還有對 狗本身的認知。記得幼犬只想跟你玩, 輕輕對牠並容忍錯誤。


95 / 96

No. [ 03 . 3 ]

SET RULES 制定規則

Interacting with a Dog – 與狗互動

What your dog wants most is to please you, so set boundaries and make sure they are clear. Never physically punish your pet. Your dog will not understand the connection between the undesired behavior and their pain. If time-outs are needed, place your pet in a small area by itself. Pets hate being away from their owners and w ill understand much more quick ly that they are being punished if you remove yourself from the picture as opposed to hitting. Most of all, reward your pet for doing right. Praise and encouragement will go a long way toward helping your new puppy fit in at home. If housetraining becomes a problem, you can discourage your dog from returning to the same spot by placing his food and water over the area he has soiled. Dogs will not go to the bathroom in their sleeping or eating area. Also, be sure to clean up any leftover smells with commercial cleaning products to prevent further mixed signals your dog could receive.

你的狗最想要的就是跟你玩以及取悅你,所以必須制定清楚的規則並 且劃定界限,但是千萬不要體罰牠。你的狗不會知道牠們錯誤的行為跟 所受皮肉之痛的關連,如果需要處罰,請把牠放到一個較小的單獨空間, 小狗最討厭單獨處在一個狹小空間,這樣牠就會知道有犯錯的行為。記 住打小狗是完全沒有用的!用稱讚跟鼓勵或是其他獎勵來獎賞你的小 狗。 如果在家訓練遇到問題,最直接的方法就是把飲水跟食物放在 牠平常上廁所的區域,狗最痛恨在睡覺跟吃飯的地方上廁所。另外,記得 在清理完,要除去清潔劑的氣味避免讓狗接受到錯誤的訊息。


HAVE PATIENCE 有耐心

SOCIALIZING 相處

Remember, this is a puppy who knows no commands or words in your language. It is up to you to teach him. Tread lightly and watch how your dog responds to commands, people and his environment. Not all puppies are quick learners. Your time, dedication and patience will be the three most useful things you can offer your pet.

The first few months you spend with your new friend are the most critical. This is the time when your puppy’s social development will take place, so it’s imperative to spend some time introducing him to new sounds and people. Start slowly by, perhaps, inviting one person over. Allow the dog to sniff and play with your guest. Next, add a few more people and maybe the low hum of a stereo. Again, let your dog get its bearings. When noises and new voices scare your animal, soothe him and assure him that he is safe. You can gradually add more noise and people until your pet no longer reacts to the distraction around him. Remember, if you want your dog to safely interact with others, socialization is a must!

記住幼犬根本不懂人類的語言,慢慢的讓牠熟悉你的指令,並不是所有的 幼犬都能夠快速的記憶以及反應。你的時間、投入以及耐心會是三項 最重要的訓練要素。 BITING AND CHEWING 咬以及咀嚼 Puppies chew for a variety of reasons including boredom, anxiety, and just plain not knowing any better. Your pet is looking for rules and it is up to you to provide them. Begin with a variety of toys to see what your puppy likes and responds to. Be sure to rotate toys frequently to avoid boredom and disinterest. By providing toys and entertainment for your dog, you’re showing it the appropriate “chew things.” If chewing on other objects becomes a problem, you can use anti-chew commercial sprays (or make your own by combing a small amount of cayenne pepper and water) and douse the problem areas.

幼犬很喜歡咬東西,因為牠們感到鬱悶和緊張。你的幼犬會開始想要遵 循規則,這時可以開始試著訓練牠們,一開始提供各種不同的玩具,看你 的幼犬對哪類的玩具最有反應,就會知道當牠們無聊時,應該給牠們哪 類的娛樂,同時也讓牠們知道哪些東西是可以咬或咀嚼的!如果牠們見 到東西就咬,你可以試著用市面上有的化學噴劑(也可以用水混胡椒粉 來自行調配)來抑止牠們的行為。

