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The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

Center for Entrepreneurship and Economic Development (CEED), Podgorica

CEED Series: Business Idea Editor of the Series: Veselin Vukotic, Ph.D. Editor of this book: Petar Ivanovic Layout: CEED Cover Design: Nebojsa Klacar, Studio Arhangel Printed by: Montcarton, Podgorica The CEED is the first consulting center established in Montenegro to support entrepreneurship and economic development. The mission of the CEED is—through its programs, projects, and advocacy activities—to promote and practically implement in Montenegro the ideas of a free market, entrepreneurship, and private ownership in an open and democratic society; and the rule of law. The primary services offered by the center include: (i) research, economic surveys, and SME database development; (ii) policy analysis and recommendations; (iii) business consulting services; (iv) business plan development for aspiring entrepreneurs; (v) basic and advanced business training for start-up and established firms; (vi) support for women entrepreneurs; and (vii) publishing.

Internet: http://www.cfem.org

E-mail: cfepg@cg.yu

Copyright ©2002 CEED All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system without the prior written permission of the publisher. Published with support from Kvinna till Kvinna (Sweden) and the Center for International Private Enterprise (USA) within the United States Agency for International Development Program.

The Center for International Private Enterprise Washington, D.C., USA

The Center for Entrepreneurship and Economic Development Podgorica, Montenegro

The Kvinna till Kvinna Foundation Stockholm, SWEDEN E-post: info@iktk.se

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The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place



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The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. LIST OF TABLES, FIGURES, AND GRAPHS

5

2. INTRODUCTION

7

3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

8

4. PROJECT OBJECTIVES

10

5. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

12

6. RECOMMENDATIONS

13

7. SNAPSHOT OF MONTENEGRO

14

7.1 GEOGRAPHIC POSITION ........................................................................................................ 14 7.2 GENERAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................. 14 7.3 POPULATION ........................................................................................................................... 15 7.4 EMPLOYMENT ......................................................................................................................... 15

8. SAMPLE AND METHODOLOGY

16

9. KEY FINDINGS

20

9.1 EMPLOYMENT STATUS ......................................................................................................... 20 9.1.1 Current status....................................................................................................................... 20 9.1.2 Field of work ....................................................................................................................... 20 9.1.3 Work experience.................................................................................................................. 20 9.1.4 Working position ................................................................................................................. 20 9.1.5 Reason for unemployment ................................................................................................... 21 9.1.6 Reasons formerly employed women are no longer employed............................................. 21 9.1.7 Reasons for dismissal .......................................................................................................... 21 9.1.8 Reasons for quitting............................................................................................................. 21 9.1.9 Job replacement ................................................................................................................... 21 9.1.10 Job source .......................................................................................................................... 22 9.1.11 Maximizing qualifications ................................................................................................. 22 9.2 DISCRIMINATION IN THE WORKPLACE........................................................................... 24 9.2.1 Employee’s sex.................................................................................................................... 24 9.2.2 Career advancement ............................................................................................................ 25 9.2.3 Management ........................................................................................................................ 25 9.2.4 Working environment.......................................................................................................... 25 9.2.5 Staffing ................................................................................................................................ 25 9.2.6 Demonstration of capabilities .............................................................................................. 26 9.2.7 Compensation ...................................................................................................................... 26 9.2.8 Sexual harassment ............................................................................................................... 27 9.2.9 Maternity leave .................................................................................................................... 27 9.2.10 Clothing requests ............................................................................................................... 27 9.3 RESPONDENTS’ OPINIONS .................................................................................................. 29 9.3.1 Difficulty of finding work ................................................................................................... 29 9.3.2 Job competition ................................................................................................................... 29 9.3.3 Importance of sex in job search ........................................................................................... 29 9.3.4 Job segregation .................................................................................................................... 30 3


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place 9.3.5 Job satisfaction .................................................................................................................... 30 9.3.6 Reasons men find satisfying work more easily ................................................................... 30

10. CONCLUSION

31

10.1 COMMENTS ............................................................................................................................ 31 10.1.1 Finding a job ...................................................................................................................... 31 10.1.2 On the job .......................................................................................................................... 31 10.1.3 Leaving the job .............................................................................................................. 32 10.1.4 What women think ........................................................................................................ 32 10.1.5 Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 32

APPENDIX A: SAMPLE OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE

66

APPENDIX B: CROSSTABS

70



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The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

1. LIST OF TABLES, FIGURES, AND GRAPHS

GRAPHS Graph 1 Graph 2 Graph 3 Graph 4 Graph 5 Graph 6 Graph 7 Graph 8 Graph 9 Graph 10 Graph 11 Graph 12 Graph 13 Graph 14

Sample structure by age Education completed Employment status Field of work Working position Replacement at previous job How did you get the job? Do you have the chance to advance your career? Who is the boss in your organization? Do you have to keep proving your capabilities are equal to those of your male colleagues? Wage difference Reasons for men to find work more easily In jobs where there is no physical qualification, are there certain jobs for men and certain for women? Men are more likely than women to find satisfying work

15 16 16 19 19 20 21 23 23 24 24 26 27 27

TABLES Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8

Age*Education (Cross Table) Education*Employment (Cross Table) Age*Employment (Cross Table) Field of work*Who replaced you at your previous job? (Crosstabs) Do you feel your job makes use of your qualifications?*Education (Crosstabs) Field of work*Was your sex an issue for your employer? (Crosstabs) Education*Was your sex an issue for your employer? (Crosstabs) Field of work*Were men and women competing for a job? (Crosstabs)

17 17 17 20 21 22 22 26

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The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

LIST OF TABLES – APPENDIX B Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10.1. Table 10.2. Table 11.1. Table 11.2. Table 12.1. Table 12.2. Table 13.1. Table 13.2. Table 14.1. Table 14.2. Table 15.1. Table 15.2. Table 16.1. Table 16.2. Table 17.1. Table 17.2. Table 18.1. Table 18.2. Table 19 Table 20 Table 21 Table 22 Table 23 Table 24 Table 25 Table 26 Tables 27-73

Why did you get fired? Do (did) you feel your job makes use of your qualifications? Why do (did) you feel your job does not make use of your qualifications? Is (was) your sex an issue to your employer when you were applying for the job? Do (did) men in similar position have the chance to advance their careers? In your working environment are (were) there men or women? Do (did) you have men working as your subordinate? Do (did) you think it bothers them? Do (did) you have any problems with that? Teasing, jokes… – Who harassed you? Teasing, jokes… – How often did it happen? Requesting sexy clothes – Who harassed you? Requesting sexy clothes – How often did it happen? Liberal comments about appearance – Who harassed you? Liberal comments about appearance – How often did it happen? Liberal looks and gestures – Who harassed you? Liberal looks and gestures – How often did it happen? Liberal touches – Who harassed you? Liberal touches – How often did it happen? Insisting on a date – Who harassed you? Insisting on a date – How often did it happen? Letters, calls, messages – Who harassed you? Letters, calls or messages – How often did it happen? Stalking – Who harassed you? Stalking – How often did it happen? Pressure for sexual favors – Who harassed you? Pressure for sexual favors – How often did it happen? Do (did) you have any problems talking maternity leave? At your job, do (did) you have to wear any special clothing? Unusual requests that I will not get pregnant in a specific time period Unusual requests that I will wear sexy clothes and make up Unusual requests that I should treat male clients (customers…) as more important Unusual requests: They asked for my photo along with my CV Unusual requests: Membership in political party Were men and women competing for the same position when you were applying for a job? Cross tables



6

65 65 65 65 66 66 66 66 66 66 67 67 67 67 67 68 68 68 68 68 69 69 69 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 71


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

2. INTRODUCTION Supported by the Swedish organization Kvinna till Kvinna and the Center for International Private Enterprise, the Center for Entrepreneurship and Economic Development (CEED) in Podgorica implemented a research study titled “The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Workplace�, the first of its kind in Montenegro. Although there has been a considerable amount of research carried out on employment and the working environment in Montenegro, there have been very few studies dedicated specifically to gender issues. Although most Montenegrins will agree that their society is a patriarchal one, there is little hard data that explores whether that is true, and if so how it impacts women on a day to day basis. This needs to be remedied. According to the sparse existing research, women lag behind men in terms of education and salaries, and tend to work in support positions rather than in decision-making roles. Women make up half the population in Montenegro, and have the potential to contribute significantly to the economy. Surveys such as this one can help the government, the private sector and the donor community understand the situation more fully, allowing them to create policies that will assist Montenegrin women to achieve equality with their male counterparts and encourage them to take on more challenging roles. In order to gather data for this survey, researchers approached women all over the country to learn about the employment process and the office environment. It became apparent that many of the respondents had not considered these issues previously. However, based on our results discrimination does exist in Montenegro. We hope that after publishing this study, these issues will not only be considered by the government and the business community, but also by working women themselves. Through further research and in-depth discussion among the relevant players, Montenegrins will be able to select policy measures that will benefit women, the business community, and the country as a whole.



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The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The survey was accomplished thanks to the effort of a large number of individuals and several organizations over a period of five months. This survey was managed by Budimka Mićković and Michelle Stern. Aproximately 30 people participated in this research. CEED’s offices in Podgorica, Nikšić, Kotor, Ulcinj and Bijelo Polje provided logistical support during the gathering of the data. We owe a special thanks to the group of 300 women that worked with our survey administration team to carefully complete the questionnaire, thereby providing valuable data about themselves, their views and their expectations. The organizations that worked together on this study have long-standing and solid reputations in the field of research and policy analysis. The Center for Entrepreneurship and Economic Development (CEED), Podgorica, Montenegro, is the first consulting center established in Montenegro to support entrepreneurship and economic development. The mission of CEED is—through its programs, projects, and advocacy activities—to promote and implement, on a practical level in Montenegro, the ideas of a free market, entrepreneurship, and private ownership in an open and democratic society; and the rule of law. CEED was established to fill the gap in knowledge required by pioneering entrepreneurs who emerged after the break-up of the former Yugoslavia. It quickly became evident that most of these new entrepreneurs required practical and tailor-made training to facilitate their business start-up and expansion. The primary services offered by the center include: research, economic surveys, and small and mediumenterprise (SME) database development; economic analysis; policy analysis and recommendations; advocacy activity; business plan–development for aspiring entrepreneurs; basic and advanced business training for start-up and established firms; business consulting services; and publishing. The Kvinna till Kvinna Foundation supports women who have been afflicted by war and conflict throughout the Western Balkans. They co-operate with women's organizations in Kosovo, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Albania and Israel/Palestine. They work to help war-affected women to recover both physically and psychologically. They want to empower women and support them in participating in the re-building of a democratic society. The Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE), an affiliate of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, works to build democracy and market economies throughout the world. CIPE works in four principal areas: a grants program currently supporting over 90 indigenous organizations in developing countries, an award winning communications strategy, training programs, and technical assistance through field offices. Since its inception in 1983, CIPE has funded more than 700 projects in 80 countries and has conducted management training programs throughout the world.

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The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

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The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

4. PROJECT OBJECTIVES The main goal of this research was to determine whether Montenegrin women believe that discrimination exists in the workplace and in the hiring process. These questions have not been asked in the past in Montenegro, and it is critical to understand the issues before developing an agenda to deal with them. This project was carried out as an initial step, with the ultimate aim of improving women’s position in Montenegrin society. The principle objectives of the project were to determine:  Whether women in Montenegro are discriminated against while they are looking for jobs or at the workplace;  How women are treated during the hiring process;  How discrimination, if it exists, manifests itself;  If women believe that men have more opportunities than they do;  How women perceive their chances for success in the business world. The results of the research reflect the opinions and experiences of 300 women of different ages, education and professional skills. The structure of the sample (by age, by education, by employment) was not determined by any kind of quota because an accurate depiction of the actual population was desired. Data were collected through a questionnaire (APPENDIX A), and include three categories of women based on employment criteria: (1) employed – women employed at the moment; (2) ex – employed – unemployed women who were formerly employed and are looking for a new job; and (3) unemployed – women who have never worked before and are looking for a job. Both employed and ex-employed women responded to questions related to employment and discrimination at the work place. We therefore took answers of both groups into consideration whether they are currently working or not. Research preparation lasted two months and data collection lasted 15 days through 19 data collectors. Then data were then entered and analyzed. The analyses and results of the research were obtained by using SPSS software.



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The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

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The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

5. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Women interviewed for this project ranged in age from 18-65 years old. Almost half of the women completed high school, while a further 48% went on to some sort of higher education. The majority of women, 46.7%, came from the central part of the country, while 30% came from the north and 23.3% from the south. 1. Employment Status Regarding employment status, 53% are employed, 31% are formerly employed and looking for a new job, and 16% never worked before and are on the job market. The most popular fields of work were administration, retail and production. Almost 88% of the respondents are employees, while only 7.2% are managers and owners. Over 60% of women who lost their jobs were let go because the firm went bankrupt. Of those who quit, more than half left because of family reasons and/or pregnancy. Only 5% left for a better job. Women in Montenegro tend to work in sectors that are typically “feminine.” Only 3.2% of women who left their jobs were replaced by men. The majority of women interviewed feel their jobs make use of their qualifications. 2. Discrimination in the Workplace Around 40% of respondents believe their sex was an issue in the hiring process as very or somewhat important, particularly in food service and retail. Respondents are almost equally divided on the question of whether they have the same opportunities as their male counterparts. Only 19% of respondents have female managers. In one third of the organizations that have more female employees than male, the boss is a man. Almost 40% of respondents feel they have to continue to prove their capabilities are equal to their male colleagues constantly or sometimes. Most of the women believe their wages are on the same level as their male colleagues. The survey included several questions on sexual harassment, and according to the results, this is not a major problem in Montenegro. 3. Respondents’ opinions According to almost half of respondents, men can find work more easily than women. The primary reasons are because men have more choices, and prejudice against women. Over 60% of respondents believe that there is a division between men’s work and women’s work in Montenegro, and that except in jobs with physical restrictions this division should not exist. Men and women competed for the same position in less than half of the cases. The majority of participants also agree that women have a harder time than men finding satisfying well-paid work, mainly because women put family first or because men have more useful connections and are in decision making roles.

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The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

6. RECOMMENDATIONS The following recommendations are based on the survey findings and conclusions of the survey team: •

Programs encouraging girls and women to further their education should be developed.

Women should be persuaded to seek work in sectors that traditionally employ men.

Companies need to examine their policies to understand why women do not get promoted to decision-making positions.

This survey raised as many questions as it answered. There is a need for more research on gender issues in Montenegro.

A campaign to make gender issues part of the public debate should be kicked off.

The government, the private sector and women workers need to work together to create policies that will create a more positive environment for both sexes. 

The above recommendations have been concluded from the survey we conducted. The Center for Entrepreneurship and Economic Development is willing to take part in realizing these recommended actions.



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The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

7. SNAPSHOT OF MONTENEGRO 7.1 GEOGRAPHIC POSITION Montenegro lies in the southeast part of Europe, on the central part of the Balkan Peninsula, on the coast of the southern Adriatic Sea. The surface is mainly mountainous. The Zeta River in the area of Lake Skadar, together with the Zeta Valley and the Niksic Polje, comprise the biggest lowland region of Montenegro and its most fertile area. Montenegro borders on Croatia and Bosnia Herzegovina to the west, Serbia to the north, Albania to the east and Italy over the sea. Montenegro covers a territory of 13,812 square kilometers. It has 300 km of coastline. The capital city of Podgorica lies in the central part of the country. The geographic position of the country provides favorable conditions for specific economic activities, above all transport and tourism. 7.2 GENERAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Economic activity in Montenegro is concentrated in the central part with the capital Podgorica and Niksic. Other municipalities with intensive economic activities are Pljevlja, Bijelo Polje and Berane in the north and Bar, Herceg Novi and Budva in the south. In the past several years, Montenegro, with the assistance of the foreign donor community, has been implementing an economic reform program, which will completely overhaul the existing system. One of the key areas is legislative reform. A series of new tax laws, as well as the new Enterprise Law, Energy Law, Anti-corruption Law, Tourism Law, Secure Transactions Law and a number of other will work to create a more positive environment for conducting business. The privatization process has also been moving ahead through mass voucher privatization and through batch sales and tenders. Over 60% of state owned shares has moved into private hands, and the major companies such as the telecom company, Jugopetrol, the aluminum plant and most of the hotels are slated to be sold off in the near future. The development of an efficient capital market was required to achieve all these reforms. Today there are two stock markets in Montenegro, the Montenegro Stock Exchange and the NEX Exchange. Shares of the privatization funds are expected to be traded by the end of 2002. A number of registered brokers and traders have been certified to carry out trading on the two exchanges. Due to the economic and political collapse of Yugoslavia, the Republic of Montenegro suffered a loss of 57% of its economic power through 1993. The closure of former Yugoslav and East European markets, war in the surroundings, the economic blockade of Yugoslavia, interruption of existent traffic flows and communications, led to the diminishing of economic activity. After 1995, there was a short period of recovery, which was interrupted by the war in Kosovo. Per capita gross domestic product in 2001 amounted to $1.899. In 1999 Montenegro switched to the DM, and in January 2002 moved to the EURO. The conversion to the Euro was one of the largest operations with money executed in Montenegro, and was considered a major success. As in Europe, Euro inflation has had an impact on the Montenegrin economy. According to CEED estimates, the rate in 2002 will be 18%.

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The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

7.3 POPULATION The last census in Montenegro, taken in 1991, counted 615,000 residents in Montenegro. According to population estimates from the Statistical Office of Montenegro, this figure increased to 650,758 by 1999, a growth of 5.8%. Just over half of the citizens are women. Estimates show a slight increase in the population growth rate in the 1990’s. This is probably due to population shifts in the region during the Balkan wars. Before World War II the number of children per family was significantly higher than in the period after the war. After World War II, and more specifically after 1948, the growth rate decreased steadily. This could be explained by better living conditions and by the fact that the women in Montenegro are more educated and most have chosen not to have more than two children. It is also possible that parents prefer to keep their families smaller during difficult economic times. The birthrate has dropped from 33.06/1000 inhabitants in 1953 to 13.57 in 1999, which means the Montenegrin population is getting older. This has had two effects on the female population in terms of professional life. As they are having fewer children, they have more time to work and to educate themselves. Secondly, as the working age population shrinks, there is a greater need for women to contribute to the economy. 7.4 EMPLOYMENT The “working age” population includes men between the ages 15 and 64, and women between the ages of 15 and 59. According to official data, the working age population in Montenegro consists of 399,241 citizens, out of which 182,055 or 45.6% are women. Of this number, 285,258 citizens make up the active work force, of which 43.75% or 124,825 are women. Within the active work force where 181,762 citizens are employed, 39.65% or 72,075 of them are women. In spite of all the programs aimed at reducing unemployment, the number of unemployed persons in Montenegro has increased. Women’s participation in the total number of unemployed in the last five years has been 60%. In the last several years, approximately 15,000 of the available jobs have been announced annually, and 80,000 of the unemployed citizens have applied for those jobs. On average, there are six applications for each job announcement. The pressure is even higher among the jobs that are predominantly filled by women. The majority of women are employed in the non-economic sectors (60.2%), while 34.8% of them work in the economic sectors. Due to high taxes and contributions to social insurance through deductions from employees’ salaries, working in “the grey economy” is very frequent. Sectors in which the work in “the grey economy” is most frequent (trade, for example) mainly employ women. In this way, the participation of the women’s work force in the grey economy is outstanding. According to surveys, 25% of the women that work in the grey economy work between 6 and 12 months, and almost the same percentage work without the basic employment and social rights that they are entitled to that have been mandated by the Law for more then two years now.



