C a p p e l e n s Illustrasjon: Inger Dale
t i d s s k r i f t
f o r
e n g e l s k l ĂŚ r e r e
Slough Grammar School by Siri Hunstadbråten
Kjære leser I år feirer Cappelen sitt 175-års jubileum! J.W. Cappelens Forlag ble grunnlagt i 1829 og er Norges eldste forlag. I mer enn 130 år har vi hatt engasjerte og velrenommerte forfattere som har gitt ut lærebøker i fremmedspråk, blant annet engelsk. Visste du at Jacob Løkke (som for noen av oss tilårskomne filologer er synonym med ’Lille Løkke’ og pugging av tysk grammatikk) i samarbeid med D.F. Knudsen allerede tidlig på 1870-tallet gav ut bl.a. Nogle Stil- og Taleøvelser i Engelsk, Engelsk Elementarbog og Engelsk Grammatik? Disse to filologene var banebrytende i sitt arbeid for å fremme undervisning i moderne språk, og begge gav ut lærebøker i både engelsk, tysk og fransk. Deres innsats som språkpedagoger er imponerende, også fordi det faktisk ikke var mulig å ta noe vitenskapelig studium av moderne språk ved Universitetet før Johan Storm ble professor i 1873!
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08
Løkke og Knudsen la grunnlaget for en lang tradisjon hos Cappelen med anerkjente og dyktige lærebokforfattere i engelsk. Lærere som har vært opptatt av forbedring av pedagogikk, og som har bidratt til utvikling og innføring av nye læringsmetoder. Vi som nå arbeider med læremidler i engelsk, kjenner en forankring i denne tradisjonen. Vi er opptatt av faglig kompetanse og kontinuitet, men også av nytenkning og utvikling. Og vi akter å holde tradisjonen som leverandører av gode, tidsriktige læremidler ved like.
The Things They Carried by Karin Hals
On the Rainy River by Tim O’Brien
Genetically Modified Food: for or against? by Richard Peel
Nåvel, det var et lite tilbakeblikk, og det blir et langt hopp i tid fram til dette nummeret av ['mægə'zi:n], men forhåpentligvis kan sammenhengen anes? Vi presenterer vårens nye engelskbøker: Freeways (nytt engelskverk for påbygningskurset), The Things They Carried (ny roman i serien av tilrettelagte skoleutgaver), Troubleshooter (revisjon) og ny Engelsk-norsk/norsk-engelsk ordbok (revisjon).
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I tillegg til dette vil du forhåpentligvis finne stoff som kan være engasjerende for deg, og kanskje også for elevene dine? Blant annet har Richard Peel skrevet en artikkel om genmanipulert mat og laget mange oppgaver til innholdet, et opplegg som du enkelt kan ta med deg inn i klasserommet. Du vil også finne en interessant artikkel om ”Slough Grammar School” skrevet av Siri Hunstadbråten, dette er et godt supplement hvis du skal undervise om skolesystemet i UK. Jeg håper du får en hyggelig stund med ['mægə'zi:n] og la den gjerne kulminere med tanken: ”nei, nå skal jeg jammen sende inn et bidrag til bladet!”
15 [ mægəzi:n]
Ansvarlig redaktør: Kirsten Aadahl
videregående skole, Postboks 350 Sentrum,
FREEways – nytt læreverk for engelsk påbygning! av Jorun Grønset Løvoll
Redaksjon: Birger Nicolaysen
Telefon: 22 36 51 77/5195 E-post: email@example.com
Produksjon: PrePress as
For the past three years my school, Eiker videregående skole, has been fortunate
Slough Grammar School and the community Slough is situated west of London – only a 20 minute train journey from Paddington Station in Central London. Since the 1960s
enough to have Slough Grammar School in
Slough’s employment opportunities and location have encour-
the UK as a partner school in a Comenius
aged a steady stream of people from other countries and regions
project. For anyone teaching English (and
to settle in the borough. Many of these people work in industry or at Heathrow Airport, which is close by. Slough has 119,000
the British educational system) it is
inhabitants, and the population is multi-ethnic.
particularly interesting to get acquainted
Compared to Windsor, its far more prestigious and picturesque
neighbour, Slough has, at first sight, very little to offer visitors.
If you have seen the BBC sitcom “The Office”, in which a bleak
have been able to visit the school, as well
cityscape with a roundabout signposted to “Slough Trading
as receive teachers from Slough at our
Estate” appears at the very beginning, you will know what I
mean. John Betjeman’s poem entitled “Slough”, whose famous
introductory lines “Come friendly bombs and fall on Slough! It
isn’t fit for humans now,” has certainly contributed to the
town’s rather dowdy reputation, as well. However, despite its
evident lack of tourist appeal much can, in fact, be said for
Slough. The town in many ways embodies a more vivid and
authentic version of 21st century Britain than the somewhat
with an English school. Thanks to the funding from the Comenius project, we
school on several occasions.
by Siri Hunstadbråten Eiker videregående skole
16 Selection based upon ability
On its website the school presents itself in the following manner:
“Slough Grammar School is an 11-18 mixed Foundation school
which has traditionally served the towns of Slough and Windsor.
We are an academic and caring school.”
21 22 23 24
This is all very well, but aren’t grammar
secondary modern schools, clearly a second-
There are also many pupils from other minori-
schools a thing of the past? It is true that
class alternative, or if the parents can afford
ty groups such as Jews, Sikhs and Hindus. So
since 1965 most grammar schools have actu-
it, are educated privately.
despite being academically successful the
ally been absorbed into the comprehensive
pupils at Slough Grammar School are not privi-
spel it rite. spel it rite. spel it rite. spel it rite. spel it rite. spel it rite. spel it rite. spel it rite. spel it rite. spel it rite.
school system. There are, however exceptions.
For anyone used to the comprehensiveness of
leged in terms of family background. In this
A handful of boroughs, Slough being a case in
the Norwegian educational system the selec-
respect the school lives up to the meritocratic
point, still practise the pre-1965 system of
tion procedures may come across as unfair.
ideal of the grammar school system. For aca-
secondary education based on testing and
The age of 11 seems a very early age to have
demically able pupils the state provides a
one’s future set out. This was also the main
first-class education, irrespective of social
argument for introducing comprehensive
background. The other side of the coin, however,
In the school’s promotional material no secret
schools in the 1960s. Still, it is important to
is that the rest of the pupils will have to
is made about the selection procedures:
note that the 11+ is not make or break in
make do with secondary modern schools,
“Pupils will be admitted to the school at the
terms of securing a place at SGS, or other
clearly a second best.
age of 11 by reference to their ability and
grammar schools for that matter. Pupils are
aptitude, which will be determined by their
also admitted directly into the Sixth Form (at
performance in entrance examinations con-
the age of 16), subject to their results in the
There is absolutely no doubt about the aim of
sisting of verbal reasoning, non verbal rea-
Slough Grammar School. Ever since the fore-
soning and mathematics tests set by the
National Foundation for Educational
As a result of these selection procedures SGS
1912, the Latin motto on the school crest has
Research.” This test is not particular to SGS.
is able to cream off the top 25% of the pupils
been “Ad Astra”, or “to the stars”.
