Page 1


ISSUE 1 - “Influential artists, musicians, and athletes of the 21st century”

editor-in-chief Aaron Metz

design Aaron Metz

Special Thanks Kirk Kahu Heather Draper Arthur Klatt Saeed Rahman John D’Arcy

contributors Nir Amar Michelle Ang Alden Au Carlos Chan Christie Chan Christopher Chan Cynthia Chan Dorothy Chan Enid Chan Justin Chan Justin Chan Kenneth Chan Kristy Chan Matthew Chan Rene Chan Mollie Chase Joyce Chau Solomon Chau Enzo Cheng Jonathan Cheng Denise Cheung Man Cheung Brandon Chia Lauren Chickles Albert Chien Bryan Chiu Janice Choi Byron Chow Jane Chow Tiffany Chow Benjamin Chui Christie Chung Marco Clark Tara Dev Marc-Endr Alex Dopp Avery Enns Brittany Fong Jeannie Fong Gary Ge Brayden Handcock Neumann Hon Harry Hughes Lillian Hui Stephen Hwa Emma Janelle Eddie Kan

Joao Katsuya Yuma Kloiser-Jones Zoe Koong David Kuan Ernest Kwan Noten Kwan Valerie Kwok Jeremy Lai Michael Lai Mallory Lam Chris Lau Hilda Lau Hubert Lau Jonathan Lau Jae Lee Khyentse Lee Kim Lee Mollie Lentchner Nicole Leung YuiHang Leung Michael Li Pearl Li Veronica Li Clara Lim Jennifer Liu Kevin Lo Wing Pei Lo Carson Long Wilbert Luk Ashley Ma Jia Ma Lucas Ma Matthew Man Saumya Mathur Sian Mckeever Geoffrey Mo David Mok Nina Mueller Alastair Ng Daniel Ngk Jacquelyn Ng Linny Ng Monica Ng Yan Ng Naomi Ngai Sanny Ning Jessica Nip

Matthew Orr Daphne Pang Edward Pang Jun Pang Valerie Pang Yea Park Claire Quong Zarif Saabab Simran Sadarangani Megan Shum Barbara Singh Nishant Singh Jacqueline Siu Carter Smith Julian Snelling Pascal Snelling Edwin So Valerie So Bayley Solarz Thomas Spence Andre Steiner Frances Sun Philippa Torrance Bentley Tse Valerie Tse Cheuk To Tsui Samantha Tsui Heather Warning Ashley Wat Anlai Wei Andrea Wong Brandon Wong Caitlyn Wong Cherri Wong Elton Wong Howard Wong Joyce Wong Kelly Wong Lindy Wong Michelle Wong Prince Wong Sabrina Wong Tiffani Wong Kelly Wu Jenny Yau Tristan Young Nicole Yu Janiqueka Yung

myp technology humanities + technology interdisicplinary project

historical focus arts + Music + sports

technology focus print design

area of interaction human ingenuity


about this publication This publication is made up of contributions from MYP Year 4 students at the ­Canadian International School of Hong Kong and is the result of an interdisciplinary project between Humanities and Technology. Students were asked to ­research primary source information on a person from 21st century who has had an influence with the domain of the arts, music or sports. They were then ­required to follow the MYP design cycle framework to design and create a contribution that employed principles and elements of design and using the Adobe InDesign, Photoshop, Kuler and custom typeface using

the challenge How can print media communicate the cultural impact of a celebrated individual or group from the 20th Century? As Science students need laboratory equipment and Math students need calculators, History students need source books in order to understand and write historical narratives. This is a particular problem for the CDNIS Humanities Department as many of the source books published before the advent of the world wide web and mobile devices are still not readily accessible online and/or difficult to locate. When assigning historical research, the CDNIS Humanities Department have found that a large majority of students do not take advantage of human-complied source books archived in libraries. Instead, they often turn to Google to quickly locate ‘machine-compiled’ sources which can be problematic as the search results are mathematically ranked by ‘popularity’ and therefore the validity of the sources is questionable. The CDNIS Humanities Department recognize that with the wide-spread adoption of laptops and mobile devices, today’s students are ‘connected’ more than ever and simply find it more convenient to access historical information online “anywhere, anytime”. Students were presented with the challenge to create a well-researched, engaging and ­visually attractive electronic source book for the Humanities Department of the Canadian International School of Hong Kong to be distributed on the Issuu publishing platform and ultimately accessible via the web and mobile devices.



hinua Achebe is an acclaimed Nigerian writer known all over the world. He wrote books such as “Things Fall Apart” and many other famous books in English. Through his writing, he inspired a lot of other writers. Moreover he was able to communicate to the world with different perspectives and let small voices be heard. In Africa, Chinua Achebe is a celebrity for the people. As a Nigerian himself, Chinua Achebe disagreed with the viewpoints and ideas depicted in books depicted on Nigeria by other non-Africans. Ironically, Chinua Achebe was born into a family of Christian converts.From an early age he was brought up with Chritian, the villagers next door were the “people of nothing” and were mocked by his family of their eccentric food offering to gods. However as Achebe grew uphe began to realize that he grew up from a complete lie by the missionary influences. (“A Long Way from Home”) By publishing “Things Fall Apart” Chinua Achebe was the first to describe the European colonization from a perspective of an African. As soon as his book was published in 1958, it became an immediate hit worldwide, over millions of copies were sold and the book was translated into 50 languages. Chinua Achebe stated that he was surprised by the immense acclaim from the public he recieved. (cont. on right side)

Chinua Achebe: Africa’s Most INF “People from different parts of the world can respond to the same story.”

