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C E E AT I L L I N O I S

2012-2013

Research Highlights Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering College of Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign


Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering College of Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, MC-250 205 N. Mathews Ave. Urbana, Illinois 61801 217-333-8038 / FAX: 217-333-9464 civil@illinois.edu cee.illinois.edu


Research Highlights Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 2012

O

ver the past century, civil and environmental engineers have created a knowledge base and leadership for developing our nation’s infrastructure and protecting the environment. This has included creating safe and affordable buildings, delivering clean and plentiful water, building safe and resilient transportation systems, and improving both air and water quality. In the 21st century, the world population will continue to rise, material and fossil energy resources will continue to decrease, and climate change stresses will become more severe. The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is a world leader in the creation of new knowledge and leadership necessary for infrastructure development and environmental protection in the face of these changes. Specifically, CEE at Illinois is a world leader of research in sustainable infrastructure systems, clean energy, risk management and resilience, and safe and plentiful water. Key research efforts of CEE faculty in these areas are highlighted below and on the pages that follow. Sustainable Infrastructure Systems From 2007 to 2012, U.S. infrastructure quality dropped from sixth to sixteenth in the world, according to the World Economic Forum. The American Society of Civil Engineers estimates that over the next five years infrastructure modernization in the United States will cost in excess of $2 trillion. Existing infrastructure systems were built with a focus on safety, cost and aesthetics. Some thought was given to environmental concerns, life-cycle energy costs, changing human needs, and climate change, but these were rarely quantitatively considered. Research highlights in CEE at Illinois that address sustainable infrastructure systems include work by Assistant Professor Bassem Andrawes’ group on using shape-memory alloys to retrofit bridges, by Associate Professor Khaled El-Rayes’ group on multi-objective optimization for construction of transportation systems, by Assistant Professor Larry Fahnestock’s group on steel-braced frames for seismic collapse prevention, by Associate Professor Yanfeng Ouyang’s group on characterization and validation of stop-and-go oscillations in congested traffic and by professors David Lange’s and Jeff Roesler’s groups on sustainable practices at O’Hare International Airport.


Clean Energy Clean, plentiful energy is one of the greatest challenges facing the world. Energy production is dependent on fossil fuels, and it affects almost every aspect of our lives, including climate change, air quality, transportation and crop production. Creating clean energy is central to the hope that we can continue to enjoy a high standard of living and raise the standard of living in less developed regions of the world. Research highlights in CEE at Illinois that address clean energy include work by Professor Wen-Tso Liu’s group on microbial production of methane from wastewater, by Professor Praveen Kumar’s group on cellulosic-based bioenergy production, by Associate Professor Armando Duarte’s group on fracture analysis of shale-gas reservoirs to protect groundwater resources, and by professors Albert Valocchi’s and Charlie Werth’s groups on geological carbon sequestration. Risk Management and Resilience Climate change, natural hazards, and changing human needs all put stresses on existing and new infrastructure systems. Near- and long-term verification of infrastructure system performance, and quantification of the risks that various stressors pose, are critical steps for ensuring long-term resilience and sustainability. Research in CEE at Illinois that address risk management and resilience include work by Professor Bill Spencer’s group on wireless smart sensing of bridge integrity, by Associate Professor John Popovics’ group on rapid scanning and imaging of defects in bridge components, by Associate Professor Junho Song’s group on risk-informed management and post-disaster operations of lifeline networks, by Professor Youssef Hashash’s group on design, modeling, and monitoring of urban excavations, by Professor Imad Al-Qadi’s group on in-situ asphalt mixture density prediction using ground penetrating radar, and by Professor Chris Barkan’s group on railroad tank car safety design optimization. Safe and Plentiful Water Severe water shortages are increasingly common in selected regions of the United States—for example, the 2012 summer drought that affected more than 60 percent of the United States—and clean water scarcity is endemic in some developing countries—for example, parts of Africa. While existing water treatment technologies can treat most source waters, the energy, material and environmental costs are often too high. Social and political barriers can also interfere with safe water solutions. There are immense opportunities to more sustainably manage high quality water resources and treat or reuse lower quality water resources via new materials and processes. Research highlights in CEE at Illinois that address safe and plentiful water include work by Assistant Professor Helen Nguyen’s group on pathogen removal and transport in porous media filter and groundwater systems, by Associate Professor Timm Strathmann’s group on development of sustainable catalytic treatment systems for drinking water, and by Associate Professor Ximing Cai’s group on reservoir operation for fish ecosystem restoration. —Professor Charles J. Werth Director of Research


Contents Sustainable Infrastructure Systems Seismic Retrofit of RC Bridge Columns Using Shape Memory Alloy Spirals.................................................................................................6 Multi-Objective Optimization for the Construction of Transportation Systems.............................................................................................8 Reserve Capacity for Seismic Collapse Prevention in Steel Braced Frames.......................................................................................10 Characterization and Validation of Stop-and-Go Oscillations in Congested Traffic Flow.................................................................................12 Sustainable Practices at O’Hare International Airport....................................14

Clean Energy Microbial Ecology of Bio-Energy Producing Anaerobic Treatment Processes....................................................................................................16 The Hydrologic Cycle Under Climate Change Due to the Expansion of Bioenergy Crops in the Midwestern United States..............................18 Simulation of Hydraulic Fracturing of Gas Shale Reservoirs......................20 Mineral Precipitation During Geological Carbon Sequestration................22