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The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

8. SAMPLE AND METHODOLOGY Geographically, the research covered seven cities in Montenegro. The structure of the sample by city, based on the percentage of the population of each city in the total Montenegrin population, is as follows1: Municipality Berane Bijelo Polje Total: north Podgorica Niksic Danilovgrad Total: central Kotor Ulcinj Total: south TOTAL

Number of respondents 50 40 90 90 40 10 140 40 30 70 300

% 16.7 13.3 30.0 30.0 13.3 3.3 46.7 13.3 10.0 23.3 100.0

The age distribution of the sample can be seen in the graph below. Graph 1: Sample structure by age

7.7%

51-65

20.7%

Age

41-50

26.3%

31-40

36.3%

22-30

9.0%

18-21 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

%

Most of the respondents from the sample are between 22 to 30 years old (36.6%), while the smallest segment of the sample is 51 to 65 years old (7.7%).

1

Additional tables are in APPENDIX B.

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The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place The structure of the sample by education is as follows: Graph 2: Education completed 47.0%

50 45 40 35 30

23.7%

20.3%

25 20 15 10

5.3%

2.3%

1.3%

5 0 Primary school High school

Two years university program

Four years university program

Masters program

Vocational training

Almost half of the respondents finished high school, while the smallest number completed a masters program. The structure of the sample, regarding employment status2, is as follows: Graph 3: Employment status 16.0%

53.0% 31.0%

Employed

Ex-employed

Unemployed

More than half of respondents are currently employed (53%), 31% have worked before and 16% have never worked but are looking for a job. This research illustrates that 84% women work or worked before – in other words have some working experience.

2

Employed – women employed at the moment Ex – employed – unemployed women who were formerly employed and are looking for a new job Unemployed – women who have never worked before and are looking for a job

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The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

Cross tables: The following cross tables show the level of education of women from the sample in the context of their age. The majority of women have not continued past a high school education. Only 19% of women in the 41-50 year age group finished university, while 35% of the 31-40 year olds and 28% of the 22-30 year olds received undergraduate degrees. Table 1: Age*Education Primary school 18 – 21 22 – 30 Age 31 – 40 41 – 50 51 – 65 Total

Education (%) Two years Four years university university program program 2.0 8.0 10.0 5.0 9.0 5.0 4.0 1.0 1.0 20.0 23.0

High school

1.0 1.0 1.0 1.6 0.7 5.3

5.0 17.0 11.0 9.0 5.0 47.0

Finished masters program

Vocational training

Total

1.0 0.3

0.3 0.7 0.3 1.0

1.3

2.3

9.0 36.0 26.0 21.0 8.0 100.0

The cross-table below highlights the number of employed and unemployed women from the sample considering education. Most of the employed women have finished high school or university programs. Table 2: Education*Employment

Education

Employment status (%) Employed now Ex-employed Unemployed 2.3 1.7 1.3 22.0 18.0 7.0

Primary school High school Two years university program Four years university program Masters program Vocational training Total

Total 5.3 47.0

11.0

6.0

3.3

20.3

16.3

4.0

3.3

23.7

1.0 0.3 53.0

0.3 1.0 31.0

1.0 16.0

1.3 2.3 100.0

The next table shows the number of employed women and their ages. Women aged 41 to 50 are in more cases employed than unemployed, which is the opposite of those aged 18 to 21. Only 7% of women in the sample aged 41-65 have never worked, while at 19% this figure is much higher for women in the 22-30 year age group. Table 3: Age*Employment Employed now 18 – 21 22 – 30 31 – 40 Age 41 – 50 51 – 65 Total

2.3 20.3 15.0 11.7 3.7 53.0

Employment status (%) Ex-employed 2.0 9.0 8.0 8.3 3.7 31.0

 18

Unemployed 4.7 7.0 3.3 0.7 0.3 16.0

Total 9.0 36.3 26.3 20.7 7.7 100.0


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

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The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

9. KEY FINDINGS 9.1 EMPLOYMENT STATUS 9.1.1 Current status 53% of respondents from the sample are currently employed; 47% are unemployed, of which 31% have worked before and 16% never worked before but are looking for a job. Both employed and ex-employed women from the sample (84%) responded to questions about the workplace. 9.1.2 Field of work 36.1% of women from the sample who are currently employed or were previously employed work in administration, 23.4% in retail, 14.7% in production, 11.1% in education, 7.9% in food service, 6.3% in health and 0.4% in media. Graph 4: Field of work 0.4%

Media

14.7%

Production

36.1%

Administration

23.4%

Retail

7.9%

Food service

6.3%

Health

11.1%

Education 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

%

9.1.3 Work experience 38.5% of respondents from the sample spent 1-5 years in related organization; 28.2% longer than 10 years; 18.3% less than one year; and 15.1% 5-10 years. 9.1.4 Working position 87.7% of the employed and ex-employed respondents from the sample are3 full-time employees, 5.2% of them are part-time employees, 4.8% of them are managers, and 1.2% are owners. The same percentage was found for managers and owners. Graph 5: Working position

3 In those sections of the text that put both women who are currently working and women who have worked in the past into one group, for simplicity’s sake the authors have chosen to use present tense.

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The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

87.7%

5.2%

Full-time employee

4.8%

Part-time employee

1.2%

Manager %

Owner

1.2% Manager and owner

9.1.5 Reason for unemployment 50% of unemployed women who are looking for a job with no success think that the reason they did not obtain the job is that relatives and/or friends of the employer got the job. Twenty-five percent of unemployed women believe that they are not qualified enough and 12.5% think that their age is the reason. In 8.3% cases employer looked exclusively for a man and in 4.2% of cases respondents are not employed because of some other reasons but they have a job in a future. 9.1.6 Reasons formerly employed women are no longer employed 58.1% of those respondents who worked before were fired, while 41.9% of them quit. 9.1.7 Reasons for dismissal Approximately 61.0% of respondents who were fired stated that this action resulted from a firm going bankrupt. On the other hand, 14.8% of the sample believe the reason is that the employer found a more adequate person for the job. Complaining about her small salary was the reason for 5.6% of the women, and the same percentage claim personal reasons. Interestingly, 3.7% of women were fired because they complained about men’s attitude. Another interesting thing is that 5.6% of respondents do not know why they were dismissed. Others were fired because of their age, or because they became pregnant (3.8%). 9.1.8 Reasons for quitting 30.8% women quit because of family reasons, 23.1% because they became pregnant, and 17.9% because of the small salary. Almost 13% of the sample did not feel comfortable as woman in the workplace. Five percent found a better job, the same percentage think that their employer was not satisfied with their work, and the same percentage retired. So, over half of the respondents stopped working in order to take care of their children or other family members. 9.1.9 Job replacement 34.4% of unemployed women who worked before were replaced by another woman. In 31.2% cases nobody replaced them, in same number of cases they do not know who replaced them (if anyone), and in 3.2% cases their replacement was a man. Graph 6: Replacement at previous job 34.4%

40

31.2%

31.2%

30 20 10

3.2%

0 Man

Woman

Nobody

I do not know

Cross tables: 21


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place The following cross-table demonstrates the rate of replacements in certain fields of work. If we discount for “I do not know” the data show that men replace women only in the area of administration. Table 4: Field of work*Who replaced you at your previous job?

Education

Who replaced you at your previous job? (%) A man A woman Nobody I do not know 3.2 1.1 4.3

Health Food service Retail Administration Production Total

1.1

Field of work

3.2 3.2

5.4 15.1 8.6 2.1 34.4

4.3 5.4 5.4 13.9 31.2

Total 8.6 1.1

3.2 7.5 10.8 5.4 31.2

12.9 28.0 28.0 21.4 100.0

9.1.10 Job source 41.3% of employed women found their job through recommendations, 40.1% through advertisements in media, 16.3% through the Bureau for Employment, and finally 2.4% employed women obtained their job by starting their own business. This can be seen in the following graph. Graph 7: How did you get the job?

16.3%

2.4% 41.3%

40.1%

I had recommendations I’ve heard in Bureau for Employment

It was announced in media Opening own business

9.1.11 Maximizing qualifications 73.8% of employed and ex-employed women responded positively to the question of whether they feel their job makes use of their qualifications, and 26.2% responded negatively. Approximately 44.0% of those who do not feel their job makes use of their qualifications think that this is because there is no demand for their qualification on the labor market. Approximately 22.7% of women have not looked for a job for which they are qualified, 15.2% think that friends and relatives of the employer were given the job they should have gotten, 10.6% think that the organization does not make proper use of their capabilities, 4.5% do not feel their job makes use of their qualifications because of family reasons (the woman is not able to fulfill certain obligations, i.e. frequent traveling), 1.5% think that the job for which they are qualified is traditionally considered a “men’s” job, and the same percentage believe the reason is their age. Cross tables: The following cross table shows how respondents feel their jobs make use of their qualification considering their education. 65% of respondents who do not feel their job make use of their qualification finished high school, 19% two years university program and 12% four years university program. Table 5: Do you feel your job makes use of your qualifications? * Education Education (%)

22

Total


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

Do you feel your job makes use of your qualifications? Total

31.0

Two years university program 15.0

Four years university program 21.0

17.0

5.0

3.0

48.0

20.0

24.0

Primary school

High school

Yes

4.0

No

1.0 12

Finished masters program 2.0

Vocational training 1.0

74.0 26.0

2.0

1.0

100.0

23


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

9.2 DISCRIMINATION IN THE WORKPLACE 9.2.1 Employee’s sex 20.2% of employed and ex-employed respondents stated that their employer stressed he/she was looking exclusively for a female employee for the job. The same percentage of respondents said that sex was mentioned, but was not considered important. Finally, 59.5% of respondents think that the sex of the employee was not an issue for the employer. Cross tables: The following cross table illustrates whether the sex of the employee was an issue for the employer across different fields of work. Women working in retail, and particularly women working in food service, responded positively in more cases then in other fields of work. Table 6:Field of work? * Was your sex an issue for your employer when you were applying for a job?

Education Health Food service Retail Field of work Administration Production Media Total

Was your sex an issue for your employer when you were applying for a job? (# of respondents) Total Yes, it was stressed in Yes, but not so No the want ad important 2 5 21 28 4 3 9 16 10 6 4 20 18 17 24 59 11 16 64 91 6 4 27 37 1 1 51 51 150 252

In the following cross table one can see whether sex of the employee was an issue for the employer in the context of education. In most cases, those who responded positively to this question do not have a university degree. Table 7: Education*Was your sex an issue for your employer when you were applying for a job?

Education

24

Primary school High school Two years university program Four years university program Masters program Vocational program Total

Was your sex an issue for your employer when you were applying for a job? (# of respondents) Total Yes, it was stressed in Yes, but not so No the want ad important 8 2 2 12 31 28 61 120 7

12

32

51

2

8

51

61

1

3 1 150

4 4 252

3 51

51


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place 9.2.2 Career advancement 50.4% of the employed and ex-employed women from the sample feel that they do not have any opportunity to advance their career at their current job while 49.6% of them feel that they do have the chance to advance their careers. Compared to men in similar positions, 60.8% of employed and exemployed women from the sample feel that men have the chance to advance their careers, and 39.2% of them feel that men do not have such options. Graph 8: Do you have the chance to advance your career?

49.6%

50.4%

I have chances to advance my career I do not have chances to advance my career

9.2.3 Management In 81% of cases men fill the manager role and in 19% of cases woman serve as the manager. Graph 9: Who is the boss in your organization? 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

81%

19%

A man

A woman

9.2.4 Working environment In 55.2% of organizations where women from the sample work, the sex of employees is mixed, 36.5% of organizations are dominated by women, and 8.3% of organizations are dominated by men. We discovered that in 26.6% of the organizations that have more female employees than male, the manager is a man. 9.2.5 Staffing 34.9% of employed and ex-employed women from the sample have male subordinates, and 65.1% of them do not. Of the 34.9% that have male subordinates, 14.8% said that this situation bothers the men, 43.2% said that it does not bother men, and 42% do not know what the men think about this situation. When asked the question “Do you have any problems with having male subordinates?� 86.2% of women responded negatively and 14.8% responded positively.

25


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place 9.2.6 Demonstration of capabilities 14.7% of employed and ex-employed women from the sample feel that they have to constantly keep proving that their capabilities are equal to those of their male colleagues. On the other hand, 16.3% report that they must prove themselves sometimes, 21.8% rarely, and 47.2% never. Interestingly, women that have reached a higher level of education do not feel that they have to continue to prove themselves as equal to men as often. Graph 10: Do you have to keep proving your capabilities are equal to those of your male colleagues? 47.2% 45 40 35

21.8%

30 25 20

16.3%

14.7%

15 10 5 0

Constantly

Sometimes

Rarely

Never

9.2.7 Compensation 6.7% employed and ex-employed women from the sample stated that their male colleagues have higher salaries than they do, 60.7% stated that salaries are the same, 4.4% stated that women have higher salaries, and 28.2% of respondents do not have information about salaries. Of the 6.7% of the population that stated that men receive higher compensation, 29% are employed in the retail field and 29% are employed in the production field. In the areas of education and media, there were no such cases. While 47.1% of the women who believe men receive higher compensation are female high school graduates, only 29.4% of them completed a two-year university program and 11.7% graduated from a four-year university program. Graph 11: Wage difference

60.7%

70 60 50

28.2%

40 30 20

4.4%

6.7%

10 0 Women have higher salary

26

Men have higher salary

Salaries are the same

I do not know


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place 9.2.8 Sexual harassment Research indicates the following statistics:  Teasing, jokes: 7.7% of employed and ex-employed women complained to the interviewer that their boss harassed them in this way, 1.3% complained of this action by subordinates, and 8.3% complained this behavior was carried out on somebody else, for example a client. In 15% of the cases this happened more than once, and in 2.3% of the cases this happened only once.  Requesting sexy clothes: Managers harassed respondents about this topic in 1.3% cases. “Somebody else�, for example a client, harassed respondents in 0.7% cases.  Liberal comments about appearance: 5% of respondents complained to the interviewer that their manager harassed them in this way, 2% respondents complained that her subordinate harassed her in this way, and 10% respondent said that somebody else harassed her. In 17% cases this situation happened more than once.  Liberal looks and gestures: 5.3% of respondents complained to the interviewer that their manager harassed them in this way, 0.7% of them complained of this by their subordinates, and 7.7% indicated somebody else. In 11.7% of cases this situation happened more than once.  Liberal touches: 2.3% of respondents with working experience said that their manager harassed them in this way, 1.3% complained to interviewer about their subordinates, and same percentage complained about somebody else. In 3.7% of cases this situation happened more than once.  Insisting on a date: 3% of respondents from the sample complained to interviewer that their manager harassed them in this way, 7.3% of them complained about somebody else, for example a client. In 6.3% of cases this situation happened more than once.  Letters, calls, messages: 1.7% of respondents from the sample complained to interviewer that their manager harassed them in this way, 3.3% of them complained about somebody else. In 3.7% of cases this situation happened more than once.  Stalking: 0.3% of respondents from the sample complained to interviewer that their manager harassed them in this way, 0.3% of them complained about somebody else.  Pressure for a sexual favors: 0.7% of respondents from the sample complained to interviewer that their manager harassed them in this way, 0.3% of them complained about somebody else.  Rape: None of employed and ex-employed women from the sample responded positively on this question. 9.2.9 Maternity leave 8.3% of employed and ex-employed respondents have problems regarding maternity leave, while 91.7% of them do not have problems with taking maternity leave or did not ever take maternity leave. 38% of women from the sample that had some problems with taking maternity leave are engaged in retail trade and 48% of these women stopped their education at high school. 9.2.10 Clothing requests Of the women who have to wear special clothes at the manager’s request, 3.2% of respondents feel uncomfortable, while 66.7% do not have any problems with such clothing. 30.2% have had to wear

27


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place special clothes because of the work they do. Respondents who had the most significant complaints in this area work in food service (63%) and retail (37%).

28


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

9.3 RESPONDENTS’ OPINIONS 9.3.1 Difficulty of finding work 49.3% of respondents from the sample think that men can find work more easily than women. These respondents gave following explanations for their beliefs: men have more opportunities and choices (22.3%); prejudice (21.6%); family is more important for women (16.9%); men’s network – employers are men in most cases (12.8%); maternity leave (9.5%); physical advantages (6.8%); and unknown (10.1%). Graph 12: Reasons for men to find work more easily

I do not know

10.1%

Physical advantages

6.8% 16.9%

Family is more important for women

21.6%

Prejudice

12.8%

Men's network-employers are men Maternity leave

9.5%

22.3%

Men have more choices 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

9.3.2 Job competition In 48.3% of cases men and women were not competing for the same job and in 45.3% of cases men and women competed for the same job. 6.3% of respondents did not know if their competition was male or female. Cross tables: The following table shows in which fields of work men and women were in competition. It is significant that respondents believe that men and women compete in typically female areas (retail, education and food service) as much as they do in others (production, administration). Table 8: Field of work*Were men and women competing for a job?