Chinua's Inspiration to Write


ublished in 1958, Things Fall Apart turned the west’s perception of Africa on its head a perception that until then had been based solely on the views of white colonialists, views that were at best anthropological, at worst, to adopt Achebe’s famous savaging of Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, “thoroughgoingly racist”. As research for his 1975 essay on the Conrad book, Image of Africa, Achebe counted all the words spoken in Heart of Darkness by Africans themselves. “There were six!” he tells me, laughing luxuriously. The rest of the time Conrad’s Africans merely make animal noises, he says, or shriek a lot. Achebe’s own parents lived the life of converts, changing their names to Isaiah and Janet and Christening him Albert. Born in 1930, he lived a childhood full of the Bible and hymns, and he learned English from the age of eight. Later, he was sent to the University of London. Through his early years this goodly Christianity was life as he assumed it should be. Villagers in Ogidi who remained aloof from the church were considered “lost” by his family. “We called them the people of nothing,” says Achebe.

But as he grew older he puzzled over the fact that others, especially an uncle who resisted conversion, were leading different lives. They would hold “heathen” celebrations and offer food to “idols”, as his parents would have it. What began for the young Achebe as curiosity grew into bemusement and finally anger about the lies that he had been told as a child. “The difference between what I had been told and what I saw was very powerful. The language the church people used - of ‘idolisation’ - was in itself an assault. And it hasn’t changed. Missionaries today still believe they are going to save lost souls. And it is a great lie.” The dawning realisation that his childhood world was founded upon a lie provided the rocket fuel that propelled him into writing, and made him swap the name Albert for the local name Chinua. In his more recent work he has turned the focus of that anger from the colonial intruder on to the African interloper - the corrupt and corrupted leaders who inherited the mantle of power from the white man and went on to abuse the hopes generated by independence.

from the book however then started to understand why people from different parts of the world read this book. It was because of the fact that they could connect and respond to the same story. (“An African Voice”) “Things Fall Apart” is a classic story based on a main character, Okonkwo and the village he lives in called Umofia. The story starts off with a daily life of an African community that is not yet affected by Western colonization. Achebe depicts the village as a simple lifestyle with their own problems happening inside the secluded area. Throughout the story you would mainly get Okonkwo’s perspectives starting from before the western ideas and until the influences enter the small village.. (“Things Fall Apart”) Wole Soyinka, a nobel prize winner, also awknowledges Achebe’ s works . Soyinka is truely amazed at how an uncommon story could arouse the public. He is impressed with Achebe’s literary skills that could captivate

such a contrasting audience. (Wole Soyinka) Chinua Achebe belived in the truth and portraying aspects or beliefs of each individual not just solely on the dominnt, colonial perspectives. As the twenty first century continues on he wishes that there will be more voices emerging from the diverse people who were beaten down into silence from the early history.

Things Fall Apart. By:Chinua Achebe


Works Cited Achebe, Chinua. Interview. An African Voice. The Atlantic Monthly Group, 2 Aug. 2000. Web. 4 Nov. 2011. <​past/​docs/​unbound/​interviews/​ba2000-08-02.htm>. - - -. Things Fall Apart. New York: Anchor Books , 1959. Print. “African Patterns.” Design Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. <​ pattsBGs/​patts01.html>. “Nigeria’s Promise, Africa’s Hope.” Sahara Reporters. N.p., 16 Jan. 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. <http://​article/​nigeria%E2%80%99s-promise-africa%E2%80%99s-hope-chinuaachebe-new-york-times>. Pilkington, Ed. “A Long Way From Home.” The Guardian 10 July 2007: n. pag. Guardian News and Media Limited. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. <​books/​2007/​jul/​10/​chinuaachebe>. Rodriguez, Edel. “Book Covers.” Drawger. N.p., 5 Nov. 2010. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. <​edel/​?cat_id=531;>. Soyinka, Wole. “Chinua Achebe.” TIME Magazine World 26 Oct. 2006: n. pag. TIME. Web. 5 Nov. 2011. <​time/​magazine/​article/​0,9171,837568,00.html>. “Viscosity.” Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press, n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2011. <​definition/​viscosity?region=us>.

konkwo was well known throughout the nine villages and even beyond. His fame rested on solid personal achievements. As a young man of eighteen he had brought honor to his village by throwing Amalinze the Cat. Amalinze was the great wrestler who for seven years was unbeaten, from Umuofia to Mbaino. He was called the Cat because his back would never touch the earth. It was this man that Okonkwo


Wole Soyinka, views on Achebe

Surprised?Only at first.


ou have been called the progenitor of the modern African novel, and Things Fall Apart has maintained its resonance in the decades since it was written. Have you been surprised by the effect the book has had? Chinua Achebe: Was I surprised? Yes, at the beginning. There was no African literature as we know it today. And so I had no idea when I was writing Things Fall Apart whether it would even be accepted or published. All of this was new -- there was nothing by which I could gauge how it was going to be received. But, of course, something doesn’t continue to surprise you every day. After a while I began to understand why the book had resonance. I began to understand my history even better. It wasn’t as if when I wrote it I was an expert in the hisory of the world. I was a very young man. I knew I had a story, but how it fit into the story of the world -

threw in a fight which the old men agreed was one of the fiercest since the founder of their town engaged a spirit of the wild for seven days and seven nights. Amalinze was a wily craftsman, but Okonkwo was as slippery as a fish in water. Every nerve and every muscle stood out on their arms, on their backs and their thighs, and one almost heard them stretching to breaking point. In the end Okonkwo threw the Cat. (“Things Fall Apart”)

- I really had no sense of that. Its meaning for my Igbo people was clear to me, but I didn’t know how other people elsewhere would respond to it. Did it have any meaning or resonance for them? I realized that it did when, to give you just one example, the whole class of a girls’ college in South Korea wrote to me, and each one expressed an opinion about the book. And then I learned something, which was that they had a history that was similar to the story of Things Fall Apart -- the history of colonization. This I didn’t know before. Their colonizer was Japan. So these people across the waters were able to relate to the story of dispossession in Africa. People from different parts of the world can respond to the same story, if it says something to them about their own history and their own experience. (An African Voice)


hings Fall Apart, A story about the incursion of Western missionaries into an Igbo community, has long gripped readers across the world. It’s not an obvious subject to arouse such wide interest, but Chinua Achebe’s first novel is a work of extraordinary power and insight. It remains one of the best-known works by the Nigerian writer, whose career has spanned over 50 years and encompassed essays, poetry, the short story and the novel. Achebe’s literary heights have been attained in spite of the demands of his career as the first director of external broadcasting at the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation, his university teaching that continues today, and his stint as unofficial roving ambassador for Biafra during the Nigerian civil war. Achebe’s influence on writers of succeeding generations is too great to quantify. Above all, this griot of modern letters has left the authentic imprint of African cultures across the globe, with a succession of narratives that challenge the skewed view of the continent in European literary tradition. His confident narratives of the life that was destroyed under the colonial mandate serve as models both of historical restoration and of stylistic mastery.