Risk Management and Resilience Multi-Metric Wireless Smart Sensors for Monitoring Critical Civil Infrastructure.......................................................................................................24 Rapid Scanning and Imaging of Defects in Bridge Components...............26 Risk-Informed Management and Post-Disaster Operations of Lifeline Networks by Rapid, Condition-Based System Reliability Analysis...28 Integrated Design, Modeling, Monitoring & Construction of Urban Excavations........................................................................................30 Innovative Method for Real-Time Prediction of Asphalt Pavement Density Using Electromagnetic Waves......................................................32 Railroad Tank Car Safety Design Optimization..................................................34

Safe and Plentiful Water Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocyst Transport in Porous Media....................36 Development of Sustainable Catalytic Treatment Processes for Organic Contaminants of Emerging Concern..........................................................38 Reservoir Reoperation for Fish Ecosystem Restoration..............................40

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Sustainable Infrastructure Systems

Seismic Retrofit of RC Bridge Columns Using Shape Memory Alloy Spirals Earthquakes have caused significant damage to numerous reinforced concrete (RC) bridge columns in the past. One of the main causes of the damage was the lack of confinement in the columns. Researchers have demonstrated that active confinement is superior to passive confinement in improving the ductility of RC columns. However, a simple and robust methodology for applying active confinement in the field is yet to be developed. Objective: Examine the feasibility of utilizing thermally-prestressed shape memory alloy (SMA) spirals to apply active confinement on bridge columns to enhance their flexural ductility and mitigate their damage under strong seismic events. Approach: Scaled RC columns were retrofitted with the SMA spirals and/or fiber reinforced polymers (FRP), and tested under quasistatic lateral cyclic loading. Numerical column models were developed and validated. Significant Results and Potential Impact: The new retrofit technique is far more effective compared to conventional techniques (e.g. FRP jackets) in terms of significantly enhancing the flexural ductility of columns and mitigating the damage sustained by the columns. This research showed that the use of SMA spirals in important infrastructures could potentially improve their resilience against extreme natural and man-made hazards. Principal Investigator: B. Andrawes Funding: National Cooperative Highway Research Program-IDEA, and National Science Foundation CAREER Award. Key Publications: 1) Shin, M. and B. Andrawes. “Lateral Cyclic Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Columns Retrofitted with Shape Memory Spirals and FRP Wraps.” Journal of Structural Engineering 137 (2011): 1282-1290. 2) Shin, M., and Andrawes, B. “Emergency Repair of Severely Damaged RC Columns Using Active Confinement with Shape Memory Alloys.” Smart Materials and Structures 20(6) (2011): 065018.

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SMA spirals installed on bridge columns.

RC column with SMA spirals during testing.

Cyclic behavior of RC columns. 7


Sustainable Infrastructure Systems

Multi-Objective Optimization for the Construction of Transportation Systems Transportation systems in the United States are aging and urgently need significant public investment to insure the nation’s social and economic prosperity. To maximize societal benefits from this public investment, government agencies are utilizing new types of construction contracts to accomplish multiple objectives: to maximize quality, minimize public expenditures, and minimize construction duration. These contracts require decision-makers to optimize resource utilization during the construction of largescale projects. Objective: Create new knowledge and models to support distributed multi-objective optimization of resource utilization during the construction and rehabilitation of critical transportation systems. Significant Results and Potential Impact: We developed a novel model that was capable for the first time to transform the traditional 2-dimensional time-cost tradeoff analysis to an expanded 3-dimensional time-cost-quality tradeoff analysis; and scalable parallel computing methodologies to enable the optimization of resource utilization in large-scale projects. Principal Investigators: K. El-Rayes, A. Senouci (Qatar University), H. Al-Derham (Qatar University) Funding: National Science Foundation, Qatar Foundation. Key Publications: 1) Kandil, A. and K. El-Rayes. “Parallel Genetic Algorithms for Optimizing Resource Utilization in Large-Scale Construction Projects.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management ASCE 132(5) (2006): 491-498. 2) Orabi, W., El-Rayes, K., Senouci, A., and Al-Derham, H. “Optimizing Post-Disaster Reconstruction Planning for Damaged Transportation Networks.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management ASCE 135(10) (2009): 1039-1048. Awards: 2007 ASCE Thomas Fitch Rowland Prize; 2009 Best Journal Paper Award, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE.

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3-D time-cost-quality tradeoff analysis.

Parallel computing framework.

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Sustainable Infrastructure Systems

