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Juliet Munden and Astrid Myhre

This third edition has been thoroughly revised, re-organised and ­updated, and includes exciting new theoretical and practical ­material. The book is ­ ideal for both students and teachers, as readers are ­encouraged to reflect on their own opinions and experience through awareness-raising tasks and questions. Twinkle Twinkle takes up the challenges of Kunnskapsløftet, and demonstrates step-by-step how the ambitions of the national ­curriculum can lead to successful ­language learning.

Munden and Myhre

English 1-4

English 1-4

3rd EDITION

«Twinkle Twinkle is a wonderful gift to teachers of English. It ­contains loads of practical ideas for Years 1-4. In simple, easy-to-­ understand English it also explains the theory behind the different approaches and activities. Since Twinkle Twinkle presents basic principles for effective and fun foreign language learning, I would argue that it is relevant for English teachers at other ­levels, too. I love the book!» Ragnhild E. Lund, Professor in English, Høgskolen i Buskerud og Vestfold English 1-4

Juliet Munden is a lecturer at Hedmark University College (Høgskolen i H ­ edmark). She has worked as a teacher in Norway and in Kenya, and with teacher edu­ cation in Norway, Namibia, Papua Guinea and Eritrea. She is the author of ­several workbooks for very young learners, as well as the textbook series Steps. She has ­also written Engelsk på ­mellomtrinnet – A Teacher’s Guide, a companion work to Twinkle Twinkle. Astrid Myhre has worked in Norwegian ‘grunnskole’ for thirty years, ­teaching English and training student teachers. She has also been a lecturer in English at Hedmark University College and at Newcastle University. She has extensive experience of in-service training, and has run numerous courses for ­ teachers of English in Norway.

3rd EDITION

ISBN 978-82-02-48376-0

www.cda.no

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Juliet Munden and Astrid Myhre

Twinkle Twinkle English 1–4 3rd edition

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Contents

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Dear Readers............................................................................................. 7 Chapter 1 English in Kunnskapsløftet....................................................................... 11 Chapter 2 How children learn English...................................................................... 25 Chapter 3 How to organise English teaching.......................................................... 46 Chapter 4 Classroom English..................................................................................... 68 Chapter 5 Learning with rhymes, chants, songs and games................................ 83 Chapter 6 Learning with stories and picture books............................................... 104 Chapter 7 Beginning to write..................................................................................... 129 Chapter 8 English with other subjects..................................................................... 162 Resources for learning English............................................................... 177 Glossary...................................................................................................... 182 Index............................................................................................................ 184

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18

Twinkle Twinkle

bar chart – stolpediagram

Children need to count, add, weigh, measure and compare when they work with simple projects in English. When pupils have a small stock of key vocabulary you will be able to minimalise the use of their mother language, which is the ideal we are working towards. And from early on pupils should learn to make sense of simple graphic representations, including bar charts and pie diagrams.

Digital literacy Kunn­skaps­løftet’s fifth basic skill is digital literacy. This means that pupils should learn English with the help of digital tools. This is in fact the only methodological guideline that Kunn­skaps­løftet offers. Though many teachers and policy makers are enthusiastic about the possibilities offered by digital tools in language learning, there is very little research evidence that pupils learn English better this way.2 What we need, say critics, is evidence-based research on the value of digital tools in English, and until then teachers should themselves decide if and when digital tools should be used to promote pupils’ learning. Whether or not we are convinced of the value of digital tools for learning English with our youngest learners, we are bound by the national curriculum, which states that pupils need digital skills in English for several purposes: • • • • allocate – tildele

to reinforce language learning to enable authentic communication to find relevant information as a tool in text production

Finding time to work with digital literacy can be challenging, given the limited number of hours allocated to English. Another issue is that in some schools there is still not enough technically reliable equipment available. At other schools there is an interactive whiteboard in every classroom, though it is not always much used. Yet other schools have embraced digital learning and equipped seven-year-olds with 2. Skeiseid, G and T. Arnesen (2014). Ungdomsskulen: IKT-bruk og læringsresultat i engelsk. Bedre Skole 2014(4) pp. 52–59.

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1 english in kunnskapsløftet

their own tablets, which they use in all sorts of learning situations. So to find out more, we visited a school in Hamar where pupils in Years 1 and 2 have been using i-pads to learn maths, Norwegian and English.