The white man is very clever.

He has put a knife on the things that hold us together and



Chinua Achebe Who is he?

Full name: Albert Chinualumogu Achebe Born: 16th November, 1930 Birthplace: Ogidi, Nigeria

Why is he famous?

First internationally recognized African author Most famous for novel Things Fall Apart (1958) Other notable works: Arrow of God (1964), No Longer at Ease (1960) Unsentimental depictions of the social and psychological changes that came to Africa as a result of the imposition of Western customs and values on traditional African society

Things Fall Apart:

Novel concerning traditional Igbo life at the time of Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s colonization Taught in high schools and universities all around the world One of the most widely read works of African literature

"I realized that people who looked like me could live in “S books.” ix years ago, that precolonial reality caught up with fiction when Achebe, the modern sophisticate, was inducted into the responsibilities of a traditional chief in Oguta, his hometown. Though now obliged to live abroad because of decreased mobility, the result of a motor accident, Achebe is still regularly consulted from Oguta on matters that require the wisdom of his experience and the authority of his reputation, while his political interventions on the national scene remain trenchant...

- Chimamanda Adichie

This griot of modern letters has left the authentic imprint of African cultures across the globe, with a succession of narratives that challenge the skewed view of the continent in European literary tradition. His confident narratives of the life that was destroyed under the colonial mandate serve as models both of historical restoration and of stylistic mastery. ”

- Wole Soyinka Works Cited: “Chimamanda Adichie - The Danger of a Single Story.” United States Institute of Peace. Peace Media, 2011. Web. 2 Nov. 2011. <>. Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart. Illus. Paul Wearing and Uche Okeke. 2000 ed. 1958. Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publishers, 2000. Print. African Writers Series. Chinua Achebe Portrait. N.d. Sahara Reporters. Sahara Reporters, 2010. Web. 5 Nov. 2011. <>. Soyinka, Wole. “Chinua Achebe.” Time Magazine. Time, Inc., 26 Oct. 2006. Web. 1 Nov. 2011. <,9171,1550872,00.html>. Things Fall Apart. 1958. York Modern Books. York Modern Books, 2005. Web. 7 Nov. 2011. <>.



nown the world over for having played a pioneering role in the founding and development of African literature, Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe continues to be recognized as one of the most important world writers today, greatly changing perspectives on colonization in Africa through his seminal 1958 novel Things Fall Apart.

Born on the 16th of November, 1930, just when European colonies in Africa were making their way toward independence, Chinua Achebe in an African Christian missionary family during a time when his surroundings were undergoing huge changes. This fueled him to write about his own traditional culture, Igbo, and the impact colonization had on his life. Things Fall Apart (Courtesy of York Books) is said to be one of the most widely read works of African literature (Soyinka). Achebe’s poignant, passionate words allows one to venture into the Africa of the mid 1900s, while at the same time divulging the flaws of colonization. Spurring the development of literature in Africa, this novel earned Achebe a place in the world literature scene. Though simple and blunt, his words, like the quote on the cover page, (pg. 176, Achebe) express sentiments about the colonization of his home country in a way that everyone can feel. Most of Achebe’s works are based on themes of inevitable change and things, quite literally, falling apart. Millions of copies have been sold and many high schools and universities still study his book.

First Edition of Things Fall Apart, Achebe’s most famous novel.

Chinua Achebe’s photograph (Courtesy of Sahara Reporters) shows just how prominent he was and still is; one of the first globally recognized African authors, he was one of the few Africans given the spotlight at the time. During the very cusp of time when traditionally European/American-centered cultures began to branch out to include world literature in their educational syllabi, Things Fall Apart became one of the most famous books to ever come from Africa. Achebe’s works’ topics, ranging from racism to the intersection of culture and modernity, touch and shock people from all corners of the globe. His extraordinarily powerful and insightful words not only enabled him to become one of the most prolific contemporary African writers of all time, it also inspired others to follow suit, like fellow Nigerian author Chimamanda Adichie, as seen from the quote on the left (Adichie).

The extent of Achebe’s impact didn’t stop there. In addition to his advent as the first internationally recognized African literary giant, Achebe has left an “authentic imprint of African cultures across the globe” (Soyinka). Although Achebe now lives in the US because of a car accident that left him paralyzed from the waist down, he is still regularly consulted from Oguta, his hometown in Nigeria, on political matters (Soyinka). A recipient of numerous literary and Nigerian citizenship awards (even if he did reject one because of his disgust at the African political system at the time), he has undoubtedly influenced multiple facets of society. With pen in hand, Achebe changed the face of African and world literature while staying true to his own philosophies, expressing his discontent through words and therein inciting action and provocation of thought; through his works, he reminds us that although things may be tough to deal with, they don’t always have to fall apart.

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Ijidak. Audrey. 23 Dec. 2010. In Search of Beautiful Things., 23 Dec. 2010. Web. 29 Nov. 2011.

See the Extraodrinary Audrey like you never seen her before! A sourcebook by Valerie Kwok

Hearst, Lesya. My Fair Lady (1964). 28 Apr. 2011. Eternity of Dream. Blogger, 28 Apr. 2011. Web. 30 Nov. 2011.

