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Copyright ŠThe Canadian Red Cross Society, February 2009 All rights reserved All rights to reproduce, translate and adapt, in whole or in part, are reserved for all countries. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, by any means electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, without prior written permission from the Canadian Red Cross Society. Printed in Canada ISBN 978-1-55104-452-1

Table of Contents 1

2 3 4 5

NOTES TO THE FACILITATOR Learning Objective Workshop Outline with timings What happens in this workshop Facilitator’s Tools List of Required Materials


INTRODUCTION Opening Exercise Introduction to Facilitator and Session Today’s Topic Red Cross and Disaster Relief




DVD showing Identifying consequences identifying underlying causes / factors (‘Iceberg’)


13 REDUCING SUFFERING AND VULNERABILITY Solutions and Responses to Natural Disasters 16 Poverty Reduction and Millennium Development Goals 17 Obstacles 20 CONCLUSION Our Ecological Footprint Daily Actions reduce our demands on the earth 21 Disaster Preparedness at Home Closing remarks

Learning Objective PURPOSE

To increase public awareness and involvement concerning the devastating effects of natural disasters and the critical role of international humanitarian response in alleviating and preventing suffering.


By the end of the session, the participants should be able to:

1) explain and link many of the natural and human-driven factors which cause and exacerbate disasters worldwide 2) identify both short-term and long-term, sustainable solutions—as well as obstacles to overcome 3) understand how they can be involved at a local level to make a difference in helping ease the suffering caused by natural disasters, as well as being part of the long-term solution of preventing future disasters and protecting our environment. Workshop Outline with Timings -- 75 Minute Sample PART I INTRODUCTION TO SESSION 1. Opening exercise 2. Introduction of facilitator and session 3. Today’s topic 4. Red Cross and disaster relief


PART II Complex Disasters: -- Hurricane Mitch Case Study 1. DVD showing 2. Identifying consequences 3. Identifying underlying causes / factors (‘Iceberg’)


PART III Reducing Suffering and Vulnerability 1. Solutions and responses to natural disasters 2. Poverty reduction and Millennium Development Goals 3. Obstacles


PART III CONCLUSION 1. Our Ecological Footprint 2. Daily actions reduce our demands on the earth 3. InfoAction 4. Disaster preparedness at home 5. Closing remarks


Natural Disasters: Exploring the Un-Natural Causes of Vulnerability

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Notes to the Facilitator Evidence suggests that mankind’s exploitation of environment, benign or otherwise, is significantly changing the way our biosphere works. Gradual changes in world climate will continue to manifest themselves in extreme weather events. With almost a billion people now living in unplanned urban shanty towns, with deforestation destroying ecological defences against catastrophic natural events, and with global warming making the forces of wind, rain and sun even harder to predict and counter, the world is at risk as never before. Over 95 per cent of all deaths from natural disasters already happen in the South1, or developing countries. Yet falling aid budgets, unstable governments, civil conflict, and the dynamics of debt and globalization are leaving the world’s poor behind -- paralyzed by lack of resources, education, prospects or security. This deadly combination of environmental change, economic inequity, political inaction and human short-sightedness presents a complex profile for future disasters.

What happens during this workshop? The version of the Natural Disasters: Exploring the Un-Natural Causes of Vulnerability workshop presented here has been designed to last 75 minutes. A brief written survey, done at the outset, draws out individual attitudes regarding natural disasters — and presents an opportunity for comparison at workshop’s end. A 10-minute DVD, Hurricane Mitch: A Tragedy in Central America, produced by the Red Cross in Honduras, gives participants a visual and a human perspective on the disaster. This is followed by a large group process that identifies the human consequences (medical and health, economic and social) of the hurricane and its aftermath. Participants are then engaged in a pairs / small-group exercise — the key activity in the workshop — that asks them to identify aspects of daily life in Central America that led to the devastating 10,000 deaths from this hurricane. We direct this exploration towards social, economic, environmental, and political conditions, under the acronym SEEP (Social-Environmental-Economic-Political). Participants then explore the range of responses to natural disasters, ranging from immediate relief assistance through rebuilding (rebuilding, recovery) to reducing future risk (preparedness, prevention), with examples drawn from Canadian Red Cross projects in the Indian Ocean regions off the east coast of Africa on the island nations of Madagascar, Comoros and Mauritius Next, we look at potential obstacles to carrying out these solutions. The workshop closes with a brief activity highlighting personal environmental impact, followed by a group brainstorm around taking action, locally and globally, individually and collectively — including individual disaster preparedness here in Canada. Finally, the opening survey is revisited, highlighting any attitudinal or informational shifts that may have occurred. 1