The same test is used for entrance into any of
in its intake area, as far as academic ability
Prospective pupils and their parents are told
the grammar schools in Slough. According to
is concerned. The social and ethnic make up of
that SGS is “a selective school and we expect
the statistics of the school authorities
the town, however, is reflected in the pupil
the highest standards of our pupils in work
approximately 25 % of the pupils who sit the
population. The pupils speak some 30 differ-
and behaviour. Pupils will be courteous and
test will pass. The rest of the pupils attend
ent languages and 50 % of them are Muslims.
considerate at all times.” If a pupil is caught
runner to the present school was founded in
smoking while in school uniform, for example,
the overwhelming majority of their sixth-form-
tus of “language college”, which entails addi-
he or she will be in serious trouble.
ers obtain university places and that some
tional funding as well as other advantages.
make it to Oxford and Cambridge.
SGS has been a language college since 1999,
Pupils are expected to make the most of their
and all students will learn 2 or 3 languages,
abilities and are monitored on an individual
Preparing for life – personal and social
basis. There is a course in Critical Thinking
education – careers
Skills for pupils who do so well in tests that
It is worth noticing that excellence by no
The languages taught range from French,
they are in the top 5-10% of their year. These
means applies to academic standards only.
German, Italian and Spanish to Mandarin
pupils are designated as “gifted and talent-
Students are expected to leave the school
Chinese, Portuguese, Russian and various
ed” and are encouraged to develop further by
with good practical and social skills as well
community languages such as Punjabi and
means of special teaching materials.
as with good examination results , so that
Urdu. There is a considerable emphasis on
Coordinators are appointed in each depart-
they are prepared for full participation in
international relations – from Comenius proj-
ment whose responsibility it is to monitor the
society. Comprehensive programmes in per-
ects to school exchanges, and last year pupils
achievements of these high flyers. Last but
sonal and social education, as well as careers
put their languages into practice in Paris,
not least, pupils who have done well are per-
guidance programmes, are integrated into the
Lyon, Munich, Salzburg, Berlin, Nuremberg,
sonally praised by the principal. All in all,
Barcelona and China! Moreover, foreign lan-
the stars may not be entirely within reach,
which by UK standards is highly commendable.
guage assistants from several countries, who
but there is no doubt that opting to reach
Teaching is not all talk and chalk but includes
work with the students in a variety of small
them is a duty.
project work, problem solving, group work and
group activities, play an important role in
role play, to mention some of the most popular
ensuring a high quality in the teaching of for-
Like all British schools, Slough Grammar
methods. During my visit to the school I got to
School is subjected to regular inspections by
see the pupils in year 9 (14-year-olds) take
Ofsted (the Office for Standards in
part in a one-week interdisciplinary project
As can be seen, many aspects of SGS are very
Education). Such an inspection is a qualita-
which involved organizing the production and
different from a typical Norwegian secondary
tive study normally lasting a week and is not
marketing of cookies. Each group had to set up
school. At the same time, there are some
exactly looked forward to by the staff. This
a company, create a company profile and
striking similarities between educational pol-
year SGS had expected an inspection to take
divide the work between the group members.
icy in Britain and some of the proposals made
place in the spring, only to be told that it was
Some pupils carried out the actual production
by the Committee for Quality in Education
spel it rite. spel it rite. spel it rite. spel it rite. spel it rite. spel it rite. spel it rite. spel it rite. spel it rite. spel it rite.
going to take place in February instead. This
whereas others were busy designing packaging
last year, not least when it comes to the pub-
news was followed by some urgent messages
and devising marketing strategies. I had the
lication of results and the focusing upon
in my mailbox, explaining how this would
chance to sit in on a presentation of a radio
developing certain basic skills. What I find
mean that practically everything (the
commercial in French for one particular cookie
most impressive about SGS, however, is the
Comenius project included) would have to be
brand, and was struck by the enthusiasm and
teachers’ evident pride in what they do. At a
put aside until the inspection was finished. So
the dedication reflected in the pupils’ work.
Comenius meeting involving teachers from
four countries the principal invited us all to
much depends upon the results in these inspections that no expense is spared to
All students are offered a wide range of extra-
meet her foreign language teachers, who were
ensure the school does well.
curricular activities – sports, arts, outdoor
all specialists, teaching one language only.
activities and music. So it can safely be said
The principal said: “Here are my language
School ratings based upon examination
that the school aims at catering to the inter-
teachers!” and then they paraded before us.
results have been a regular feature in Britain
ests and needs of the students in a truly com-
She was clearly proud of them and they, in
for some time now. Pass rates for the various
turn, were proud professionals. I sincerely
doubt whether anything similar could have
tests are listed in the material presented to prospective pupils and parents. This applies
happened in Norway, which in my opinion is
to GCSE examinations and A-levels as well as
British educational authorities have long
much to be regretted. As I see it, the way
national tests in English, Mathematics and
since recognized the need for young people to
teachers look at themselves and their job is a
Science for younger pupils introduced by the
learn more foreign languages. Schools that are
key element in the current debate about qual-
Labour government. For SGS it is naturally
able to make foreign languages a top priority
ity in education.
important to be able to assure parents that
and meet a certain standard are given the sta-
22 23 24
by Karin Hals, Kirkeparken videregående skole
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Tim O'Brien was born in Worthington, Minnesota
A short presentation of the book
What makes this book a good choice for
in 1946. He graduated from Macalester College
The Things They Carried is a story about a pla-
your VK2 students?
in 1968 with a BA in political science and at the
toon of American soldiers and all the burdens
The book deals with 18-23-year-olds spending
same time he received a draft notice for service
they carried while they were in Vietnam. Not
a crucial period in their lives in the military
in Vietnam. He was against the war, but report-
only did they carry equipment, weapons and
service. Many Norwegian students will have
ed for service and was in Vietnam in 1969-1970
supplies, they also carried their emotional
to make a choice whether or not to join the
as an infantry foot soldier.
burdens. The author wants to tell his readers
military. In addition the book gives a very
about the difficulties and challenges these
good description of the difficulties young peo-
After Vietnam he became a graduate student at
young Americans faced when serving in a coun-
ple encounter when they have to live so close-
Harvard, and later he started as a newspaper
try so far away from home. It deals with their
ly together. It depicts very well the restless-
reporter. His career as a reporter inspired him
fears, their friendships, their anger and their
ness which is typical of this age group.
to write about his experiences in Vietnam. His
frustration. It tells about the hopelessness of
first book from 1973 was called If I Die in a
war, but at the same time about the importance
The theme of war is prominent in much good
Combat Zone, Box Me Up and Ship Me Home.
of friendships. First and foremost, however, it
literature read during the third year. For
Another of his books about Vietnam was called
paints a picture of their parents’ generation and
example, many students will have read some
Going After Cacciato, and for this he received
their relationship to the 1960s and to the
Hemingway short stories dealing with soldiers
the National Book Award in 1979. He promised
Vietnam War. Some Norwegian students might
and their reactions to war, and First World
to himself that he would write books about why
have parents who took part in the numerous
War poems are often included in students’
the war was morally wrong, and many of his
demonstrations in the late 1960s against the
reading lists too. The Things They Carried is
books deal with this. He has said about his
war in Vietnam.