在你跟你的新朋友相處的最初幾個月是關鍵。因為你跟牠在這段期間 會開始建立互信的情誼,所以記得要花點時間讓你的狗認識新的聲音 跟人,一開始先請一位朋友來,讓你的狗聞他,熟悉他的氣味,然後慢慢增 加客人的數量或是增加音量。如果你的狗因此感到不安,記得慢慢的安 撫讓牠知道牠是處在安全的環境,這樣的訓練直到你的狗不再對陌生 的客人以及聲音感到不安。 DIGGING 挖洞 Dogs dig for many reasons. As a natural instinct, dogs will dig a hole to crawl into to stay cool. They also dig when chasing rodents, to bury or retrieve bones and toys, to escape confinement, or simply for fun. Most often, dogs dig when left alone for long periods of time. Covering holes and surfaces is often enough to show the dog that you would prefer that it not dig up the yard. However, if your dog is unresponsive, remote punishment (such as turning the sprinkler on or locking him in a small room for five minutes) will help to reinforce this rule.

狗挖洞並不止是因為想要挖一個安全的避難所,而有可能是要藏牠們珍 貴得來不易的大骨或是玩具。逃離束縛或是只是想玩,大部份的時間狗 在感到無聊時會開始挖洞來打發時間,你可以藉著填滿牠所挖的洞來告 知這是不允許的行為。如果你的狗沒有反應,可以用灑水器或把牠關在 小房間五分鐘,這會幫助牠瞭解事情的嚴重性而不再犯。


97 / 98

No. [ 03 . 3 ]

Interacting with a Dog – 與狗互動

Sit – 坐下 (Fig. A) Hold treat over dog 把零食放在手中掠過狗

[ 1 ] Begin training indoors. The room should be free of distractions. [ 2 ] Summon the dog, then show it a treat. Hold the treat so that the dog points its nose upward (Fig. A). Move the treat backward over its head until the dog naturally lowers into a sitting position (Fig. B). [ 3 ] As soon as it sits, give it the treat and offer ample praise. [ 4 ] Repeat the exercise, this time saying “sit.“ [ 5 ] Once the dog learns the command, try it in more distracting settings: the yard, on a sidewalk, and so on.

[ 1] 開始室內訓練,訓練前請把室內清空。[ 2 ] 叫小狗並拿出狗零食,放在 讓狗可以仰望且聞到的位置,下一步把狗零食往後移動,越過狗的頭部 直到牠可以自然地放低身體位置到坐姿為止。[ 3 ] 只要牠完成以上指 令 就可以給予狗零食作為獎賞。[4] 重復數次之後,開始喊出“坐下”的指 令。[ 5 ] 如果狗可以聽從指令,就可以開始在不同的地方訓練。譬如後院 和人行道等,容易讓狗分散注意力的地方。

(Fig. B) Move treat so dog lowers into the sitting position 移動零食,讓狗蹲低

sit


(Fig. C) Speak “stay” command 說“等”這個指令

stay

Stay – 停止 [ 1 ] Command the dog to sit. [ 2 ] Once it assumes the position, say “stay“ (Fig. C), then wait 2 seconds before praising and/or giving a reward. Be sure the dog holds the sit position during this time. Repeat as many times as necessary. [ 3 ] Once it masters this step, tell it to stay, then take several steps back as the dog holds its position (Fig. D). Wait 2 seconds before rewarding dog. [ 4 ] As the dog becomes more competent, add further distractions such as running in place or making odd noises (Fig. E). Also, increase the interval between the command and the reward. Do not move on to the next step until your dog complies with these new demands.

(Fig. D) Increase distance 增加距離

stay

stay

[ 1] 發出指令讓狗坐下。[ 2 ] 當牠回覆原姿勢時,重複指令叫牠坐下,約兩 秒後再讚美牠給予獎賞,可是要確定狗在這短暫期間內確保坐姿,可以重 複訓練到完全遵守指示為止。[ 3 ] 當牠熟悉坐下指令,讓牠坐下並且主人 同時往後退,等兩秒後再給予獎賞。[4 ] 當狗聽從指令時,開始添加一切 分散注意的事物,譬如在室內跑動或是發出聲響,並可以增加指令跟獎賞 之間的間距,請等到你的狗完全聽從指令,再開始讓牠學習新指令。