World Disasters Report 1999, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

Natural Disasters: Exploring the Un-Natural Causes of Vulnerability

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Facilitator’s Tools The tools for the Natural Disasters: Exploring the UN-Natural Causes of Vulnerability session include the Facilitator Guide, the DVD, the handouts, and the worksheets. They contain everything you need to facilitate this training workshop. But it is important that you first develop a base of knowledge around key environmental issues connected with natural disasters, as well as some of the obstacles to development / poverty reduction covered towards the end of the workshop — in particular environmental degradation, aid, trade and debt — so that you can help participants understand their importance in the recovery, preparedness and prevention process. Facilitator Guide The Facilitator Guide is your reference tool. In order for the training to proceed smoothly, it is essential to use the Guide in both your preparation process and workshop facilitation. It outlines the training sequence, as well as suggestions for your interventions. It includes the following elements: Top of page: – Title of the section – Duration of the section Left column: – Topic – Approximate duration – Material required for the topic Right column: – Learning activities: instructions for addressing topics, questions to ask, answers sought, key points to emphasize – Speaking points are bulleted, whereas instructions to the facilitator are not. Symbols Used



Flipchart Slide / Overhead / Visual Natural Disasters: Exploring the Un-Natural Causes of Vulnerability

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List of Required Materials Material

DVD: Mitch: A Tragedy in Central America (download from Canadian Red Cross website)

Handouts •

No 1: Natural Disasters: A Survey

No 2: Disaster Response Oval Diagram

No 3: Hurricane Mitch in Central America — “Iceberg”

No 4: Indian Ocean Projects

No 5: Reducing Poverty — Millennium Development Goals and Obstacles

No 6: InfoAction Sheet

Slides •

Slide No 1: Workshop Title

Slide No 2: Map of Central America

Slide No 3: Hurricane Mitch - “Iceberg”

Slide No 4: Disaster Response Oval Diagram

Slide No 5: Indonesia House

Slide No 6: Indian Ocean - Map

Slide No 7: Indian Ocean - Warehouse

Slide No 8: Indian Ocean - Supplies

Slide No 9: Indian Ocean - Tents

Slide No 10: Indian Ocean – Water Equipment

Slide No 11: Indian Ocean – First Aid

Slide No 12 Indian Ocean – Community Assessments

Slide No 13 Volcano

Slide No 14 Millennium Development Goals

Slide No 15 Obstacles to Relief / Development

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I Introduction

10 minutes

Topic / Duration / Materials

Learning Activities OPENING EXERCISE

Duration: 7 mins

...Some kind of a 'hook' that captures attention, confronts stereotypes, strikes a personal chord, or otherwise makes an impact at the outset OPTION A:

Handout No 1 Natural Disasters: A Survey

Natural Disasters: A Survey

Give participants the three-question survey of attitudes towards natural disasters and ask them to fill it out. Encourage them to quickly and honestly register their opinions. They are encouraged to discuss it among themselves as they do it, but let them know we will look at this later on—in fact, we will do so at the very end of the session. Facilitator Note: If you have space, you could do this survey physically. Tape sheets with the five possible responses (from ‘Agree’ to ‘Disagree”) on the wall across the front of the room. Then read out, in turn, each of the three statements and ask participants to stand near the response that reflects their opinion. If time is an issue: OPTION B:

“Important Parts of Your Life”

Ask participants to write 5-8 ‘things’ that are very important in their lives—people, activities, possessions—on a piece of paper .Then ask them to cross out a few at random—say, second, thrd, and sixth. • How would this affect you if these parts of your life were taken away in an instant?” Draw out a few responses from participants. • This is what happens to people during natural disasters—and we will be exploring this today.