Learning tablets There is a growing body of international research on learning tablets in school. An overview of research and blogs relating to the use of i-pads in schools in the UK3 raises many interesting points. It discusses issues of expense and ownership, as well as the considerable motivational and organizational benefits of using iPads. However, the report does not refer to any research on very young learners using technology to learn English as a foreign language. So what do we know about using tablets for learning English as a foreign language in Norway for Years 1–4? This is really a new field, where commercial players, enthusiastic ‘device champions’ and political strategies have set the agenda. Rollsløkken primary school is piloting the use of learning tablets in Hamar municipality, as a contribution to Norway’s ambition to be at the forefront of digitalised learning. To make sure that everybody gets involved, there are regular sharing sessions for the whole staff. The teachers at Rollsløkken emphasise that learning tablets represent one more way in which they can vary their lessons and make learning effective. In Years 1 and 2, a limited number of learning tablets are available, and these are typically used at a workstation, where the children work off-line with particular apps that the school has installed. For older learners, tablets are used for creating and editing short films in English, or for writing multimodal texts. A third use is to go online to find information, and a fourth is for taking pictures in the classroom or on excursions. There is a multitude of apps for schools to choose from, and teachers report that pupils certainly enjoy using them. But one needs to critically consider what children actually learn and remember from

device – dings

3. Wilma Clark, W. & Luckin, R. (2013). What the research says: iPads in the Classroom. Retrieved from https://www.lkldev.ioe.ac.uk/lklinnovation/wp-content/uploads/2013/ 01/2013-iPads-in-the-Classroom-v2.pdf

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3. We start with T-shirt and say: “Look at my T-shirt! Look at Kristin’s T-shirt! Look at Daniel’s T-shirt!” and encourage the children to point at the correct garment. 4. We gradually introduce the other words in the same way, just one or two at a time. 5. Later we encourage pupils to use the words themselves by asking: “What is this called in English?” (pointing to a pupil’s T-shirt). Again and again! 6. When we repeat this vocabulary later on, we can use differ­ent chunks of language. Instead of “Look at …” we can say: “Point to your T-shirt, Mala!” or “Who has a red T-shirt?” 7. A bit later, confident pupils can ask the questions themselves.

Repetition and routines We don’t learn things at one go, once and for all; we need to practise what we have learnt. It is especially important to remember this general principle when it comes to learning a new language. It means that we first learn what a new word or phrase means, then we need to work at

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2 how children learn english

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remembering this new word or phrase, and finally we need to revisit it at a later stage, quite simply to practise remembering it.14 We need to meet and use the same language again and again, in a variety of contexts. Other­wise we don’t really know it well enough to be able to use it when we need it. We will find many examples of this principle of repeti­ tion in the chapters ‘Classroom English’, ‘Learning with stories and pic­ture books’ and ‘Learning with rhymes, chants, songs and games’. Repetition is also about routines: a good morning song, a good­bye verse, a song relating to the season or the weather. This is one of three good morning songs in Lund and Sørheim’s collection.15

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Good morning, Tom, how are you, How are you, how are you? Good morning Tom, how are you? I’m fine, and how are you?

Here is a traditional goodbye verse you can say at the end of the school day: Down with the lambs Up with the lark. Run home children Before it gets dark. 14. For more on vocabulary learning, we recommend Scott Thornbury (2002). How to Teach Vocabulary. Harlow: Longman. 15. Many of the songs in this book are from a col­lection called Songs and Rhymes for the Teaching of English. It can be downloaded at http://lamp.hisf.no/home/prosjekt/Engnett/Songar/ songar.htm. We are grateful to Ragnhild Lund and Bjørn Sør­heim for their permission to print songs and music from this collection.

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How to present and work with a rhyme When we present rhymes for the first time, the children will need some kind of support, other than language, to get the mean­ing of the text. If we use pictures or act out the content, just as we do when we tell stories, we help them to understand what the rhyme is about. If you do ‘Grandma’s Glasses’, either as a song or a chant, make sure you have glasses to wear and a hat to point to. Here are Grandma’s glasses and here is Grandma’s hat, and here’s the way she folds her hands and puts them in her lap. Here are Grandpa’s glasses and here is Grandpa’s hat, and here’s the way he folds his hands and takes a little nap/ just like that.

by and by – litt etter litt

As well as teaching useful words and phrases, this rhyme helps children with is/are and the 3rd person singular -s. We recommend that you sing or chant the song yourself. This gives you greater flexibility. Should you prefer to use a recorded version, the children can listen to it a couple of times before being encouraged to join in gradually, rather than starting them off all together in a ready-steady-go way. If some of the children don’t want to sing, you should not force them to. Most of them will join in by and by if given time.