(Fig. E) Add further distractions 更加分散注意力

stay


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No. [ 03 . 3 ]

(Fig. A) Engage sitting position 開始坐姿

sit

(Fig. C) Test run 測試跑步

Interacting with a Dog – 與狗互動

(Fig. B) Activate “heel“ command 開始“跟著”命令

rover

heel

(Fig. D) Repeat “heel“ command 重複“跟著”命令

rover

heel


Heel – 跟著 [ 1 ] Hold the dog’s leash in your right hand, taking up any slack with your left. The dog should stand at your left side. [ 2 ] Command the dog to sit (Fig. A). [ 3 ] While holding a treat in your left hand, bring it to the dog’s nose and say its name, followed by “heel“ (Fig. B). [ 4 ] Walk for a short distance, keeping the food at your side (Fig. C). [ 5 ] When you stop, say the dog’s name, followed by the word “ heel,“ and raise the treat so the dog sits (Fig. D). [ 6 ] Give the dog its reward, then repeat the process until the dog walks faultlessly at your side, whether wearing a leash or not.

[ 1] 將狗鏈握在右手並且讓狗在你左邊保持適當距離。[ 2 ] 給狗坐下的指令。[ 3 ] 發出“跟著”的指令後,在你左手 掌心放狗零食當作獎賞,接著放在狗鼻子前方,輕聲呼喚牠的名字。[4] 牽著牠走一小段距離,同時將狗零食放在 你身邊的位子。[ 5 ] 當你停止時,發出“跟著”的指令並且呼喚牠的名字,此時拿出狗零食。[6 ] 當狗成功的同時給予 獎賞,重複數次指令直到狗不管有沒有狗鏈拴住都可以正確無誤的走在你身邊。


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No. [ 03 . 3 ]

Interacting with a Dog – 與狗互動

Coming When Called – 呼之即來 [ 1 ] Solicit help from a friend or family member. Each person should sit at opposite ends of a room. Take turns calling the canine from one person to the other, saying “come“ in a pleasant, enthusiastic voice (Fig. A). [ 2 ] Bribe the dog with treats and/or praise to win compliance. Make the idea of coming when called as attractive as possible. [ 3 ] Later that day, call the dog at random times, whether the animal is a few feet away or in another room. Reward it amply when it responds. [ 4 ] When the dog consistently comes the first time it is called, put it on a long leash and move the training outside (Fig. B). Take the dog for a walk, allowing it to put a fair distance between itself and you ( but always on a leash). Ask it to come, and if it complies reward it with treats and praise. If it doesn’t, tug firmly on the leash and pull, still calling to it in a friendly voice. When it finally returns to you, reward the dog lavishly. Repeat the process several times. [ 5 ] Once the dog is competently trained, upgrade to a longer leash and repeat step 4. [ 6 ] Next, practice off the leash in a fenced area (Fig. C). If your dog refuses to come when called, do not keep calling. Sit down on the ground or do something unusual ( but nonthreatening) that it will want to investigate. When it returns, put the leash on. Go back to leash training for several days before attempting another leash-free session. Eventually the dog will catch on. [ 7 ] Saying “come“ should always be associated in the canine’s mind with pleasant things. Never call a dog to punish it. Instead, go to the canine. If the animal associates the word “come“ with punishment, it may not respond.

[ 1] 在親友們幫助,所有的人坐在房間的四周,所有人輪流用親切有活力的語調呼喚狗的名字叫牠過來。[ 2 ] 用狗 零食來獎勵或是變相的賄絡,讓牠知道遵從這指令是有好處的。[ 3 ] 過一段時間後,再從不同位置呼叫狗的名字, 如果狗遵從指示就給予獎賞。[4 ] 當狗可以在你呼喚第一聲後馬上到達,這時就可換上較長的狗鏈往戶外練習, 遛狗一段時間後開始加長之間的間距,再開始呼喚牠,如果牠聽從指令馬上回到你身邊,這時你可以給牠多一點 獎賞,並且重複練習數次。[ 5 ] 當狗完全熟悉指令後,換上更長的狗鏈。[6 ] 開始在有圍籬的室外練習,當狗沒有回 應時不要氣急敗壞重複呼喚,坐在地上或是做出牠平常不熟悉的動作讓牠感到好奇回到你身邊,當牠回來時,放 上狗鏈並且再重複訓練數次,直到你覺得可以開始繼續戶外訓練。[ 7 ] 呼喚“來”的指令並且試著伴隨著讓狗感 到開心的事物,千萬不要讓狗感覺到來的同時是接受處罰的開始,因為牠不會回應的。