Reserve Capacity for Seismic Collapse Prevention in Steel Braced Frames Steel-braced frames are widely used in buildings to resist lateral loads due to wind and earthquakes. However, many of these braced frames may exhibit brittle behavior in the primary load path when subjected to large seismic demands. If the primary load path is severely compromised, mobilization of other load paths (“reserve capacity”) is critical for the safety of building occupants. Beam-column connections in braced frames are a promising source of reserve capacity, but the flexural behavior of this connection type has not been studied extensively. Objective: Quantify flexural behavior of beam-column connections in braced frames and determine the benefit of this reserve capacity for seismic collapse prevention. Approach: Full-scale experiments and numerical simulations were used to evaluate nonlinear cyclic flexural behavior of beam-column connections with gusset plates. Earthquake response history analyses evaluated the effect of reserve capacity on building performance. Significant Results and Potential Impact: We demonstrated that appreciable flexural strength, stiffness and ductility can be realized in braced frame beam-column connections. When this behavior is included in seismic performance evaluations, the collapse probability is significantly decreased. Comprehensive understanding of reserve capacity has the potential to establish a new framework for providing seismic collapse prevention in braced frames. Principal Investigator: L.A. Fahnestock Funding: American Institute of Steel Construction, National Science Foundation. Key Publications: 1) Stoakes, C.D., and L.A. Fahnestock. “Cyclic Flexural Testing of Concentrically Braced Frame Beam-Column Connections.” Journal of Structural Engineering ASCE 137 (7) (2011): 739-747. 2) Stoakes, C.D., and L.A. Fahnestock. “Cyclic Flexural Analysis and Behavior of Beam-Column Connections with Gusset Plates.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research 72 (2012): 227-239. 3) Li, G., and L.A. Fahnestock, Journal of Structural Engineering ASCE, accepted (2012). Awards: AISC Faculty Fellowship (2009).

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Typical braced frame configuration.

Braced frame beam-column connection experimental flexural response.

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Sustainable Infrastructure Systems

Characterization and Validation of Stop-and-Go Oscillations in Congested Traffic Flow Drivers in congested traffic often find themselves engaged in frequent acceleration-deceleration cycles—commonly referred to as stop-and-go traffic. This increases fuel consumption, air pollution, driving discomfort, and safety hazards. For decades, traffic oscillation has remained a puzzling phenomenon, as no analytical method is available to accurately explain the observed macroscopic oscillation phenomenon based on individual drivers’ nonlinear carfollowing behavior. Such a lack of understanding prevents the development of effective control strategies to mitigate the adverse consequences. Objective: Develop a new analytical approach to accurately quantify and reproduce observed oscillation propagation under arbitrary nonlinear driving behavior. Approach: We developed a mathematical framework to analytically quantify traffic oscillation characteristics for a general class of nonlinear car-following laws and match the results with real-world observations. Significant Results and Potential Impact: We determined and validated for the first time an analytical relationship between the fundamental properties of traffic oscillations and drivers’ car-following behavior. This work lays the foundation for systematic development of strategies that may change drivers’ car-following behavior and counteract stop-and-go traffic. Principal Investigator: Y. Ouyang Funding: National Science Foundation CAREER Award. Key Publications: 1) Li, X., F. Peng and Y. Ouyang. “Measurement and Estimation of Traffic Oscillation Properties.” Transportation Research Part B 44(1) (2010): 1-14. 2) Li, X. and Y. Ouyang. “Characterization of Traffic Oscillation Propagation Under Nonlinear Car-Following Laws.” Transportation Research Part B 45(9) (2011): 1346-1361. 3) Li, X., X. Wang, and Y. Ouyang. “Predication and Field Validation of Traffic Oscillation Propagation Under Nonlinear Car-Following Laws.” Transportation Research Part B 46(3) (2012): 409-423.

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Observed traffic oscillation propagation.

Amplitude growth from field measurement and analytical prediction. 13


Sustainable Infrastructure Systems

Sustainable Practices at O’Hare International Airport The $8 billion O’Hare Modernization Program involves an enormous investment in new pavements and removal of old concrete pavements and structures. Chicago leaders want to save energy, resources and costs while improving the quality of the airport. Recycling concrete more effectively is a way to save costs and resources while also saving on the transport of materials to and from the site. O’Hare engineers lacked information about the quality of crushed materials and methods for re-using crushed materials. In particular, the fine particles from crushing operations are problematic, because many in industry believe these powder-like materials to be unusable. Objective: Characterize small, fine concrete particles and investigate their use for Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM), a groutlike material that is attractive for backfill since it is highly flowable. As O’Hare constructs new facilities, tunnels and utilities, and abandons other facilities, the need for consistent and reliable flowable fill materials is high. CLSM can be “tuned” to gain compressive strength of 50-400 psi, compared to 7,000 psi of normal pavement concrete. Approach: 1) Conduct experiments to characterize particles, devise mixtures, test material properties; 2) Develop a mix design method; and 3) Help O’Hare conduct full-scale field trials with CLSM as a flowable fill material. Significant Results and Potential Impact: This work has led to the development of new CLSM mixtures and a mix design method by which mix proportions may be determined to produce target strengths. The materials have been used in some early trials at O’Hare, and further trials are planned. Principal Investigators: D. Lange, J. Roesler Funding: O’Hare Modernization Program through the Center of Excellence for Airport Technology. Key Publications: 1) Serpell, R., J. Henschen, J. Roesler, and D. Lange. “Relative Proportion Based Model for CLSM Mixture Design And Optimization.” American Concrete Institute Materials Journal, to be submitted (2012): 33 pp. 2) Salas, A., S. Brand, J.R. Roesler, H. Chavan, and D. Lange. “Properties of Recycled Concrete Aggregates for Airfield Rigid Pavements.” CEAT Report for O’Hare Modernization Program (2012): 63 pp.

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Concrete slabs removed from service at O’Hare International Airport are crushed and recycled for use in new pavements.

