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PAGE 2 — CLAREMORE PROGRESS • Breast Cancer Awareness October 21, 2012

e risk factors for breast cancer Breast cancer affects hundreds of thousands of families each year. A potentially deadly disease, breast cancer is associated with several risk factors. Some of those risk factors, including gender and age, are beyond an individual's control, while other risk factors are associated with certain lifestyle choices. But even if a woman has the risk factors for breast cancer, that does not mean she will get the disease. In fact, a woman can several of the following risk factors and never get breast cancer, while other women can have just one of the risk factors and still get a breast cancer diagnosis. Risk factors beyond your control • Gender: Women are far more likely to develop breast cancer than men. The American Cancer says breast cancer is roughly 100 times more common among women than men. That's likely because men produce far less estrogen and progesterone, female hormones that can promote the growth of breast cancer cells. • Age: An individual's risk for breast cancer increases as he or she

ages. Roughly twothirds of all invasive breast cancer cases are found in women over the age of 55, while just 13 percent of such cases are found in women younger than 45. • Genetics: The ACS notes that roughly 5 to 10 percent of all breast cancer cases are believed to be hereditary. These cases result from mutations, or defects in a gene, inherited from a parent. In many cases a person will inherit a mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, which will normally prevent cancer by making proteins that keep the cells from growing abnormally. However, when these genes mutate, the risk for developing breast cancer is significant, as high as 80 percent for someone who has inherited mutated BRCA genes. • Family history: Women with a blood relative who has had breast cancer are also at greater risk of developing the disease. If a first-degree relative, which includes a mother, sister or daughter, has had breast cancer, a woman's risk roughly doubles. Having two such relatives who have had breast

cancer triples a woman's risk. • Race and ethnicity: White women are slightly more likely to develop breast cancer than African-American women. However, African-American women are more likely to die from the disease. Asian,Hispanic and Native American women have a lower risk of developing and dying from breast cancer. • Dense breast tissue: Women with dense breast tissue, which is noticeable on a mammogram, have a higher risk of breast cancer. But dense breast tissue can make it harder for physicians to detect potential problems on a mammogram. • Menstrual cycles: Women who began menstruating prior to age 12 and/or went through menopause after age 55 have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer. Researchers believe this is because these women had a longer lifetime exposure to estrogen and progesterone. Risk factors you can control • Having children: Women who have never given birth or who gave birth for the first time after the age

Breast cancer affects hundreds of thousands of families each year. A potentially deadly disease, breast cancer is associated with several risk factors. Some of those risk factors, including gender and age, are beyond an individual's control, while other risk factors are associated with certain lifestyle choices.

of 30 have a higher risk of developing breast cancer. Pregnancy reduces the total number of menstrual cycles a woman will have over her lifetime, which some feel is the reason that becoming pregnant can reduce a woman's risk. • Oral contraceptive use: Women who have used oral contraceptives, often referred to as birth control pills, have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who have never used them. But that risk returns to normal when a woman stops taking birth control. • Breastfeeding: Some research has linked breastfeeding with a slightly lower risk of developing breast cancer, especially among women who breastfeed for 11/2 to 2 years. However, breastfeeding for such a

lengthy period is relatively uncommon, which has made the potential link between breastfeeding and a lower risk of breast cancer difficult to determine. • Alcohol consumption: The ACS notes there is a clear connection between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk. The more alcohol a woman consumes, the greater her risk for developing breast cancer. Women who consume two to five alcoholic beverages daily have roughly 11/2 times the risk of breast cancer as women who do not consume alcohol. • Overweight and obesity: Women, especially those who are post-menopausal, who are overweight or obese have a greater risk of developing breast cancer. After menopause, most of a

woman's estrogen comes from fat tissue, and a woman with more fat tissue will likely have higher estrogen levels, increasing her risk of breast cancer. Blood insulin levels also tend to be higher in overweight or obese individuals, and elevated blood insulin levels have been linked to some cancers, including breast cancer. • Physical activity: More and more evidence is piling up to suggest that exercise can reduce breast cancer risk. Studies vary as to how much exercise is necessary to reduce the risk, but the benefits of exercise are so numerous as to encourage women to be more physically active regardless of how much they may reduce their risk of developing breast cancer.