(Fig. A) Phase one: Indoors with two people 第一階段: 與兩個人在室內

come

(Fig. B) Phase two: outdoors with long leash 第二階段: 在外用長狗鏈

come

(Fig. C) Phase three: outdoors with no leash 第三階段: 在室外並沒有狗鏈

come

come =


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No. [ 03 . 4 ]

Introducing Dogs to Children – 讓狗與小孩互相熟悉

03.4

Introducing Dogs to Children – 讓狗與小孩互相熟悉

大部份的狗覺得孩子是種威脅,因為身高差不 多在狗眼的高度,並有著高八度的音調以及無 所不用其極的動作,最重要的是孩子動作具有 不可預測性


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No. [ 03 . 4 ]

Introducing Dogs to Children – 讓狗與小孩互相熟悉

Helping Kids and Dogs Interact Safely – 幫助小孩跟狗安全的互動 Kids and puppies are naturally enthusiastic. It is up to all of us to teach them – and adults, too! - how to properly treat and approach dogs. Our responsibility as pet owners include:

小孩跟狗都十分好動,我們教導可以讓他們知道正確的方向以及如何 對待狗,狗的主人必須熟悉以下的責任:

The dog likes and dislikes to be touched in certain areas. 所有的狗都需要基本醫療照顧、 訓練、梳毛以及運動


01.

SOCIALIZING OUR PETS

讓你的狗能夠與眾人相處

02.

KEEPING OUR PETS UNDER CONTROL

在掌控內不要讓狗離開視線

EDUCATING OTHERS ON THE PROPER WAY TO HANDLE PETS 03.

教導其他人怎樣適當的與狗相處 01. This is generally easier to do with younger pets; by exposing them to other animals and people – under carefully controlled conditions – your pet will learn acceptable behavior.

這對較年輕的狗比較有用,讓牠們在可接受的範圍與其他動物以及人類 相處,並且學習適當的行為舉止。

02. Keep your dog on a leash and under control. Even in “off-leash” areas, your dog should come when you call him.

讓你的狗拴上狗鏈,唯一可放開狗鏈的時候就是已經完成呼喚的訓練。

03. By collectively doing our part in helping others to understand pets, we all benefit.

在幫助你朋友瞭解寵物的習性,我們也幫助狗得到相對平等的對待,譬如 狗就不會被撫摸敏感部位。


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No. [ 03 . 4 ]

( _____ )

Introducing Dogs to Children – 讓狗與小孩互相熟悉

( _____ )

[1]

[2]

[3]

[5]

[4]

DOs When Introducing Kids and Dogs – 小孩與狗相處可做的事 [ 1 ] Ask the owner for permission to pet the dog. Even if the dog looks friendly, ask first! [ 2 ] Approach the dog slowly and gently, and allow him to sniff your hand before you pet him under the chin. [ 3 ] Be careful around injured dogs. Injured dogs may bite out of fear or pain. Ask an adult for help. [ 4 ] Stand still and be calm if a dog approaches you. [ 5 ] Stay away from stray dogs.