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Topic / Duration / Materials

Learning Activities OPTION C: For shorter sessions:It may only be possible to only to ask participants abou current natural disasters they are aware of in the world. INTRODUCTION OF FACILITATOR AND SESSION

Duration: 5 mins

Introduce yourself and the topic. o title of workshop o any relevant personal experience or 'story' TODAY’S TOPIC

Duration: 5 mins

Slide No 1 Workshop Title

• The devastating tsunami on Dec 26, 2004 brought us a much deeper awareness regarding the destructiveness that natural disasters can bring — and the hurricanes of 2005 (Katrina in USA, Stan in Central America), as well as the earthquake in Pakistan, have reinforced how vulnerable many people are. • But this workshop will not focus on these particular major disasters — we don’t want to give the impression that ‘smaller’ disasters are not serious issues. Each year there are dozens of disasters impacting millions of people that receive little or no media attention. • The world is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters, especially those areas already at risk due to social, political, environmental and economic conditions. The reason? — a deadly combination of causes, both natural and human, are coming together to produce more intense and unpredictable natural disasters worldwide— this is the “un”- natural part of the workshop title. • Over 95 per cent of the deaths from natural disasters happen in the developing world2. • Today we will be exploring the consequences of natural disasters, the various aspects of life that make people vulnerable to natural disasters, as well as looking at how we can reduce future risk and lessen the consequences—


World Disasters Report, 1998, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

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Topic / Duration / Materials

Learning Activities or at least better prepare for them, if prevention is not always or easily possible. • We will look at one particular disaster in some detail, Hurricane Mitch in Central America, including watching a short DVD. • In many ways, Hurricane Mitch was a disaster that caused the most devastation among the most impoverished —both the countries themselves and their people. • We will also look at some of the preparedness and riskreduction projects taking place in Indian Ocean nations of Madagascar, Comoros and Mauritius impacted annually by natural disasters. RED CROSS AND DISASTER RELIEF Give a brief view of the history of the Red Cross, its principles and focus:

Duration: 3 mins

• Began with providing impartial humanitarian protection and assistance to victims of war • Began working in health field following WWI • Expanded to include disasters (man-made and natural) with the Japan earthquake in 1923 • Focus on assistance to and protection of the vulnerable, especially related to natural disasters • The Red Cross worldwide (more than 185 countries) focuses on the vulnerable — those individuals, households or communities "at risk" from situations related to injury, illness, abuse, neglect, violence, disaster and/or deteriorating socio-economic conditions. • Both the international Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and the Canadian Red Cross provide direct disaster response and preparedness assistance to countries around the world that are vulnerable to natural disasters—this is a main focus for the Red Cross everywhere. Natural Disasters: Exploring the Un-Natural Causes of Vulnerability

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Topic / Duration / Materials

Learning Activities • Canadian Red Cross works with community groups and other agencies to support a national response to disasters throughout the world. • The Canadian Red Cross also works with governments (local, provincial, national) to respond to domestic disasters as well as providing disaster preparedness education.

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II Complex Disasters: Hurricane Mitch Case Study

Topic / Duration / Material

45 minutes

Learning Activities DVD SHOWING Play Mitch: A Tragedy in Central America DVD (10 min.)

Duration: 15 min Material: -DVD: Mitch: A Tragedy in Central America

Slide No 2 Map of Central America

Before showing the video, set it up by giving people a brief description of the disaster (date, location, scope): - October 1998; year’s worth of rain in three days; 10,000 deaths; massive destruction of infrastructure Let people know that this DVD shows the Red Cross response, but there were, of course, many other organizations doing similar work. There is some Spanish speaking with English subtitles ... and if participants cannot read these, the facilitator will summarize following the DVD. Lastly, there are images of bodies, so let people know this will happen. IDENTIFYING CONSEQUENCES

Duration: 5 mins

While the participants are watching the DVD, write three headings on the board and put one or two of the more obvious items under each heading. For example: Medical / health care 10,000 deaths Unsafe water Economic Loss of income Social Conditions Homelessness Loss of possessions When the DVD is finished, ask students to collectively contribute as many other ideas under each heading as they can—in about 3-5 minutes of brainstorming!