What do people really know

about Audrey Hepburn? She was an actress in the 1950’s yep. She’s one of the greatest female stars of all time - correct. She’s an impossibly beautiful woman – can’t get more obvious than that. But only very few people know the full story behind this seemingly ‘perfect’ woman, and how she came to influence not only the international film industry, but many other aspects of life that shape our modern society today.

Let’s start from the very beginning, shall we? Audrey Hepburn, also known by her birth name Audrey Kathleen Ruston van Heemstra, was born in Brussels, Belgium to baroness Ella van Heemstra and Englishman Joseph Ruston in the year of 1929. Her 5 early years of childhood were comfortable and happy, with her parents and two older half-brothers Alexander and Ian – but soon turned for the worse when her father suddenly left the family and severed relations with her mother. For the rest of her

“Pick the day. Enjoy it -

to the hilt. The day as it comes. People as they come... The past, I think, has helped me appreciate the present - and I don’t want to spoil any of it about the future.”

- Audrey Hepburn [Great]

Judesmommy. Audrey Hepburn. 2009. fanpop! Fanpop, Inc., 2009. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. "AUDREY HEPBURN PHOTO pretty actress laughing photograph.", 2011. Web. 7 Dec. 2011.

Talar, Amanda. AH. 15 Nov. 2010. Hearst Communications Inc., 15 Nov. 2010. Web. 30 Nov. 2011.

Stylebyladyg. kinopoisk_ru_audrey_-161. 21 Oct. 2011. Fashion, Shopping & Home. A little taste of my style., 21 Oct. 2011. Web. 29 Nov. 2011.

childhood, she continued growing up in a boarding school in England and later in Holland, to avoid the Nazi occupation. Unfortunately, the settlement proved to be horrendously misjudged and the Nazis eventually did take over the Netherlands. The van Heemstra family lost all their former wealth and property, and Ella was forced to do manual labour work to support the family of 4. At this time, Audrey had just discovered her love for dance and was eager to

help the family in any way she could. She started performing blackout performances, where curtains and blinds were drawn and the audience would only watch in silence, without one single awarding clap for fear that a nearby Nazi soldier would hear. At the ripe age of 15, Audrey also helped out the underground Resistance, by being a secret courier and carrying messages around in her boots. And all the while this was happening, Audrey would suffer from severe malnutrition because there weren’t enough

food rations to go around for the two, long years the war lasted. But then, the war finally ended in 1945. It was also the day of Audrey Hepburn’s 16th birthday – a signal of a new beginning that would kickstart her career of fame and fortune.

“For attractive lips, speak words of

kindness. For lovely eyes, seek out the good in people. For a slim figure, share your food with the hungry. For beautiful hair, let a child run his or her fingers through it once a day. For poise, walk with the knowledge that you never walk alone. […] The beauty of a woman must be seen from in her eyes, because that is the doorway to her heart, the place where love resides. -- Audrey Hepburn [Great]

Bibliography The Nun’s Story - Original Trailer. Dir. Fred Zinnemann. Perf. Audrey Hepburn and Peter Finch. Warner Bros., 1959. Youtube.

Arnold, William. “Audrey Hepburn Remains an Icon of Film and Fashion -” Audrey Hepburn Remains an Icon of Film and Fashion. Hearst Communications Inc., 12 Jan. 2009. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. Elizabeth, and Sam. “1950s Fashion.” Enjoy Your Style. SBI!, 2011. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. Cox, Alex. “Audrey Hepburn: an Iconic Problem.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited or Its Affiliated Companies., 20 Jan. 2011. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. Lane, Megan. “Audrey Hepburn: Why the Fuss?” BBC News Magazine. BBC, 7 Apr. 2006. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. “Audrey Hepburn.” Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale, 1998. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. Keogh, Pamela. Introduction. Pamela Keogh, 2011. PDF. Audrey1. “Audrey Hepburn Timeline 1929 - 1949.” Audrey1. Audrey1, 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. Podolsky, J. D. “For the First Time Since Audrey Hepburn’s Death, Her Sons and Her Lover Recall the Very Private Woman Behind the Legend.” People. CNN, 31 Oct. 1994. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. Biography Shelf. “Audrey Hepburn Biography / Autobiography / Memoir resources.” Biography Shelf., 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. Screen Actors Guild Awards. Audrey Hepburn. 1992. Photograph. Screen Actors Guild Awards, USA. 24 9 1992 Audrey Hepburn in Tears Whilst Describing Her Trip to Somalia KENYA Nairobi INT Audrey Hepburn Actress and UNICEF Ambassador Press Conference SOT - YouTube. Dir. UNICEF. Perf. Audrey Hepburn. YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Google, 2 Feb. 2010. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. United Nations. “UNITED NATIONS OPERATION IN SOMALIA I (UNOSOM I) - Background (Full Text).” Welcome to the United Nations: It’s Your World. United Nations, Apr. 1992. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. Those Graces. “Those Graces » Audrey Hepburn: Service and Grace Beyond Age.”Those Graces., 2011. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. Kerr, Alison. “Style on Film: Sabrina.” Style Matters., 20 Mar. 2011. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. Finnane, Gabrielle. “Holly Golightly and the Fashioning of the Waif.” Fashion in Fiction: Text and Clothing in Literature, Film, and Television. New York, USA: Oxford International, 2009. 137-48. Google Books. Google, 2009. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. SearchQuotes. “Audrey Hepburn Quotes | Quotes by Audrey Hepburn.” Quotes and Sayings - Search Quotes. Search Quotes, 2011. Web. 07 Dec. 2011.

Screen Actors Guild Awards. Audrey Hepburn. 1992. Photograph. Screen Actors Guild Awards, USA. “Audrey Hepburn Quotes | [ Page 2 ].” Famous Quotes | Over 2 Million Famous Quotes & Good Quotations | Movie Quotes | Inspirational Quotes & Sayings - Friendship & Life Quotes - | Proverbs! Great, 2011. Web. 07 Dec. 2011.