[ 1] 在與小狗互動之前先問過主人。[ 2 ] 輕聲以及緩慢的接近狗,在你搔弄牠的下巴之前先讓牠聞你的手。[ 3 ] 小心受傷的狗,受傷的狗較容易吠叫以及咬人。[4] 當狗接近時千萬不要驚慌。[ 5 ] 不要接近流浪狗。


[1]

[4]

[2]

[3]

[5]

DON’Ts When Introducing Kids and Dogs – 小孩與狗相處不可做的事 [ 1 ] Don’t run towards a dog or throw your arms around it. Remember to approach slowly and always ask the owner for permission to see the dog. [ 2 ] Don’t tease a dog or throw things at it. [ 3 ] Don’t try to take food or toys away, or bother the dog when it’s eating. Be careful when a dog is sleeping, too; it may be startled if woken suddenly. [ 4 ] Don’t pet a dog by reaching through a car window, a kennel, or a fence. Many dogs are nervous or protective and may bite. [ 5 ] Don’t assume that every dog is friendly just because its tail is wagging. Ask the owner if it’s okay to pet the dog.

[ 1] 千萬不要跑向狗以及用手環抱牠,在接近狗前先問過主人。[ 2 ] 不要玩弄狗並向牠丟擲雜物。[ 3 ] 不要將食 物或是玩具拿開,在狗進食的同時不要去打擾。[4] 不要接近在車子和圍籬裡面的狗,牠有可能會因為防衛心而 咬你。[ 5 ] 並不是所有搖尾巴的狗都是友善的,千萬記住先問過狗主人再去玩。


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No. [ 03 . 4 ]

Introducing Dogs to Children – 讓狗與小孩互相熟悉

Step 1: Ask the owner

( _____ )

Step 2: Ask the dog

How to Pet a Dog – 怎樣與狗相處

( _____ )

Good kids and dogs will have miscommunications every day. By teaching children and dogs how to interact with one another, we are laying the groundwork for happy, healthy relationships between them. Take time to help your child practice meeting a variety of dogs.

因為我們不是講一樣的語言,再好的狗與乖小孩都會有誤解的時候!教 導小孩跟狗怎樣互相好好相處,有耐心的教導你的小孩與不同種類的 狗相處。

ASK THE OWNER – 問主人

Step 1 – 第一步

Teach your kids never to rush up towards a dog. Tell them to stop about five feet away and ask the owner, “May I pet your dog?” Sometimes the answer will be no. Many dogs don’t live with kids and are not comfortable with them. If the dog’s owner says no, that is okay. Remind your kids that there are many other dogs who would love to be petted by them. If the owner says yes, then the children must ask the dog.

教導你的小孩千萬不要衝動的跑向狗,告訴他們一定要在五尺以外的距 離停下,並得到主人的允許,有時候答案會是不要,因為很多狗並不容易跟 小孩相處,這時可以跟你小孩說,這世界上還是有許多狗樂意跟你們相 處,如果主人的答案是可以的時候也別忘了尊重狗。

Step 3: Pet the dog

( _____ )


ASK THE DOG – 尊重狗的意願

Step 2 [ DO NOT SKIP THIS STEP! ] – 第二步 [千萬不要省略這步驟] Tell kids that dogs don’t use words but instead rely on body language. Pantomime various emotions such as anger, fear, and excitement to show the kids that they use body language too. Have your children make a fist with the palm pointed down. Then they can slowly extend their arm so the dog can sniff their hand. Teaching the kids to curl their fingers in minimizes the risk of a dog nipping at their fingers. When the dog is being given the opportunity to sniff, watch his body language.

千萬記住叮嚀你的小孩們,狗只能用肢體語言表達想法,以及各種情緒包括憤怒、害怕、喜悅在內。讓你的小孩 緩慢伸出手且手心向下,這樣狗就可以先以嗅覺探知有無危險,手指應當盡量捲曲以免被狗當作零食,隨時注意狗 的肢體語言。 YES Does he come forward with loose, wagging motions? 當牠往你方向前進,是以放鬆、搖尾巴的姿勢嗎? Does he lean forward for a quick sniff and seem comfortable? 牠往你方向靠近時,有伴隨著急速的呼吸並且看起來很舒適嗎? NO

Does he turn his face away from your child’s hand? 當小孩伸出手時,牠的頭轉向相反方向? Back away? 退後? Bark? 吠叫? Move behind the owner? 退到主人後面? Look anxious and unsettled? 看起來緊張並且不安分? Growl? 捲曲?