Replacement of pavement at Gate F7, showing comparison of virgin aggregate concrete, top, and recycled aggregate concrete (bottom). Pavement was returned to service one week after placement. 15


Clean Energy

Microbial Ecology of Bio-Energy Producing Anaerobic Treatment Processes In the development of alternative energy sources, one attractive approach is to produce bio-energy through the degradation of complex organic materials discharged in industrial and domestic wastewater using anaerobic methanogenic processes. In these processes, the microbial syntrophic interaction, or syntrophy, among hydrogen and acetate producing bacteria and methane-producing archaea plays an important role in maximizing the bio-energy production. However, our understanding of this microbial syntrophy is limited. Objective: Optimize the bio-energy production through the understanding of the microbial interaction and function within the methanogenic consortia. Approach: Microbial fingerprinting and next-generation genomic sequencing tools are used to characterize and identify key microorganisms and their metabolic functions in methanogenic reactors. Significant Results and Potential Impact: We have successfully identified key microbes and obtained most genomic information related to the key microbes. The information has allowed us to better understand the microbial syntrophy behind the bio-energy production and can have impacts on the design and operation of future anaerobic wastewater treatment processes. Principal Investigator: W.-T. Liu Funding: Taiwan, Singapore, U.S. (Department of Energy and industry). Key Publications: 1) Lykidis, A., C.L.Chen, S.G. Tringe, A.C. McHardy, A. Copeland, N.C. Kyrpides, P. Hugenholtz, H. Macarie, A. Olmos, O. Monroy, W.T. Liu. “Multiple Syntrophic Interactions in a Terephthalate-Degrading Methanogenic Consortium.” ISME Journal 5 (2011):122-130. 2) Chen, C­.L., H. Macarie, I. Ramirez, A. Olmos, S.L. Ong, O. Monroy, and W­.T. Liu. “Microbial Community Structure in a Thermophilic Terephthalate-Degrading Anaerobic Hybrid Reactor.” Microbiology 150 (2004): 3429­-3440. Award: Best Student Paper Presentation, IWA Biofilms conference, 2008.

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Biogas (CH4 & CO2)

X X

Wastes

X

P

X

P

Effluent

X

An anaerobic methanogenic reactor.

Microbes involved in methane production from organics. 17


Clean Energy

The Hydrologic Cycle Under Climate Change Due to the Expansion of Bioenergy Crops in the Midwest Lignocellulosic bioenergy is being considered as a promising alternative to fossil fuel. A large portion of agricultural land in the Midwestern United States likely will be converted for cultivation of bioenergy crops (miscanthus and switchgrass) to meet future bioenergy demands. The high biomass productivity of bioenergy crops in a longer growing season linked tightly to water use highlight the potential for significant impact on the hydrologic cycle. This issue will be further exacerbated by the uncertainty in the response of the vegetation under elevated CO2 and air temperature increase. Objective: Evaluate potential impacts of bioenergy-based land use changes on the hydrologic cycle in the Midwestern U.S. under climate change projections. Approach: A vertically resolved model of canopy biophysical processes that captures vegetation acclimation response to climate change was used to capture the ecohydrological responses of crops under various climate conditions. Water use of miscanthus and switchgrass was compared with that of maize. Significant Results and Potential Impact: We found that lignocellulosic bioenergy crops utilize more water than maize per unit area. For extensive areal alteration, the impact of bioenergy crops on hydrologic cycle is quite significant and needs to be weighed with other environmental, energy and economic benefits. This research will significantly impact the assessment of the water footprint of bioenergy crops. Principal Investigator: P. Kumar Funding: National Science Foundation, Vietnam Education Foundation. Key Publications: 1) Le, P.V.V., P. Kumar, D.T. Drewry. “Implications for the Hydrologic Cycle Under Climate Change Due to the Expansion of Bioenergy Crops in the Midwestern United States.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108 (37) (2011): 15085-15090. 2) Drewry, D.T., P. Kumar, S. Long, C. Bernacchi, X.-Z. Liang, M. Sivapalan. “Ecohydrological Responses of Dense Canopies to Environmental Variability. 1. Interplay Between Vertical Structure and Photosynthetic Pathway.” Journal of Geophysical Research 115 (2010), G04022. 3) Drewry, D.T., P. Kumar, S. Long, C. Bernacchi, X.-Z. Liang, M. Sivapalan. “Ecohydrological Responses of Dense Canopies to Environmental Variability. 2. Role of Acclimation Under Elevated CO2.” Journal of Geophysical Research 115 (2010), G04023.

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Miscanthus 17

Transpiration

98

Canopy Evaporation Soil Evaporation

473 Switchgrass

Maize

402

Switchgrass

Maize

302

Miscanthus

36

30 66

42

Vegetation acclimation through reduced stomatal conductance

high

Below ground

low

soil moisture

Above ground

Land use conversion from current maize to lignocellulosic bieoenergy crops associated with vegetation acclimation under climate change will have significant impacts on the hydrologic cycle. Pie charts represent total water use [mm] of three crops during the growing season in 2005.