CLAREMORE PROGRESS • Breast Cancer Awareness October 21, 2012— PAGE 3

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PAGE 4 — CLAREMORE PROGRESS • Breast Cancer Awareness October 21, 2012

Breast cancer is not exclusive to women There are many people -- male and female - who are completely unaware that men are susceptible to breast cancer. With preventative mammograms and messaging largely geared toward women, men may not even think about the breast cancer risk to themselves. Although less prevalent among men, breast cancer is not exclusive to women. The American Cancer Society estimates that about 2,000 new cases of invasive breast cancer are diagnosed in men each

year, and approximately 450 men die from breast cancer annually. Male breast cancers account for approximately 1 percent of all breast cancer cases. The Canadian Cancer Society reports that less than one percent of Canadian men develop breast cancer, and men over the age of 60 are most likely to be diagnosed. To understand how men get breast cancer one must to know about the physical makeup of the male body. Like women, men have breast tissue. Before boys or girls

enter puberty, they have similar breast structures, including breast tissue and a few ducts under the nipple and areola. During puberty, female hormones further develop the milk ducts and lobules, or milkproducing glands. For males, testosterone levels increase during puberty, stalling further growth of breast tissue. However, what was already there remains, and in that tissue, cancerous cells can grow and multiply. There also are lymph nodes in the breast re-

gion and under the arms. Cancer cells can travel through the lymph nodes to other areas of the body. Because men have considerably less breast tissue than women, diagnosis of cancer can be easier. A lump in the breast is more noticeable on a man than on a woman. The American Cancer Society also lists a few other symptoms that could be indicative of breast cancer: * lumps in the nipples or chest muscle. * nipples turning inward. * skin dimpling or puckering around the nipple. * redness or scaling of the nipple or breast skin. * discharge from the nipple. Benign growths can be mistaken for breast cancer. Also, men can have a condition called gynecomastia, which is a noncancerous breast tissue growth that may be mistaken for cancer. If any symptoms are present, they should be brought to the attention of a doctor for further investigation. If it is breast cancer, treatment methods are largely the same among men and women. A combination of chemotherapy, radiation and surgery may be

Although less prevalent among men, breast cancer is not exclusive to women. The American Cancer Society estimates that about 2,000 new cases of invasive breast cancer are diagnosed in men each year, and approximately 450 men die from breast cancer annually.

recommended depending on the stage and positioning of the cancerous tumors. Although it is rare, breast cancer does occur in men.

Therefore, guys should be aware of their bodies and the breast area and be on the lookout for any changes that could lead to problems.


CLAREMORE PROGRESS • Breast Cancer Awareness October 21, 2012— PAGE 5

How-to conduct a breast self-exam

Over the years there has been some debate over the effectiveness of breast self-exams, or BSEs, is effective. Different breast cancer organizations have different views on the subject.

Early detection of breast cancer can improve survival rates and lessen the severity of treatment options. Routine mammograms are essential to catching signs of breast cancer early on but so can home-based breast exams. Over the years there has been some debate over the effectiveness of breast self-exams, or BSEs, is effective. Different breast cancer organizations have different views on the subject. Some studies have indicated that a BSE is not effective in reducing breast cancer mortality rates. Some argue that these exams also may put women at risk -- increasing the number of potential lumps found due to uncertainty as to what is being felt in the breast. This can lead to unnecessary biopsies. Others feel that a BSE is a good practice, considering that roughly 20 percent of breast cancers are found by physical examination rather than by mammography, according to BreastCancer.org. The American Cancer Society takes the position that a BSE is an optional screening tool for breast cancer. For those who are interested in conducting self-exams, here is the proper way to do so. * Begin with a visual inspection of the breasts. Remove clothing and stand in front of a mirror. Turn and pivot so the breasts can be seen at all angles. Make a note of your breasts' appearance. Pay special attention to any dimpling, puckering or oddness in the appearance of the skin. Check to see if there is any change in symmetry or size of the breasts. * Continue the examination with hands placed by the hips and then again with your hands elevated over-

head with your palms pressed together. * Next you will move on to a physical examination. This can be done either by reclining on a bed or the floor or any flat surface. The exam also can be done in the shower. To begin examining the breasts, place the hand and arm for the breast you will be examining behind your head. Use the pads of your pointer, middle and ring fingers to push and massage at the breast in a clockwise motion. Begin at the outer portion of the breast, slowly working inward in a circular motion until you are at the nipple. Be sure to also check the tissue under the breast and by the armpit. * Do the same process on the op-

posite breast. Note if there are any differences from one breast to the other. If you find any abnormalities, mark them down on an illustration that you can bring to the doctor. Or if you can get an appointment immediately, draw a ring around the area with a pen so that you will be able to show the doctor directly where you have concern. It is a good idea to conduct a BSE once a month and not when menstruating, when breasts may change due to hormone fluctuation. Frequent examinations will better acquaint you with what is normal with your breasts and better help you recognize if something feels abnormal.