a contemporary rendering of this theme.
a general aimlessness, not just in the physical
The author has succeeded in capturing the
Although our students at this stage will have
sense, but beyond that in the moral and ethical
war's pulsating rhythms and its horror. He
some understanding of the historical events
sense.” This is something he has confronted in
makes you feel that you are out there with the
in this period, we have included in this edition
a very detailed way in The Things They Carried,
young American soldiers. You are invited into
an extensive article about the Vietnam War.
their private spheres, but more as an under-
writings on the war, "… In Vietnam there was
standing guest than an intruder. Not all his books deal exclusively with
The Things They Carried has won a chorus of critical acclaim, and is often mentioned by
Vietnam, e.g. In the Lake of the Woods from
The book represents a very special genre. It
American high school teachers answering the
1994 and Tomcat in Love from 1998. In 2002 he
consists of many interrelated stories and
question “What modern fiction would you
published the novel July, July.
vignettes, and the characters and the themes
recommend for my students in Norway?”
are presented from many different angles. The Tim O'Brien is now a visiting professor at
author is also the narrator, and from time to
After each text you will find a glossary and
Southwest Texas State University where he
time he is part of the stories as well. This is
some questions. At the back of the book you
teaches creative writing.
a very effective way of making you feel that
will find a glossary, questions to the texts,
these are true stories even though O’Brien
some activities for classroom practice and
tries to convince you that this is all fiction.
some test material.
I dette utdraget fra The
Things They Carried forteller Tim O’Brien om sommeren 1968, og om hvordan han som ung mann reagerte da han fikk innkallingen til militærtjeneste i Vietnam.
THIS IS ONE STORY I’ve never told before. Not to anyone. Not to my parents, not to my brother or sister, not even to my wife. To go into it, I’ve always thought, would only cause embarrassment for all of us, a sudden need to be elsewhere, which is the natural response to a confession. Even now, I’ll admit, the
Innledningen til kapitlet gir
story makes me squirm. For more than twenty years
oss en klar forestilling av at
I’ve had to live with it, feeling the shame, trying to
dette langt fra er noen enkel
push it away, and so by this act of remembrance, by
historie å fortelle:
putting the facts down on paper, I’m hoping to relieve at least some of the pressure on my dreams. Still, it’s a hard story to tell.
nieces and baby grandson? There should be a
kind of water gun. The machine was heavy,
law, I thought. If you support a war, if you
maybe eighty pounds, and was suspended from
think it’s worth the price, that’s fine, but you
the ceiling by a heavy rubber cord. There was
The draft notice arrived on June 17, 1968. It
have to put your own life on the line. You have
some bounce to it, an elastic up-and-down
was a humid afternoon, I remember, cloudy
to head for the front and hook up with an
give, and the trick was to maneuver the gun
and very quiet, and I’d just come in from a
infantry unit and help spill the blood. And you
with your whole body, not lifting with the
round of golf. My mother and father were hav-
have to bring along your wife, or your kids, or
arms, just letting the rubber cord do the work
ing lunch out in the kitchen. I remember open-
your lover. A law, I thought.
for you. At one end was a trigger; at the muz-
ON THE RAINY RIVER By Tim O’Brien
ing up the letter, scanning the first few lines,
I remember the rage in my stomach. Later
zle end was a small nozzle and a steel roller
feeling the blood go thick behind my eyes. I
it burned down to a smoldering self-pity, then
brush. As a carcass passed by, you’d lean for-
remember a sound in my head. It wasn’t think-
to numbness. At dinner that night my father
ward and swing the gun up against the clots
ing, it was just a silent howl. A million things
asked what my plans were.
and squeeze the trigger, all in one motion, and
all at once – I was too good for this war. Too
‘Nothing,’ I said. ‘Wait.’
the brush would whirl and water would come shooting out and you’d hear a quick splatter-
smart, too compassionate, too everything. It couldn’t happen. I was above it. I had the
I spent the summer of 1968 working in an
ing sound as the clots dissolved into a fine
world dicked – Phi Beta Kappa and summa cum
Armour meatpacking plant in my hometown of
red mist. It was not pleasant work. Goggles
laude and president of the student body and a
Worthington, Minnesota. The plant specialized
were a necessity, and a rubber apron, but even
full-ride scholarship for grad studies at
in pork products, and for eight hours a day I
so it was like standing for eight hours a day
Harvard. A mistake, maybe – a foul-up in the
stood on a quarter-mile assembly line – more
under a lukewarm blood-shower. At night I’d
paperwork. I was no soldier. I hated Boy
properly, a disassembly line – removing blood
go home smelling of pig. I couldn’t wash it
Scouts. I hated camping out. I hated dirt and
clots from the necks of dead pigs. My job
out. Even after a hot bath, scrubbing hard, the
tents and mosquitoes. The sight of blood
title, I believe, was Declotter. After slaugh-
stink was always there – like old bacon, or
made me queasy, and I couldn’t tolerate
ter, the hogs were decapitated, split down the
sausage, a dense greasy pig-stink that soaked
authority, and I didn’t know a rifle from a
length of the belly, pried open, eviscerated,
deep into my skin and hair. Among other
slingshot. I was a liberal, for Christ sake: if
and strung up by the hind hocks on a high con-
things, I remember, it was tough getting
they needed fresh bodies, why not draft some
veyer belt. Then gravity took over. By the time
dates that summer. I felt isolated; I spent a
back-to-the-stone-age hawk? Or some dumb
a carcass reached my spot on the line, the flu-
lot of time alone. And there was also that
jingo in his hard hat and Bomb Hanoi button?
ids had mostly drained out, everything except
draft notice tucked away in my wallet.
Or one of LBJ’s pretty daughters? Or
for thick clots of blood in the neck and upper
Westmoreland’s whole family – nephews and
chest cavity. To remove the stuff, I used a
In the evenings I’d sometimes borrow my father’s car and drive aimlessly around town,
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
feeling sorry for myself, thinking about the
of walking away from my own life, my friends
it was a physical rupture – a cracking-leaking-
war and the pig factory and how my life
and my family, my whole history, everything
popping feeling. I remember dropping my water
seemed to be collapsing toward slaughter.
that mattered to me. I feared losing the
gun. Quickly, almost without thought, I took off
I felt paralyzed. All around me the options
respect of my parents. I feared the law. I
my apron and walked out of the plant and drove
seemed to be narrowing, as if I were hurtling
feared ridicule and censure. My hometown
home. It was midmorning, I remember, and the
down a huge black funnel, the whole world
was a conservative little spot on the prairie,
house was empty. Down in my chest there was
squeezing in tight. There was no happy way
a place where tradition counted, and it was
still that leaking sensation, something very
out. The government had ended most graduate
easy to imagine people sitting around a table
warm and precious spilling out, and I was cov-
school deferments; the waiting lists for the
down at the old Gobbler Café on Main Street,
ered with blood and hog-stink, and for a long
National Guard and Reserves were impossibly
coffee cups poised, the conversation slowly
while I just concentrated on holding myself
long; my health was solid; I didn’t qualify for
zeroing in on the young O’Brien kid, how the
together. I remember taking a hot shower. I
CO status – no religious grounds, no history
damned sissy had taken off for Canada. At
remember packing a suitcase and carrying it
as a pacifist. Moreover, I could not claim to
night, when I couldn’t sleep, I’d sometimes
out to the kitchen, standing very still for a few
be opposed to war as a matter of general
carry on fierce arguments with those people.