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You don’t need to write these suggestions on the board. After the ‘brainstorm’, give out the Disaster Response (‘double oval’) handout … and ask them, for now, just to look at the inner oval for the consequences—including ones that may not have come out during the collective brainstorm. Handout No 2 Disaster Response Oval Diagram


Duration: 5 mins

NOTE: This is the single, most valuable component in the workshop, so it deserves the time needed for students to ‘get it’. These underlying factors will lead smoothly into the identification of obstacles later on ... and also to the “Taking Action” possibilities. NOTE: While the DVD is playing, also draw the blank ‘iceberg’ on the board or flip chart. Make it quite large. Introduce and explain the traditional “iceberg” diagram i.e. the concept that only five to10 per cent is above the water, the rest being ‘invisible’ or beneath the surface Handout the Hurricane Mitch in Central America (“iceberg”) worksheet.

Slide No 3 Hurricane Mitch in Central America ‘Iceberg’

The visible elements of wind, rain, floods, are just the ‘tip of the iceberg’ … what is ‘under the water’ are ALL the other existing conditions in these societies that made the hurricane so destructive. Students will work in groups of two or three, using this handout . First ask students to guess what SEEP stands for. [Social, Environmental, Economic, Political]

Handout No 3 Hurricane Mitch in Central America — ‘Iceberg’

We don’t want to do the work for the students, but it will usually be helpful to offer an example of, say, a political or a social factor, as these are the ones that sometimes require some critical thinking and analysis. Social: There is a large gap between rich and poor in both these countries.

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• How might this have led to the death and destruction.? Hurricane Mitch was very much a disaster of the poor. Political – inadequate government policies [Economic and Environmental are usually clearer.] • Your task is to come up with the underlying causes (social, economic, environmental, and political) of the destruction brought on by this event—conditions that existed before the hurricane struck. • What are the various factors and situations that you think might have lead to this disaster or contributed to its severity? Another way of presenting this task: • If Hurricane Mitch had struck Florida or Texas, it might have killed a few dozen people, or perhaps as many as a hundred. But it killed 10,000 in Honduras and Nicaragua. Why? • Life in Florida is similar to life in Canada. Identify and reflect upon our quality of life — our homes, communities, schools, infrastructure, etc — that ensure our health and security on a daily basis? Give them seven to eight minutes to work in groups on this activity. With this task, it is necessary to circulate and encourage participants to dig deeper into the real root causes of the disaster. Students sometimes get fixed on the results of the hurricane—death, injury, destruction, etc. Keep them focused on the conditions before the hurricane struck. Next ask people for their ideas, placing these inside the bottom part of the iceberg diagram that you have drawn on the board. Take a couple of answers from one group, then move on to another, and so on. Remember: print in large letters, using words or short phrases… Natural Disasters: Exploring the Un-Natural Causes of Vulnerability

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This is often quite challenging for high school students to make the kind of links we are aiming at in this session. But this is likely the most important part of the session, so “fish”, or even prompt, a little. Some of the less obvious factors come out slowly, and you will, no doubt, have to prompt and guide a little. Become very familiar with the possible answers (see below). Challenge them to explain the why’s and how’s around the role of climate change. If ozone layer depletion comes up, be clear (and make they are clear) that, although they are related, global warming and ozone layer are not the same issue. Do the same with deforestation i.e. ask them to explain why loss of trees/forests contributes to this problem o trees take CO2 out of the atmosphere o trees absorb water o trees help hold the soil, preventing erosion Try to anticipate the factors that students will have problems identifying and plan to have prompts ready. Everything that follows (identifying solutions and obstacles) flows out of this critical analysis, so ensure that the key ideas come out. Possible Answers Social o o o o o o o o o

inadequate healthcare poor health poor housing and housing regulations building on risky land poor communication and technology illiteracy / lack of education urban sprawl / crowded ‘slums’ inadequate infrastructure poor disaster preparedness (early warning, evacuation planning)