Education Health Food service Retail Field of work Administration Production Media Total

Were men and women competing for a job? (# of respondents) Total Yes No I do not know 14 9 5 28 7 9 16 6 11 3 20 13 44 2 59 39 46 6 91 19 16 2 37 1 1 99 135 18 252

9.3.3 Importance of sex in job search 28.3% of the sample stated that employee’s sex was important to employer, 39.7% of respondents think that sex was not an important issue, and 32% of them do not know. Again, the retail and food service industries are the two areas in which the employee’s sex was perceived as most important to the employer. 29


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place 9.3.4 Job segregation When asked the question “In jobs where there are no physical qualifications, are certain jobs created for men and certain jobs for women?” respondents said the following: 60.7% believe that a division exists and it should not, 23.0% think that the division doesn’t exist and it should not, 15.0% replied that a division exists and it should, and 1.3% feel a division doesn’t exists but should. Graph 13: In jobs where there is no physical qualification, are there certain jobs for men and certain for women? 1.3% 15.0%

23.0%

60.7%

The division exists and it should The division doesn't exists and it should not

The division exists and it should not The division doesn't exists but it should

9.3.5 Job satisfaction 64.3% of respondents from the sample think that women have a harder time than men finding satisfying, well-paid work while the other 35.7% of respondents think that men and women are in the same position. Graph 14: Men are more likely than women to find satisfying work

70

64.3%

60 50

35.7%

40 30 20 10 0

Yes

No

9.3.6 Reasons men find satisfying work more easily Respondents from the sample who think that women have a harder time than men finding satisfying, well-paid work cite the following causes: women feel that family obligations are more important than their careers (34.2%); employers are, in most cases, men (24.9%); old boys network (this means men are friends with one another so they help each other out) (22.8%); the existing legal framework (8.8%); unknown (7.8%); prejudice (0.5%), lack of satisfying jobs (0.5%), and all of the above (0.5%).

 30


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

10. CONCLUSION 10.1 COMMENTS 10.1.1 Finding a job All women from the sample answered questions about the employment process, including employed, exemployed and unemployed. Over half of the women in the survey who did not get a job they applied for said it went to a friend or relative of the employer, which demonstrates the fact that nepotism is a significant problem in Montenegro. However, women also benefit from this system, as 41.3% of women got their jobs through recommendations. Not everyone is lucky enough to have such connections. Over 25% of the women in the sample between 22-40 years old are currently looking for work. According to estimates from the Institute for Strategic Studies and Prognoses, the unemployment rate is around 19%, while 48% of our sample is currently job hunting. More than 40% of respondents said sex was an issue to the employer during the hiring process, particularly in the food and retail sectors. This can be verified through media advertisements, which often specify whether the employer is looking for a woman to fill the position. 10.1.2 On the job Key findings from the research show that 84% of women from the sample have some professional experience, 53% are currently employed, and 31% have worked previously. Around 87% of women from the sample work or worked as full-time employees (including seasonal workers). Data collectors did not ask respondents whether they work as official employees or informally. Women in the sample with higher educations are more likely to be employed. This could explain why more young women are studying. In the 41-50 year age group, 43% completed high school and only 19% university, while 47% of 22-30 year olds finished high school and 28% university. This research shows that in 81% of the cases the manager is a man. In our sample there are very few women in decision-making positions. The majority of women in the sample are in administration, or other typically feminine fields such as health or education, while only 14.7% work in production and just 6% are managers or owners. Of the employed and ex-employed women, 73.8% from the sample feel that their job makes good use of their qualifications. However, we have to ask why women are working mainly in subordinate positions. The remaining 26.2% from the sample responded that they do not feel their job makes use of their qualifications, of which 65% finished high school and 31% finished a two or four-year university program. We can conclude from this that a woman is more likely to be satisfied at her job if she has a higher level of education. Over 44% who do not believe their job makes use of their qualifications say the reason for this is that there are no good jobs, which is gender neutral. Another 30% say it is because the job they were suited for went to someone else, their skills are not used adequately, or they cite family reasons. In other words, they feel they are overqualified for their jobs. Lack of good jobs is presently a problem for both men and women in Montenegro, but women seem to have other hurdles to overcome. Only 6.7% of the sample responded that men at the same position in their organization receive higher wages. If we exclude the 28.2% of the respondents who do not know if there any difference in wages between genders, it appears that there is no wage discrimination against women in Montenegro. However, other surveys show that there is in fact a wage gap. According to the Household Survey 4 published by the Institute for Strategic Studies and Prognoses, men receive on average â‚Ź30.00 more per month, even when accounting for education level. UNDP has found similar results. Although it is

31


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place possible that the women from our sample were an exception to the rule, it is also possible that they are for some reason not aware of the wage gap. Regarding sexual harassment, only a relatively small number of respondents admit that they were harassed at the workplace. The mentality in Montenegro is still patriarchal, and most women think that they should handle the situation on their own, without complaint and without talking about it. Additionally, people are not familiar with the words “discrimination” and “harassment”. This survey had only a few questions on this topic, and therefore, the level of sexual harassment remains uncertain. This could be an area for future research. 10.1.3 Leaving the job The fact that 61.1% of those women who were let go from their jobs were fired because the company went bankrupt clearly demonstrates Montenegro is experiencing an economic crisis. While respondents did not mention sexual discrimination as a cause, the practice of dismissing female workers before male workers is typical in transitioning economies. Of the 41.9% of ex-employed women who quit, 23.1% of them did so because they became pregnant. As the maternity policy under Montenegrin law is very generous, this data indicates that some of them might have been forced to quit and some of them might not have been able to manage both family and career obligations. Approximately 34% of dismissed women were replaced by another woman. Only 3.2% of respondents were definitely replaced by a man. This could indicate that these were positions created exclusively for women. 10.1.4 What women think Answers to questions related to respondent’s opinions indicate that most of them feel that discrimination does exist in Montenegro. Roughly 61% of the respondents believe that there is a division between men’s jobs and women’s jobs that should not exist. This is supported by the fact that men replaced so few dismissed women. However, under such difficult economic conditions, the situation may be changing, as people are willing to take whatever job they can get. Our results show that men and women are now competing for jobs in fields that are both traditionally masculine, such as production, and feminine fields such as education. This would be an interesting topic for further research. Data shows that 64.3% of respondents think that women have a harder time finding a satisfying, wellpaid job than men. The fact that so few women in our sample are bosses or managers supports this. This would also be an interesting topic for further research, but some possible reasons could be that women are less educated and have less working experience, or that they are concerned with their families and are less committed to the job. According to our sample, employers seem more likely to hire men in decision-making positions. When asked why they believe women have a more difficult time finding a satisfying job than men, 34.2% of respondents cite the fact that family obligations are often considered more important than their careers. It would be interesting to learn how many of these women feel they have not been able to fulfill their professional objectives because they were stuck with domestic responsibilities, and how many chose this path. The majority of women cited issues such as “the employer is a man” or “the old boys network” as the reasons why women remain in secondary positions. 10.1.5

Conclusion

When looking at the responses to the questions regarding workplace experience, it appears that respondents do not perceive discrimination to be a serious problem. One explanation may be that under the former Communistic regime, women were supposedly considered equal to men. Alternatively, Montenegrins are struggling through an economic crisis at the moment and are focusing on survival rather than gender issues. A third explanation is that this is the first time a survey like this has been 32


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place carried out. Topics like discrimination or sexual harassment are not common, and women are unfamiliar with discussing these topics. It is interesting that the responses to questions concerning women’s opinions paint a different picture, one where discrimination is prevalent in society. Under current economic conditions, with a limited number of good jobs available, the motivation for working is likely to be contribution to the family budget rather than personal satisfaction. It is clear that Montenegrin women face a “dual burden” of bringing money home and taking care of the family. Many people, men and women both, believe that women can do both easily. However, women often have to ask themselves what is more important, devoting time to the family, or contribution to the family budget. Looking for the results of our survey, taking care of the family often takes priority over women’s professional goals. As the economy begins to improve, more good jobs will be created, and Montenegrin women will have more opportunities to work in different industries and in different positions. At the moment there is no strong business association for women. It will be interesting to see if women will choose to be proactive as the economy starts to improve. The other players who influence the lives of women, including the government, legislators, employers and family members, can also take part in transforming women’s role in Montenegrin society. This research confirms some previous observations and assumptions about the position of working women in Montenegro, and how they function. Results allow us to draw some conclusions, and also raise further questions. There is clearly a need for further research in this area. We must now ask ourselves what questions should we try to answer and what actions should we take.



33


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

34


35


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

SADR@AJ

1. PREGLED TABELA I GRAFIKONA

38

2. UVOD

40

3. ZAHVALNOST

41

4. CILJEVI ISTRA@IVANJA

42

5. REZIME

44

6. PREPORUKE

45

7. UKRATKO O CRNOJ GORI

46

7.1 GEOGRAFSKI POLO@AJ ........................................................................................................ 46 7.2 OPŠTI EKONOMSKI RAZVOJ ................................................................................................ 46 7.3 STANOVNIŠTVO ...................................................................................................................... 47 7.4 ZAPOSLENOST ......................................................................................................................... 47

8. O UZORKU I METODOLOGIJI

48

9. OSNOVNI REZULTATI ISTRA@IVANJA

52

9.1 ZAPOSLENOST ......................................................................................................................... 52 9.1.1 Zaposlenost .......................................................................................................................... 52 9.1.2 Djelatnost............................................................................................................................. 52 9.1.3 Radno iskustvo .................................................................................................................... 52 9.1.4 Radna pozicija ..................................................................................................................... 52 9.1.5 Uzroci nezaposlenosti.......................................................................................................... 53 9.1.6 Uzroci zbog kojih ispitanice koje su ranije radile sada ne rade........................................... 53 9.1.7 Uzroci dobijanja otkaza ....................................................................................................... 53 9.1.8 Uzroci napuštanja posla ....................................................................................................... 53 9.1.9 Zamjena na prethodnom poslu ............................................................................................ 53 9.1.10 Način zapošljavanja ........................................................................................................... 54 9.1.11 Da li ispitanice smatraju da rade posao za koji su stručno osposobljene?......................... 54 9.2 DISKRIMINACIJA NA RADNOM MJESTU .......................................................................... 56 9.2.1 Vašnost pola prilikom zapošljavanja ................................................................................... 56 9.2.2 Napredovanje u karijeri ....................................................................................................... 57 9.2.3 Menadšment ........................................................................................................................ 57 9.2.4 Poslovno okrušenje.............................................................................................................. 57 9.2.5 Podredjeni............................................................................................................................ 57 9.2.6 Dokazivanje radnih sposobnosti .......................................................................................... 58 9.2.7 Odnos plata .......................................................................................................................... 58 9.2.8 Seksualno uznemiravanje .................................................................................................... 59 9.3 MIŠLJENJA ISPITANICA........................................................................................................ 60 9.3.1 Teškoće u pronalašenju posla .............................................................................................. 60 9.3.2 Konkurencija za posao ........................................................................................................ 60 9.3.3 Vašnost pola prilikom zapošljavanja ................................................................................... 60 9.3.4 Podjela poslova.................................................................................................................... 61 9.3.5 Kako naći odgovarajuće zaposlenje .................................................................................... 61 9.3.6 Zašto muškarci lakše nalaze posao kojim su zadovoljni ..................................................... 61

36


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

10. ZAKLJU^CI

63

10.1 KOMENTARI........................................................................................................................... 63 10.1.1 U procesu zapošljavanja .................................................................................................... 63 10.1.2 Na radnom mjestu ............................................................................................................. 63 10.1.3 Napuštanje posla i otkaz .................................................................................................... 64 10.1.4 Šta žene misle .................................................................................................................... 64 10.1.5 Zaključak ........................................................................................................................... 64



37


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

1. PREGLED TABELA I GRAFIKONA GRAFICI Grafik 1 Grafik 2 Grafik 3 Grafik 4 Grafik 5 Grafik 6 Grafik 7 Grafik 8 Grafik 9 Grafik 10 Grafik 11 Grafik 12 Grafik 13 Grafik 14

Struktura uzorka po godinama starosti Završeno obrazovanje Zaposlenost Djelatnost Radna pozicija Zamjena na prethodnom poslu Kako ste dobili posao? Da li mislite da imate mogućnosti napredovanja u poslu? Ko je pretpostavljeni u Vašoj organizacji? Da li morate iznova da dokazujete da su Vaše sposobnosti jednake sa sposobnostima Vaših kolega Odnos plata muškaraca i žena u organizaciji Zašto mislite da muškarci lakše nalaze posao nego žene? Da li mislite da postoji podjela na “muške” i “ženske” poslove, osim u poslovima gdje su potrebne fizička sposobnosti? Da li muškarci lakše nalaze dobar posao nego žene?

45 46 46 49 49 50 51 53 53 54 54 56 57 57

TABELE Tabela 1 Tabela 2 Tabela 3 Tabela 4 Tabela 5 Tabela 6 Tabela 7 Tabela 8

38

Starosna struktura*Obrazovanje (Unakrsne tabele) Obrazovanje*Zaposlenost (Unakrsne tabele) Starosna struktura*Zaposlenost (Unakrsne tabele) Djelatnost*Ko Vas je zamijenio na prethodnom poslu? (Unakrsne tabele) Da li radite posao za koji ste kvalifikovani?*Obrazovanje (Unakrsne tabele) Djelatnost*Da li je to što ste žensko uticalo na poslodavca? (Unakrsne tabele) Obrazovanje*Da li je to što ste žensko uticalo na poslodavca? (Unakrsne tabele) Djelatnost*Da li je za Vaše radno mjesto konkurisao i muškarac? (Unakrsne tabele)

47 47 47 50 51 52 52 56


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

TABELE – PRILOG B Tabela 1 Tabela 2 Tabela 3 Tabela 4 Tabela 5 Tabela 6 Tabela 7 Tabela 8 Tabela 9 Tabela 10.1. Tabela 10.2. Tabela 11.1. Tabela 11.2. Tabela 12.1. Tabela 12.2. Tabela 13.1. Tabela 13.2. Tabela 14.1. Tabela 14.2. Tabela 15.1. Tabela 15.2. Tabela 16.1. Tabela 16.2. Tabela 17.1. Tabela 17.2. Tabela 18.1. Tabela 18.2. Tabela 19 Tabela 20 Tabela 21 Tabela 22 Tabela 23 Tabela 24 Tabela 25 Tabela 26 Tabele 27-73

Zašto ste dobili otkaz? Da li radite posao za koji ste kvalifikovani? Zašto ne radite posao za koji ste kvalifikovani? Da li je poslodavcu bio vašan pol novozaposlenog kada ste se prijavljivali za posao? Da li muškarci na istoj poziciji imaju mogućnosti napredovanja? Da li u preduzeću gdje radite ima više muškaraca ili žena? Da li imate i jednog muškarca na radnom mjestu koji Vam je podredjen? Da li muslite da im to smeta? Da li Vama to smeta? Pretjerane šale na račun seksa – Ko Vas je uznemiravao? Pretjerane šale na račun seksa – Koliko često? Zahtjevi za izazovnim oblačenjem – Ko Vas je uznemiravao? Zahtjevi za izazovnim oblačenjem – Koliko često? Preslobodni komentari na račun izgleda – Ko Vas je uznemiravao? Preslobodni komentari na račun izgleda – Koliko često? Preslobodni pogledi i gestikulacije – Ko Vas je uznemiravao? Preslobodni pogledi i gestikulacije – Koliko često? Preslobodni dodiri – Ko Vas je uznemiravao? Preslobodni dodiri – Koliko često? Insistiranje na sastanku – Ko Vas je uznemiravao? Insistiranje na sastanku – Koliko često? Pisma, pozivi ili poruke – Ko Vas je uznemiravao? Pisma, pozivi ili poruke – Koliko često? Praćenje, uhodjenje – Ko Vas je uznemiravao? Praćenje, uhodjenje – Koliko često? Otvoreni poziv na seks – Ko Vas je uznemiravao? Otvoreni poziv na seks – Koliko često? Da li ste imali problema sa obezbjedjivanjem trudničkog bolovanja? Postoje li na Vašem radnom mjestu posebni zahtjevi za oblačenjem? Neuobičajeni zahtjevi da žena-zaposleni neće tražiti trudničko bolovanje u odredjenom periodu Neuobičajeni zahtjevi za izazovnim oblačenjem Neuobičajeni zahtjevi da će žena-zaposleni posebnu pašnju poklanjati muškim klijentima Neuobičajeni zahtjevi za prilaganjem fotografije, iako to nije potrebno Neuobičajeni zahtjevi o pripadnosti odredjenoj političkoj partiji Da li je za Vaše radno mjesto konkurisao i muškarac Unakrsne tabele

65 65 65 65 66 66 66 66 66 66 67 67 67 67 67 68 68 68 68 68 69 69 69 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 71



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Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

2. UVOD Centar za preduzetništvo i ekonomski razvoj uz podršku švedske organizacije Kvinna till Kvinna i Centra za medjunarodno privatno preduzetništvo iz Vašingtona, sproveo je istraživanje “Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu”, prvo ove vrste u Crnoj Gori. Iako su sprovedena brojna istraživanja koja se odnose na zaposlenost i uslove poslovanja u Crnoj Gori, neznatan je broj onih koja u osnovi imaju pitanja odnosa polova. Većina ljudi u Crnoj Gori bi se slošili sa konstatacijom da šivimo u patrijarhalnoj sredini, ali je teško dokazati podacima koje daju istraživanja da li je to tako ili nije i ako jeste kako se to odrašava na svakodnevicu žena i potrebno je to ispraviti. Prema veoma malom broju sprovedenih istraživanja, žene zaostaju za muškarcima u obrazovanju i platama i češće su zaposlene na nišim radnim pozicijama nego na pozicijama donosioca poslovnih odluka. @ene čine polovinu crnogorske populacije i predstavljaju značajan potencijal za razvoj privrede. Ovakvo istraživanje bi moglo biti od pomoći Vladi, privatnom sektoru, donatorima da imaju jasniju sliku o cjelokupnoj sitaciji u Crnoj Gori, kao i da kreiraju politike na način koji bi omogućio ženama da postignu ravnopravnost sa muškarcima i koji bi ohrabrio da preuzimaju izazovnije uloge. Anketari su intervjuisali žene iz cijele Crne Gore kako bi se dobili potrebni podaci i stekla jasnija slika o situaciji u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnim mjestima. Očigledno je da mnoge ispitanice ranije uopšte nisu razmišljale o ovim pitanjima. Medjutim, na osnovu dobijenih rezultata, mošemo reći da diskriminacija postoji u Crnoj Gori. Nadamo se da će nakon objavljivanja rezultata ovog istraživanja ova pitanjima razmotriti, ne samo Vlada i ljudi iz biznisa, nego i same žene. Kroz dalja istraživanja i dublju diskusiju medju relevanitnim subjektima, u Crnoj Gori će moći da se identifikuju politike i mjere koje će biti od koristi ženama, cjelokupnom poslovnom okrušenju i društvu u cjelini.