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Clean Energy

Simulation of Hydraulic Fracturing of Gas Shale Reservoirs Natural gas production in the U.S. has increased significantly in the past few years thanks to advances in hydraulic fracturing of gas shale reservoirs. Yet there are concerns about the environmental impact of toxic fluids used in this process. Objective: Realistic modeling of hydraulic fracturing treatments can evaluate the potential impact of interactions between hydraulic fractures and naturally existing fractures in shale reservoirs. Approach: Our team developed novel multi-scale computational methods that simulate the complex multi-physics of hydraulic fracturing treatments. Significant Results and Potential Impact: We have determined that complex interactions between fractures can cause changes in expected hydraulic fracture paths and shape. Computational simulations will lead to better designs of hydraulic fracture treatments, thus reducing the amount of toxic fluids used. Simulations may also be used to assess the potential of groundwater contamination. Principal Investigator: C. Armando Duarte Funding: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering. Presentation: Duarte, C.A., P. Gupta and J. Garzon. “Simulation of Non-Planar Three-Dimensional Hydraulic Fracture Propagation.� 10th World Congress Computational Mechanics, Sao Paulo, Brazil, July 8-13, 2012.

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Schematic depiction of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas, showing main possible environmental effects. Š User:Mikenorton / Wikimedia Commons / CC-BY-SA-3.0

A multi-scale computational model of the process with the fracture opening after propagation due to high pressure fluid.

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Clean Energy

Mineral Precipitation During Geological Carbon Sequestration Atmospheric CO2 is now thought to be a primary driver of climate change. One approach to mitigate further increases in atmospheric CO2 is to capture this gas from power plants and inject it deep underground for longterm storage. A challenge to this approach is determining whether minerals precipitate during injection, block pores, and reduce injection efficiency, and whether carbon dioxide will remain sequestered indefinitely in underground reservoirs or leak through overlying cap rock. Objective: Determine effects of carbonate mineral precipitation on formation permeability and cap rock integrity during CO2 injection. Approach: Carbonate mineral precipitation rates and morphology were measured in the pores of a model geologic reservoir. The effects of precipitation on pore blockage and flow were evaluated. Significant Results and Potential Impact: We determined for the first time that carbonate minerals can completely block pores and restrict flow. The precipitates can potentially result in higher injection pressures and costs for CO2 injection. Principal Investigators: A. Valocchi, C. Werth Funding: Department of Energy. Key Publications: 1) Zhang, C., K. Dehoff, N. Hess, M. Oostrom, T.W. Wietsma, A.J. Valocchi, B.W. Fouke, C.J. Werth. “Pore-Scale Study of Transvers Mixing Induced CaCO3 Precipitation and Permeability Reduction in a Model Subsurface Sedimentary System.� Environmental Science and Technology 44 (2010): 7833-7838. 2) Yoon, H., A.J. Valocchi, C.J. Werth, T. Dewers, Water Resources Research, accepted for publication. Awards: Editors Choice Award, Environmental Science and Technology, Best Papers of 2010, (Zhang et al., ES&T, 2010).

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Calcium carbonate minerals in a model reservoir system that can precipitate during CO2 injection.

CO2 injection at a field site. Image: Logan, J., J. Venezia, and K. Larsen. 2007. Opportunities and Challenges for Carbon Capture and Sequestration. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Available online: http:// www.wri.org/publication/opportunities-and-challenges-carbon-capture-sequestration. 23


Multi-Metric Wireless Smart Sensors for Monitoring Critical Civil Infrastructure

Risk Management and Resilience

Recent failures of infrastructure in the United States and across the globe point to the need for innovations in structural health monitoring (SHM) such as wireless smart sensor networks. Continuous SHM of infrastructure in realtime has the potential to reduce maintenance and inspection costs, while providing increased safety to the public. Though the necessary basic hardware requisite for forming a wireless smart sensor network has existed for over a decade, their application to comprehensive SHM of full-scale bridges is still limited. Objective: Develop wireless smart sensor hardware and software to enable large-scale, comprehensive, multi-metric monitoring of fullscale structures. Approach: Various hardware and software for multimetric, selfpowered, and versatile, but robust, functionality were developed based on commercial wireless sensor platform, which led to a fullscale SHM implementation on a cable-stayed bridge in Korea. Significant Results and Potential Impact: This system constitutes the world’s largest and first long-term (three years), dense (669 channels) deployment of a wireless sensor network for SHM of civil infrastructure. The developed hardware and software is being used by 75 research groups in 15 countries and is starting to see significant practical application. Principal Investigators: B. F. Spencer Jr., G. Agha Funding: National Science Foundation. Key Publications: 1) Spencer, B.F., S. Cho, S.-H. Sim. “Wireless Monitoring of Civil Infrastructure Comes of Age.” Structure Magazine October (2011): 12-16. 2) Jang, S.A., H. Jo, S. Cho, K.A. Mechitov, J.A. Rice, S.-H. Sim, H.J. Jung, C.B. Yun, B.F. Spencer Jr., and G. Agha. “Structural Health Monitoring of a Cable-Stayed Bridge Using Smart Sensor Technology: Deployment and Evaluation.” Journal of Smart Structures and Systems 6(5-6) (2010): 439-459. 3) Cho, S., J. Hongki, S.A. Jang, J. Park, H.-J. Jung, C.-B. Yun, B.F. Spencer Jr., and J.-W. Seo. “Structural Health Monitoring of a Cable-Stayed Bridge Using Wireless Smart Sensor Technology: Data Analyses.” Smart Structures and Systems 6(5-6) (2010): 461-480. Awards: Frost & Sullivan Technology Innovation of the Year Award 2010; Patent Pending.