Unfortunately some owners don’t understand or respect their dog’s decision and will drag the dog for ward saying, “Oh, he’s fine. He loves kids. You can pet him.” DON’T! Do not ever allow your children to pet a dog that does not approach them willingly.

不幸的是大部份的主人都不了解或是不尊重牠的狗,通常都會無所謂的硬拉著狗往前,千萬不要讓你的小孩與不 情願的狗有任何肢體上的接觸!安全第一。

PET THE DOG – 碰觸狗 Step 3 – 第三步

If the owner says yes and the dog says yes, your child can pet the dog. Tell kids that they need to be careful of a dog’s sensitive eyes and ears. Most dogs don’t like to be petted on top of their heads, but nearly all people pet dogs this way – it’s a hardwired human behavior. There is a blind spot on top of a dog’s head. If he sees your child’s hand moving toward that area, the natural inclination is for him to tilt his head up and watch where the hand is going. Now your child’s hand is reaching right over the dog’s teeth – not a very good place for that hand to be. Suggest that your child stroke the side of the dog’s neck, rub under his chin, scratch his chest, or pet along his back. Most dogs prefer slow, gentle strokes to rapid pat-pat-patting.

如果狗的肢體語言以及主人都同意的話,你的小孩可以開始與狗玩耍或是交流,不過要先告訴小孩避免碰觸狗 的脆弱部位,譬如眼睛或耳朵,大部份的狗也不喜歡被拍頭,但大部份的人不了解這一點,這也不能怪人因為拍頭 表示善意已經根深蒂固在人類社會,在狗的上方是牠的盲點,因為無法用視線感覺是否有危險,如果看到你的小 孩正在用手接近那個區域,可以將狗的頭部抬高,這樣小孩的手就會在狗的牙齒附近,但這也不是個好地方,最好 的方式就是告訴小孩用手去搓狗下巴,大部份的狗喜歡輕柔的方式。


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Appendix – 附錄

APPENDIX 附錄


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Appendix – 附錄

Dog eats grass. This behavior is as normal as the human consumption of lettuce. Canines seem to need the roughage, though they derive little nutritional value from it. In rare circumstances, nauseated dogs will consume large amounts of grass to induce vomiting.

狗會吃草。這樣的行為其實很自然,就像我們吃高麗菜一樣,犬類動物需要一點草類食物來幫助消化,在一些不 尋常的狀況下,狗會因為吃下太多草而發生嘔吐的現象。 Adult, housetrained dog begins urinating in the home. Healthy canines, particularly males, mark the boundaries of their territory with urine. Unfortunately, they sometimes do this indoors. Once a dog “marks” an indoor spot, it may return to it again and again, guided and stimulated by the smell of previous visits. It is important to clean such areas with an odor-cutting compound (available at pet stores). If your dog has not been neutered, have a veterinarian perform this procedure immediately. Then observe the dog carefully as it makes its rounds through the house. If you catch the dog trying to urinate in its favorite spot, immediately escort it outside. Repeat until it understands the new protocol.

在家訓練的成犬會喜歡在家四周排泄以劃定勢力範圍。當狗開始想要用尿劃定範圍時,牠會一而再再而三在同 一地點重複排泄,所以在排泄之後你必須要徹底清理乾淨,不要讓牠因為殘餘的味道而刺激牠想要在同一地方 再尿一次的慾望,如果你的狗已經被結紮,請獸醫幫忙訓練這個步驟,並且仔細觀察牠有無開始劃定勢力範圍的 傾向,如果牠開始請馬上把牠弄出房間,一定要讓牠知道在屋子裡尿尿的行為是錯誤。


Dog attempts to chase cars, joggers, bikers, and any other fast-moving object. The sight of any speeding object will activate remnants of the wolf operating system associated with the pursuit of prey. The best way to stop this behavior is to keep the dog indoors, in a securely fenced yard, or on a leash. A ll dogs possess this pursuit protocol, but in some models the urge can be almost overwhelming. Greyhounds and cairn terriers, among others, are so keen to chase that they cannot be trusted off their leads in public for any reason. If you ever find yourself pursued by a dog, the best tactic is to stop, turn, and then face it. Most such dogs have been overwhelmed by their chase programming. Removing the stimuli can cause the units to automatically reset.