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Economic o o o o o o o o o o

dependence on cash crops for export low tax base not owning land low personal income / savings international debt burden (…causes cuts in services) low international aid unfair trade (tariffs, subsidies) gap between ‘haves’ and ‘have nots’ / rich and poor generally weak economy effects of colonialism

Environmental o o o o o

deforestation climate change harmful faming practices (soil erosion) mining practices geographical location (hurricane zone)

Political o o o o

poor governance corruption conflict / high military spending political / economic power in urban areas

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III Reducing Suffering and Vulnerability

Topic / Duration / Materials

10 minutes


Duration: 5 mins

Slide No 4 Disaster Response Oval Diagram

Now we want to briefly review with the whole group “solutions” and responses, using the three broad categories in the second oval outside the ‘consequences’ oval: o Response / Relief o Rebuilding § Repair § Recovery o Reducing future risk § Preparedness § Prevention Participants already have this information in the handout you provided after the Mitch video. We don’t need—or want—to just read through everything with them. Rather, we will do a combination of ‘fishing’ for some missing aspects or highlighting / filling out others.

Handout No 2 Disaster Response Oval Diagram

Under RESPONSE / RELIEF, the ‘basics’ (food, water, medical care, shelter, clothing) will be quite obvious to all, so participants will likely easily get this part. Refer them back to images from the DVD showing relief supplies and activities. On the sheet, there are two empty bullet points for two aspects they might not immediately identify: • Reuniting separated families • Safety and security (due to dislocation and lack of public order)

Under REBUILDING—Repair, mention: • Effective development and rebuilding helps survivors build back better—not just houses but strong resilient communities. That is why, from the outset, it links houses with water and sanitation, health services, roads, Natural Disasters: Exploring the Un-Natural Causes of Vulnerability

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Topic / Duration / Materials

Learning Activities income sources and other supports necessary for communities to thrive and grow. • This was done in Honduras and Nicaragua—not only building better, stronger houses, and adding water access and other services, but in many cases, houses were built in more stable, less dangerous areas near their former location … that is, not on hillsides or near river beds.

Slide No 5 Indonesia House

• In Indonesia and Sri Lanka, following the 2004 tsunami, in addition to better houses in less vulnerable areas, sometimes the layout of streets in towns and villages were changed to prevent dead ends that trapped people attempting to flee. Explore with them the full breadth of infrastructure that needs repair—water, sewage, transport, communication, etc.

Handout No 5 Indian Ocean Projects

Slide No 6 Indian Ocean - Map

Under REBUILDING—Recovery: There is a blank bullet because ‘Trauma Counselling’ has been left out — so ‘fish’ for this important aspect. Certainly the anguish we saw on the faces of people in the Mitch video, or during media coverage of the tsunami in 2004, make it clear that people are going through a great deal of mental and emotional turmoil, for which they will need help, perhaps even long after the physical repair has been done. Under REDUCING FUTURE RISK—Preparedness, specific examples will be drawn from the Canadian Red Cross projectsthat began after the 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean nations of Madagascar, Comoros and Mauritius region off the eastern coast of Africa. Emergency stocks warehouses •

Slides No 7 Indian Ocean - Warehouse

In Mauritius, the program is remodelling a building that will become the emergency stock warehouse and will provide emergency supplies . In Comoros and Madagascar, the warehouses are already in place, so in these countries, the program stocked the warehouses with emergency supplies..

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Topic / Duration / Materials

Learning Activities •

Slides No 8 Indian Ocean - Supplies

These supplies include: o hygiene kits o non-perishable food items o tents o water treatment equipment.