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Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

3. ZAHVALNOST Istraživanje je sprovedeno zahvaljujući naporu većeg broja pojedinaca i nekoliko organizacija tokom perioda od pet mjeseci. Istraživanjem su rukovodili Budimka Mićković i Michelle Stern. U svim fazama istraživanja učestvovalo je oko 30 pojedinaca. Kancelarije Centra za preduzetništvo i ekonomski razvoj u Podgorici, Nikšiću, Kotoru, Ulcinju i Bijelom Polju prušile su logističku podršku u fazi prikupljanja podataka. Posebnu zahvalnost dugujemo grupi od 300 žena koje su sa nama zajednički radile na ovom istršivanju. One nisu samo odgovorile na upitnik, već su pri tome dale značajne podatke o sebi, svojim vidjenjima, načinu razmišljanja i očekivanjima. Bez njih ne bi bilo ni ovog istraživanja. Organizacije koje su radile zajedno na ovom istraživanju imaju dugogodišnju reputaciju u oblasti istraživanja i ekonomskih analiza. Centar za preduzetništvo i ekonomski razvoj (CEED) iz Podgorice, Crna Gora je prvi konsalting centar u Crnoj Gori osnovan sa ciljem da podršava preduzetništvo i ekonomski razvoj. Misija CEED-a je da kroz svoje programe, projekte i aktivnosti zalaganja promoviše i praktično primjenjuje u Crnoj Gori ideje slobodnog tršišta, preduzetništva i privatnog vlasništva u otvorenom i demokratskom društvu uz vladavinu prava. CEED je osnovan da potrebnim znanjem pomogne preduzetnicima koji su se počeli pojavljivati nakon raspada bivše Jugoslavije. Ubrzo je postalo evidentno da je većini novih preduzetnika bila potrebna praktična i prilagodjena obuka da bi olakšali započinjanje i vodjenje svojih biznisa. Osnovne usluge koje je CEED nudi uključuju: Istraživanje, ekonomski pregledi i razvoj baze podataka za mala i srednja preduzeća; ekonomske analize; analize i preporuke politika; aktivnosti zlaganja; izrada biznis planova za ambiciozne preduzetnike; osnovna i napredna obuka za započinjanje novog i za vodjenje postojećeg biznisa. Fondacija Kvinna till Kvinna podršava žene koje šive pod uticajem rata i konflikata u zapadu Balkana. Saradjuju sa ženskim organizacijama sa Kosovu, iz Srbije, Bosne i Hercegovine, Hrvatske, Makedonije, Albanije i iz Izraela/Palestine. Zalašu se da pomognu fizički i psihički oporavak žena iz ratom obuhvaćenih područja. Oni šele da osposobe i podrše žene kako bi dobrinijele ponovnoj izgradnji demokratskog društva. Centar za medjunarodno privatno preduzetništvo (CIPE), podrušnica Privredne Komore Sjedinjenih Američkih Dršava, radi na izgradnji demokratije i tršišnih ekonomija širom svijeta. CIPE djeluje kroz četiri osnovne oblasti: grant programi kojima trenutno podršava preko 90 domaćih organizacija zemalja u razvoju, nagradjivanje najboljih u strategiji komunikacije, trening programi obuke, i tehnička pomoć preko svojih predstavništava i kancelarija. Od svog osnivanja 1983. godine CIPE je finansirao više od 700 projekata u 80 zemalja i sproveo je programe obuke iz oblasti menadšmenta širom svijeta.



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Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

4. CILJEVI ISTRA@IVANJA Osnovni cilj ovog istraživanja bio je da se utvrdi da li žene u Crnoj Gori vjeruju da postoji diskriminacija na radnom mjestu i u procesu zapošljavanja. Do sada se o ovakvim pitanjima nije diskutovalo u Crnoj Gori i veoma je vašno razumjeti ih prije nego se dalje aktuelizuju i na njih zatraže odgovori. Ovaj projekat je realizovan kao inicijalni korak sa prevashodnim ciljem da se poboljša pološaj žena u crnogorskom društvu. Osnovni zadaci projekta bili su odredjivanje:  Da li su žene u Crnoj Gori diskriminisane na radnim mjestima ili dok traže posao;  Kako su žene tretirane tokom procesa zapošljavanja;  Kako se diskriminacija, ukoliko postoji, manifestuje;  Da li i same žene smatraju da imaju manje mogućnosti u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu u odnosu na muskarce;  Kako žene vide svoj uspjeh u biznisu. Rezultati dobijeni nakon sprovodjenja istraživanja izrašavaju mišljenja i iskustva 300 žena različite starosne strukture, obrazovanja i djelatnosti. Struktura uzorka (prema godinama starosti, nivou obrazovanja i prema tome da li su zaposlene ili ne) nije bila determinisana kvotama jer smo šeljeli da dobijemo precizan opis populacije. Podaci su prikupljeni pomoću upitnika (PRILOG A) koji je obuhvatio tri kategorije žena prema zaposlenosti: (1) zaposlene – žene koje trenutno rade; (2) ranije zaposlene – nezaposlene žene koje su ranije bile zaposlene, a sada traže posao; i (3) nezaposlene – žene koje nikad nisu radile i traže posao. Na pitanja koja se odnose na zaposlenost i diskriminaciju na radnom mjestu odgovarale su ispitanice koje su trenutno zaposlene, kao i one koje su ranije radile, a sada traže posao. Tako da smo uzeli u obzir odgovore obje grupe bez obzira da li trenutno rade ili ne. Priprema istraživanja je trajala dva mjeseca. Prikupljanje podataka je trajalo 15 dana, a bilo je angašovano 19 anketara. Zatim se pristupilo unošenju i obradi dobijenih podataka iz upitnika. Analize i rezultati su dobijeni pomoću SPSS softvera.



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Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

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Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

5. REZIME Ispitanice koje smo intervjuisali u cilju sprovodjenja istraživanja pripadaju starosnoj dobi od 18 do 65 godina. Gotovo polovina ispitanih žena ima završenu srednju školu, dok je 48% njih završilo višu školu, univerzitet ili postdiplomske studije. Većina ispitanica, 46,7%, šivi u centralnom dijelu Crne Gore, dok ih je 30% iz sjevernog dijela i 23,3% iz jušnog dijela Crne Gore. 1. Zaposlenost U pogledu zaposlenja, 53% ispitanica iz uzorka je trenutno zaposleno, 31% njih je ranije radilo i sada traže posao i 16% ispitanih žena iz uzorka nije nikad radilo, ali traže zaposlenje. Djelatnosti u kojima radi najveći broj ispitanica su administracija, maloprodaja i proizvodnja. Skoro 88% ispitanica rade na poziciji zaposlenog, dok ih je samo 7,2% na poziciji menadšera i vlasnika. Preko 60% žena koje su dobile otkaz sa prethodnog posla kao razlog su navele stečaj firme. Više od polovine onih koje su samovoljno napustile svoj prethodni posao učinile su to zbog porodičnih razloga i/ili zbog toga što su ostale u drugom stanju). Samo 5% ispitanica je napustilo prethodni posao jer su našle bolji posao. @ene u Crnoj Gori češće rade u djelatnostima koje su tipično “ženske.” U samo 3,2% slučajeva je šenu koja je otišla sa prethodnog radnog mjesta zamijenio muškarac. Većina ispitanih žena smatra da radi posao za koji su kvalifikovane. 2. Diskriminacija na radnom mjestu Oko 40% ispitanica vjeruje da je to što su žene bilo na neki način vašan faktor uticaja na njihove poslodavce u procesu zapošljavanja, a naročito u djelatnostima maloprodaje i ugostiteljstva. Na pitanje da li imaju jednake šanse za napredovanjem u poslu kao njihove kolege broj pozitivnih odgovora je bio gotovo jednak broju negativnih odgovora. Samo 19% ispitanica ima šenu za pretpostavljenog na radnom mjestu, a u trećini organizacija gdje je zaposleno više žena nego muškaraca, pretpostavljeni je muškarac. Skoro 40% ispitanica iz uzorka smatra da mora iznova da dokazuje da su njihove sposobnosti jednake sposobnostima njihovih kolega stalno ili ponekad. Većina žena vjeruje da su im plate na jednakom nivou sa platama njihovih kolega. Istraživanje je uključilo i nekoliko pitanja koja se odnose na seksualno uznemiravanje, a rezultati su pokazali da ovakvi problemi nisu naročito prisutni u Crnoj Gori. 3. Mišljenja ispitanica Više od polovine ispitanih žena smatra da muškarci lakše nalaze zaposlenje nego žene, prvenstveno zato što imaju veći izbor i zbog prisutnih predrasuda koje ne idu u prilog ženama. Preko 60% ispitanica vjeruje da postoji podjela na “muške” i “ženske” poslove u Crnoj Gori i da ta podjela nije ispravna, isključujući poslove gdje je potrebna fizička kvalifikacija. Muškarci i žene su konkurisali za isti posao u manje od polovine slučajeva. Većina žena koje smo intervjuisali se takodje slaše da žene teše pronalaze zadovoljavajući, dobro plaćen posao nego muškarci. Najčešći uzrok tome je to što su ženama porodične obaveze prioritetnije i što muškarci imaju korisnije i bolje medjusobne veze i uglavnom se nalaze u ulogama donosioca odluka.

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Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

6. PREPORUKE Preporuke koje su zasnovane na rezultatima dobijenim iz istraživanja i na zaključcima do kojih je došao istraživački tim su sledeće:  Potrebna izrada i primjena programa ohrabrivanja djevojaka i žena kako bi se što više obrazovale i prihvatale odgovornija radna mjesta .  Potrebno je ubijediti i navesti žene da traže posao i u djelatnostima u kojima se tradicionalno zapošljavaju muškarci.  Preduzeća treba da preispitaju svoje strategije i politike kako bi se ustanovilo zašto žensko osoblje teško ili nikako ne unapredjuju na pozicije donosioca odluka.  Ovo istraživanje je odgovorilo na neka od pitanja, ali je takodje otvorilo nova, tako da je potrebno sprovesti dodatna istraživanja u Crnoj Gori sa tematikom odnosa polova.  Potrebno je započeti kampanju koja bi uvela pitanja odnosa polova u javne debate.  Vlada, privatni sektor i zaposlene žene treba zajedno da rade na kreiranju politika koje će omogućiti pozitivniji ambijent života i rada za oba pola.  Navedene preporuke su izvedene iz sprovedenog istraživanja. Centar za preduzetništvo i ekonomski razvoj je spreman da učestvuje u realizaciji ovih aktivnosti koje su preporučene na osnovu rezultata ovog istraživanja.



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Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

7. UKRATKO O CRNOJ GORI 7.1 GEOGRAFSKI POLO@AJ Crna Gora se nalazi na jugoistoku Evrope, u centralnom dijelu Balkanskog poluostrva na obali Jadranskog mora. Crne Gore je uglavnom planinska, a dolina rijeke Zete u oblasti Skadarskog jezera i Nikšićko Polje čine najveću niziju i najplodiniji dio Crne Gore. Crna Gora se graniči sa Hrvatkom i Bosnom i Hercegovinom na zapadu, sa Srbijom na sjeveru, Albanijom na istoku i Italijom preko Jadranskog mora. Teritorija Crne Gore iznosi 13.812 km² sa 300 km dugom obalom. Glavni grad je Podgorica i nalazi se u centralnom dijelu Crne Gore. Geografski pološaj zemlje omogućava pogodne uslove za odredjene ekonomske aktivnosti, a prije svega za transport i turizam. 7.2 OPŠTI EKONOMSKI RAZVOJ Privredne aktivnosti u Crnoj Gori su uglavnom skoncentrisane u centralnom dijelu gdje se nalaze glavni grad Podgorica i Nikšić. Ostale opštine sa intenzivnim privrednim aktivnostima su Pljevlja, Bijelo Polje i Berane na sjeveru i Bar, Herceg Novi i Budva na jugu. Crna Gora poslednjih nekoliko godina uz pomoć inostranih organizacija i donatora sprovodi proces ekonomskih reformi koje će u potpunosti promijeniti i poboljšati postojeći sistem. Jedna od ključnih je zakonska reforma. Serija novih poreskih zakona, kao i Zakon o privrednim društvima, Zakon o energetici, Antikorupcijski zakon, Zakon o turizmu, Zakon o hartijama o vrijednosti i mnogi drugi će omogućiti kreiranje boljeg ambijenta za vodjenje biznisa. Proces privatizacje se sprovodi putem masovne vaučerske privatizacije, putem batch sales i putem tendera. Do sada je privatizovano preko 60% dršavne imovine i najznačajnije kompanije kao što su Telekom, Jugopetrol, Kombinat aluminijuma i većina hotela su u procesu privatizacije ili su već privatizovani. Razvoj efikasnog tršišta kapitala je bio neophodan preduslov za realizaciju reformi. U Crnoj Gori danas postoje dvije Berze, Montegro Berza i NEX Montenegro Berza. Do kraja 2002. godine se na berzama očekuje i trgovina akcijama privatizacionih fondova. Zadovoljavajući je broj ovlašćenih brokera i dilera za rad na ove dvije berze. Ekonomski i politički kolaps Jugoslavije uzrokovao je gubitak od 57% ekonomske snage koju je Crna Gora imala do 1993. godine. Zatvorenost bivše Jugoslavije i istočnoevropskog tršišta, rat u okrušenju, ekonomska blokada Jugoslavije, nemogućnost tranzita i komunikacija doveli su do smanjenja ekonomskih aktivnosti. Nakon 1995. godine nastupio je kratak period oporavka koji je prekinut ratom na Kosovu. Bruto domaći proizvod po glavi stanovnika je u 2001. godini iznosio US$1.899. Crna Gora je 1999. godine preuzela njemačku marku kao sredstvo plaćanja, a u januaru 2002. godine je prešla na EURO. Konverzija u EURO predstavljala je jednu od najvećih novčanih operacija u Crnoj Gori i ocijenjena je kao uspješna. Inflacija uzrokovana konverzijom u EURO imala je uticaja na crnogorsku ekonomiju, kao što je to bio slučaj i sa ostalim evropskim zemljama. Prema procjenama CEED-a stopa inflacije u 2002. godini dostići će nivo od 18%.

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Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

7.3 STANOVNIŠTVO Prema popisu stanovništva koji je sproveden 1991. godine, u Crnoj Gori šivi 615.000 stanovnika. Procjena Zavoda za statistiku Crne Gore je da je 1999. godine Crna Gora imala 650.758 stanovnika, prema stopi rasta od 5,8%. Nešto više od polovine stanovništva čine žene. Procjene pokazuju blagi porast broja stanovnika tokom devedesetih godina što je vjerovatno posljedica migracija u regionu tokom ratova u toj dekadi. Prije II Svjetskog rata broj djece u porodici je bio značajno veći nego nakon rata, a naročito nakon 1948. godine od kada je stopa rasta u konstantnom padu. Ovakva slika se moše objasniti boljim uslovima života i činjenicom da su žene u Crnoj Gori obrazovanije i rijedje se odlučuju da imaju više od dvoje djece. Takodje je vjerovatno da roditelji šele manju porodicu kako bi se lakše suočili sa ekonomskim krizama. Stopa novorodjene djece je opala sa 33,06/1.000 stanovnika u 1953. godini na 13,57 u 1999. godini, što znači da crnogorska populacija stari. Ova situacija je imala dvostruki uticaj na profesionalni život žene. S obzirom da imaju manje djece, ostaje im više vremena da rade i da se obrazuju, a sa druge strane raste potreba da rade i zapošljavaju se kako opada broj radno sposobnih stanovnika. 7.4 ZAPOSLENOST “Radno sposobno stanovništvo” obuhvata muškarce u dobi od 15 do 64 godine starosti i žene u dobi od 15 do 59 godina starosti. Prema zvaničnim podacima radno sposobno stanovništvo u Crnoj Gori čini 399.241 osoba, od čega je 182.055 ili 45,6% žena. Od ovog broja, 285.258 osoba čini aktivnu radnu snagu, od čega je 43,75% ili 124.825 žena. 181.762 osobe koje su radno aktivne su zaposlene, a 39,65% ili 72.075 zaposlenih su žene. Uprkos brojnim programima pokrenutim u cilju smanjenja stope nezaposlenosti, broj nezaposlenih u Crnoj Gori je u porastu. Od ukupnog broja nezaposlenih 60% su žene. Oko 15.000 novih radnih mjesta je godišnje otvarano u poslednjih nekoliko godina i 80.000 nezaposlenih gradjana se prijavljivalo za ta radna mjesta – u prosjeku po šest prijava za svako od tih radnih mjesta. Interesovanje je čak i veće za radna mjesta na kojim uglavnom rade žene. Većina žena (60,2%) radi u vanprivrednim djelatnostima, dok 34,8% njih radi u privredi. Veoma je čest slučaj zapošljavanja u tkz. “sivoj ekonomiji” zbog visokih poreza i doprinosa koje su poslodavci u obavezi da plaćaju za radnike, a djelatnosti u kojima je “siva ekonomija” najzastupljenija su upravo oni u kojima se uglavnom zapošljavaju žene (npr. trgovina). Tako da je veoma veliki broj žena koje rade u “sivoj ekonomiji”. Prema izvršenim istraživanjima, 25% žena koje rade u “sivoj ekonomiji” su zaposlene na tim radnim mjestima od 6 do 12 mjeseci i skoro je isti procenat onih koje su zaposlene bez osnovnih radnih i socijalnih prava predvidjenih Zakonom.



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Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

8. O UZORKU I METODOLOGIJI Istraživanje je sprovedeno u sedam gradova u Crnoj Gori. Struktura uzorka po gradovima zasnovana je na procentualnom učešću broja stanovnika pojedinih gradova u ukupnoj populaciji Crne Gore i data je na sledeći način4: Opština Berane Bijelo Polje Ukupno: sjeverni dio Podgorica Nikšić Danilovgrad Ukupno: centralni dio Kotor Ulcinj Ukupno: južni dio UKUPNO

Broj 50 40 90 90 40 10 140 40 30 70 300

% 16,7 13,3 30.0 30,0 13,3 3,3 46,7 13,3 10,0 23,3 100,0

Struktura uzorka prema godinama starosti data je sledećim grafikom: Grafik 1: Struktura uzorka po godinama starosti

7,7%

51-65

20,7%

Godine starosti

41-50

26,3%

31-40

36,3%

22-30

9,0%

18-21 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

%

Najviše ispitanica iz uzorka pripada dobi od 22 do 30 godina, njih 36,6%, a najmanje ispitanica iz uzorka pripada dobi od 51 do 65 godina starosti, njih 7,7%.

4

Dodatne tabele se nalaze u Prilogu 2.