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Jindo Bridge in South Korea with wireless smart sensor.

International participants and the deployment process.

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Rapid Scanning and Imaging of Defects in Bridge Components

Risk Management and Resilience

There is growing concern about the operating condition of our nation’s concrete bridges. The large size of these structures limits thorough condition evaluation. Contactless, scanning test platforms offer a solution to this problem. However, effective visualization of the large amount of collected data is needed for engineers to reliably assess the condition of a structure. Objective: The development of a cost-effective testing platform that enables rapid and accurate internal imaging of damage and hidden flaws inside concrete bridge components. Approach: Local vibration resonances set up by hidden defects are detected using contactless sensors. Local vibration data are sensed and then imaged using an innovative three-dimensional scheme. Significant Results and Potential Impact: We have confirmed the field performance of our test platform through the SHRP II validation program. Since infrastructure management agencies dedicate a sizable portion of their budget to maintenance of bridge decks; successful implementation of this technology will optimize inspections and reduce maintenance costs and disruption of service. Principal Investigator: J. S. Popovics Funding: National Cooperative Highway Research Program-IDEA. Key Publications: 1) Oh, T., J.S. Popovics, S. Ham, and S.W. Shin. “Practical Finite Element Based Simulations of Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for Concrete.” Computers and Structures 98-99 (2012): 55-65. 2) Kee, S.H., T. Oh, J.S. Popovics, R.W. Arndt, and J. Zhu. Journal of Bridge Engineering 2012. Accepted for Publication. 3) Oh, T., S.H. Kee, R.W. Arndt, J. Zhu, and J.S. Popovics. Journal of Engineering Mechanics 2012. Accepted for Publication.

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Proposed bridge deck scanning prototype, enabling investigation of a deck lane in a single pass.

Developed image showing plan view of bridge deck containing defects; gray patches indicate presence of hidden defects.

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Risk Management and Resilience

Risk-informed Management and Post-disaster Operations of Lifeline Networks by Rapid, ConditionBased System Reliability Analysis For “hazard-resilience” of society, it is desirable to have system reliability analysis (SRA) methods that enable prompt post-disaster decision making on lifeline networks. In efforts to sustain the reliability of lifeline networks using limited resources, it is also vital to make optimal decisions about retrofits or repairs of network components based on the actual conditions revealed by inspection and monitoring data. Objective: Develop new SRA methods that would promote risk-informed management and post-disaster operations of lifeline networks through “Rapid” and “Condition-based” network risk assessment. Approach: Tailor multi-scale SRA methods using network clustering algorithms and develop time-varying SRA methods that enable continuous updating based on inspection/monitoring data. Significant Results and Potential Impact: Rapid, non-simulation-based and multi-scale SRA methods will enable near-real-time risk-alert IT systems for lifeline network infrastructures, and effective decision-making for hazard mitigation considering structural deterioration. Principal Investigator: J. Song Funding: National Science Foundation. Key Publications: 1) Song, J., S.Y. Ok. “Multi-Scale System Reliability Analysis of Lifeline Networks Under Earthquake Hazards.” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 39(3) (2010): 259-279. 2) Lee, Y.J., J. Song, P. Gardoni, H.W. Lim. “Post-Hazard Flow Capacity of Bridge Transportation Network Considering Structural Deterioration of Bridges.” Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle 7(7): 509-521. 3) Lim, H.W., J. Song. “Efficient Risk Assessment of Lifeline Networks Under Spatially Correlated Ground Motions Using Selective Recursive Decomposition Algorithm.” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 41(13): 1861-1882 (2012).

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System reliability analysis framework.

Gas network in California.

Gas network in Shelby County, Tenn. 29


Risk Management and Resilience

Integrated Design, Modeling, Monitoring and Construction of Urban Excavations A major concern when placing deep excavations in urban environments is the impact of construction-related ground movements on adjacent buildings and utilities. It is common to include a monitoring program during construction to record the ground movements and adjacent building movements. Despite significant developments, efforts to integrate various components of data acquisition and prediction of deformations has had limited success due to the difficulty of the problem and the presence of several missing links to complete the deformation control cycle. Objective: Integrate design and numerical modeling with construction monitoring data to provide rapid information update. Approach: Develop modeling tools and near-real-time monitoring systems for efficient model update and construction feedback. Significant Results and Potential Impact: We developed new evolutionary modeling techniques as well as new imaging techniques to integrate construction sequence and deformation data into self learning numerical models. These tools will lead to safer and more economical urban underground space development. Principal Investigators: Y. Hashash, J. Ghaboussi, L. Liu, with multiple external collaborators at Northwestern University, the University of California at Berkeley and ARUP Funding: National Science Foundation, Schnabel Foundation. Key Publications: 1) Hashash, Y. M. A., and R. J. Finno. “Development of New Integrated Tools for Predicting, Monitoring and Controlling Ground Movement Due to Excavations.” ASCE Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction Volume 13:1 (2008): pp. 4-10. 2) Osouli, A., and Y. M. A. Hashash. “Case Studies of Prediction of Excavation Response Using Learned Performance of Excavations.” International Journal of Geoengineering Case Histories 4(2) (2010).

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TTC excavation site in San Francisco.

3-D laser scan image of excavation in Evanston, Ill.