• Indian Ocean region is prone to cyclones. The stocks in the emergency warehouse will be much needed in the event of a disaster. Training •

The Canadian Red Cross is supporting training to the National Societies of Madgascar, Mauritius and Comoros in regional disaster response. This includes how to set up tents that will be temporary shelters in the event of a disaster.

Water treatment exercise. Water treatment is a critical, life saving activity during disasters, which ensures that people have access to a potable water source. Disasters can flood traditional water supplies, and destroy wells or pipes. Affected populations may also need to relocate to temporary shelters where there are no water systems nearby. Through practical exercises, the Canadian Red Cross supported its partners with training on water treatment and the use of equipment.

First Aid Training, being a priority activity to respond to the risks of injuries in communities, is also being provided.

Slides No 9 Indian Ocean - Tents

Slides No 10 Indian Ocean - Water Equipment

Slides No 11 Indian Ocean - First Aid

Slides No 12 Indian Ocean - Community Assessments

Vulnerability Capacity Assessments (VCA) •

These assessments are for communities to identify the risks in their environments—and this is the first step in disaster risk reduction—knowing the risks.

After Canadian Red Cross provided VCA training in the summer of 2008, some communities identified First Aid Training as a priority activity to deal with the risks in the communities they serve. Since the country is surrounded by water, drownings occur frequently, so

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Topic / Duration / Materials

Learning Activities first aid skills have the utmost importance.

These participatory assessments are ongoing, so other community needs and priorities may be identified, such as: o the need for an early warning system. These systems can warn communities of cyclones or tsunamis o the need for health centres in certain locations o constructing (or adjusting) buildings to be flood resistant fashion, since the area is prone to flooding.

Slides No 13 Volcano

• Comoros is in an active volcano region, so risk reduction work will help reduce vulnerability around this potential danger.

Under REDUCING FUTURE RISK—Prevention: Explore specifically how the environment can be protected and restored: • regulations, enforcement, reforestation, better farming practices, damns / water flow patterns The final critical point—Poverty Reduction—we will now explore. POVERTY REDUCTION AND MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS Duration: 10 mins

Obviously, the reality of poverty—both individual and government—is a key obstacle to overcome in order to improve the lives of people, which in turn makes them less vulnerable to future natural disasters and their effects. It’s difficult to give specific examples of countries overcoming their poverty and including social spending that addresses the vulnerability to disasters.

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Topic / Duration / Materials

Learning Activities However, both China and India, with improved economies and international assistance, have been spending more on preparedness. The Central American and Caribbean countries have joined together to share the costs of preparedness planning that will benefit them all. We also saw how the Indian Ocean nations are focusing on risk reduction activities. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Draw students’ attention to the Millennium Development Goals / Obstacles handout.

Slide No 14 Millennium Development Goals

• The UN has established these goals for 2015 to reduce poverty and improve the lives of people in developing countries. You need only spend a couple of minutes on these goals – we just want expose students to the shape of the international strategy to reduce poverty and improve the quality of life of people in the developing world.

Handout No 6 Link some of the priorities in these goals to the Reducing Poverty — vulnerabilities that students have explored among the Millennium societies in Honduras and Nicaragua, in particular. Development Goals and Obstacles


Duration: 5 mins

Finally, we want participants to explore some of the larger elements of policy that will permit the above solutions to be put in place. Many of these elements represent obstacles to progress and are strongly linked to the underlying causes / factors which were explored during the iceberg activity.

Slide No 15 Obstacles to Relief and Development

The final MDG mentions aid, trade and debt — so now elaborate on these three especially (see below), as you outline some important obstacles to both reducing poverty and making people less vulnerable to disasters.

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Topic / Duration / Materials

Learning Activities Here are some notes to help you do this: Lack of money for public spending, especially on social programs (health care, education, housing, etc.— including disaster preparedness).