48


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu Struktura uzorka prema nivou obrazovanja ispitanica data je na sledeći način: Grafik 2: Završeno obrazovanje 47,0%

50 45 40 35 30

23,7%

25

20,3%

20 15 10

5,3% 1,3%

5 0

Osnovna {kola Srednja {kola

Vi{a {kola

Zavr{en fakultet

Postdipl. Studije

2,3%

Zanatski kurs

Skoro polovina ispitanica ima srednjoškolsko obrazovanje, dok je najmanji procenat onih koje imaju završene postdiplomske studije. Struktura uzorka sa aspekta zaposlenosti5 data je na sledeći način: Grafik 3: Zaposlenost 16,0%

53,0% 31,0%

Zaposlene

Ranije radile

Nezaposlene

Više od polovine ispitanica iz uzorka (53%) su trenutno zaposlene, 31% ispitanica je ranije radilo, ali trenutno ne rade, dok 16% ispitanica iz uzorka nema radnog iskustva. Ovo istraživanje pokazuje da 84% žena radi ili je ranije bilo zaposleno – drugim riječima, ima radnog iskustva.

5

Trenutno zaposlene žene Ranije radile – sada nezaposlene i traže posao Nezaposlene – nisu nikad radile, ali traže zaposlenje

49


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

Unakrsne tabele: Prikazana unakrsna tabela pokazuje nivo obrazovanja ispitanica sa stanovišta njihovih godina starosti. Većina žena nije nastavila školovanje nakon završetka srednje škole. Samo 19% žena u dobi od 41 do 50 godina starosti je završilo fakultet, dok 35% ispitanica u dobi od 31 do 40 godina starosti i 28% ispitanica od 22 do 30 godina starosti ima univerzitetsku diplomu. Tabela 1: Starosna struktura*Obrazovanje

18 – 21 22 – 30 Godine 31 – 40 starosti 41 – 50 51 – 65 Ukupno

Obrazovanje (%) Osnovna Srednja Viša Završen Postdipl. Zanatski Ukupno škola škola škola fakultet studije kurs 1,0 5,0 2,0 0,3 9,0 1,0 17,0 8,0 10,0 0,7 36,0 1,0 11,0 5,0 9,0 1,0 0,3 26,0 1.6 9,0 5,0 4,0 0,3 1,0 21,0 0,7 5,0 1,0 1,0 8,0 5,3 47,0 20,0 23,0 1,3 2,3 100,0

Naredna unakrsna tabela ističe broj zaposlenih i nezaposlenih žena iz uzorka sa aspekta njihovog obrazovanja. Najviše ispitanica koje su zaposlene završile su srednju školu ili fakultet. Tabela 2: Obrazovanje*Zaposlenost

Osnovna škola Srednja škola Viša škola Obrazovanje Završen fakultet Postdipl. studije Zanatski kurs Ukupno

Sada zaposlena 2,3 22,0 11,0 16,3 1,0 0,3 53,0

Zaposlenost (%) Ranije radila 1,7 18,0 6,0 4,0 0,3 1,0 31,0

Nezaposlena 1,3 7,0 3,3 3,3 1,0 16,0

Ukupno 5,3 47,0 20,3 23,7 1,3 2,3 100,0

Sledeća tabela pokazuje stepen zaposlenosti prema godinama starosti ispitanica. Znatno više ispitanica je zaposleno nego nezaposleno u dobi od 41 do 50 godina starosti. Obrnut je slučaj sa ispitanicama od 18 do 21 godinu starosti. Samo 7% ispitanica od 41 do 65 godina starosti nije nikad bilo zaposleno, dok je ovaj iznos veći za 19% za ispitanice starosne dobi od 22 do 30 godina starosti. Tabela 3: Godine starosti*Zaposlenost Sada zaposlena 18 – 21 22 – 30 Godine 31 – 40 starosti 41 – 50 51 – 65 Ukupno



50

Zaposlenost (%) Ranije radila 2.,3 2,0 20,3 9,0 15,0 8,0 11,7 8,3 3,7 3,7 53,0 31,0

Nezaposlena 4,7 7,0 3,3 0,7 0,3 16,0

Ukupno 9,0 36,3 26,3 20.7 7,7 100,0


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

51


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

9. OSNOVNI REZULTATI ISTRA@IVANJA 9.1 ZAPOSLENOST 9.1.1 Zaposlenost Trenutno je zaposleno 53% ispitanih; 47% njih je nezaposleno, od čega 31% njih je ranije radilo i 16% ispitanica nikad nije radilo, ali traže posao. Ispitanice iz uzorka koje su trenutno zaposlene i one koje su ranije radile, njih 84%, su odgovarale na pitanja koja se odnose na situacije sa kojima su se suočavale na radnom mjestu. 9.1.2 Djelatnost 36,1% ispitanica iz uzorka je trenutno zaposleno ili su ranije radile u administraciji; 23,4% u maloprodaji; 14,7% u proizvodnji; 11,1% u obrazovanju; 7,9% u ugostiteljstvu; 6,3% u zdravstvu i 0,4% u medijima. Grafik 4: Djelatnost 0,4%

Mediji

14,7%

Proizvodnja

36,1%

Administracija

23,4%

Maloprodaja

7,9%

Ugostiteljstvo

6,3%

Zdravstvo

11,1%

Obrazovanje 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

9.1.3 Radno iskustvo 38,5% ispitanica iz uzorka je provelo 1-5 godina u istom preduzeću; 28,2% više od 10 godina; 18,3% kraće od 1 godine i 15,1% 5-10 godina. 9.1.4 Radna pozicija 87,7% ispitanica iz uzorka koje su zaposlene i koje su ranije radile su6 bile zaposlene puno radno vrijeme; 5,2% njih je zaposleno skraćeno radno vrijeme; 4,8% ispitanica rade ili su radile kao menadšeri (rukovodioci); 1,2% su vlasnice sopstvenog biznisa; isti procenat njih su istovremeno vlasnice i menadšeri. Grafik 5: Radna pozicija

6

U djelovima teksta gdje se spominju i ispitanice koje su trenutno zaposlene i one koje su ranije radile, zbog pojednostavljenja koristili smo sadašnje vrijeme za obje grupe.

52


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

87,7%

5,2% Zaposlena-puno radno vrijeme

Zaposlenaskra}eno radno vrijeme

4,8% Menad` er

1,2% Vlasnica

1,2% Menad` er i vlasnica

9.1.5 Uzroci nezaposlenosti Od ukupnog broja nezaposlenih žena koje bezuspješno traže posao 50% njih smatra da je uzrok tome to što rodjaci i prijatelji poslodavca dobijaju posao. 25% njih smatra da je uzrok tome njihova nedovoljna stručnost ili iskustvo i 12,5% njih misli da su njihove godine starosti uzrok njihove nezaposlenosti. U 8,3% slučajeva se desilo da je poslodavac tražio isključivo muškarca za to radno mjesto, a u 4,2% slučajeva ispitanice su nezaposlene iz nekih drugih razloga, ali očekuju posao. 9.1.6 Uzroci zbog kojih ispitanice koje su ranije radile sada ne rade 58,1% ispitanica koje su ranije radile je dobilo otkaz; dok je ostalih 41,9% samovoljno napustilo posao. 9.1.7 Uzroci dobijanja otkaza Oko 61,0% ispitanica koje su dobile otkaz je izjavilo da je do toga došlo zbog stečaja preduzeća. Sa druge strane, 14,8% njih vjeruje da je do otkaza došlo jer je poslodavac našao bolju osobu za taj posao. Nezadovoljstvo uslijed niskih zarada razlog je dobijanja otkaza za 5,6% ispitanica; isti procenat ispitanica je iznio lične razloge kao uzrok. Interesantno je da je 3,7% ispitanica dobilo otkaz jer su se šalile na ponašanje muškaraca. Još jedan interesantan podatak je da 5,6% ispitanica ne zna zašto je dobilo otkaz. Ostale su dobile otkaz zbog godina starosti ili zato što su ostale u drugom stanju (3,8%). 9.1.8 Uzroci napuštanja posla Do samovoljnog napuštanja posla ispitanica je u 30,8% slučajeva došlo zbog porodičnih razloga, u 23,1% slučajeva jer su ispitanice ostale u drugom stanju i u 17,9% slučajeva zbog nedovoljne zarade. Skoro 13% ispitanica iz uzorka se nije osjećalo prijatno kao žena na radnom mjestu. 5% ispitanica je pronašlo bolji posao, isti procenat njih misli da poslodavac nije bio zadovoljan njihovim radom, dok je isti procenat ispitanica napustio posao zbog odlaska u penziju. Dakle, više od pola ispitanica je prestalo da radi kako bi se brinule o djeci ili drugim članovima porodice. 9.1.9 Zamjena na prethodnom poslu 34,4% nezaposlenih žena koje su ranije radile zamijenila je žena. U 31,2% slučajeva zamjene nije bilo, u istom broju slučajeva ispitanice ne znaju ko ih je zamijenio (ako je uopšte bilo zamjene) i u 3,2% slučajeva zamjena je bio muškarac. Grafik 6: Zamjena na prethodnom poslu 3 4 ,4 %

3 1 ,2 %

3 1 ,2 %

35 30 25 20 15 10

3 ,2 %

5 0

M u {k a ra c

Zena

N ik o

N e znam

Unakrsne tabele: 53


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu Naredna unakrsna tabela pokazuje ko je zamjenio ispitanice na njihovim prethodnim radnim mjestima po pojedinim djelatnostima. Ukoliko isključimo one koje nisu znale ko je bio njihova zamjena, podaci pokazuju da su muškarci bili zamjena samo u administraciji. Tabela 4: Djelatnost*Ko Vas je zamijenio na prethodnom poslu?

Obrazovanje

Ko Vas je zamijenio na prethodnom poslu? (%) Muškarac Žena Niko Ne znam 3,2 1,1 4,3

Zdravstvo Ugostiteljstvo Djelatnost Maloprodaja Administracija Proizvodnja Ukupno

1,1

3,2 3,2

5,4 15,1 8,6 2,1 34,4

Ukupno 8,6 1,1

4,3 5,4 5,4 13,9 31,2

3,2 7,5 10,8 5,4 31,2

12,9 28,0 28,0 21,4 100,0

9.1.10 Način zapošljavanja Putem preporuke se zaposlilo 41,3% ispitanica sa radnim iskustvom; putem oglasa u medijima 40,1% ispitanica; 16,3% njih se zaposlilo preko Biroa za zapošljavanje; dok se 2,4% ispitanica sa radnim iskustvom zaposlilo osnivanjem sopstvenog preduzeća. Ovi podaci su prikazana sledećim grafikom. Grafik 7: Kako ste dobili posao?

16,3%

2,4% 41,3%

40,1%

Preko preporuke Preko Biroa za zapo{ljavanje

Preko oglasa/konkursa Zapo~injanjem sopstvenog binisa

9.1.11 Da li ispitanice smatraju da rade posao za koji su stručno osposobljene? Pozitivan odgovor na ovo pitanje smo dobili od 73,8% ispitanica sa radnim iskustvom; dok 26,2% njih smatra da ne radi posao u struci. Oko 44,0% ispitanica koje smatraju da ne rade posao u struci navode da je razlog tome to što nema potrašnje za radnom snagom njihovih kvalifikacija; oko 22,7% njih još uvijek nije tražilo posao za koji su kvalifikovane; 15,2% smatra da prednost imaju prijatelji i rodjaci poslodavca; 10,6% smatra da njihove sposobnosti nisu iskorišćene na pravi način u organizaciji; 4,5% navodi svoje porodične razloge za to (šena nije uvijek u mogućnosti da ispuni odredjene obaveze, npr. često putovanje); 1,5% misli da se za posao za koji su kvalifikovane smatra da je tradicionalno “muški” posao; isti procenat ispitanica koje smatraju da ne rade posao za koji su kvalifikovane vjeruje da je razlog tome njihova starosna dob. Unakrsne tabele: Naredna tabela pokazuje da li ispitanice smatraju da rade posao za koji su kvalifikovane sa aspekta njihovog obrazovanja. 65% ispitanica koje smatraju da ne rade posao za koji su kvalifikovane je završilo srednju školu, 19% višu školu i 12% njih je završilo fakultet. Tabela 5: Da li radite posao za koji ste kvalifikovani?*Obrazovanje

54


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

Da li radite posao za koji ste kvalifikovani? Ukupno

Obrazovanje (%) Viša Završen škola fakultet 15,0 21,0

Da

Osnovna škola 4,0

Srednja škola 31,0

Ne

1,0

17,0

5,0

3,0

12

48,0

20,0

24,0

Postdipl. studije 2,0

Zanatski kurs 1,0

Ukupno 74,0 26,0

2,0

1,0

100,0

55


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

9.2 DISKRIMINACIJA NA RADNOM MJESTU 9.2.1 Vašnost pola prilikom zapošljavanja Od ukupnog broja ispitanica koje imaju radnog iskustva, 20,2% njih je odgovorilo da je njihov poslodavac naglasio da on/ona traži isključivo šenu za to radno mjesto. Isti procenat ispitanica je odgovorio da je pol zaposlenog kao uslov postojao, ali da nije bio obavezan. 59,5% ispitanica smatra da pol zaposlenog nije bio relevantan za to radno mjesto. Unakrsne tabele: Naredna tabele pokazuje da li je pol zaposlenog bio relevantan za poslodavce u različitim djelatnostima. @ene koje rade u maloprodaji i djelimično one koje rade u ugostiteljstvu, odgovorile su potvrdno na ovo pitanje u znatno većem broju nego ispitanice iz ostalih djelatnosti. Tabela 6: Djelatnost*Da li je to što ste žensko uticalo na poslodavca?

Obrazovanje Zdravstvo Ugostiteljstvo Maloprodaja Djelatnost Administracija Proizvodnja Mediji Ukupno

Da li je to što ste žensko uticalo na poslodavca? (broj ispitanica) Da, bilo je Da, ali nije bilo Ne naglašeno obavezno 2 5 21 4 3 9 10 6 4 18 17 24 11 16 64 6 4 27 1 51 51 150

Ukupno 28 16 20 59 91 37 1 252

U narednoj unakrsnoj tabeli mošemo vidjeti da li je poslodavcima bio vašan pol zaposlenog u poredjenju sa obrazovanjem ispitanica. Ispitanice koje su u većini slučajeva odgovorile pozitivno imaju obrazovanje niše od univerzitetskog. Tabela 7: Obrazovanje * Da li je to što ste žensko uticalo na poslodavca?

Osnovna škola Srednja škola Viša škola Obrazovanje Završen fakultet Postdipl. studije Zanatski kurs Ukupno

56

Da li je to što ste žensko uticalo na poslodavca? (broj ispitanica) Da, bilo je Da, ali nije bilo Ne naglašeno obavezno 8 2 2 31 28 61 7 12 32 2 8 51 1 3 3 1 51 51 150

Ukupno 12 120 51 61 4 4 252


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu 9.2.2 Napredovanje u karijeri 50,4% ispitanica koje imaju radno iskustvo smatra da nema mogućnosti napredovanja u poslu koji obavljaju; dok 49,6% smatra da ima te mogućnosti. U poredjenju sa muškarcima u sličnoj poziciji u organizaciji, 60,8% ispitanica misli da muškarci imaju šanse napredovanja u poslu i 39,2% njih smatra da muškarci nemaju takve mogućnosti. Grafik 8: Da li mislite da imate mogućnosti napredovanja u poslu?

49,6%

50,4%

Imam mogu}nosti napredovanja u poslu Nemam mogu}nosti napredovanja u poslu

9.2.3 Menadšment U 81% slučajeva pretpostavljeni je muškarac, dok u 19% slučajeva uloga pretpostavljenog pripada ženi. Grafik 9: Ko je pretpostavljeni u Vašoj organizaciji? 90

81%

80 70 60 50 40 30 20

19%

10 0 Mu{karac

Zena

9.2.4 Poslovno okrušenje U 55,2% organizacija gdje rade žene iz uzorka okrušenje u pogledu pola zaposlenih je mješovito; u 36,5% organizacija dominiraju žene, dok u 8,3% organizacija dominiraju muškarci. Rezultati su pokazali da je u 26,6% organizacija gdje je zaposleno više žena rukovodilac/menadšer muškarac. 9.2.5 Podredjeni 34,9% ispitanica koje imaju radno iskustvo ima podredjenih muškaraca na radnom mjestu; dok 65,1% njih nema podredjenih muškaraca u organizaciji. Medju ispitanicama koje su pretpostavljene muškarcima 43,2% njih smatra da muškarcima to ne smeta, dok 42% ispitanica ne zna šta muškarci misle o tome. Na pitanje “Da li Vama to smeta?” 86,2% njih je reklo da nema problema s tim, dok 14,8% ispitanica vidi to kao problem.

57


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu 9.2.6 Dokazivanje radnih sposobnosti Što se tiče dokazivanja radnih sposobnosti 14,7% ispitanica sa radnim iskustvom iz uzorka smatra da mora stalno da dokazuje da raspolaše sposobnostima jednakim sposobnostima njihovih kolega. Sa druge strane, 16,3% se izjasnilo da moraju da se dokazuju ponekad; 21,8% rijetko i 47,2% nikad. Interesantan je podatak da ispitanice koje imaju veći stepen obrazovanja ne moraju često iznova da dokazuju da su jednako sposobne kao njihove kolege. Grafik 10: Da li morate iznova da dokazujete da su Vaše sposobnosti jednake sa sposobnostima Vaših kolega?