Her Life of Fame & Beyond From an Actress, to a Fashion Icon, to a Humanitarian, and to a Cultural Icon.

As an Actress

As a Humanitarian As a Fashion Icon As a Cultural Icon

Audrey started out like any normal actress would – working from the very bottom all they way to the top. Of course, her appearance definitely affected directors’ decisions, but the talent she had as an actress was undeniable. The proof is in the success for all the different varieties of roles she’s taken – from playful and sassy Holly Golightly (Breakfast at Tiffany’s, 1961) to troubled but determined young Sister Luke (The Nun’s Story, 1959), and all the way to blind Suzy Hendrix (Wait Until Dark, 1967). So, Audrey definitely had a big influence on the film industry – being one of the forefront actresses of what’s called the “Golden Age” of Hollywood, she was an essential part of creating the present image and subjects of the film industry haven.

Since young, Audrey has been supporting many children’s rights foundations all over the world, especially UNICEF. She herself feels indebted to UNICEF, because back at the end of WWII the UNRRA (United Nations Relief and Refugee Agency; precursor to UNICEF) helped to supply food rations, shelter, etc. for the war victims all across Europe – including the citizens of her home Arnhem, Holland. She felt a passion towards caring for children for a long period of time, and when she got to an older age (about 1970’s or so), she started journeying around the world with UNICEF to take care of the suffering children in Africa, India, Bangladesh, etc. She eventually became UNICEF’s goodwill ambassador in 1988, and devoted the rest of her days to help the suffering children hands-on, as well as raising global awareness by using the fame gained by her celebrity status [Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale]. She has definitely helped make a difference, as the description of the UNOSOM I (United Nations Operation in Somalia I) states that starting from fall September, 1992 (around the time that Audrey went to Somalia herself) onwards UNICEF has been worked quite diligently in the country; and donors have given a very generous $67.3 million out of the $87.7 million the humanitarian relief programme ideally requested.

As an actress, she would also gain a significant amount of fame and supporters that she would use later on in her future accidental and purposeful branch-offs - which are scattered among the page for your reference.

Ever since their fateful meeting for picking out the dresses for the second half of Sabrina (1954), Audrey and Hubert de Givenchy had kept in close contact for the rest of their lives with their relationship as the artist and his muse. Givenchy established what became Audrey’s signature image while Audrey in turn gave Givenchy its unique, elegant, but strongly present gamine style. [Kerr, Alison] Speaking of the gamine style, Audrey Hepburn herself was probably most influential in the fashion industry for her boyish, waif-like childish looks. This look is still reflected in many people today [Finnanne, Gabrielle] – especially the famous; like Emma Watson or Keira Knightley with the sharp, charismatic face accompanied with a dash of childish elegance. BBC writer Megan Lane explains the reason to why her style has stuck for so long: “fashion experts say her longevity as a style icon is because once she found what suited her – clean lines, simple yet bold accessories, minimalist palette – she stuck with it for life.”

Even after death, Audrey Hepburn’s name remains as an icon of the perfect, ideal woman – elegant, humorous, kind, generous – a wonderful combination that truly warmed any person’s heart.w She was also qutie the modest person; she would never boast about her acting abilities, or any other ability or achievement for that matter. And for a world that was slowly slipping into the world of a bit more sexual and ellusive influence, Audrey really stood up and shone her light for everybody, becoming a great role model for any woman to take on.

Audrey Hepburn


udrey Kathleen Hepburn born on May 4th 1929 was an amazing actress, dancer and singer. She has made a huge influence within her acting, dancing and singing career. Since a young age, Hepburn was aspired to become a great dancer and actress to share her talent around the world and to showcase it. According to Audrey Hepburn Biography she wanted ballet to be her career choice at a young age. She has inspired many to follow their own dreams as she did. She starred in many famous movies such as “Breakfast at Tiffany’s”, “My Fair Lady” and much more. . She’s influenced many modern films as she brings elegance, classic-style and glamour. Being many people’s role model and influence, many strive to become like her.Even our modern celebrities like Cher. Audrey suffered from a lot of sickness but still continued her ballet practices, Beyond that, she has also inspired people out of her genre. Audrey Hepburn was not only an influence within her acting, dancing and singing career, she also made a big impact on fashion and style. Audrey was frequently portrayed as the most beautiful women in 20th century. She was beautiful and had an amazing figure. People looked up to her not only as a role model but also as a style icon. Audrey impacted through elegance, unlike other trendsetters like Marilyn Monroe whom impacted through wearing little clothing and revealing clothes. Hepburn was always the one setting trends such as the little black dress also now known as the LBD. It can currently be seen on our modern actresses and on runways as they are following Hepburn’s style. The LBD was Audrey’s trademark fashion piece. It gave a feminine and elegant look yet very seductive at the same time.

“Nothing is impossible, the word itself says “I’m Possbile”

“As you grow older, you will discover that you have two hands, one for helping yourself, the other for helping others.”


long with being a fashion icon, Audrey was also a UNICEF ambassador since 1989 till her death in 1993. She went to many third world countries and helped out to the best of her ability. She helped with famine, droughts and much more. Many people saw what she was doing and decided to help. When Hepburn was not making trips to the actual grounds to help out, she would be making speeches all around the world and attending benefit concerts and performances. After she passed, her sons made a charity called “The Audrey Hepburn Children Fund” to help children through various programs. Audrey Hepburn made various influences within and beyond her career.

By:Christie Chan

Works Cited:

“Audrey Hepburn.” Audrey Hepburn Biography. Web. 09 Nov. 2011. <>. Audrey Hepburn Breakfast at TIffany’s. Photograph. Bare Walls. Web. 06 Nov. 2011. < i/c/439457_Audrey-Hepburn--Breakfast-At-Tiffanys.jpg>. Audrey Hepburn Little Black Dress. Photograph. FreeNewFashionDesign. Web. 06 Nov. 2011. < Audrey-Hepburn-little-black-dress-New-Style-of-LittleBlack-Dress-for-Fashion-Trend-2011-of-Women.jpg>. “Audrey Hepburn Quotes.” BrainyQuote. Web. 09 Nov. 2011. < audrey_hepburn.html>. “Biography Audrey Hepburn - Biography Online.” Biography Online. Web. 09 Nov. 2011. <>.