1) Falling international aid • In 1969, developed nations pledged to provide point Handout No 4 seven of one per cent (0.7) of their GNI (Gross Reducing Poverty — National Income) to international aid. Millennium • Only a small handful of Northern European nations, Development Goals such as Sweden, Denmark and Norway, have ever Obstacles achieved this goal • Other European nations have issued pledges to reach this target soon. • Canada has never made it. In 2006-07, Canada's official development aid was about 0.33 per cent3 of our GNI, or half of what we should be giving. 2) High debt burden • There are about 41 nations ‘crippled’ by debt. • But of the 22 nations receiving debt relief4, three -quarters will be spending over ten per cent of government revenue on debt this year. Sixteen countries will be spending more on debt than on the health of their citizens, and ten will be spending more on debt than on primary education and health combined. • Debt diverts money away from social spending and towards interest payments. • Honduras and Nicaragua are both classified as Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs). 3) Unfair trade conditions (barriers, subsidies) • Europe, the US and Japan subsidize their agricultural industries (and some others), which makes the prices artificially lower than those from the developing world. • Most developed countries place tariffs on imports of products from developing countries.

3 4

Canadian Council for International Cooperation (Make Poverty History link)

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Topic / Duration / Materials

Learning Activities 4) Little international action on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and environmental degradation • Kyoto Accord became binding international agreement in Feb. 2005. • Slow development of alternative fuel sources. • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) confirmed in Feb. 2007 that human activity is definitely linked with climate change. • In April the IPCC further warned that Canada will face big problems as temperatures rise—but such problems are small compared to the forecast for the world’s poorer countries and citizens. • They will face severe problems around both water and food supply, impacting most those dependent on agriculture for survival. This further reinforces the immediate need for measures that will reduce risk, including disaster preparedness and improvement in the overall quality of life (poverty reduction). 5) “Consumer / Non-conserving culture” in industrialized societies… this will lead into Conclusion.

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IV Conclusion

Topic / Duration / Materials

10 minutes


Duration: 4 mins

Ask 1/5 (20 per cent) of the students to stand (six students in a class of thirty): • If this class represents the world, then you six are the 20 per cent of the population that consumes 80 per cent of the resources — the so-called developed world. • Two of you please sit down — the rest of you now represent North America ... so you can see how significant our part in resource consumption and possible environmental degradation could be. • The ecological footprint concept captures the impact we have on the earth in just living our lives — resources used, pollution generated, etc. • If everyone on earth lived like us 20 per cent, we would need 2 ½ planets to support us all. Experts believe that human activity is leading to climate change—and therefore influencing natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, drought, and so on. Our lifestyle affects the earth in many other ways … DAILY ACTIONS TO REDUCE OUR DEMANDS ON THE EARTH

Duration: 4 mins

Have a brainstorm / discussion with students … • A recent study of the 29 most-industrialized countries, or the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). has determined that in terms of water quality, air quality, energy conservation and water conservation, Canada stands 28th, or second last. • So, when we explore personal responsibility and action, we can see that, as individuals and as a country, we are not

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Topic / Duration / Materials

Learning Activities really addressing the environmental waste and degradation in our own 'back yard'--and that adopting some simple, daily changes in behaviour could contribute a great deal.

Duration: 2 mins

InfoAction Hand out the InfoAction sheet, which outlines options available for continued learning, disaster preparedness volunteering, and taking action locally to make a global difference, including protection of the environment.

Handout No 6 InfoAction

DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AT HOME • How many people in this room have a family disaster plan in place? Either give out pamphlets or direct them to online information about this kind of personal disaster preparedness from Red Cross or their provincial government. • Personal preparation is a key for all of us—it will allow us to both ensure our own survival and that of our family and friends for the all-important first 72 hours—and then to be of service and help to others. CLOSING REMARKS

Duration: 1 min.

Leave the participants with some image or idea that reinforces the key messages of the workshop. • Let’s look again at the Natural Disasters: A Survey you did at the top of the session. Has there been any shift in attitudes, however small, especially around the process of preventing and preparing for natural disasters? The key element is often the recognition that there is, in fact, something that can be done to reduce suffering both internationally and locally.

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Natural Disasters Workshop