minutes, looking carefully at the familiar
principle. There were occasions, I believed,
I’d be screaming at them, telling them how
objects all around me. The old chrome toaster,
when a nation was justified in using military
much I detested their blind, thoughtless,
the telephone, the pink and white Formica on
force to achieve its ends, to stop a Hitler or
automatic acquiescence to it all, their sim-
the kitchen counters. The room was full of
some comparable evil, and I told myself that
ple-minded patriotism, their prideful igno-
bright sunshine. Everything sparkled. My
in such circumstance I would’ve willingly
rance, their love-it-or-leave-it platitudes, how
house, I thought. My life. I’m not sure how long
marched off to the battle. The problem,
they were sending me off to fight a war they
I stood there, but later I scribbled out a short
though, was that a draft board did not let you
didn’t understand and didn’t want to under-
note to my parents.
choose your war.
stand. I held them responsible. By God, yes, I
What it said, exactly, I don’t recall now.
did. All of them – I held them personally and
Something vague. Taking off, will call, love Tim.
Beyond all this, or at the very center, was
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
the raw fact of terror. I did not want to die.
individually responsible – the polyestered
Not ever. But certainly not then, not there,
Kiwanis boys, the merchants and farmers, the
not in a wrong war. Driving up Main Street,
pious churchgoers, the chatty housewives, the
past the courthouse and the Ben Franklin
PTA and the Lions club and the Veterans of
remember is a sense of high velocity and the
store, I sometimes felt the fear spreading
Foreign Wars and the fine upstanding gentry
feel of the steering wheel in my hands. I was
inside me like weeds. I imagined myself dead.
out at the country club. They didn’t know Bao
riding on adrenaline. A giddy feeling, in a way,
I imagined myself doing things I could not do
Dai from the man in the moon. They didn’t
except there was the dreamy edge of impossi-
– charging an enemy position, taking aim at
know history. They didn’t know the first thing
bility to it – like running a dead-end maze –
another human being.
about Diem’s tyranny, or the nature of
no way out – it couldn’t come to a happy con-
Vietnamese nationalism, or the long colonial-
clusion and yet I was doing it anyway because
ing seriously about Canada. The border lay a
ism of the French – this was all too damned
it was all I could think of to do. It was pure
few hundred miles north, an eight-hour drive.
complicated, it required some reading – but
flight, fast and mindless. I had no plan. Just
Both my conscience and my instincts were
no matter, it was a war to stop the
hit the border at high speed and crash through
telling me to make a break for it, just take off
Communists, plain and simple, which was how
and keep on running. Near dusk I passed
and run like hell and never stop. In the begin-
they liked things, and you were a treasonous
through Bemidji, then turned northeast toward
ning the idea seemed purely abstract, the
pussy if you had second thoughts about
International Falls. I spent the night in the
word Canada printing itself out in my head;
killing or dying for plain and simple reasons.
car behind a closed-down gas station a half
I was bitter, sure. But it was so much
mile from the border. In the morning, after
At some point in mid-July I began think-
but after a time I could see particular shapes
I drove north. It’s a blur now, as it was then, and all I
and images, the sorry details of my own
more than that. The emotions went from out-
gassing up, I headed straight west along the
future – a hotel room in Winnipeg, a battered
rage to terror to bewilderment to guilt to sor-
Rainy River, which separates Minnesota from
old suitcase, my father’s eyes as I tried to
row and then back again to outrage. I felt a
Canada, and which for me separated one life
explain myself over the telephone. I could
sickness inside me. Real disease.
from another. The land was mostly wilderness.
almost hear his voice, and my mother’s. Run,
Most of this I’ve told before, or at least
I’d think. Then I’d think, Impossible. Then a
hinted at, but what I have never told is the full
but otherwise the country unfolded in great
second later I’d think, Run.
truth. How I cracked. How at work one morning,
sweeps of pine and birch and sumac. Though it
It was a kind of schizophrenia. A moral
standing on the pig line, I felt something break
was still August, the air already had the
split. I couldn’t make up my mind. I feared the
open in my chest. I don’t know what it was. I’ll
smell of October, football season, piles of
war, yes, but I also feared exile. I was afraid
never know. But it was real, I know that much,
yellow-red leaves, everything crisp and clean.
Here and there I passed a motel or bait shop,
I remember a huge blue sky. Off to my right
and dropped a key in my hand. I remember
was the Rainy River, wide as a lake in places,
smiling at him. I also remember wishing I
and beyond the Rainy River was Canada.
hadn’t. The old man shook his head as if to
It was loud now. Loud, hard crying.
tell me it wasn’t worth the bother.
Elroy Berdahl remained quiet. He kept
For a while I just drove, not aiming at anything, then in the late morning I began looking for a place to lie low for a day or two.
‘Dinner at five-thirty,’ he said. ‘You eat
That was the sad thing. And so I sat in the bow of the boat and cried.
fishing. He worked his line with the tips of his fingers, patiently, squinting out at his red and
I was exhausted, and scared sick, and around
‘Anything,’ I said.
white bobber on the Rainy River. His eyes
noon I pulled into an old fishing resort called
Elroy grunted and said, ‘I’ll bet.’
were flat and impassive. He didn’t speak. He
the Tip Top Lodge. Actually it was not a lodge
was simply there, like the river and the late-
at all, just eight or nine tiny yellow cabins
Tim tilbringer seks dager sammen med Elroy
summer sun. And yet by his presence, his
clustered on a peninsula that jutted north-
Berdahl. De spiser og går lange turer sammen,
mute watchfulness, he made it real. He was
ward into the Rainy River. The place was in
og om kveldene spiller de scrabble, hører på
the true audience. He was a witness, like God,
sorry shape. There was a dangerous wooden
musikk og leser. Hele tiden kjemper Tim med
or like the gods, who look on in absolute
dock, an old minnow tank, a flimsy tar paper
sine indre demoner. Om og om igjen går han
silence as we live our lives, as we make our
boathouse along the shore. The main building,
gjennom alle argumenter for og imot å rømme
choices or fail to make them.
which stood in a cluster of pines on high
til Canada – redselen for å dø, sinnet over å
‘Ain’t biting,’ he said.
ground, seemed to lean heavily to one side,
måtte kjempe en kamp han ikke tror på, skam-
Then after a time the old man pulled in his
like a cripple, the roof sagging toward
men over å stille seg utenfor den verdenen
Canada. Briefly, I thought about turning
han kommer fra. Den gamle mannen forholder
around, just giving up, but then I got out of
seg rolig og stille gjennom det hele. Den
I don’t remember saying goodbye. That last
the car and walked up to the front porch.
sjette dagen tar Elroy med seg Tim for å fiske
night we had dinner together, and I went to bed
på den kanadiske siden av Rainy River. Her må
early, and in the morning Elroy fixed break-
Tim ta et endelig oppgjør med seg selv.
fast for me. When I told him I’d be leaving,
The man who opened the door that day is the hero of my life. How do I say this without sounding sappy? Blurt it out – the man saved
me. He offered exactly what I needed, without
The little aluminum boat rocked softly
questions, without any words at all. He took
beneath me. There was the wind and the sky.
line and turned the boat back toward Minnesota.
the old man nodded as if he already knew. He looked down at the table and smiled. At some point later in the morning it’s
me in. He was there at the critical time – a
I tried to will myself overboard.
possible that we shook hands – I just don’t
silent, watchful presence. Six days later,
I gripped the edge of the boat and leaned
remember – but I do know that by the time I’d
when it ended, I was unable to find a proper
forward and thought, Now.
finished packing the old man had disappeared.
way to thank him, and I never have, and so,
I did try. It just wasn’t possible.