Audrey Hepburn T he big Hollywood star that shined on the big screen, shone just as brightly in the life outside of her career. Audrey Hepburn influenced the society her acting career was built upon, her family, and the society beyond it, beginning her humanitarian work with UNICEF. Hepburn’s rich body of work, including Roman Holiday, Sabrina, Funny Face, The Nun’s Story, Breakfast At Tiffany’s, et cetera (O’Toole), show some of the most memorable films she starred in, revealing the trace she had left behind in the society inside of her realm. Apart from the impact she made from her career, she also influenced her children. Robert Wolders, Audrey’s lover since 1980, once said that Audrey always felt that if she inspired her own children to continue to work, that would be her greatest reward (Podoisky). She hated being away from her child, so she decided to put her family ahead of her career, and took a break from all the fame and fortune to become a fulltime stay-at-home-mother (Podoisky). Apart from that Audrey is very humble

and according to her son, didn’t realize just how big of a deal she was, and this showed just how grounded she was, and that she never had the Hollywood ego (Hepburn Ferrer). Furthermore, not only did she inspire others through her career, she also influenced others through what she does for the needy, outside of her Hollywood life. Hepburn, after accepting her honorary position with UNICEF had traveled to developing countries around the world that are poverty-stricken, getting only $1 per year (Seigel), but money wasn’t what she valued. According to her, giving is like living, and if you stop giving, there’s nothing more to live for (Hepburn, Audrey) showing her as a role model to others even outside of her genre. In conclusion, even years after her death, people still remember her and the positive mark she had left behind, making me believe that her influence will continue to impact others in the future the same way it had in the past. = Pearl Li

Radio Transcript AUDREY HEPBURN (UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador): Good morning, Harry. SMITH: This has been such an incredible year with the cyclone in Bangladesh, with the Kurdish refugees stacked up on the borders there and now the prospect of incredible famine in--in Ethiopia. Is there a point at which our well of compassion might run dry do you think? HEPBURN: Never. I--I don’t think that’s--it’s not in human nature. Giving--giving is like living. I mean if you stop wanting to give, I think you--there’s nothing more to live for. SMITH: How--how is it for you, then--though, who is responsible for bringing so many of these things to the attention of the world and to have to come back again and again and again and say, Please pay attention to this.’ HEPBURN: Again, it’s--it’s part of life. Because in a smaller way it happens in our own existence. There’s always somebody ill or a neighbor or child or a member in the family. You don’t just stop with one person. All through your life you deal with pain and sorrow and--and-and need and help. And it’s just that thanks to the media now we know a great deal more about what’s going on on the other side of the world. And--but I want--what I do want to say is this-that this is in the Horn of Africa and not just Ethiopia. This is not just another emergency. It--it’s the greatest human catastrophe in--in living memory.

Article Clipping


elebrities often speak of putting family ahead of career, of taking a break from fame and fortune and finally getting their priorities in order. Hepburn actually did it. But her transformation from glamorous movie star to fulltime homebody didn’t happen overnight. When she became a mother at 31—on July 17, 1960—Hepburn was absolutely delighted. After two heartbreaking miscarriages she finally had a hefty son. The event was, she later told Sean, “the greatest joy for me, because that’s all I really wanted in the world.” But Sean’s arrival didn’t slow her movie career. The boy was still a baby when she started shooting Breakfast at Tiffany’s; and in the next three years she made The Children’s Hour, Charade, Paris When It Sizzles and My Fair Lady. Sean was always nearby. But Hepburn’s days were long, and husband Mel was often shooting a movie of his own; a nanny did a good deal of the child-rearing. Hepburn enjoyed her success but hated being away from her son. “Whenever she had to leave Sean behind, she was miserable,” says her friend Doris Brynner, ex-wife of Yul. In 1963, Hepburn and Ferrer found a place to retreat, at least intermittently, from the pressures of Hollywood: the nine-bedroom villa—overgrown with ivy and surrounded by a white picket fence—in tiny Tolochenaz, some 30 miles northeast of Geneva.

Work Cited AUDREY_HEPBURN_15_B_802528s.jpg. N.d. Garnish With The Bizarre . Blogger, 4 May 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. Hepburn, Audrey. “Audrey Hepburn Discusses Current Work with UNICEF .” Interview by Harry Smith. CBS This Morning. CBS, 3 June 1991. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. Hepburn Ferrer, Sean. Interview by Gary Sweeney. The Mid night Palace. N.p., 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. O’Toole, Lawrence. “Farewell, Fair Lady.” Entertainment Weekly 5 Feb. 1993: n. pag. Entertainment Weekly . Web. 9 Nov. 2011. Podolsky, J. D. “Life with Audrey.” Time Inc., 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. Robert, Wolders. Audrey Hepburn In Somalia . N.d. Quite Continental ., 8 Feb. 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. Seigel, Jessica. “Audrey Hepburn on a Role.” The Chicago Tribune 20 Jan. 1992: n. pag. Audrey Hepburn Tribute to her Humanitarian Work. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. z64445346.jpg. N.d. ms_est3lla.xanga. Xanga, 28 Nov. 2006. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

Coco Chanel Emma Janelle 9A

This is a black and white image of Coco Chanel during the peaking point of her career.

Who is coco chanel?

- NAME: Gabrielle Coco Chanel - OCCUPATION: Fashion Designer - BIRTH DATE: August 19, 1883 -DEATH DATE: January 10, 1971 - PLACE OF BIRTH: Saumur, France - Coco chanel was Time magazines only fashion designer to top its 100 Most Important People of the Century - She came from nothing, and built an empire

This ensemble represents the “little black dress”, one of Coco’s most popular and enduring contributions to women’s fashion world.