47,2% 50 45 40 35

21,8%

30 25 20

16,3%

14,7%

15 10 5 0

Stalno

Ponekad

Rijetko

Nikad

9.2.7 Odnos plata 6,7% ispitanica sa radnim iskustvom je navelo da njihove kolege muškarci koji su na istoj radnoj poziciji imaju veće plate nego one; 60,7% njih je reklo da su im plate iste; u 4,4% slučajeva žene imaju veću platu i 28,2% ispitanica nema informaciju o platama. Od 6,7% ispitanca koje su rekle da muškarci imaju veću platu, 29% rade u maloprodaji dok 29% njih radi u proizvodnji. Ovakvih situacija nema u obrazovanju i medijima. 47,1% ispitanica koje su rekle da muškarci imaju veću platu je završilo srednju školu; 29,4% višu; dok je 11,7% njih završilo fakultet. Grafik 11: Odnos plata muškaraca i žena u organizaciji

60,7%

70 60 50

28,2%

40 30 20

4,4%

6,7%

Zenama je ve}a plata

Mu{karcima je ve}a plata

10 0

58

Plate su nam iste

Ne znam


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu 9.2.8 Seksualno uznemiravanje Istraživanje je pokazalo sledeće rezultate:  Pretjerane šale: 7,7% ispitanica je navelo da ih pretpostavljeni uznemirava na ovaj način; 1,3% ispitanica je tako uznemiravano od strane podredjenih, dok je 8,3% ispitanica na ovaj način uznemiravano od nekog drugog na poslu (klijent, mušterija itd.). U 15% slučajeva se ovo desilo više nego jedanput, a u 2,3% slučajeva jednom.  Zahtjevi za izazovnim oblačenjem: 1,3% ispitanica se suočavalo sa posebnim zahtjevima za izazovnim oblačenjem; dok je 0,7% njih ovakve zahtjeve imalo od nekog drugog na poslu (klijent, mušterija itd.)  Preslobodni komentari na račun izgleda: 5% ispitanica navodi u anketi da ih je na ovaj način uznemiravao njihov nadredjeni, 2% njih se šali na podredjene i 10% ispitanica se šali da ih na ovaj način uznemirava neko drugi na poslu (klijent, mušterija itd.). U 17% slučajeva ove situacije se dešavaju više nego jednom.  Preslobodni dodiri: 2,3% ispitanica sa radnim iskustvom navodi u anketi na ovaj vid uznemiravanja od strane pretpostavljenog; 1,3% od strane podredjenih i isti procenat ispitanica se navodi nekog drugog na poslu. U 3,7% slučajeva ove situacije se dešavaju više nego jednom.  Insistiranje na sastanku: 3% ispitanica iz uzorka ističe u anketi da ih je nadredjeni uznemiravao na ovaj način, u 7,3% slučajeva je u pitanju bio neko drugi na poslu. U 6,3% slučajeva ove situacije se dešavaju više nego jednom.  Pisma, pozivi, poruke: 1,7% ispitanica sa radnim iskustvom navodi u anketi na ovaj vid uznemiravanja od strane nadredjenog, 3,3% njih ističe da ih je neko drugi na poslu uznemiravao na ovaj način. U 3,7% slučajeva ove situacije se dešavaju više nego jednom.  Praćenje, uhodjenje: 0,3% ispitanica sa radnim iskustvom navodi u anketi na ovaj vid uznemiravanja od strane nadredjenog, dok 0,3% njih ističe da ih je neko drugi na poslu uznemiravao na ovaj način.  Otvoreni poziv na seks: 0,7% ispitanica sa radnim iskustvom navodi u anketi na ovaj vid uznemiravanja od strane njihovog pretpostavljenog; 0,3% njih navodi da ih je neko drugi na poslu uznemiravao na ovaj način.  Napastvovanje: Nijedna od ispitanica iz uzorka sa radnim iskustvom nije pozitivno odgovorila na ovo pitanje. 9.2.9 Trudničko bolovanje 8,3% ispitanica koje imaju radno iskustvo ima problema sa obezbjedjivanjem trudničkog bolovanja, dok 91,7% njih nema takvih problema ili još uvijek nisu koristile trudničko bolovanje. 38% ispitanica koje imaju problema sa obezbjedjivanjem trudničkog bolovanja su zaposlene u maloprodaji, a 48% njih ima najviše srednjoškolsko obrazovanje. 9.2.10 Zahtjevi za posebnim oblačenjem Od ukupnog broja ispitanica koje moraju da oblače posebnu odjeću na poslu prema zahtjevu nadredjenog, 3,2% njih se osjeća neprijatno zbog toga, dok 66,7% nema problema s tim. 30,2% ispitanica mora da oblači posebnu odjeću na poslu zbog same prirode posla. Ispitanice koje su u većem broju navodile ovaj oblik uznemiravanja rade u ugostiteljstvu (63%) i maloprodaji (37%).

59


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

9.3 MIŠLJENJA ISPITANICA 9.3.1 Teškoće u pronalašenju posla 49,3% ispitanica iz uzorka vjeruju da se muškarci lakše zapošljavaju nego žene. Za ovakva uvjerenja, one su dale sledeća objašnjenja: muškarci imaju veći izbor i šanse (22,3%); predrasude (21,6%); ženama je vašnija porodica (16,9%); muške veze – poslodavci su većinom muškarci (12,8%); zbog porodiljskog odsustva (9,5%); fizičke prednosti su na muškoj strani (6,8%) i nema objašnjenja (10,1%). Grafik 12: Razlozi zašto muškarci lakše nalaze posao

Ne znam

10,1%

Fizi~ke prednosti

6,8% 16,9%

Zenama je porodica va` nija

21,6%

Predrasude Mu{ke veze-poslodavci su mu{karci

12,8%

Porodiljsko odsustvo

9,5%

22,3%

Mu{karci imaju ve}i izbor

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

9.3.2 Konkurencija za posao U 48,3% slučajeva muškarci i žene nisu konkurisali za isti posao, dok su u 45,3% slučajeva konkurisali i jedni i drugi. 6,3% ispitanica nije znalo da li je, pored nje, za taj posao konkurisao muškarac, druga žena ili je ona bila jedini kandidat. Unakrsne tabele: Naredna tabela pokazuje u kojim djelatnostima su i muškarci i žene konkurisali za isti posao. Značajan zaključak je da ispitanice vjeruju da se muškarci i žene bore za isti posao u tipično ženskim djelatnostima (maloprodaja, obrazovanje i ugostiteljstvo) u podjednakoj mjeri koliko i u ostalim djelatnostima (proizvodnja, administracija). Tabela 8: Djelatnost*Da li je za Vaše radno mjesto konkurisao i muškarac?

Obrazovanje Zdravstvo Ugostiteljstvo Maloprodaja Djelatnost Administracija Proizvodnja Mediji Ukupno

Da li je za Vaše radno mjesto konkurisao i muškarac? (broj ispitanica) Da Ne Ne znam 14 9 7 9 6 11 13 44 39 46 19 16 1 99 135

Ukupno 5 3 2 6 2

18

28 16 20 59 91 37 1 252

9.3.3 Vašnost pola prilikom zapošljavanja 28,3% ispitanica je navelo da je poslodavcu bio vašan pol novozaposlenog; 39,7% njih smatra da to nije bilo značajan uslov prilikom zapošljavanja i 32% ispitanica ne zna koliki je značaj pola zaposlenog za 60


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu poslodavca. Ponovo su maloprodaja i ugostiteljstvo djelatnosti u kojima se pol novozaposlenog smatra značajnim za poslodavca. 9.3.4 Podjela poslova Na pitanje “Da li mislite da postoji podjela na “muške” i “ženske” poslove, osim u poslovima gdje su potrebne fizičke sposobnosti?”, ispitanice su odgovorile sledeće: 60,7% njih vjeruje da podjela postoji i da ona nije ispravna; 23,0% ispitanica smatra da podjela ne postoji i ne treba da postoji; 15,0% ispitanica je odgovorilo da podjela postoji i treba da postoji i 1,3% njih smatra da podjela ne postoji, ali bi trebalo. Grafik 13: Da li mislite da postoji podjela na “muške” i “ženske” poslove, osim u poslovima gdje je potrebna fizička kvalifikacija? 1,3% 15,0%

23,0%

60,7%

Podjela postoji i treba da postoji Podjela ne postoji i ne treba da postoji

Podjela postoji i ona nije ispravna Podjela ne postoji ali bi trebalo da postoji

9.3.5 Kako naći odgovarajuće zaposlenje 64,3% ispitanica iz uzorka misli da je ženama teše nego muškarcima da nadju zadovoljavajući, dobro plaćen posao; dok ostalih 35,7% ispitanica misli da su muškarci i žene u jednakoj poziciji. Grafik 14: Da li muškarci lakše nalaze dobar posao nego žene?

70

64,3%

60 50

35,7%

40 30 20 10 0

Da

Ne

9.3.6 Zašto muškarci lakše nalaze posao kojim su zadovoljni Ispitanice koje smatraju da muškarci lakše nego žene nalaze zadovoljavajući, dobro plaćen posao navele su sledeće uzroke za koje misle da do toga dovode: ženama su porodične obaveze vašnije nego njihova karijera (34,2%); poslodavci su u većini slučajeva muškarci (24,9%); muške veze i poznanstva (medjusobno se pomašu na osnovu ranijih prijateljstava) (22,8%); postojeći zakonski okvir (8,8%); ne znam (7,8%); predrasude (0,5%); nedostatak zadovoljavajućih poslova (0,5%); svi navedeni razlozi zajedno (0,5%). 61


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu



62


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu

10. ZAKLJU^CI 10.1 KOMENTARI 10.1.1 U procesu zapošljavanja Sve žene iz uzorka su odgovarale na pitanja koja se odnose na proces zapošljavanja, uključujući zaposlene, one koje su ranije radile i nezaposlene. Preko polovine ispitanica iz istraživanja koje nisu dobile posao za koji su konkurisale navele su da je taj posao dobio prijatelj ili rodjak poslodavca, što ukazuje da je nepotizam značajn problem u Crnoj Gori. Medjutim, i žene imaju koristi od ovakvog sistema, jer je 41,3% ispitanica dobilo posao putem preporuke. Ipak, nije svako dovoljno srećan da posjeduje dobre veze. Preko 25% ispitanih žena u dobi od 22 do 44 godine trenutno traže posao. Prema podacima Instituta za strateške studije i prognoze, stopa nezaposlenosti je oko 19%, dok je naše istraživanje pokazalo da 48% ispitanica iz uzorka traže posao. Više od 40% ispitanica je reklo da je poslodavcu vašan pol zaposlenog kada zapošljava nove radnike, naročito u ugostiteljstvu i maloprodaji. Ovo je primjetno i kroz oglase/konkurse u medijima u kojima se tačno odredjuje da li poslodavac traži šenu ili muškarca za odredjeni posao. 10.1.2 Na radnom mjestu Osnovna analiza istraživanja pokazuje da 84% žena iz uzorka ima odredjeno profesionalno iskustvo – 53% njih je trenutno zaposleno, a 31% je ranije radilo. Oko 87% žena iz uzorka (bilo) je zaposleno puno radno vrijeme (uključujući sezonske radnice). Anketari nisu prethodno pitali ispitanice da li su formalno registrovane kao zaposlene ili rade “na crno”. @ene koje imaju veći stepen obrazovanja su u većem broju zaposlene, nego one sa nišim stepenom obrazovanja. Ovim se moše objasniti zašto sve više mladih žena studira. 43% ispitanica u dobi od 41 do 50 godina starosti ima završenu srednju školu i samo 19% njih završen fakultet; dok je 47% ispitanica u dobi od 22 do 30 godina starosti završilo srednju školu, a 28% fakultet. Ovo istraživanje pokazuje da je u 81% slučajeva nadredjeni muškarac. Samo je nekoliko žena u uzorku koje su na pološaju donosioca odluka. Većina žena iz uzorka radi u administraciji ili drugoj tipično ženskoj djelatnosti, kao što su zdravstvo ili obrazovanje, dok ih je 14,7% zaposleno u proizvodnji i samo 6% su menadšeri ili vlasnice preduzeća. 73,8% žena iz uzorka koje su trenutno zaposlene ili su ranije radile smatra da radi posao za koji su kvalifikovane. Medjutim, mora se postaviti pitanje zašto žene uglavnom rade na pozicijama podredjenog u organizaciji. Ostalih 26,2% ispitanica iz uzorka je odgovorilo da ne rade posao za koji su kvalifikovane, od čega 65% njih ima završenu srednju školu, a 31% je završilo višu školu ili fakultet. Iz ovoga mošemo zaključiti da su žene zadovoljnije poslom koji rade ukoliko je nivo njihovog obrazovanja viši. Preko 44% ispitanica koje vjeruju da ne rade posao za koji su kvalifikovane, razlog za to navode to što nema zadovoljavajućih poslova, što je neutralno sa stanovišta polne diskriminacije. 30% njih za razloge navode da je posao namijenjen nekom drugom, da njihove sposobnosti nisu adekvatno iskorišćene, ili su navele porodične razloge. Drugim riječima, smatraju da su prekvalifikovane za taj posao. Nedostatak dobrih poslova je problem i za muškarce i za žene u Crnoj Gori danas, ali se čini da žene moraju da prevazilaze i neke dodatne poteškoće. Samo 6,7% ispitanica iz uzorka je odgovorilo da muškarci na istim pozicijama imaju veće plate nego one. Ukoliko isključimo 28,2% ispitanica koje su odgovorile da ne znaju da li postoje razlike u platama, čini se da ne postoji diskriminacija žena u Crnoj Gori u pogledu iznosa plata koje primaju. Medjutim, druga istraživanja pokazuju da zaista postoji razlika u platama. Prema Istraživanju o prihodima i rashodima domaćinstava 4 koje je objavio Institut za strateške studije i prognoze, muškarci u Crnoj Gori 63


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu primaju u prosjeku za €30.00 veće plate na mjesečnom nivou, uzimajući u obzir jednakost nivoa obrazovanja. UNDP je pokazao slične rezultate. Iako je moguće da su žene iz našeg uzorka izuzetak iz ovog pravila, takodje je moguće da one iz nekog razloga nisu svjesne razlika u platama. Što se tiče seksualnog uznemiravanja, samo relativno mali broj ispitanica priznaje da su zlostavljane na radnom mjestu. Crnogorski mentalitet je još uvijek patrijarhalan i većina žena misli da same treba se suočavaju sa takvim problemima, ne obraćajući se nikom za pomoć ili razgovor. Pri tome, ljudi još uvijek nisu upoznati sa pojmovima “diskriminacija” i “zlostavljanje/uznemiravanje”. Ovo istraživanje je uključilo samo nekoliko pitanja na ovu temu, tako da je nivo seksualnog uznemiravanja zanemarljiv, pa bi ovo mogla biti oblast za neko naredno istraživanje. 10.1.3 Napuštanje posla i otkaz ^injenica da od ukupnog broja ispitanica koje su dobile otkaz, njih 61,1% kao razlog navodi stečaj firme, potvrdjuje ekonomsku situaciju u Crnoj Gori. Iako ispitanice nisu navele polnu diskriminaciju kao uzrok, praksa otpuštanja žena sa posla prije nego muškaraca je tipična za privrede u tranziciji. Od 41,9% ispitanica koje su ranije radile, ali su samovoljno napustile posao, 23,1% njih je to uradilo jer su ostale u drugom stanju. S obzirom da je zakonska regulative obezbjedjivanja porodiljskog i trudničkog odsustva u Crnoj Gori veoma povoljna, dobijeni podaci indiciraju da su neke od ispitanica mošda bile primorane da napuste posao ili neke od njih mošda nisu uspjele da usklade porodične i poslovne obaveze. Oko 34% ispitanica koje su ranije radile zamijenila je druga žena na prethodnom radnom mjestu, dok ih je u samo 3,2% slučajeva zamijenio muškarac. Ovo bi moglo značiti da postoje odredjeni poslovi i radna mjesta kreirana isključivo za žene. 10.1.4 Šta žene misle Odgovori na pitanja koja se odnose na mišljenja ispitanica ukazuju da većina njih osjeća da diskriminacija zaista postoji u Crnoj Gori. Oko 61% ispitanica vjeruje da postoji podjela na “muške” i “ženske” poslove i da ta podjela nije ispravna. Ovome u prilog govori i podatak da je na bivšem radnom mjestu muškarac zamijenio samo nekoliko žena. Medjutim, u ovako teškim ekonomskim uslovima, situacija bi mogla biti drugačija, jer su ljudi spremni da rade bilo koji posao koji mogu dobiti. Rezultati našeg istraživanja pokazuju da i muškarci i žene konkurišu za posao u svim djelatnostima, kako u onim tradicionalno muškim djelatnostima kao što je proizvodnja, tako i u tradicionalno ženskim djelatnostima kao što je obrazovanje. Ovo bi mogla biti interesantna tema za naredno istraživanje. Podaci pokazuju da 64,3% ispitanica misli da je ženama teše nego muškarcima da nadju zadovoljavajući, dobro plaćen posao. U prilog tome govori i činjenica da samo nekoliko žena iz našeg uzorka radi na rukovodećoj poziciji. Ovo bi takodje mogla biti interesantna tema za neko od narednih istraživanja, ali bi neki od mogućih razloga za ovu situaciju moglo biti i to da žene imaju niši nivo obrazovanja, imaju manje radnog iskustva, ili da su privršenije porodici i manje posvećene poslu. Prema podacima iz našeg istraživanja, čini se da poslodavci radije muškarcima povjeravaju poslove koji se odnose na donošenje odluka. Od ukupnog broja ispitanica koje smatraju da žene teše nalaze zadovoljavajući posao, 34,2% njih kao razlog za to navode činjenicu da su ženama porodične obaveze prioritet u odnosu na njihovu karijeru. Bilo bi interesantno saznati koliko njih osjeća da nije bilo u stanju da ispuni svoje profesionalne ciljeve jer su im bile nametnute porodične obaveze i koliko njih je izabralo taj put. Većina žena je navela “poslodavac je muškarac” ili “muške veze i poznanstva” kao moguće razloge za to što su žene na “drugorazrednim” pozicijama. 10.1.5 Zaključak Kada još jednom razmotrimo odgovor na pitanja koja se odnose na iskustva sa radnog mjesta, čini se da ispitanice ne došivljavaju diskriminaciju kao ozbiljan problem. Jedno od objašnjenja bi moglo biti to da je bivši komunistički rešim žene tretirao kao ravnopravne u svakom pogledu. Još jedno objašnjenje bi 64


Diskriminacija žena u procesu zapošljavanja i na radnom mjestu bilo i to da se Crnogorci sada suočavaju sa ekonomskom krizom i više su orjentisani na rješavanja egzistencijalnih pitanja, nego na rješavanja pitanja odnosa polova. Treće objašnjenje za to da ispitanice iz uzorka ne vide diskriminaciju kao ozbiljan problem bi mogla biti činjenica da se ovakvo istraživanje po prvi put sprovodi u Crnoj Gori. Teme kao što je diskriminacija ili seksualno uznemiravaje nisu uobičajene i žene nisu spremne da o tome javno govore. Interesantno je da odgovori koji se odnose na pitanja o mišljenjima ispitanica daju drugačiju sliku prema kojoj je diskriminacija zaista zastupljena u društvu. U trenutnim ekonomskim uslovima, uz ograničen broj raspološivih radnih mjesta, doprinos porodičnom budšetu predstavlja veću motivaciju za radom nego ostvarivanje ličnog i profesionalnog zadovoljstva. Jasno je da žene u Crnoj Gori podnose dvostruko opterećenje: finansiranje porodice, sa jedne strane, i ispunjavanje porodičnih obaveza, sa druge strane. Mnogi, i muškarci i žene, vjeruju da žena lako moše da postigne oboje. Medjutim, žene bi trebalo da se zapitaju oko izbora svojih prioriteta, da li je vašnije posvetiti se porodici ili doprinositi porodičnom budšetu. U našem istraživanju se pokazalo da porodične obaveze za žene imaju prioritet u odnosu na profesionalne ciljeve. Kako se privreda bude razvijala, tako će se formirati i više dobrih poslova i žene u Crnoj Gori će imati više mogućnosti da rade u različitim djelatnostima i na različitim pozicijama. Za sada nema jakih poslovnih udrušenja za žene. Biće interesantno vidjeti da uz rast i razvoj privrede žene izaberu da budu aktivni učesnici razvoja. Ostali članovi društva, uključujući vladu, regulatorne organe, poslodavce i članove porodica, koji imaju uticaja na život žena bi takodje mogli doprinijeti transformaciji uloge žena u crnogorskom društvu. Ovo istraživanje potvrdjuje neka prethodna zapašanja i pretpostavke o pološaju žena u poslovnom svijetu u Crnoj Gori i kako se one u njemu snalaze. Dobijeni rezultati nam omogućavaju da izvučemo odredjene zaključke, kao i da otvorimo nova pitanja. Jasno je da postoji potreba za dodatnim istraživanjem iz ove oblasti i moramo se zapitati na koja pitanja da pokušamo odgovoriti i koje bi se aktivnosti trebalo preduzeti.