Around noon, when I took my suitcase out to
if nothing else, this story represents a small
All those eyes on me – the town, the whole
the car, I noticed that his old black pickup
gesture of gratitude twenty years overdue.
universe – and I couldn’t risk the embarrass-
truck was no longer parked in front of the
Even after two decades I can close my
02 03 04 05
eyes and return to that porch at the Tip Top
Lodge. I can see the old guy staring at me.
Elroy Berdahl: eighty-one years old, skinny
and shrunken and mostly bald. He wore a flan-
nel shirt and brown work pants. In one hand, I remember, he carried a green apple, a small
ment. It was as if there were an audience to
house. I went inside and waited for a while,
paring knife in the other. His eyes had the
my life, that swirl of faces along the river, and
but I felt a bone certainty that he wouldn’t be
bluish-gray color of a razor blade, the same
in my head I could hear people screaming at
back. In a way, I thought, it was appropriate. I
polished shine, and as he peered up at me
me. Traitor! they yelled. Turncoat! Pussy! I felt
washed up the breakfast dishes, left his two
I felt a strange sharpness, almost painful, a
myself blush. I couldn’t tolerate it. I couldn’t
hundred dollars on the kitchen counter, got
cutting sensation, as if his gaze were some-
endure the mockery, or the disgrace, or the
into the car, and drove south toward home.
how slicing me open. In part, no doubt, it was
patriotic ridicule. Even in my imagination, the
The day was cloudy. I passed through
my own sense of guilt, but even so I’m
shore just twenty yards away, I couldn’t make
towns with familiar names, through the pine
absolutely certain that the old man took one
myself be brave. It had nothing to do with
forests and down to the prairie, and then to
look that went right to the heart of things – a
morality. Embarrassment, that’s all it was.
Vietnam, where I was a soldier, and then home
kid in trouble. When I asked for a room, Elroy
And right then I submitted.
again. I survived, but it’s not a happy ending.
made a little clicking sound with his tongue.
I would go to the war – I would kill and
I was a coward. I went to the war.
He nodded, led me out to one of the cabins,
maybe die – because I was embarrassed not to.
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Richard Peel, Kjell Richard Andersen, Marcie Madden Austad
Richard Peel, Trond Christian Anvik, Theresa Bowles Sørhus
TROUBLESHOOTER I NY UTGAVE!
FREEWAYS: NYTT ENGELSKVERK FOR YRKESFAGLIGE STUDIERETNINGER (MODUL 3)
Troubleshooter er en praktisk rettet aktivitetsgrammatikk i engelsk
som tar for seg de vanligste problemområdene for norske elever.
>> et helt nytt læreverk for modul 3 (engelsk påbygging);
Hvert kapittel innledes med en forklaring av et problem og hvordan
>> en videreføring av serien American Ways / British Ways i
det kan løses. Deretter følger et bredt utvalg oppgaver, både tradisjonelle utfyllings- og oversettelsesoppgaver og aktiviserende og
engelsk for yrkesfagene; >> like nyttig for elever som har brukt andre læreverk tidligere.
kommunikative par- og gruppeoppgaver. Det er fasit bak i boka. KAPITLER Hva har skjedd med den nye utgaven? >> Forklaringene og øvingene er forbedret etter råd og forslag fra lærere og elever.
>> Åpningskapitlet Switch on har til hensikt å få elevene i gang med engelsken, og å motivere dem til å snakke og skrive engelsk. >> De tre påfølgende kapitlene omhandler USA, den engelskspråklige verden og Storbritannia. Vi har forsøkt å finne tekster som
>> Et nytt kapittel (“Fra ord til tekst”) tar for seg bl.a. avsnittsbygging og teksttyper. >> Nye Troubleshooter har fått glade farger, og morsomme og instruktive illustrasjoner.
elevene vil synes er interessante, og som samtidig dekker viktige mål i læreplanen. >> Boka rundes av med et kapittel kalt Tools. Her finner elevene “Toolbox” – en alfabetisk oppslagsdel over emner elevene vil ha nytte av – en sekvens om brevskriving og forslag til for-
>> Hvert av de seks hovedkapitlene avrundes med en
“test-deg-selv”- oppgave. >> Det er stigende progresjon i øvingene som følger hver forklaring. Innfyllingsoppgavene kommer først. Hvert tema avsluttes med en eller flere samarbeidsoppgaver. >> Med den nye utgaven av Troubleshooter følger en selvinstruerende øvings-CD med bl.a. oppgaver fra boka som egner seg for PC og ekstraoppgaver. Ekstraoppgavene varierer fra innfyllingsoppgaver til kryssord og ”multiple choice”.
OPPGAVER >> Freeways har mange og varierte oppgaver som oppfordrer til aktiv deltakelse fra elevene. >> Det er lagt vekt på å ha med et bredt utvalg skriveoppgaver, da mange elever har stort behov for skrivetrening. >> Hvert kapittel tar for seg et språklig problemområde, og hver tekst i kapitlet har en eller flere oppgaver som gir elevene øving i å løse dette problemet.
KOMPONENTER >> Freeways CDs: Her er bokas lytteøvelser, litteraturen i boka samt et utvalg sakprosatekster lest inn. >> Freeways Teacher’s Resources er et hefte med bl.a. lyttemanus, løsningsforslag, kopieringsmateriale og ekstrastoff.
Richard Peel: born 1944. Senior teacher. Education: MA in history (Oxford), Certificate in Education (Bristol), Masters degree in English (Oslo). Has taught in Tromsø, Oppegård and for the last 27 years at Bjørkelangen upper secondary school (chiefly English and History). Enjoys working as a teacher and feels the students have lots to gain from good teaching; is a little sceptical if too much time is spent on organizing and administrating various forms of group work and projects. Has co-authored more than 15 books for Cappelen. Also works as a free-lancer, doing voice-overs for films, TV programmes and so on, in addition to some translation work. Is an amateur photographer and likes to listen to music, read poetry and write poems. In common with most Norwegians, he likes to walk and jog in the woods where he invariably reflects on life, the universe and everything. Does not like people who rush through doors without considering those behind them, and people who prattle during a film.
by Richard Peel
01 Customer: Waiter, there’s a fly in my soup!
– it did not bruise easily, and it lasted longer
“sick” gene removed or treated, and maybe
What’s it doing there?
in the supermarket or in your kitchen before
replaced by a “healthy” gene. It is quite like-
Waiter: It looks like the breast-stroke, madam.
going bad. How was it done? The tomato came
ly that this sort of gene therapy will soon be
from seeds that had been genetically modi-
technically possible, maybe on a child before
That’s the old joke. Here’s the new, modified
fied: they had been given a gene from some
it is born. Terrible diseases like Rett’s syn-
other organism that stays fresh longer.
drome may become things of the past.
