when they do appear, they are small. (Marini, 1990 p. 98)
Most societies are patriarchal societies, in which males dominate political and economic
institutions and exercise power in interpersonal relationships(Strong, DeVault, & Cohen, 2008). Men are seen as main breadwinners of the family and seem weak when they cannot fulfill their responsibilities of the family life. Children learn through modeling and imitating what they see adults around them doing. Playing “dress up” is one‐way children model characteristics and behaviors of adults. Traditionally male roles in the family are different than a woman’s. Male roles have been centered on providing and the centrality of their work identity affected their family roles as husbands and fathers. Female roles are traditionally centered on being good wives and mothers. Contemporary gender roles are more flexible than the traditional gender roles but still continue to limit our potential. Research shows both men and women tend to see women as being less competent than men(Strong, DeVault, & Cohen, 2008, p. 138).
Gender Differences Within the Family