65


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

APPENDIX A: SAMPLE OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE ELIMINATORY QUESTIONS ARE: 1. Age – women have to be over 18 and younger than 65; 3. – 5. if she is not employed, has never been employed and never looked for a job, she is not eligible to answer this questionnaire

1. Age:

  

 

18 – 21 22 – 30 31 – 40

8. Why? 41 – 50 50 – 65

2. Education:

      

Primary school High school Finished two years university program Finished four years university program Finished masters program Finished Ph.D. Vocational training (at work, some additional courses…)

3. Are you employed now?



Yes (go to 11.)



No (go to 4.)

4. Have you ever been employed?



Yes (go to 7.)



No (go to 5.)

        

They found more qualified/experienced person They found younger/older person I became pregnant I wanted a higher salary I complained about men’s attitude Personal reasons The firm went bankrupt I don’t know Some other reasons, which ones ______________________________

9. Why?

      

I found better job They weren’t satisfied with my work Small salary I became pregnant I didn’t feel comfortable as a woman Family reasons or I didn’t need a job any more Some other reasons, which one ______________________________

5. Have you ever looked for a job?

 

Yes (go to 6.) No (not eligible)

6. Why didn’t you get the job?

    

I was not qualified enough I was too young/too old They were looking exclusively for a man The relatives, friends, … of employer got the job Some other reasons, which one ______________________________

(go to question 30.)

7. Why don’t you work now?

  

I got fired (go to 8.) I quit (go to 9.) Something else, what ______________________________

66

10. Who replaced you?

   

A man A woman Nobody I don’t know

11. What field do (did) you work in?

      

Education Health Food service Retail (boutique, supermarket, bakery…) Administration Production Somewhere else, where ______________________________


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

12. What is (was) your position – function?

     

Employee – full time (including seasonal workers) Employee – part time Manager Owner Manager and owner Something else, what ______________________________

18. Do (did) you have any chance to advance your career at this job?





Yes

19. Do (did) men in similar position have the chance to advance their careers?





Yes

I had recommendations It was announced in media I’ve heard in Bureau for Employment Some other way, which one ______________________________

14. Do (did) you feel your job makes use of your qualifications?



Yes (go to 16.)



       



I haven’t looked for a job I’m qualified for yet There is no demand for my qualification on labor market Friends, relatives, … of the employers are getting the best jobs The job I’m qualified for is traditionally a man’s job Family reasons My age The organization doesn’t make proper use of my capabilities Some other reasons, which ______________________________



Yes

No

21. In your working environment are (were) there men or women?

  

More men More women Mixed

22. Do (did) you have men working under you?

No (go to 15.)

15. Why? (you can choose more than one answer)

No

20. Is (was) your boss a man?

13. How did you get the job?

   

No



Yes (got to 23.)



No (go to 25.)

23. Do (did) you think it bothers them?

 

Yes No



I don’t know

24. Do (did) you have any problems with that?



Yes



No

25. Do (did) you have to keep proving your capabilities are equal to those of your male colleges?

16. How long have (did) you work at your job?

   

Less than 1 year 1 – 5 years 5 – 10 years Longer than 10 years

17. Is (was) your sex an issue to your employer when you were applying for the job?

  

Yes, it was stressed in the want ad Yes, but not so important No

 

Constantly Sometimes

 

Rarely Never

26. Is (was) there any difference between your salary and that of your male colleges in similar position?

   

My salary is higher Men have a higher salary The salaries are equal I don’t know

67


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

27. Did any of these things below ever happened to you in a situation where you didn’t want it: Your boss

WHO HARASSED YOU Your Somebody else subordinate (client…)

HOW OFTEN Once More than once

Teasing, jokes, … Requesting sexy clothes Liberal comments about appearance Liberal looks and gestures Liberal touches Insisting on a date Letters, calls, messages Stalking Pressure for sexual favors Rape

28. Do (did) you have any problems talking maternity leave?





Yes

No

29. At your job, do (did) you have to wear any special clothing?

  

Yes, but it is necessary because of the work Yes, the bosses request only women to wear it No

30. Do (did) you agree to any unusual requests either orally or when you signed your contract or were any unusual requesting during hiring procedure: HOW THEY ASKED Formally in Informally contract

SPECIAL REQUESTS OF EMPLOYER I will not get pregnant in a specific time period I will wear sexy clothes and make up I should treat male clients (customers…) as more important They asked for my photo along with my CV Something else, what

31. Do you think men can find work more easily than women?



Yes (go to 32.)



No (go to 33.)

32. Why? (Your opinion)

35. In jobs where there is no physical qualification, are there any certain jobs for men and certain for women?

   

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________



33. Were men and women competing for the same position when you were applying for a job?



Yes



No

34. Is (was) employee’s sex important to your employer when you were looking for a job?

  

Yes No I don’t know

Yes (go to 37.)



No (the end)

37. What is a cause of that, your opinion?

     

 68

The division exists and it should The division exists and it should not The division doesn’t exists but it should The division doesn’t exists and it should not 36. Do you think women have a harder time than men finding satisfying, well-paid work (your experience or your friends)?

The existing legal framework Employers who are in most cases men Women, because family obligations are more important than their careers Old boys network (this means men are friends to each other so help each other out) I don’t know Other, what


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

69


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

APPENDIX B: CROSSTABS Table 1 – Why did you get fired?

Valid

They found more qualified/experienced person They found younger/older person I became pregnant I wanted a higher salary I complained about men’s attitude Personal reasons The firm went bankrupt I don’t know Total

Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

8

14.8

14.8

14.8

1 1 3 2 3 33 3 54 54

1.9 1.9 5.6 3.7 5.6 61.1 5.6 100.0 100.0

1.9 1.9 5.6 3.7 5.6 61.1 5.6 100.0

16.7 18.5 24.1 27.8 33.3 94.4 100.0

Table 2 – Do (did) you feel your job makes use of your qualifications?

Valid Total

Yes No Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

186 66 252 252

73.8 26.2 100.0 100.0

73.8 26.2 100.0

73.8 100.0

Table 3 – Why do (did) you feel your job does not make use of your qualifications?

Valid

I haven’t looked for a job I’m qualified for yet There is no demand for my qualification on labor market Friends, relatives, … of the employers are getting the best jobs The job I’m qualified for is traditionally a man’s job Family reasons My age The organization doesn’t make proper use of my capabilities Total

Total

22.7

Valid Percent 22.7

Cumulative Percent 22.7

29

43.9

43.9

66.7

10

15.2

15.2

81.8

1 3 1

1.5 4.5 1.5

1.5 4.5 1.5

83.3 87.9 89.4

7

10.6

10.6

100.0

66 66

100.0 100.0

100.0

Frequency

Percent

15

Table 4 – Is (was) your sex an issue to your employer when you were applying for the job?

Valid Total

70

Yes, it was stressed in the want ad Yes, but not so important No Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

51 51 150 252 252

20.2 20.2 59.5 100.0 100.0

20.2 20.2 59.5 100.0

20.2 40.5 100.0


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place Table 5 – Do (did) men in similar position have the chance to advance their careers?

Valid

Yes No Total

Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

152 98 250 250

60.8 39.2 100.0 100.0

60.8 39.2 100.0

60.8 100.0

Table 6 – In your working environment are (were) there men or women?

Valid

More men More women Mixed Total

Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

21

8.3

8.3

8.3

92

36.5

36.5

44.8

139 252 252

55.2 100.0 100.0

55.2 100.0

100.0

Table 7 – Do (did) you have men working as your subordinate?

Valid

Yes No Total

Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

88 164 252 252

34.9 65.1 100.0 100.0

34.9 65.1 100.0

34.9 100.0

Table 8 – Do (did) you think it bothers them?

Yes No Valid I do not know Total Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

13 38 37 88 88

14.8 43.2 42.0 100.0 100.0

14.8 43.2 42.0 100.0

14.8 58.0 100.0

Table 9 – Do (did) you have any problems with that?

Yes Valid No Total Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

13 75 88 88

14.8 85.2 100.0 100.0

14.8 85.2 100.0

14.8 100.0

Table 10.1. – Teasing, jokes – Who harassed you?

Valid

Total

Unemployed/does not have such experience Boss Subordinate Somebody else (client…) Total

Frequency

Percent

248 23 4 25 300 300

82.7 7.7 1.3 8.3 100.0 100.0

Valid Percent 82.7 7.7 1.3 8.3 100.0

Cumulative Percent 82.7 90.3 91.7 100.0

71


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place Table 10.2. – Teasing, jokes – How often did it happen?

Valid

Unemployed/does not have such experience Once More than once Total

Total

Frequency

Percent

248 7 45 300 300

82.7 2.3 15.0 100.0 100.0

Valid Percent 82.7 2.3 15.0 100.0

Cumulative Percent 82.7 85.0 100.0

Valid Percent 98.0 1.3 .7 100.0

Cumulative Percent 98.0 99.3 100.0

Valid Percent 98.0 1.0 1.0 100.0

Cumulative Percent 98.0 99.0 100.0

Valid Percent 81.7 5.0 2.0 10.0 1.0 .3 100.0

Cumulative Percent 81.7 86.7 88.7 98.7 99.7 100.0

Valid Percent 81.7 1.3 17.0 100.0

Cumulative Percent 81.7 83.0 100.0

Table 11.1. – Requesting sexy clothes – Who harassed you?

Valid

Unemployed/does not have such experience Boss Somebody else (client…) Total

Total

Frequency

Percent

294 4 2 300 300

98.0 1.3 .7 100.0 100.0

Table 11.2. – Requesting sexy clothes – How often did it happen?

Valid

Unemployed/does not have such experience Once More than once Total

Total

Frequency

Percent

294 3 3 300 300

98.0 1.0 1.0 100.0 100.0

Table 12.1. – Liberal comments about appearance – Who harassed you?

Valid

Unemployed/does not have such experience Boss Subordinate Somebody else (client…) Boss and somebody else (client…) Everybody Total

Total

Frequency

Percent

245 15 6 30 3 1 300 300

81.7 5.0 2.0 10.0 1.0 .3 100.0 100.0

Table 12.2. – Liberal comments about appearance – How often did it happen?

Valid Total

72

Unemployed/does not have such experience Once More than once Total

Frequency

Percent

245 4 51 300 300

81.7 1.3 17.0 100.0 100.0


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place Table 13.1. – Liberal looks and gestures – Who harassed you?

Valid

Unemployed/does not have such experience Boss Subordinate Somebody else (client…) Everybody Total

Total

Frequency

Percent

258 16 2 23 1 300 300

86.0 5.3 .7 7.7 .3 100.0 100.0

Valid Percent 86.0 5.3 .7 7.7 .3 100.0

Cumulative Percent 86.0 91.3 92.0 99.7 100.0

Valid Percent 86.0 2.3 11.7 100.0

Cumulative Percent 86.0 88.3 100.0

Valid Percent 96.0 2.3 1.3 .3 100.0

Cumulative Percent 96.0 98.3 99.7 100.0

Valid Percent 96.0 .3 3.7 100.0

Cumulative Percent 96.0 96.3 100.0

Valid Percent 89.3 3.0 7.3 .3 100.0

Cumulative Percent 89.3 92.3 99.7 100.0

Table 13.2. – Liberal looks and gestures – How often did it happen?

Valid

Unemployed/does not have such experience Once More than once Total

Total

Frequency

Percent

258 7 35 300 300

86.0 2.3 11.7 100.0 100.0

Frequency

Percent

288 7 4 1 300 300

96.0 2.3 1.3 .3 100.0 100.0

Table 14.1. – Liberal touches – Who harassed you?

Valid

Unemployed/does not have such experience Boss Somebody else (client…) Everybody Total

Total

Table 14.2. – Liberal touches – How often did it happen?

Valid

Unemployed/does not have such experience Once More than once Total

Total

Frequency

Percent

288 1 11 300 300

96.0 .3 3.7 100.0 100.0

Frequency

Percent

268 9 22 1 300 300

89.3 3.0 7.3 .3 100.0 100.0

Table 15.1. – Insisting on a date – Who harassed you?

Valid

Total

Unemployed/does not have such experience Boss Somebody else (client…) Boss and somebody else (client…) Total

73


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place Table 15.2. – Insisting on a date – How often did it happen?

Valid

Unemployed/does not have such experience Once More than once Total

Total

Frequency

Percent

268 13 19 300 300

89.3 4.3 6.3 100.0 100.0

Valid Percent 89.3 4.3 6.3 100.0

Cumulative Percent 89.3 93.7 100.0

Valid Percent 95.0 1.7 3.3 100.0

Cumulative Percent 95.0 96.7 100.0

Valid Percent 95.0 1.3 3.7 100.0

Cumulative Percent 95.0 96.3 100.0

Valid Percent 99.3 .3 .3 100.0

Cumulative Percent 99.3 99.7 100.0

Valid Percent 99.3 .7 100.0

Cumulative Percent 99.3 100.0

Valid Percent 99.0 .7 .3 100.0

Cumulative Percent 99.0 99.7 100.0

Table 16.1. – Letters, calls, messages – Who harassed you?

Valid

Unemployed/does not have such experience Boss Somebody else (client…) Total

Total

Frequency

Percent

285 5 10 300 300

95.0 1.7 3.3 100.0 100.0

Table 16.2. – Letters, calls or messages – How often did it happen?

Valid

Unemployed/does not have such experience Once More than once Total

Total

Frequency

Percent

285 4 11 300 300

95.0 1.3 3.7 100.0 100.0

Frequency

Percent

298 1 1 300 300

99.3 .3 .3 100.0 100.0

Frequency

Percent

Table 17.1. – Stalking – Who harassed you?

Valid

Unemployed/does not have such experience Boss Somebody else (client…) Total

Total Table 17.2. – Stalking – How often did it happen?

Valid Total

Unemployed/does not have such experience 298 More than once 2 Total 300 300

99.3 .7 100.0 100.0

Table 18.1. – Pressure for sexual favors – Who harassed you?

Valid Total

74

Unemployed/does not have such experience Boss Somebody else (client…) Total

Frequency

Percent

297 2 1 300 300

99.0 .7 .3 100.0 100.0


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

Table 18.2. – Pressure for sexual favors – How often did it happen? Frequency Valid Total

Unemployed/does not have such experience 297 Once 3 Total 300 300

Percent 99.0 1.0 100.0 100.0

Valid Percent 99.0 1.0 100.0

Cumulative Percent 99.0 100.0

Table 19 – Do (did) you have any problems talking maternity leave?

Valid Total

Yes No Never used Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

21 227 4 252 252

8.3 90.1 1.6 100.0 100.0

8.3 90.1 1.6 100.0

8.3 98.4 100.0

Table 20 – At your job, do (did) you have to wear any special clothing?

Valid

Yes, but it is necessary because of the work Yes, the bosses request only women to wear it No Total

Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

76 8 168 252 252

30.2 3.2 66.7 100.0 100.0

30.2 3.2 66.7 100.0

Cumulative Percent 30.2 33.3 100.0

Table 21 – Unusual requests that I will not get pregnant in a specific time period

Valid

Does not have such experience Formally Informally Total

Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

284 1 15 300 300

94.7 .3 5.0 100.0 100.0

94.7 .3 5.0 100.0

94.7 95.0 100.0

Table 22 – Unusual requests that I will wear sexy clothes and make up

Valid

Does not have such experience Informally Total

Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

291 9 300 300

97.0 3.0 100.0 100.0

97.0 3.0 100.0

97.0 100.0

Table 23 – Unusual requests that I should treat male clients (customers…) as more important

Valid Total

Does not have such experience Informally Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

296 4 300 300

98.7 1.3 100.0 100.0

98.7 1.3 100.0

98.7 100.0

75


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place Table 24 – Unusual requests: They asked for my photo along with my CV

Valid

Does not have such experience Formally Informally Total

Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

291 1 8 300 300

97.0 .3 2.7 100.0 100.0

97.0 .3 2.7 100.0

97.0 97.3 100.0

Table 25 – Unusual requests: Membership in political party

Valid

Does not have such experience Informally Total

Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

295 5 300 300

98.3 1.7 100.0 100.0

98.3 1.7 100.0

98.3 100.0

Table 26 – Were men and women competing for the same position when you were applying for a job?