Customer: Waiter, there’s a fly in my soup! Waiter: Yes, madam, but at least it’s not a
Turning to a completely different field, crime
Genetic engineering can, in theory, be car-
genetically modified one.
detection, we see that genetics is already
ried out on any organism: that is, on any ani-
making astonishing new advances, as anyone
mal, any plant or any micro-organism.
Why is there so much fuss (serious fuss, very
who follows real-life or fictitious crime sto-
Interesting research in genetics is going on
few jokes) about genetically modified food?
ries knows. DNA evidence can identify a crimi-
in several fields; medicine and crime detec-
What is the debate about? Who’s winning?
nal even more precisely than finger-print
tion are just two of them. In this article we
Should they be winning? This article looks,
evidence, a development which would have
concentrate on agriculture – more particu-
without too much scientific language, at
been impossible without genetics technology.
larly on genetically modified food.
This is just a modest start to a wonderfully
Genetically modified food
Genetic technology can do astonishing
exciting range of applications of genetic mod-
The first thing to be clear about is that
things. In 1994 a new “flavor saver” tomato
ification, or so the GM lobby argues, saying
genetic modification is revolutionary. It is
appeared on the shelves of US supermarkets.
that people will be able to be saved from
different from traditional genetic selection.
This tomato had spectacular “advantages”
inherited diseases by having the “guilty” or
The oldest form of genetic selection is, of
LANGUAGE BOX biotechnology – the genetic manipulation of micro-organisms, especially when an industrial product is being made. characteristic – characteristics are traits like long toes, lovely green eyes, foul tempers. Our at-birth characteristics are delivered to us in the genes we get from our parents. The heredity “content” of each gene is determined by its DNA make-up. DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid, a material which can make exact copies of itself. gene – the genetic code defines the particular characteristics of an organism (this is sometimes called the genetic blueprint). This
course, carried out by nature itself and is
the environment. It has, they say, dam-
called evolution, which began with the
aged the environment in one way or anoth-
first living organisms on the planet Earth,
er right from the beginning when the first
and which has been going on for millions
farmers starting cutting down trees with
of years. For a much shorter time, some
their stone axes, up to today, when most
thousands of years, humans have them-
farmers use pesticides that damage the
selves carried out selective breeding and
land and pollute rivers. What’s more, they
cross-breeding of animals and plants.
go on, some GM food developments should
An example of selective breeding is the
help the environment rather than damage
Viking farmer who selected his best cow
it. If the biotech companies can sell us
and his best bull and put them together to
seed that gives us crops that are resist-
mate; an example of cross-breeding is the
ant to weeds and insects, then all the
mating or hybridizing of two different
spraying that farmers do now, which is
varieties of a species of animal or plant
extremely environmentally unfriendly,
– look at the dogs and apples around us
can stop. The land and the rivers will be
cleaner. In addition, claims the pro-GM
genetic code is the information carried by DNA. genetic engineering – the modification by scientists of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material, for example by transferring genes from one organism to another. These two organisms can belong to completely different species (for example a species of fish and a species of fruit). genetic manipulation – another term for genetic modification. genetically modified food – any food that contains parts of genetically modified plants, animals or micro-organisms (usually called 01
GM food, or GM foods, and sometimes GMF).
modify – change, alter
It is important to note that, in these tra-
food better-tasting, longer-lasting and
ditional forms of breeding, single genes
more nourishing. It can even make it
are not isolated and transferred.
better-looking and better-smelling!
Moreover, the animals or plants are of the
same species or of closely related
Well, you can find plenty of GM food in US
species. It is, moreover, a slow process,
foodstores. It often has fanciful names like
since it uses the species’s own reproduc-
“flavor saver” and “Endless Summer” toma-
tive system (even if the implantation is
toes. They are “fresh” even though they
carried out artificially). We live with the
have slept on the shelf in the store for a
results and accept them unfussily: cows
month. “They taste great, too!” said one
that give far more milk than cows a few
store manager I talked to. “What have you
hundred years ago, apples that are larger
got against them? Consumers love them,
and tastier than wild apples, and so on.
and I guess this is the way to give everyone in the world enough to eat! And no one here
The new science of genetic modification
food lobby, genetic engineering can make
wants special labels for this sort of food.”
does something else. It isolates a single
In addition, claims the pro-GM
gene in an organism and transfers it to
As late as in 1990 there were hardly any GM
food lobby, genetic engineering
another organism: often to a completely
crops being commercially grown in the
can make food better-tasting,
western world, but then things moved fast.
longer-lasting and more nourishing.
The great debate about food
quick to change their ways: in the four years
– the first round
after 1996, 55% of the USA’s soybeans, 50 %
There is a great debate going on. The bio-
of its cotton, and 40 % of its maize were
technology companies that produce GM
grown from genetically modified seeds. It is
seeds have argued clearly and strongly
not surprising that so many American farm-
that this is the way to increase the
ers jumped on the bandwagon. GM soybeans
world’s food supply, and that it would be
are, as a result of genetic engineering,
The scientific principles of genetic selection
unethical not to travel down this road. If
resistant to weed-killers. Farmers say this
were only discovered in the 19th century
we don’t do this, they say, famine will
means they can eliminate weeds without
(first by Gregor Mendel) and the exact way in
strike more and more often.
eliminating any beans. They grow more
It can even make it better-looking
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
In the USA, farmers have been particularly
which genetic information is carried in living
beans and contribute in greater measure to
organisms was only discovered in the 20th
They see no real environmental or health
the world’s food supply. Of course, they also
century (primarily by Francis Crick and
dangers. They point out that traditional
make more money.
non-GM agriculture is itself harmful to
By the mid-1990s the huge US biotechnology
do with genetic modification, nonetheless cre-
need pesticide treatment – this is the oppo-
companies, Monsanto and DuPont, had already
ated a climate of scepticism towards any sort
site of what the GM lobby has said, and, if
conquered America. They had lobbied hard, per-
of risk-taking in farming. People are worried
correct, would remove one of the GM lobby’s
suading science journalists, farmers, politi-
about the long-term effects of GM foods. What
cians and the public that there could come no
about pollen from these crops that gets blown
harm from GM food. The complaints of serious
all over the landscape? What will the impact
In the first few years of the 21st century con-
ecological groups, like Greenpeace and Friends
be on birds and insects, and on biological
siderable attention has been paid to geneti-
of the Earth, seemed hopelessly weak and
diversity? Critics of GM food also say that
cally modified rice. A new rice has been engi-
almost cranky. The respected US Food and Drug
the companies that carry out the research and
neered using a gene from a flower, the daf-
Administration (FDA) had given its approval to
development of GM food have been given a
fodil, to produce a nutrient called beta-
the marketing of GM crops, while US environ-
free hand by governments, and are only really
carotene, that the body can convert into vita-
mental groups had to admit that they could not
interested in one thing: their own profits. The
min A. This vitamin is essential for healthy
prove that genetically engineered food was at
whole programme, they say, is a get-rich-
eyes. So advertisements for this new rice,
all harmful. In 1996, the European Union
quick and don’t-ask-questions gamble. The
alluringly called Golden Rice, imply that it
approved the import of GM foods, and there
market for this food is enormous, they point
can save thousands of children in rice-eating
were no rules for mandatory labelling. It
out, and huge profits can certainly be made.