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Innovative Method for Real-Time Prediction of Asphalt Pavement Density Using Electromagnetic Waves

Risk Management and Resilience

In-situ asphalt mixture density is a critical quality control/assurance property for flexible pavements. The traditional methods to measure this property, including extracting field cores and using a nuclear gauge, have limitations. In order to overcome the limitations of the traditional methods, a new method, which can provide nondestructive, continuous, and rapid asphalt mixture density measurement, is keenly desired. Objective: Develop an innovative method to measure the in-situ asphalt mixture density accurately, continuously and rapidly using electromagnetic waves (EM) through ground penetrating radar (GPR). Approach: Density prediction models were developed between asphalt mixture’s density and its dielectric constant measured by EM based on electromagnetic mixing theory. These models were then evaluated and fine-tuned using data collected from a customdesigned test site. Developed models were validated using data collected from in-service pavements. Significant results and Potential Impact: Validated density models which enable the prediction of asphalt mixture density from its GPR-measured dielectric constant were developed. Implementation guidelines were developed to assist engineers to practically use GPR as a continuous rapid nondestructive tool for in-situ asphalt mixture density measurement. A program to monitor in-situ real-time asphalt pavement compaction during construction was developed. Principle Investigator: Imad L. Al-Qadi Funding: Federal Aviation Administration and Center of Excellence for Airport Technology (CEAT). Key Publications: 1) Al-Qadi, I.L., Z. Leng, S. Lahouar, J. Baek. “In-Place Hot-Mix Asphalt Density Estimation Using Ground-Penetrating Radar.” Transport Research Record 2152 (2010): 19-27. 2) Leng, Z., I.L. Al-Qadi, S. Lahouar. “Development and Validation for In Situ Asphalt Mixture Density Prediction Models.” NDT & E International 44(4) (2011): 369-375. Awards: Innovative Research Award, Illinois 52nd Bituminous Conference, 2011.

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Research crew in front of the test site.

GPR survey at Rantoul airport.

Real-time monitoring of asphalt pavement compaction using GPR on IL-72 in Chicago. 33


Railroad Tank Car Safety Design Optimization

Risk Management and Resilience

North American railroads offer the safest and generally the most economical means of transporting hazardous materials. Nevertheless, in the event of train accidents releases of these materials, commonly transported in tank cars, can pose substantial risk to human health, property or the environment. Improving tank car safety design must account for the tradeoff between transportation safety and efficiency. Objective: Develop a generalized optimization model to determine the optimal tank car safety design for transportation of any hazardous material. Approach: Use a statistical model based on a tank car accident database with a Pareto optimization method to account for the tradeoff between safety and transportation efficiency, and combine it with a benefit-cost analysis. Significant Results and Potential Impact: The model is used by the industry to assist in identifying safer tank cars to transport toxic inhalation hazards (TIHs), environmentally sensitive chemicals (ESCs) and flammables (namely denatured alcohols and crude oil). Alternative tank car safety designs for TIHs identified by this research were incorporated into an amendment to the Hazardous Materials Regulations in 2010 by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Principal Investigators: C.P.L. Barkan, M.R. Saat Funding: Association of American Railroads. Key Publications: 1) Barkan, C.P.L. “Improving the Design of Higher-Capacity Railway Tank Cars for Hazardous Materials Transport: Optimizing the Trade-Off Between Weight and Safety.” Journal of Hazardous Materials 160(1):122-134. 2) Saat, M.R., C.P.L. Barkan. “Generalized Railway Tank Car Safety Design Optimization for Hazardous Materials Transport: Addressing the Trade-Off Between Transportation Efficiency and Safety.” Journal of Hazardous Materials 189 (2011): 62-68.

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Diagram of a typical non-jacketed North American railroad tank car.

Example cost-benefit analysis to identify the optimal tank car safety designs for chemicals with low (L), medium (M) and high (H) hazard levels.

35


Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocyst Transport in Porous Media Cryprosporidium parvum oocysts are waterborne protozoan pathogens that cause diarrhea disease. Oocysts are resistant to chlorine-based disinfection and can be effectively removed by granular filtration including river bank filtration. However, the transport mechanisms of oocysts in porous media is not fully understood due to the complexity of both oocyst and collector surfaces. Understanding oocyst transport mechanisms can provide valuable information to improve transport model prediction. Objective: Identify the major factors that control oocyst transport in porous media. Approach: Conduct real-time observation of oocyst transport within radial stagnation point flow cell and micromodel. Quantify oocysts attachment efficiency to study the attachment mechanisms by modifying oocyst and collector surface properties. Significant Results and Potential Impact: Surface charge heterogeneity of both oocysts and collector surfaces plays an important role in oocyst transport especially at low ionic strength. Oocyst interaction with already attached oocysts and filter ripening need to be considered. Results will allow the development of a model predicting oocyst removal by porous media, including subsurface filtration and granular or biosand filters.