PAGE 6 — CLAREMORE PROGRESS • Breast Cancer Awareness October 21, 2012

What to expect after a mastectomy A person's life changes when he or she receives a breast cancer diagnosis. There are many questions that need to be answered, and one of them is usually, "What are my options?" One of the treatment options in the fight against breast cancer is a mastectomy. Though the number of mastectomies performed each year was in decline a mere decade ago, more and more are now being performed thanks in large part to less invasive treatments. A study of more than 5,000 Mayo Clinic cancer patients revealed a 13 percent increase in the number of mastectomies performed between 2003 and 2006. A small but growing number of women are also electing to have "preventative" mastectomies, which could involve removing one or both

of the breasts if there is a high genetic disposition to getting breast cancer in the family or if cancerous cells were detected in one breast. In 2006, the last year for which national data is available, more than 15 percent of breast cancer patients ages 18 to 39 had a healthy breast removed, says the University of Minnesota's Elizabeth Habermann, co-author of a 2010 study in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. A mastectomy is an umbrella term used to describe the removal of the entire breast, portions of the breast, or just the lymph nodes under the armpits. The main types of a mastectomy include: * Modified radical mastectomy: This involves removal of the entire breast, including the breast tissue, skin, areola, and nipple. In some

cases, the lining over the chest muscles, as well as most of the underarm lymph nodes, is also removed. * Simple total mastectomy: This surgery involves removal of the entire breast, tissue, skin, areola and nipple. * Skin-sparing mastectomy: The breast tissue, nipple and areola are removed, but the skin is spared. Breast reconstruction surgery is typically performed immediately after. * Nipple-sparing mastectomy: Only the breast tissue is removed, leaving the skin, nipple, areola and chest wall muscles. Again, reconstruction of the breast is typically performed immediately afterward. After Surgery Expect to stay one to two days in the hospital after surgery. The nursing staff will have a dressing over the surgical site, so you likely will not be able to see the results until a followup visit a week or more after the surgery. The doctor will advise proper home care to keep the area clean, and you should be aware of signs for infection. You may have surgical drains in place that will need to be watched and emptied. Some pain is common postsurgery, and pain medications may be prescribed. Adequate rest is urged for proper healing and to prevent opening the wound site. Dissolvable stitches are often used to close the wound, but some doctors prefer staples, which will be removed at a follow-up visit. Bruising and soreness are to be expected. A fever could be indicative of an infection. Recovering from surgery Depending on the type of mastectomy performed, you may be left with anything from small scarring to a sunken, asymmetrical chest. You may want to avoid wearing or getting fitted for a new bra until the wound is completely healed and swelling has declined, which can take six weeks.

Although strenuous exercise should be avoided, many patients will be given exercises to perform so they can regain movement and flexibility. Walking is an exercise that can be done immediately, but a doctor will be able to tell you when more exercises can be done. You may resume driving when pain medication is no longer needed. Practicing driving in a parking lot can help you figure out if there is any pain associated with turning the wheel or pressing down on the accelerator or brake. Body image If reconstructive surgery is not an option, breast prosthetics can restore balance to the breast area and help with post-mastectomy body image. Professional fitters can help size and fit a prosthetic to your body. Some cancer organizations offer free prostheses if insurance doesn't cover them. Mastectomy bras are another option. They generally have pockets in the cups that can hold breast forms. Some women choose to wear regular bras and simply slip forms inside. In cases where underarm lymph nodes had to be removed, there may be extensive scarring under the arms. Therefore. when trying on blouses and other shirts, take a close look at the armholes. Anything too loose may make you feel uncomfortable if it exposes scarring. Depending on how much tissue and breast wall has been removed, the chest may actually be concave. Wearing patterned shirts can help disguise this area and draw attention away. Fashion has come a long way, and there are now many different options in post-mastectomy clothing. Having a mastectomy is seldom easy, but knowing what to expect afterward can chase away some of the anxiety.