regions of the world, such as Asia, from blindness. In 2000 President Clinton put his pres-
looked as if scepticism against the new technology was a non-starter. The first round of the
So while the years from 1990 to 1995 were full
tige behind a huge research programme, aimed
great debate had been won by the GM lobby.
of progress for GM food, the years between
at persuading Asia’s farmers to grow, and its
1996 and 2001 saw the sceptics fighting back.
vast populations to eat, this rice. In China, GM
The second round
Supermarkets began their own policy of strict
rice also has an enhanced iron content.
Then things began to change. The attack on the
labelling of GM foods, and of offering plenty
Opponents are made to look as if they disre-
biotech industry was strongest in Europe and
of shelf space to organic food. The big ques-
gard health gains. Until, that is, these same
came from three main quarters: science jour-
tion in Europe was: would politicians respond
opponents point out that conventional brown
nalists, environmental groups, and the public.
to the new mood of scepticism? In June 2000
rice contains as much Vitamin A as the new
there was a meeting of European Union envi-
GM Golden Rice, and that a ten-year-old child
In America many science correspondents had
ronment ministers in Brussels. Intensive lob-
would have to eat nearly 7 kilos of Golden
been persuaded to take a soft line by biotech
bying went on, both from the biotech industry,
Rice a day to meet the daily Vitamin A
lobbyists, but in Europe science journalists
and from environmental groups. At the meet-
requirement. Even the Rockefeller Foundation,
have been far less respectful towards the big
ing it was decided that no new import
which is funding much of the research, has
boys in the industry. The European press cov-
licences for GM food would be given until new
admitted that the advertisements had gone
erage of the development of GM food varied
and stricter regulations were in place, and
overboard in their implication that this new
from cautious questioning to downright panic
labelling of all GM food was made mandatory.
rice could dramatically reduce the number of
over what were seen as “Frankenstein Foods”.
Similar restrictions followed in other parts of
people suffering from blindness. Many people
the world. In America, confidence in geneti-
asked if it was not more sensible to encourage
Secondly, environmental groups in Europe
cally modified food began to crack. “We want
people to eat brown rice. Why not advertise to
have been more successful than their
labels!” became a popular slogan
encourage people to eat a normal mixed diet,
American counterparts in convincing the pub-
which would include enough Vitamin A? The
lic that they have a case. Here, of course, they
Many farming experts have also begun to
answer, says the anti-GM lobby, is that no
are helped by favourable news coverage. When
question the claim that GM food is the only
money is to be made that way.
some radical environmental groups used
way to increase food production. Some recent
direct action to damage research projects on
studies in the USA and in China suggest that
The sceptics, then, seem to have won round
GM foods actually in the fields, they received
fairly small farms growing a wide variety of
two of the great debate.
a far more tolerant press coverage than envi-
crops without using genetic engineering can
So, what sort of food do we want on our menus,
ronmental activists in America had done.
greatly increase productivity, and that mono-
at home and at the local restaurant or burger
culture, where a single crop is grown on huge
bar? Have we any real cause to be more fright-
Thirdly, and most important, European con-
areas of land – the type of farming preferred
ened of a genetically modified filler in a sand-
sumers have been much more sceptical about
by the same big companies that produce GM
wich than your favourite brand of ice-cream?
GM foods than American consumers, especial-
seeds – is a barrier to bigger harvests. Some
Do you, when it comes down to it, really know
ly after a series of food scares in Europe
recent research, published in early 2004, also
what’s in that ice-cream?
which, although they had nothing directly to
suggests that GM crops do, after a few years,
The debate goes on.
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
1 Focus on the text Write brief answers to the following questions: a) Why did GM food become so popular with farmers and producers in the USA in the
E: every insurance company with whom the
toms of the syndrome when born, but
18) is insured
develop symptoms after they are 6
F: any employer of the tested child/adult
c) Why is the role of journalists important?
2 Going deeper into the text The following topics or items have a place in the article. Why has the author brought them into the article? Discuss in pairs. a) Traditional forms of breeding
iii) Who should not be told the results of a
d) World population growth e
f) The environment
3 Talking Gene therapy is mentioned in the article. In a few years’ time it will be possible for every unborn child to be gene tested while in his/her mother’s uterus. This gene test will show what handicaps or diseases or future diseases the child will be born with (it will not, of course,
reveal that the disorder will develop,
A: the tested child
and that gene therapy has a good chance
B: the parents
of repairing the defective gene.)
C: the child’s school D: insurance companies
4 Playing it out
In groups of four, prepare a role-play. One of
F: anyone else?
you is a farmer who is not quite sure whether to sow genetically modified seed or not. One
iv) What about gene therapy? A: it is wrong to interfere with the genes any person inherits
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09
some questions for you to answer. Go through these questions and think about them, selecting the answers you support, and thinking about why you support them. (The answers suggested here do not necessarily exclude each other.) Then have group discussions or a class debate in which each question is discussed. i) Who should have a gene test?
A: all unborn children
B: no one
C: the parents should decide
D: the mother should decide alone
ii) Which of these persons or groups should
of you is a salesman for GM seed. One of you is a member of a group determined to stop the sowing of GM seed, and one of you has spent
B: everything possible should be done to
five years in parts of the world where people
use gene therapy to give people a life
die of hunger. Spend some time preparing the
free of inherited diseases or inherited
sorts of things you will say, and the questions
you will want to ask. Then play out a conver-
C: doctors should decide what should be done
sation between these four people.
D: doctors should simply give medical advice; the parents should decide E: the mother should decide (after being given medical advice)
5 Writing a) Write a letter to a newspaper expressing your views on genetically modified food. b) Write a dialogue in which two people discuss
show what diseases the child might get as a result of infection from outside). Here are
Research indicates that a gene test can
b) Tomatoes c) Rice
months old. They lose the ability to move their limbs properly and to speak.
mid-1990s? b) What arguments do critics of GM food use?
with this disorder usually have no symp-
tested child (or adult after the age of
v) Which of the following scenarios do you
an aspect of genetics technology. Choose the
think is acceptable?
aspect yourself. (You do not have to choose
A: Sports associations sponsor research
an aspect mentioned in this article.)
into genes which determine particular
c) Write a short story in which genetics tech-
characteristics that are important in
nology has a place. Begin: “It was a Sunday
sport (for example, balance and supple-
in September. It started like any other day.”
ness in gymnasts) and ask for parents to volunteer to have the genes of their
6 The Internet
unborn children manipulated so as to
The Internet can supply you with thousands of
give them a better chance of winning
pages about genetically modified food. The
Olympic gold medals.