“Fashion fades, only style remains the same.” -Coco Chanel


oco Chanel is considered an iconic figure in the fashion world because she is responsible for decades of innovation; being a revolutionary in Haute Couture and changing the way women dress in the 1920s. She is the one behind major revolutions in fashion, including things like the allowing women to wear pants, the Little Black Dress, tweed jackets and the Chanel suit that are still extremely popular today. Coco spent her entire life building a fashion empire on her talent and intuition for what women want to wear. She left a monumental impact on the fashion industry.

“Fashion is not something that exists in dresses only. Fashion is in the sky, in the street. Fashion has to do with ideas. The way we live, what is happening.”- COCO Chanel

Has Coco Chanel Really revolutionized the World?


abrielle Coco Chanel is an iconic figure in the fashion world, who was responsible for decades of innovation, being a revolutionary in Haute Couture and changing the way women dressed in the 1920s. Not only did she make a great change in the fashion world but she also made a great change in society by being an advocate for woman’s rights.

Typically, fashion designers follow the trends of society in order to be successful in the marketplace. However, sometimes a profoundly influential designer, such as Coco Chanel, can actually shift a society’s temperament, as stated by Claire Ann. Coco’s primary objective was always to show elegance through simplicity and refinement. She designed fashionable -but also functional and comfortable- clothes for real women. One of the main ways she achieved this was by getting rid of the corset. She drew inspiration from many traditional menswear garments (pea jackets, rain coats, sweaters, trousers) as seen in a image of Coco Chanel in the 1920’s being one of the first women to wear pants in public. The 1920’s were the time for cocktail parties and cocktail dresses, therefore, when Coco Chanel invented the ‘Little Black Dress’ it became an instant hit. This is shown in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, that carries may of her original designs.

ion world, came an even greater impact on society in general. Coco Chanel was strongly against the fact that people wanted to ‘dress’ women. She did not want to wear an uncomfortable corset, and she wanted to be able to wear pants, as Tory Hoen suggested. When Coco opened her first shop, she rebelled against society by creating a whole line of pants and comfortable and casual clothing for women. Many people were appalled, but slowly women started to realize what a true genius she was. This influenced beyond her genre, because it changed society in Paris, and its view on women’s rights. One of Coco Chanel’s famous quotes “If a man talks bad about all women, it usually means he was burned by one woman.” was stated right after her women’s rights movement in Paris. This became very popular, because people began to realize that Coco Chanel was right, and men and women should be treated equally both in the fashion world, and in life in general.

Coco Chanel’s influence on society was so vivid and powerful that her impact has lasted until the present day. Even though Coco Chanel first impacted the fashion world in the 1920s, every item that she designed then continues tobe popular today. Her famous pieces like the little black dress, the Chanel suit, and tweed jackets will always be considered key items for fashion. Even in the present day, Coco Chanel’s fashion line is recognized all over the planet. This show how much potenWith Coco Chanel’s great impact on the fash- tial she had for an impact not only in her field

This is an image of Coco Chanel sewing one of her models tweed jacket. Tweed is one of Coco’s most famous designs

This is an image of Coco Chanel being the first women to wear pants in Paris

Citations “Coco Chanel Quotes | Quotes by Coco Chanel.” Latest Quotes | Famous, Funny & Inspirational Quotes & Sayings. Web. 09 Nov. 2011. < Chanel/>.\ “Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel: Day Ensemble (1984.28a-c) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art - Home. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <>. Hoen, Tory. “HiP Paris Blog » In Celebration of Pants: Wily Parisiennes Fight Law with Style.” HiP Paris Blog. 8 Nov. 2009. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <>. Ann, Claire. “Introduction To Coco Chanel.” Coco Chanel. 30 Apr. 2009. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <>. “Tweed Fashion Fabrics in Fashion History 2004.” Fashion History Costume Trends and Eras, Trends Victorians - Haute Couture. Web. 09 Nov. 2011. < Fabrics/fashion_fabrics_tweeds1.htm>.




Cherri Wong

Besides having created the little black dress, Chanel influenced the society by her strong opinions. The 1957 Milwaukee Journal quotes Chanel’s views of fashion. She deliberately emphasized her detest towards women whom dress as if they were younger. Chanel states that not all bodies are identical. The reason for emphasizing this is to influence women to not dress what was in style, but to dress by what suits their body type most (Rebel).


Not only did Chanel culturally impact the fragrance industry, her personality also outshone her fashion related influences. According to Chris Greenhalgh, author of novel Coco and Igor, he believes that people nowadays are looking for women who embody female independence amid influence and power to write about. He then states that Chanel does that more than any women, and that she remains as a fascinating subject for authors. From this, we could conclude that she impacted the world through her personality, and her concept of female independence (Muther).

abrielle Bonheur Chanel, known as Coco Chanel, was an icon of the fashion industry during the 20th century. The French fashion guru created timeless designs to refine women’s clothing to its simplest and most elegant form. Known for her strong opinions and her constant drive for perfection, her pas Chanel did not only have an influence to the fashion sionate interests was what inspired her designs.

indus try, but she also influenced people outside of her Coco Chanel influenced the world within and beyond her genre. genre, including the famous French actor, Audrey Toutou. The little black dress was one of her most famous and enduring contribu-Tautou explains how No.5 reminds her of her childhood. To tions to women’s fashion. She used simple materials such as wool jersey, her, the fragrance symbolized the feeling of luxury, refineto create layered details, carefully arranged pleats, and a hand-sewn ment, and mystery. However, she never knew the scent belt to define features of a women’s body. This is an example of Chanel’s of it, she just felt the luxuriousw scent of aroma in her straightforward concept: poverty de luxe, meaning simple designs made aunt’s house. From this, we could see that Chanel was able of modest materials. The dress designed by Chanel is featured in the to give an impact not only to people who wore the fraMetropolitan Museum of Art to preserve and stimulate appreciation of hergrance, but also to people whom never knew the scent of achievements. (Chanel). it, like Toutou (Quin).