CLAREMORE PROGRESS • Breast Cancer Awareness October 21, 2012— PAGE 7

Breast cancer organizations A number of organizations share the goal of raising money to fund cancer research and help individuals battling cancer to get the care they need. Breast cancer has captured the hearts of many across the globe, annually inspiring various companies and organizations to fund research opportunities. Each -year consumers can purchase pink merchandise, and a portion of those sales is donated to breast cancer initiatives. Makeup, food and clothing manufacturers are not the only people who are raising donations; there are several different breast cancer organizations doing their part, too. * Susan G. Komen for the Cure: Susan G. Komen fought breast cancer with her heart, body and soul. Throughout her diagnosis, treatments and endless days in the hospital, she spent her time thinking of ways to make life better for other women battling breast cancer instead of worrying about her own situation. That concern for others continued even as Susan neared the end of her fight. In 1982, her sister Nancy organized a movement to further Susan's efforts. Since its inception, the organization has invested more than $1.9 billion in breast cancer research and, in efforts to raise breast cancer awareness, has become the largest source of nonprofit funds dedicated to the fight against breast cancer in the world. * National Breast Cancer Foundation, Inc.: The National Breast Cancer Foundation's mission is to save lives through early detection and to

provide mammograms for those in need. Their mission includes increasing awareness through education, providing diagnostic breast care services for those in need and providing nurturing support services. * BreastCancer.org: Breastcancer.org is a nonprofit organization dedicated to providing the most reliable, complete, and up-to-date information about breast cancer. Their mission is to help women and their loved ones make sense of the complex medical and personal information about breast cancer, so they can make the best decisions for their lives. * Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation: Since 1986, the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation has been at the forefront of a nationwide movement to raise awareness and mobilize action on breast cancer. Today, the foundation is the leading organization in Canada dedicated to creating a future without breast cancer. Their investments in vital research, education and health promotion programs have led to progress in breast cancer prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care. * Breast Cancer Society of Canada: For 20 years, the Breast Cancer Society of Canada has been a registered, national, not-for-profit, charitable organization dedicated to funding Canadian breast cancer research into the detection, prevention and treatment of breast cancer and to ultimately find a cure for the disease. It was begun by the husband and parents of Pamela GreenawayKohlmeier after she lost her battle with breast cancer in 1992.


PAGE 8 — CLAREMORE PROGRESS • Breast Cancer Awareness October 21, 2012

Routine check up schedule for women While there are many health screenings relevant to both men and women, there are also tests specific to each gender. Two of the more important routine screenings women should be aware of are regular mammograms and pap tests, which can both diagnose risk factors for certain types of cancer. Mammogram A mammogram consists of X-ray pictures of the breasts and is used to detect irregularities in breast tissue that may reveal the presence of cancerous tumors. Screenings also might detect microcalcifications that can sometimes indicate breast cancer as well. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says that 40,678 breast cancer deaths occurred in 2009 and that 26 out of every

100,000 females will die from breast cancer. Most organizations, including the National Cancer Institute, recommend that women age 40 and over have a mammogram done every one to two years to help catch cancer early, which improves a woman's chance of survival. However, not every woman is routinely getting screened. In the United States, roughly 68 percent of women have gotten mammograms within the last two years, according to the CDC. Although mammograms require small doses of radiation, which can cause cancer, to take the images, the benefits nearly always outweigh the risks. It is recommended that women age 35 to 39 get a baseline mammogram so they have an image of the healthy breast to which future mammograms can be compared.

Women are advised to get routine examinations, including pap tests and mammograms.