Safe and Plentiful Water

Principal Investigator: T. Nguyen Funding: National Science Foundation CAREER Award. Key Publications: 1) Liu Y., C. Zhang, M. Hilpert, M.S. Kuhlenschmidt, T.B. Kuhlenschmidt, T.H. Nguyen. “Transport of Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocyst in a Silicon Micromodel.” Environmental Science and Technology 46 (2012): 1471-1479. 2) Liu Y., M.S. Kuhlenschmidt, T.B. Kuhlenschmidt, T.H. Nguyen, “Composition and Conformation of Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocyst Wall Surface Macromolecules and tTheir Effect on Adhesion Kinetics of Oocysts on Quartz Surface.” Biomacromolecules 11 (2010): 2109-2115. 3) Liu Y., D. Janjaroen, M.S. Kuhlenschmidt, T.B. Kuhlenschmidt, T.H. Nguyen. “ Deposition of Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocysts on Natural Organic Matter Surfaces: Microscopic Evidence for Secondary Minimum Deposition in a Radial Stagnation Point Flow Cell.” Langmuir 25 (2009): 1594-1605. Awards: 1) Graduate Student Awards in Environmental Chemistry, American Chemical Society, Jan. 2011. 2) Illinois Water Resources Fellowship, Illinois Water Resources Center, May 2009-Aug. 2010. 3) Chester P. Seiss Award, April 2010.

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Real-time observation of oocysts attached to collectors in micromodel.

Fluorescent oocysts attached to hematite coating collectors in micromodel.

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Development of Sustainable Catalytic Treatment Processes for Organic Contaminants of Emerging Concern There have been a growing number of reports documenting widespread detection of many classes of organic contaminants of emerging concern (CEC), including pharmaceuticals and personal care products, unregulated disinfection byproducts, and oxyanions. Existing treatment technologies are either ineffective or costly and require large energy inputs. Thus, there is growing need for more sustainable and effective strategies for treating CECs.

Safe and Plentiful Water

Objectives: (1) Assess the catalytic transformation and deactivation of important classes of organic CECs, and (2) Identify mechanisms and factors controlling catalyst longevity and sustainability. Approach: Laboratory studies measured the transformation of CECs by nanophase titanium oxide photocatalysts and metal hydrogenation catalysts. Catalyst properties and surface chemistry were evaluated using advanced spectroscopic and microscopic tools. Significant Results and Potential Impact: We identified a novel visible light-mediated process for photocatalytically degrading and deactivating fluoroquinolone antibiotics. We also identified strategies for maintaining the activity of metal catalysts when treating trace CECs in wastewater effluent. These results will contribute to developing more economical and sustainable technologies for wastewater reuse. Principal Investigators: T. Strathmann Funding: National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER Award, NSF WaterCAMPWS. Key Publications: 1) Paul, T., M.C. Dodd, T. Strathmann. “Photolytic and Photocatalytic Decomposition of Aqueous Ciprofloxacin: Transformation Products and Residual Antibacterial Activity.” Water Research 44 (2010): 3121-3132. 2) Frierdich, A.F., C.F. Joseph, T.J. Strathmann. “Catalytic Reduction of N-Nitrosodimethylamine with Nanophase Nickel-Boron.” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 90 (2009): 175-183. Awards: NSF CAREER Award, American Chemical Society Graduate Student Paper Award.

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Novel visible-light mediated photocatalysis mechanism for fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

Transmission electron micrograph of sulfurfouling resistant NiB catalysts.

Profilometry map of TiO2 photocatalyst thin films.

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Reservoir Reoperation for Fish Ecosystem Restoration

Safe and Plentiful Water

Reservoirs have traditionally been designed for human purposes such as water supply, flood control, hydropower generation and recreation. Recently, environmental and ecological concerns, especially for fish communities, have brought up the possibility of reservoir reoperation; which is to revise reservoir operation rules to achieve a balance between the original purposes of a reservoir and the emerging ones, especially the restoration of natural flow regimes. However, reservoir reoperation may jeopardize the original objectives of the reservoir. Thus, determining how to resolve the conflict between the new (ecological) and original (human) objectives presents a critical question for reservoir reoperation. Objective: Examine the practicality of adding an ecological objective to the operation of a reservoir and provide a method to improve conventional reservoir operation rules with consideration of both ecological and economic objectives. Approach: A multi-objective optimization model was first formulated and solved for daily operation of a reservoir, and applied to searching for solutions that balance flood damage and fish diversity loss. Significant Results and Potential Impact: For a case study with Lake Shelbyville in Illinois, the operation of the reservoir can improve downstream fish habitat without jeopardizing its original flood control objective. Thus improving reservoir operation may save millions of dollars needed for facility reconstruction to restore fish ecosystems. Principal Investigator: X. Cai Funding: National Science Foundation CAREER Award. Key Publications: Yang, Y., X. Cai, and E.E. Herricks. “Identification of Hydrologic Indicators Related to Fish Diversity and Abundance.” Water Resources Research 44 (2008): W04412. Yang, Y., and X. Cai, “Reservoir Reoperation for Fish Ecosystem Restoration Using Daily InFlows.” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 137(6) (2011): 470-480.

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Šistockphoto/Tan Wei Ming

In Central Illinois, the timing rather than the level of minimum flow is critical to fish diversity.

The flow change rate is positive to fish habitats. Thus operating a reservoir to regenerate the flow characteristics can be beneficial to fish communities. 41


Photo: Greg Pluta

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering College of Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, MC-250 205 N. Mathews Ave. Urbana, Illinois 61801 217-333-8038 / FAX: 217-333-9464 civil@illinois.edu cee.illinois.edu

CEE at Illinois Research Highlights 2012-2013  

A booklet highlighting a few of the many research projects being undertaken within the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at...

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