Internet is, of course, a godsend to pressure
B: A mother (who is in a good partnership,
groups, and both pro- and anti-groups use it
and wants a child) discovers through
enthusiastically. So you should find it interest-
gene tests that her unborn child will
ing to follow up some of them. Try, for example,
develop Alzheimer’s disease, when he is
printing some GM catchphrase (e.g. “flavor
40 and chooses to have an abortion.
savers” or “genetic modification”) on your
be told the results of a gene test of an
unborn child? Is there anyone else who
syndrom should be mandatory and free.
Possible Internet tasks could include (i) building up
should be told?
Any child shown to be genetically des-
a list of up-to-date arguments for and against
A: the child, at a certain age
tined to have such a disorder should be
genetically modified food, (ii) finding relevant sta-
B: both parents
given the latest form of gene therapy, at
tistics and news about GM food, and (iii) trying to
C: just the mother
no cost to the parents. (Rett’s syndrom
see if there are differences in attitudes from coun-
D: just the medical authorities, who could
is a neurodevelopmental disorder
try to country. Present your findings in class or
affecting one in 10,000 females. Girls
make a little project out of it.
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then decide who to tell
C: Gene testing for disorders like Rett’s
favourite search engine and see what you find.
– nytt læreverk for engelsk påbygning! Av Jorun Grønset Løvoll, Elvebakken vgs.
Etter å ha undervist modul 3 på allmennfaglig påbygning i mange år, var det med blanda forventninger jeg åpnet Freeways. Blanda fordi jeg forventet en bok lik de andre vi har prøvd ut i faget og for lengst latt bli hyllefyll. Det har ført til at et lite kurs har blitt en ganske stor jobb å undervise fordi mangel på gode læreverk gjorde det lettere å basere seg på stensiler og internett. Stor er derfor gleden ved å sitte med utkastet til Freeways i hendene og se at verket på en helt annen måte enn tidligere imøtekommer behovene elevene på påbygningskurset har.
Erfaring har vist at elevene på påbygningskurset har hatt et stort behov for skrivetrening og hjelp til å luke ut de mest elementære grammatiske feilene. I tillegg kommer nødvendigheten av å friske opp det de har lært på GK og VK1, som for mange av dem kan være to til tre år siden. Det er derfor ikke nok slik det stod i en veiledning da jeg begynte å undervise dette kurset, at man for eksempel kunne lese en roman. Elevene trenger en full gjennomgang av hva de kan forventes å få til eksamen. Tidligere lærebøker har ikke ivaretatt dette godt nok, men derimot tilbudt en tilfeldig samling tekster og oppgaver som ikke har evnet å sette verken tekster eller språkoppgaver inn i en større sammenheng. Det har gjort at elevene ikke har fått den forberedelse de trenger frem mot en eksamen som forutsetter at læreplanens mål skal være dekket. Det som tiltaler meg aller mest ved dette læreverket, er den alt-i-ett tankegangen som vi kjenner fra Passage, som ivaretar behovet både for gode tekster og varierte oppgaver. Boken er delt inn i oversiktlige kapitler som på en ryddig måte samler tekstene tematisk inn i hovedområdene USA, den engelskspråklige verden og Storbritannia. Til slutt er det et Tools kapittel der elevene kan finne instruksjon i å skrive brev, bokrapport og essay, samt slå opp på fagtermer som de vil komme borti. Jeg synes forfatterne har klart å sette sammen tekster som til sammen dekker læreplanmålene på en lettfattelig og god måte. Jeg liker også den måten hvert kapittel tar for seg et språklig problemområde og etter hver tekst har oppgaver knyttet til dette. Elever
opplever ofte at språkoppgaver blir tilfeldige og løsrevet fra en større sammenheng. I denne boken er dette ivaretatt ved at de er samlet tematisk. Med den bredden og variasjon vi finner i typen oppgaver knyttet til disse problemområdene, får elevene på en variert måte mulighet til å løse disse. Boken åpner med kapittelet Switch on om engelsk som verdensspråk og om kommunikasjon på tvers av kulturer med artige eksempler på hvor galt det kan gå når man ikke kjenner den kulturen man skal operere i. Novellen Johanna, diktene Bloody Men og The Road Not Taken er tekster som fungerer i oppstarten av et skoleår. Uten å være for vanskelig tilgjengelige, tar de opp emner som er greie å snakke om, enten det handler om å skulle ta valg i livet, eller om dikt og novelle som sjanger. Kapitlene om Storbritannia og USA har begge faktabokser og tidslinjer over amerikansk og britisk historie. Tekstene som omhandler historie gir en grei innføring i viktige begivenheter i landenes historie. I kapittelet om USA stoppes det opp ved 11. september i form av oppgaver og en lyttetekst og videre Vietnamkrigen i form av Tim O’Briens “The Ambush”. I tillegg er America the Beautiful og Home of the Brave tekster som gir en grei innføring i geografi og kultur. Teksten 13 Questions about Politics in the USA gir en kort og grei oversikt over det viktigste elevene bør ha fått med seg om amerikansk politikk Kapittelet om Storbritannia er bygd opp etter samme lest som det om USA: Fast Facts, sakprosatekster om historie, geografi og kul-
tur sammen med en tidslinje gir en grei innføring i det britiske samfunnet. Novellen “The Joker” gir et morsomt innblikk i britisk humor og væremåte. Kapittelet Ways of the World inneholder Fast Facts om Australia, Irland, India og Sør Afrika. Her er det med utvalget av tekster mye å gripe fatt i som jeg har erfaring for vil engasjere elevene. Det gjelder både den sterke novellen The Sniper av Liam O’Flaherty og Abel Phelps’ Head Work som på en litt underfundig måte tar for seg raseskilleproblematikken i Sør Afrika, og som sammen med de andre tekstene i dette kapittelet gir en mulighet til å ta små dykk inn i de ulike kulturene.
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Det er ikke mye man kan rekke på en time i uka. Noen skoler tilbyr riktignok elevene en ekstra time i faget for å slippe å gjøre det helt meningsgløst, men uansett blir det begrensa hva man kan komme gjennom. Det blir sjelden tid til noe særlig prosjektarbeid eller fordypning i emner av interesse. I teksten Search for Information ligger det allikevel forslag til emner man kan velge mellom for å gå litt dypere inn i sider ved kultur eller historie. Dette sammen med språkoppgaver, rollespill, essayoppgaver med mer, gjør at det blir spennende å prøve Freeways ut på egne elever. Jeg må innrømme at jeg har stjålet litt fra Passage tidligere og lurt på hvorfor ingen brydde seg med å lage et tilsvarende læreverk for påbygningselevene. Nå har vi fått det, og jeg ser fram til å bruke det.
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? Ja, takk! Jeg vil gjerne stå som mottaker av fagavisen (gratis!) for engelsklærere. Skolens navn: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Skolens adresse: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E-post adresse: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CAPPELEN UNDERVISNING, Videregående skole, Postboks 350 Sentrum, 0101 Oslo. Faksnummer: 22 36 50 46
C a p p e l e n s t i d s s k r i f t f o r e n g e l s k l æ r e r e Illustrasjon: Inger Dale