Pap Tests A pap test, also known as a pap smear, is a diagnostic tool that checks for cellular changes in the cervix. The cervix serves as a barrier point between the vagina and the uterus. The pap test is usually done in a gynecologist's office, although family practitioners also may administer it in their own offices. The doctor will insert a speculum into the vagina to widen the passageway so he or she can see the cervix. He or she then will take a sample of cells from inside and outside the cervix and send them to a laboratory for testing. It is recommended that a woman refrain from sexual activity prior to her pap test. It's also best if a woman does not use any lubricants, cleansers or medications that are used intravaginally before the test. Also, she should not use tampons. In fact, those who have their menstrual period will want to reschedule the pap because it can be difficult for a doctor to get a good collection of cells for testing. The frequency of pap tests will be determined by the woman's age, results of prior pap tests, medical history, and history of the human papilloma virus, or HPV. Many

women get annual pap tests starting at age 21 or when they first become sexually active. Those who have had normal results for at least three years in a row may opt to get tested every two or three years. Women who are age 65 or older may be able to cease pap tests, but annual pelvic exams are still advised. For those who have had a hysterectomym which involves the removal of the uterus, pap tests are still necessary. However, after a total hysterectomy (removal of the uterus and cervix), pap tests may stop. Pap tests are not always 100 percent accurate, however. False positive and false negative results can happen. The doctor may require a different type of test if a pap test comes back with a positive result. To remain healthy, women are advised to keep up with routine physicals and tests that can help diagnose cervical and breast cancer in their early stages. If lack of medical insurance is preventing a woman from being tested, she can contact the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program to find programs that offer free or low-cost pap tests to women in need.


CLAREMORE PROGRESS • Breast Cancer Awareness October 21, 2012— PAGE 9

e five most deadly cancers Cancer has surpassed heart disease as the foremost cause of death for people in North America. A cancer diagnosis can be life-altering. Although there are many successful treatments for cancer, there is no definitive cure. Plus, certain cancers continue to be more ominous than others. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are more than 100 types of cancer, characterized by their location in the body and abnormal cell growth in that area. Millions of dollars have been raised and spent on cancer research and finding new and innovative methods of treatment. Although the five-year survival rate for those with cancer in the United States has improved considerably over the last three decades, the National Cancer Institute still lists many cancers as the primary killers of many people. Here is the most recent classification of the five cancers that claim the most lives each year. 1. Lung cancer: Lung cancer is responsible for more deaths than any other cancer. Roughly 160,000 people succumb to lung and bronchial-related cancers each year. Although it is the most deadly, it is also the most preventable, as many cases of lung cancer are the result of certain lifestyle choices. Quitting smoking is the single most effective way to reduce your risk of lung cancer. 2. Colorectal cancer: In 2008, 52,857 Americans died from colorectal cancer, says the CDC. Most cases of colorectal cancer begin with groupings of small, benign

cells called polyps that over time become cancerous. Screening is necessary to check for cancer of the colon and rectum, but because they are embarrassed and uncomfortable, many people avoid preventive measures. 3. Breast cancer: The second most common cancer in women, breast cancer can affect both sexes. It is also the most deadly cancer among women, with roughly 35 percent of the cases in the United States Certain cancers claim more lives than others. resulting in fatality. 4. Pancreatic cancer: The pancreas aids in digestion and metabolism. This cancer is deadly because it is difficult to detect in its early stages, as it does not always produce symptoms and the cancer tends to progress rapidly. Pancreatic cancer claims around 40,000 lives each year. 5. Prostate cancer: Prostate cancer is exclusive to men and is the second-leading cause of cancer deaths among them, according to the NCI. This type of cancer forms in the prostate, a gland that produces seminal fluid that carries sperm. It is estimated that 28,000 men will die from prostate cancer in 2012. Although many cancers are fatal, survival rates are improving. Thousands of people diagnosed with cancer beat the odds and go on to live healthy, disease-free lives.


PAGE 10 — CLAREMORE PROGRESS • XXXX Breast Cancer Awareness October 21, 2012

Exploring the different types of breast cancer Breast cancer is a universal term to describe several different cancers that form in and around the breasts. Breast cancer types are generally categorized based on where the illness begins, most often in the ducts or lobules, the parts of the female anatomy responsible for producing breast milk. About 226,870 new cases of invasive breast cancer in American women will be diagnosed in 2012, while more than 22,000 Canadian women will be diagnosed with breast cancer over that same time period. The National Breast Cancer Foundation lists seven different types of breast cancer. Here's a look at them. * Ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS): This is an early form of breast cancer that refers to the presence of abnormal cells inside a milk duct in the

breast. This type of cancer is generally found during mammograms and is considered non-invasive. This means it hasn't spread yet. This makes treatment for DCIS easier than for other forms of breast cancer. * Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC): Also known as invasive ductal carcinoma, this is the most common type of breast cancer. According to BreastCancer.org, roughly 80 percent of all breast cancer cases are IDC. This cancer starts in the ducts, but "infiltrating" means that it spreads to the surrounding breast tissue. Over time, IDC can spread to the lymph nodes and possibly to other areas of the body. * Medullary carcinoma: This is a less common form of breast cancer.