狗喜歡追會動的事物,包括車子、慢跑的人和腳踏車。因為這激起潛意識狼的本性,最好的方法就是把狗圈養 在室內、有圍籬的院子或是用狗鏈拴好,所有的狗都有這項本領,尤其是灰狗,牠們天生就喜歡追逐也不會聽從 首領的發號施令,如果發現你被狗追的話,不要慌張馬上停下來並且面對牠,狗在失去這項誘因之後,就會失去興 趣,並且停止追逐直到有新的事物再度引起牠們興趣。 Dog humps people and inanimate objects. In may cases mounting is done to display dominance, not necessarily for sexual reasons. Should your dog initiate such behavior, push him down immediately. The mounting of inanimate objects may be performed by young canines both male and female models to relieve sexual frustration.

狗喜歡撲到人身上,大部份的時候撲倒代表壓制性的勝利。如果你的狗出現這樣行為,應該馬上把牠放倒且讓 牠知道你是主人,另外這樣行為也會發生在公犬與母犬上,因為相互吸引會互相撲倒,這樣的行為有助於舒緩因 苦悶而引起的興奮。 Dog destroys furnishings or other household items when left alone. This common (albeit expensive) problem can be caused by several things. The dog may be suffering from severe separation anxiety and taking out its angst on the home furnishings. It may suffer from barrier frustration, attacking doors and/or windows in an attempt to get outside. The dog may simply be bored. In such cases, the destructive activity has no particular focus. The canine may assault a chair on Monday and a piano leg on Tuesday. Mild cases of separation anxiety can sometimes be treated by giving the dog more exercise (a tired canine is infinitely less destructive) or providing it with interesting toys. However, in some cases this fear approaches phobic proportions. Medication and/or intervention by an animal behaviorist may be required.

狗會開始有破壞傢俱的傾向,當牠獨處開始感到無聊焦躁。因為狗會對於分離產生極度不安的感覺,而開始攻 擊一切擋在牠面前的事物,或是當牠被用圍籬圈禁起來或是在車子內,會用盡方法想要逃脫,對於攻擊對象沒有 一定的選擇,可能星期一開始破壞椅子,星期二就破壞鋼琴,對於減低這樣行為可以用大量的運動來耗盡牠的體 力避免分心在這上面,或是提供不同的玩具,如果行為無法控制時,最好求助醫藥控制或是行為專家。 Dog eats its own feces. This behavior, known as pica, is most commonly seen in puppies and dogs on diets, both of whom may seek more nutrient or caloric value from undigested particles in the stool. commercial products can be placed on the dog’s food that will impart a bitter taste to its feces. Alternatively, lace feces left in the yard with jalapeno sauce. This is best done under cover of darkness, to prevent queries from neighbors.

狗會有習慣吃自己固體排泄物的傾向。在狗小時候以及節食情況最常見,因為這時的狗會從未消化完全的排泄 物中找尋營養的來源,這時可以利用ㄧ些添加物使排泄物產生苦味來抑止這樣的行為,另一個有趣的方法就是 將排泄物混合墨西哥辣椒醬埋起來。


The issue of dog abandonment has recently become more prevalent in the news, but this has been a problem for quite some time, as evidenced by overcrowded animal shelters. Every day of the week people abandon their dogs at foreclosed homes, anima l shelters , or on the side of the road . There are va lid reasons to give up your canine. If you have a terminal illness, or an affliction that makes it impossible to provide sufficient care, there’s little you can do except find a good home for your pet. But avoid making the decision lightly. After all, your dog considers you his best friend.

流浪狗問題開始出現在新聞的各大版面,但這問題已經根深蒂固在台灣 有段時間,每天都有狗被丟在法拍屋、動物收容所或是路旁。人總有不 同的理由,其中不乏人生已到盡頭,或是無力撫養給予照顧,但在做這件 事前,請想想狗是最忠實的朋友,會這樣對待朋友嗎?

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