Valid Total

Yes No I do not know Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

136 145 19 300 300

45.3 48.3 6.3 100.0 100.0

45.3 48.3 6.3 100.0

45.3 93.7 100.0

Table 27 – Education * What is (was) your working position – function (Crosstabs) What is (was) your working position – function? Full time Part time Manager Manager Owner employee employee and owner Primary school 11 1 High school 111 4 2 1 2 Two years university program 40 6 5 Education Four years university program 52 2 4 2 1 Masters program 3 1 Vocational program 4 Total 221 13 12 3 3 Table 28 – Age * Working position (Crosstabs) What is (was) your working position – function? Full time Part time Manager employee employee 18 – 21 11 2 22 – 30 76 5 6 Age 31 – 40 64 2 2 41 – 50 51 3 3 51 – 65 19 1 1 Total 221 13 12

76

Owner

2 1 3

Manager and owner 1 1 1 3

Total 12 120 51 61 4 4 252

Total 13 88 69 60 22 252


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place Table 29 – Education * How did you get the job? (Crosstabs) How did you get the job? It was I had announced recommendations in media Primary school 4 5 High school 54 42 Two years university program 27 18 Education Four years university program 17 32 Masters program 3 Vocational program 2 1 Total 104 101 Table 30 – Age * How did you get the job? (Crosstab) How did you get the job? It was I had recommendations announced in media 18 – 21 10 3 22 – 30 54 22 Age 31 – 40 19 40 41 – 50 16 27 51 – 65 5 9 Total 104 101 Table 31 – City * Employment (Crosstabs) Are you employed now? Employed at the moment Podgorica 48 Niksic 25 Berane 29 City Bijelo Polje 18 Kotor 17 Ulcinj 14 Danilovgrad 8 Total 159

I’ve heard in Bureau for Employment 3 21 6 9 1 1 41

By opening Total my own business 12 3 120 51 3 61 4 4 6 252

I’ve heard in Bureau for Employment

By opening my own business

11 9 14 7 41

1 1 3 1 6

Ex-employed 22 10 16 11 20 13 1 93

Unemployed 20 5 5 11 3 3 1 48

Total 13 88 69 60 22 252

Total 90 40 50 40 40 30 10 300

Table 32 – Age * Is (was) your sex an issue to your employer when you were applying for the job? (Crosstabs) Is (was) your sex an issue to your employer when you were applying for the job? Total Yes, it was stressed in the want ad Yes, but not so important No 18 – 21 8 3 2 13 22 – 30 21 23 44 88 Age 31 – 40 13 12 44 69 41 – 50 7 8 45 60 51 – 65 2 5 15 22 Total 51 51 150 252

77


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place Table 33 – Education * Do (did) you have any chance to advance your career at this job? (Crosstabs) Do (did) you have any chance to advance your career at this job? Total Yes No Primary school 1 11 12 High school 42 78 120 Two years university program 29 22 51 Education Four years university program 48 13 61 Masters program 4 4 Vocational program 1 3 4 Total 125 127 252 Table 34 – Age * Do (did) you have any chance to advance your career at this job? (Crosstabs) Do (did) you have any chance to advance your career at this job? Total Yes No 18 – 21 5 8 13 22 – 30 48 40 88 Age 31 – 40 36 33 69 41 – 50 27 33 60 51 – 65 9 13 22 Total 125 127 252 Table 35 – Field of work * Do (did) you have any chance to advance your career at this job? (Crosstabs) Do (did) you have any chance to advance your career at this job? Total Yes No Education 18 10 28 Health 8 8 16 Food service 7 13 20 Field of work Retail 18 41 59 Administration 58 33 91 Production 15 22 37 Media 1 1 Total 125 127 252 Table 36 – Field of work * How did you get the job? (Crosstabs) How did you get the job? I had recommendations Education Health Food service Field of work Retail Administration Production Media Total

78

4 4 9 33 45 8 1 104

23 9 7 16 30 16

I’ve heard in Bureau for Employment 1 3 4 7 14 12

101

41

It was announced in media

By opening Total my own business

3 2 1 6

28 16 20 59 91 37 1 252


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place Table 37 – Field of work * Is (was) your boss a man? (Crosstabs) Is (was) your boss a man? Yes No Education 26 2 Health 9 7 Food service 18 2 Field of work Retail 48 11 Administration 73 18 Production 29 8 Media 1 Total 204 48

Total 28 16 20 59 91 37 1 252

Table 38 – Field of work * Do (did) you feel your job makes use of your qualifications? (Crosstabs) Do (did) you feel your job makes use of your qualifications? Yes No Education 26 2 Health 13 3 Food service 14 6 Field of work Retail 25 34 Administration 77 14 Production 31 6 Media 1 Total 186 66

Total 28 16 20 59 91 37 1 252

Table 39 – Do (did) you have any chance to advance your career at this job? * Do (did) men in similar position have the chance to advance their careers? (Crosstabs) Do (did) men in similar position have the chance to advance their careers? Total Yes No 11 125 Do (did) you have any chance to Yes 114 advance your career at this job? No 38 89 127 Total 152 100 252 Table 40 – How did you get the job? * Do (did) you have any chance to advance your career at (Crosstabs) Do (did) you have any chance to advance your career at this job? Yes No I had recommendations 47 57 51 50 How did you It was announced in media get the job? I’ve heard in Bureau for Employment 22 19 By opening my own business 5 1 Total 125 127

this job?

Total 104 101 41 6 252

79


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place Table 41 – Age * Do (did) you have to keep proving your capabilities are equal to those of your male colleges? (Crosstabs) Do (did) you have to keep proving your capabilities are equal to those of your male colleges? Total Constantly Rarely Sometimes Never 18 – 21 1 2 10 13 22 – 30 17 17 17 37 88 Age 31 – 40 10 16 10 33 69 41 – 50 7 14 10 29 60 51 – 65 2 6 4 10 22 Total 37 55 41 119 252 Table 42 – Education * Do (did) you have to keep proving your capabilities are equal to those of colleges? (Crosstabs) Do (did) you have to keep proving your capabilities are equal to those of your male colleges? Constantly Rarely Sometimes Never Primary school 1 3 1 7 High school 15 24 16 65 Two years university program 10 11 9 21 Education Four years university program 9 15 12 25 Masters program 1 1 1 1 Vocational program 1 1 2 Total 37 55 41 119

your male

Total 12 120 51 61 4 4 252

Table 43 – Field of work * Do (did) you have to keep proving your capabilities are equal to those of your male colleges? (Crosstabs) Do (did) you have to keep proving your capabilities are equal to those of your male colleges? Total Constantly Rarely Sometimes Never Education 5 5 2 16 28 Health 9 3 4 16 Food service 8 4 8 20 Field of work Retail 12 11 7 29 59 Administration 15 14 17 45 91 Production 5 7 8 17 37 Media 1 1 Total 37 55 41 119 252 Table 44 – How did you get the job? * Do (did) you have to keep proving your capabilities are equal to those of your male colleges? (Crosstabs) Do (did) you have to keep proving your capabilities are equal to those of your male colleges? Total Constantly Rarely Sometimes Never I had recommendations 14 19 18 53 104 It was announced in media 19 28 9 45 101 How did you I’ve heard in Bureau for get the job? 3 8 13 17 41 Employment By opening my own business 1 1 4 6 Total 37 55 41 119 252

80


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place Table 45 – Age * Is (was) there any difference between your salary and that of your male colleges in similar position? (Crosstabs) Is (was) there any difference between your salary and that of your male colleges in similar position? Total My salary is higher Men have a higher The salaries are equal I don’t know 18 – 21 3 1 6 3 13 22 – 30 6 5 47 30 88 Age 31 – 40 1 5 48 15 69 41 – 50 1 5 37 17 60 51 – 65 1 15 6 22 Total 11 17 153 71 252 Table 46 – Education * Is (was) there any difference between your salary and that of your male colleges in similar position? (Crosstabs) Is (was) there any difference between your salary and that of your male colleges in similar position? Total My salary is Men have a The salaries I don’t higher higher salary are equal know Primary school 1 8 3 12 High school 6 8 71 35 120 Two years 1 5 24 21 51 university program Education Four years 3 2 46 10 61 university program Masters program 3 1 4 Vocational program 1 1 1 1 4 Total 11 17 153 71 252 Table 47 – City * Is (was) there any difference between your salary and that of your male colleges in similar position? (Crosstabs) Is (was) there any difference between your salary and that of your male colleges in similar position? Total Men have a The salaries My salary is higher I don’t know higher salary are equal Podgorica 5 5 32 28 70 Niksic 2 3 21 9 35 Berane 8 32 5 45 City Bijelo Polje 2 19 8 29 Kotor 1 1 22 13 37 Ulcinj 22 5 27 Danilovgrad 1 5 3 9 Total 11 17 153 71 252

81


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place Table 48 – Field of work * Is (was) there any difference between your salary and that of your male similar position? (Crosstabs) Is (was) there any difference between your salary and that of your male colleges in similar position? My salary is Men have a The salaries I don’t know higher higher salary are equal Education 1 24 3 Health 1 13 2 Food service 3 2 11 4 Field of work Retail 2 5 34 18 Administration 4 4 49 34 Production 1 5 21 10 Media 1 Total 11 17 153 71

colleges in

Total 28 16 20 59 91 37 1 252

Table 49 – How did you get the job? * Is (was) there any difference between your salary and that of your male colleges in similar position? (Crosstabs) Is (was) there any difference between your salary and that of your male colleges in similar position? Total My salary Men have a The salaries I don’t is higher higher salary are equal know I had recommendations 6 14 48 36 104 It was announced in media 3 3 73 22 101 How did you get I’ve heard in Bureau for 1 30 10 41 the job? Employment By opening my own business 1 Total

11

17

2

3

6

153

71

252

Table 50 – Is (was) your boss a man? * Is (was) there any difference between your salary and that of colleges in similar position? (Crosstabs) Is (was) there any difference between your salary and that of your male colleges in similar position? My salary is Men have a The salaries I don’t know higher higher salary are equal Yes 9 17 120 58 Is (was) your boss a man? No 2 33 13 Total 11 17 153 71

your male

Total 204 48 252

Table 51 - Do (did) you have to keep proving your capabilities are equal to those of your male colleges? * Is (was) there any difference between your salary and that of your male colleges in similar position? (Crosstabs) Is (was) there any difference between your salary and that of your male colleges in similar position? Total My salary Men have a The salaries I don’t is higher higher salary are equal know 4 19 13 37 Do (did) you have to keep Constantly 1 1 7 29 18 55 proving your capabilities are Rarely equal to those of your male Sometimes 4 1 23 13 41 colleges? Never 5 5 82 27 119 Total 11 17 153 71 252

82


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place Table 52 – Do (did) you have any chance to advance your career at this job? * Is (was) there any difference between your salary and that of your male colleges in similar position? (Crosstabs) Is (was) there any difference between your salary and that of your male colleges in similar position? Total My salary Men have a The salaries I don’t is higher higher salary are equal know 6 78 35 125 Do (did) you have any chance to Yes 6 advance your career at this job? No 5 11 75 36 127 Total 11 17 153 71 252 Table 53 – Education * Do (did) you have any problems talking maternity leave? (Crosstabs) Do (did) you have any problems talking maternity leave? Yes No Did not use Primary school 3 9 High school 10 106 4 Two years university program 2 49 Education Four years university program 4 57 Masters program 4 Vocational program 2 2 Total 21 227 4

Total 12 120 51 61 4 4 252

Table 54 – Age * Do (did) you have any problems talking maternity leave? (Crosstabs) Do (did) you have any problems talking maternity leave? Total Yes No Did not use 18 – 21 2 8 3 13 22 – 30 5 82 1 88 Age 31 – 40 9 60 69 41 – 50 5 55 60 51 – 65 22 22 Total 21 227 4 252

Table 55 – Field of work * Do (did) you have any problems talking maternity leave? (Crosstabs) Do (did) you have any problems talking maternity leave? Total Yes No Did not use Education 2 26 28 Health 1 15 16 Food service 2 17 1 20 Field of work Retail 8 49 2 59 Administration 3 87 1 91 Production 5 32 37 Media 1 1 Total 21 227 4 252 Table 56 – Is (was) your boss a man? * Do (did) you have any problems talking maternity leave? (Crosstabs) Do (did) you have any problems talking maternity leave? Total Yes No Did not use Yes 20 181 3 204 Is (was) your boss a man? No 1 46 1 48

83


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place Total

84

21

227

4

252


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place Table 57 – Field of work * At your job, do (did) you have to wear any special clothing? (Crosstabs) At your job, do (did) you have to wear any special clothing? Yes, but it is necessary Yes, the bosses request because of the work only women to wear it No Education 12 16 Health 9 7 Food service 12 5 3 Field of work Retail 17 3 39 Administration 11 80 Production 15 22 Media 1 Total 76 8 168 Table 58 – Education * At your job, do (did) you have to wear any special clothing? (Crosstabs) At your job, do (did) you have to wear any special clothing? Yes, but it is Yes, the bosses necessary because request only women No of the work to wear it Primary school 7 5 High school 30 7 83 Two years university program 13 1 37 Education Four years university program 23 38 Masters program 2 2 Vocational program 1 3 Total 76 8 168

Total 28 16 20 59 91 37 1 252

Total

12 120 51 61 4 4 252

Table 59 – Is (was) your boss a man? * At your job, do (did) you have to wear any special clothing? (Crosstabs) At your job, do (did) you have to wear any special clothing? Total Yes, but it is necessary Yes, the bosses request because of the work only women to wear it No Yes 68 8 128 204 Is (was) your boss a man? No 8 40 48 Total 76 8 168 252 Table 60 – Age * Do you think men can find work more easily than women? (Crosstabs) Do you think men can find work more easily than women? Total Yes No 18 – 21 14 13 27 22 – 30 43 66 109 Age 31 – 40 46 33 79 41 – 50 32 30 62 51 – 65 13 10 23 Total 148 152 300

85


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place Table 61 – Education * Do you think men can find work more easily than women? (Crosstabs) Do you think men can find work more easily than women? Yes No Primary school 11 5 High school 68 73 Two years university program 35 26 Education Four years university program 30 41 Masters program 2 2 Vocational program 2 5 Total 148 152

Total 16 141 61 71 4 7 300

Table 62 - Field of work * Do you think men can find work more easily than women? (Crosstabs) Do you think men can find work more easily than women? Total Yes No Unemployed 31 17 48 Education 10 18 28 Health 7 9 16 Food service 11 9 20 Field of work Retail 24 35 59 Administration 43 48 91 Production 22 15 37 Media 1 1 Total 148 152 300 Table 63 – Age * Is (was) employee’s sex important to your employer when you were looking for a job? (Crosstabs) Is (was) employee’s sex important to your employer when you were looking for a job? Total Yes No I do not know 18 – 21 15 2 10 27 22 – 30 37 40 32 109 Age 31 – 40 17 35 27 79 41 – 50 13 31 18 62 51 – 65 3 11 9 23 Total 85 119 96 300 Table 64 – Education * Is (was) employee’s sex important to your employer when you were looking for a job? (Crosstabs) Is (was) employee’s sex important to your employer when you were looking for a job? Total Yes No I do not know Primary school 8 2 6 16 High school 57 48 36 141 Two years university program 10 23 28 61 Education Four years university program 8 40 23 71 Masters program 1 3 4 Vocational program 1 3 3 7 Total 85 119 96 300

86


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place Table 65 – Field of work * Is (was) employee’s sex important to your employer when you were looking for a job? (Crosstabs) Is (was) employee’s sex important to your employer when you were looking for a job? Total Yes No I do not know Unemployed 13 7 28 48 Education 2 18 8 28 Health 2 9 5 16 Food service 14 3 3 20 Field of work Retail 29 16 14 59 Administration 13 49 29 91 Production 11 17 9 37 Media 1 1 Total 85 119 96 300 Table 66 – Is (was) your boss a man? * Is (was) employee’s sex important to your employer when looking for a job? (Crosstabs) Is (was) employee’s sex important to your employer when you were looking for a job? Yes No I do not know Unemployed 13 7 28 Is (was) your boss a man? Yes 61 88 55 No 11 24 13 Total 85 119 96

you were

Total 48 204 48 300

Table 67 – Field of work * Were men and women competing for the same position when you were applying for a job? (Crosstabs) Were men and women competing for the same position when you were applying for a job? Total Yes No I do not know Unemployed 37 10 1 48 Education 14 9 5 28 Health 7 9 16 Food service 6 11 3 20 Field of work Retail 13 44 2 59 Administration 39 46 6 91 Production 19 16 2 37 Media 1 1 Total 136 145 19 300 Table 68 – Age * In jobs where there is no physical qualifications, are there any certain jobs for men and certain for a women? (Crosstabs) In jobs where there are no physical qualifications, are there any certain jobs for men and certain for women? The division does The division does Total The division exists The division exists not exist and it not exist but it and it should and it should not should not should 18 – 21 1 22 3 1 27 22 – 30 17 64 28 109 Age 31 – 40 10 54 14 1 79 41 – 50 15 28 18 1 62 51 – 65 2 14 6 1 23 Total 45 182 69 4 300

87


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

Table 69 – Education * In jobs where there is no physical qualifications, are there any certain jobs for men and certain for a women? (Crosstabs) In jobs where there are no physical qualifications, are there any certain jobs for men and certain for women? The division The division The division The division Total exists and it exists and it does not exist does not exist should should not and it should not but it should Primary school 3 9 4 16 High school 24 86 28 3 141 Two years 3 41 17 61 university program Education Four years 12 40 18 1 71 university program Masters program 1 2 1 4 Vocational program 2 4 1 7 Total 45 182 69 4 300 Table 70 – Field of work * In jobs where there is no physical qualifications, are there any certain jobs and certain for a women? (Crosstabs) In jobs where there are no physical qualifications, are there any certain jobs for men and certain for women? The division The division The division The division exists and it exists and it does not exist does not exist should should not and it should not but it should Unemployed 3 37 7 1 Education 5 14 9 Health 2 10 4 Field of work Food service 3 12 4 1 Retail 12 35 12 Administration 10 52 27 2 Production 10 21 6 Media 1 Total 45 182 69 4 Table 71 – Age * Do you think women have (Crosstabs) Do you think women have a satisfying, well-paid work? Yes 18 – 21 17 22 – 30 59 Age 31 – 40 57 41 – 50 45 51 – 65 15 Total 193

88

for men

Total

48 28 16 20 59 91 37 1 300

a harder time than men finding satisfying, well-paid work? harder time than men finding Total No 10 50 22 17 8 107

27 109 79 62 23 300


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place Table 72 – Education * Do you think women have a harder time than men finding satisfying, well-paid work? (Crosstabs) Do you think women have a harder time than men finding satisfying, well-paid work? Total Yes No Primary school 12 4 16 High school 87 54 141 Two years university program 42 19 61 Education Four years university program 44 27 71 Masters program 3 1 4 Vocational program 5 2 7 Total 193 107 300 Table 73 – Field of work * Do you think women have a harder time than men finding satisfying, well-paid work? (Crosstabs) Do you think women have a harder time than men finding satisfying, well-paid work? Total Yes No Unemployed 34 14 48 Education Health Field of work Food service Retail Administration Production Media Total

17

11

28

9 13 31 59 29 1 193

7 7 28 32 8

16 20 59 91 37 1 300

107

89


The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

90


Discrimination of women in employment process  

discrimination of women

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