?

See if you can find some performance suggestions for ‘Grandma’s glasses’ on YouTube.

When you have made sure that the children understand the important words in a rhyme or song, you can give them pictures or drawings illustrating the song. During the singing they can hold up pictures, point to the right part of the picture or mark it with a pencil. When old enough, they can be given the text with gaps to fill in (see p. 142). Another way of learning to say new words is the ‘train technique’.32 32. This rhyme is adapted from Randi Lothe Flemmen’s My First Scoop (1997).

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5 learning with rhymes, chants, songs and games

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Here children chant the words, getting faster and faster for each line, like a train leaving the station. Living room, living room, Bedroom, bedroom, TV, TV DOOR!

##To

(s-l-o-w-l-y) (a bit faster) (getting faster)

Focusing on language learning We choose rhymes to fit in with the language point or topic the children are working on. For example if the class has been learning to make sentences with I like / don’t like, the song ‘I Like the Flowers’ springs to mind.

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2. Take a story you know such as Goldilocks and the Three Bears, The Three Little Pigs or Chicken Licken and explain why you think it is suit­ able for language teaching. Write a plan of how you would use it. The following points should be considered: • Will any language need pre-teaching? How will you do this? • Are there any other tasks that can prepare the chil­dren for the story? • How will you present the story? • How can you involve the children in the telling of the story? • What kinds of follow-up activities would you suggest? • Develop possibilities for differentiation. • Can you think of any suitable cross-curricular activities? • Which of the activities could be organised as workstations? • Can you find some rhymes, games, songs or books that fit in with the story? 3. Choose a picture book that you would like to use for teaching English. What makes it suitable for your purpose? Do you have any special ideas as to how you could use the book for language learning? 4. Develop a learning activity for Year 2 pupils who have just listened to The Three Billy Goats Gruff, and show how you could differentiate it to suit a mixed-ability class. 5. In this chapter you have read about learning English with stories and picture books. What would you like to try out yourself? What would you like to find out more about?

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Chapter 7

Beginning to write

Learning outcome for GLU 1–7: Studenten

â–ś har kunnskap om grunnleggende ferdigheters betydning for lĂŚring og utvikling, og om prosesser som kan fremme disse i engelskfaget

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7 beginning to write

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Free writing activities In free writing activities pupils express ideas and communicate with a reader. To help pupils write, they must first of all know what the text is supposed to do: tell a story, describe an everyday activity, describe where things are, describe a person, give instructions, tell other people what they think about a song, story or film, and so on. Then they need to consider how to write this sort of text. They can do so by studying a model text, or by reminding each other what makes a good story, or what makes instructions easy to follow. The third thing pupils need is ideas. How would you feel if you were asked right now to stop reading and write a story about an old shoe? Not very inspired, is our guess! The problem for many adults and children is the familiar one of going from nothing to something. So you need to help pupils generate ideas. And finally they need language support. See what words and phrases they already know, and supplement them with others that can help them build a text. Here are some suggestions for free writing activities. 1. Labelling Kunn­skaps­løftet requires pupils to write words and phrases related to their everyday life and interests. Learners can work towards this competence aim by drawing something that they know well – their

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Ut på tur, fag på lur

06 excursion – utflukt

point of the compass – himmelretning whittle – spikke

Years 1 – 4 A class excursion to a local area where children can experience and explore nature through the seasons is an ideal basis for project work. Trips like this have a long tradition in Norwegian primary schools, and relate to competence aims in science and PE, but also to other subjects, including English. We also value these trips because they give the class a rich opportunity for social learning, and a shared experience. These trips take time and lots of planning. Will they steal time from other subjects, or can we integrate them in a natural way? In Norwegian pupils are to “talk coherently about what they have done and experienced” after the trip. In social studies pupils should be able to “point out and orientate themselves to the points of the compass”. In art and craft the children are to “express their experiences through drawing” and “make simple objects by whittling a piece of wood”. Here

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Twinkle twinkle bla i bok  
Twinkle twinkle bla i bok