It is a type of IDC, but it gets its name from the color of the tumors, which are close to the color of brain tissue, or medulla. Medullary carcinoma is quite visible during mammograms because the cancer cells are large and form a barrier between healthy tissue and tumors. * Infiltrating lobular carcinoma (ILC): The American Cancer Society says that 1 in 10 women will be diagnosed with ILC, which originates in the milk-producing glands of the breast. In ILC, abnormal cells inside the lobule begin to divide and break through the wall of the lobule to invade the surrounding connecting tissues. * Tubular carcinoma: This is a common cancer for women ages 50 and older. When viewed under the microscope, tubular carcinoma cells have a distinctive tubular structure. There is a 95 percent survival rate for tubu-

lar carcinoma. * Mucinous carcinoma (Colloid): This is a rare condition in which the breast cancer cells within the breast produce mucus. The mucus and the cancer cells join together to form a jelly-like tumor. The tumors may feel like bumpy water balloons, but some are too small to detect with the fingers. * Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC): This is a rare and very aggressive type of breast cancer that causes the lymph vessels in the skin around the breast to become blocked. The cancer gets its name from the appearance of a swollen, red and inflamed breast. Women are advised to get a baseline mammogram in their mid-30s and then annual mammograms starting at age 40. Early detection is generally vital for any form of cancer and is especially so for breast cancer.

The National Breast Cancer Foundation lists seven different types of breast cancer. Here's a look at them.


CLAREMORE PROGRESS • Breast Cancer Awareness October 21, 2012— PAGE 11

Establishing the pink ribbon symbol The pink ribbon has been synonymous with breast cancer for years. Nowadays, people rarely think twice when they see pink ribbons, having grown accustomed to the pink ribbon and what it symbolizes. Breast Cancer Awareness Month has been celebrated each year since 1985, and many other breast cancer awareness initiatives have been devised since then. While the pink ribbon may seem like it's been in use for just as long, it was actually established only about 20 years ago. Ribbons have long symbolized something important. For decades, yellow ribbons have been used to alert others to soldiers at war or hostages that hadn't yet come home. People often tie yellow ribbons around trees at home until their service men and women came home safely. During the height of HIV/AIDS activism and awareness, red ribbons were worn to symbolize support for those with the disease. Although the pink ribbon evolved because pink expresses femininity, calm, health, and youth, the first breast cancer ribbon was actually peach. Charlotte Haley is credited with devising the first breast cancer ribbon in 1992. She was a breast cancer survivor and came from a family of women who also fought the disease. She created peach-colored loops at home and then distributed the ribbons at her local grocery stores. Haley encouraged people to wear the ribbons and contact legislators to demand more funding for breast cancer research. An attached note was distributed with the ribbons

stating, "The National Cancer Institute annual budget is $1.8 billion, only 5 percent goes for cancer prevention. Help us wake up our legislators and America by wearing this ribbon." The same year Evelyn Lauder, senior corporate vice president for the Estee Lauder company, and Self magazine editor Alexandra Penney teamed up to produce a pink ribbon. It was distributed at makeup counters all across the country. The comBreast Cancer Awareness Month has been celebrated each year since pany collected more than 1985, and many other breast cancer awareness initiatives have been devised 200,000 pink ribbon petitions since then. While the pink ribbon may seem like it's been in use for just as asking the U.S. government for long, it was actually established only about 20 years ago. increased funding for breast cancer research. Although Lauder and Haley reached people on different levels, their goals were the same: To educate the public on the lack of funds allotted to breast cancer research. Pink ribbons are now seen all over and have become the uniting force for millions of women who are facing breast cancer or supporting someone with the disease. In 1996, Nancy Nick created a blue-and-pink ribbon to symbolize male breast cancer ribbons in honor of her late father. The ribbons remind others that breast cancer can affect men as well as women. Although you can see waves of pink every October for Breast Cancer Awareness Month, many people don their ribbons year-round. Great strides have been made with respect to breast cancer, but with about 225,000 new cases popping up each year in the United States alone, there is still work to be done.


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