The historic importance and impacts of Chanel is Coco Chanel influenced the world within and beyond her genre. The little black dress was one of her most famous and enduring contri- asserted into modern day fashion and society. Chanel’s butions to women’s fashion. She used simple materials such as wool jer- colorful life sparked interest in many novelists and filmsey, to create layered details, carefully arranged pleats, and a hand-sewnmakers, and was portrayed in various novels and films. belt to define features of a women’s body. This is an example of Chanel’s Chanel took the beauty from the world around her, and straightforward concept: poverty de luxe, meaning simple designs made transformed it into beautiful products that could sell. With her radiant personality, and simple, elegant designs that of modest materials. The dress designed by Chanel is featured in the Metropolitan Museum of Art to preserve and stimulate appreciation of will last throughout the ages, Chanel archive will continue to prosper. her achievements. (Chanel).

Decades After her Death, Chanel Remains a Fascinating Subject for Filmmakers and Authors By Christopher Muther July 8, 2010

“Although there has been a lot of attention on her life, it’s interesting to me that what everyone’s focusing on is her sex life,’’ says Tilar Mazzeo, the author of the forthcoming “The Secret of Chanel No. 5. So what everybody has been writing about is this very romanticized picture of Coco Chanel and her elegant love affairs before the Second World War.’’ “Increasingly, we’re looking for stories about women who are in a position of power,’’ Greenhalgh says on the phone from England. “People are looking for someone who embodies female independence amid influence and power. I think Chanel, perhaps more than any other woman, does that.’’

Audrey Tautou More Chanel Than Nature

A translation of an interview with Audrey Tautou and Elisabeth Quin April 7, 2009 Have you any (particular) memories linked to fragrances? A fragrance can make memories re-emerge in gusts. It is strong and violent, often. Some perfumes marked important moments of my life. For instance, when I was filming “ A Very Long Engagement ” directed by Jean-Pierre Jeunet, precisely, I wore perfume every morning with Chance. I loved fragrance, but it was also created a link to a small superstition because the filming was difficult. Then I wore Mademoiselle Coco for a long time. But never No. 5? I knew of it, of course, but I had never known the scent of it; however, it was part of my memory… I have a picture of me, as a small girl, in the library of my aunt who was a young woman of my age at that time. She had put down on a shelf a bottle of Chanel No. 5, which seemed to me huge. It symbolized the feeling of luxury, refinement, mystery… All the more so because we were told not to touch it. It marked me.

Works Cited Coco Chanel - Image 3 of 62. N.d. Lucy Who. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2011. <>. “Day ensemble, ca. 1927 Gabrielle ‘Coco’ Chanel (French, 1883–1971) Silk, wool, metal.” Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. N.p., 8 Nov. 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <>. Free Vintage Powerpoint Background for Powerpoint Slides. 23 Aug. 2011. Free PPT. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Nov. 2011. < html>. French Fashion Parade. N.d. The Lordprice Collection. Lordprice. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <>. Grungy Old Paper Background. N.d. IStockPhoto. N.p., 31 Aug. 2007. Web. 31 Nov. 2011. <>. Muther, Christopher. “Hot Coco.” The Boston Globe 8 July 2010: 1. Web. 5 Nov. 2011. < hot_coco_decades_after_her_death_chanel_remains_a_fascinating_personality/>. Noel, Lucie. “Designer ‘Coco’ Chanel Wants Women to Remain Feminine.” The Free Lance Star 16 July 1970: 1. News. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. < dq=coco%20chanel&pg=7263%2C1603645>. One Dress Serves As Two. N.d. The Lordprice Collection. Lordprice. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <>. “Rebel Chanel Revolutionized American Fashion.” The Milwaukee Journal 20 Aug. 1957: n. pag. news. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. < newspapers?id=ovkjAAAAIBAJ&sjid=XiUEAAAAIBAJ&pg=7023%2C5462427>. Toutou, Audrey. “Translation of an Interview.” Interview by Elizabeth Quin. Word Press. Bill’s Big Blog-o-rama, 8 Apr. 2009. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <>.

Rene Chan 9D



abrielle “Coco” Chanel, revolutionized fashion in the early 20th century by creating classic and timeless clothing for high society women. Growing up in an orphanage, she was introduced to the art of sewing at an early age by the nuns who raised her. Being immersed in the fashion industry she developed an eye for designing and her attention to detail set her apart to become the founder of one of the world’s most successful fashion empires.

(2) “In order to be irreplaceable one must always be different”-CoCo Chanel (2)


Citations: (5)A&E Television Networks. "Coco Chanel." A&E Television Networks, 8 Nov. 2011. Web. 8 Nov. (2)BrainyQuote. "Coco Chanel Quotes." BrainyQuote . BrainyQuote , 8 Nov. 2011. Web. 8 Nov. 20 ICelebZ. "Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky (2010)." ICelebZ. ICelebZ, 25 June 2010. (4) Okura, Lynn, and Lynn Okura. "5 Ways Coco Chanel Has Inspired Fashion Today ." (3)Web. 7 Dec. 2011. Oprah. Harpo Productions, Inc, 22 Sept. 2009. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. (1)Kunkel, Mariah. "In honor of Cocoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 127th birthday today!" Quite Continental . WordPress, 19 Aug. 2010. Web. 7 Dec. 2011.

B (4)

orn in 1883, a time when French ladies wore skirts, bustles and hats with plumes (oprah), Coco Chanel was one of the first to wear trousers in public. This leads us to one of her famous quotes- “In order to be irreplaceable one must always be different”. She substantiated her belief by creating elegant, yet functional clothing like the Little Black Dress, (as shown on the left). She not only changed the way women looked on the outside, but how they looked at themselves. Breaking away from the traditional style of clashing colors and theatrical haute couture The Chanel “Little Black Dress” became a symbol of chic and sophisticated simplicity, which is still evident in the fashion world today. In 1969, Chanel’s fascinating life story became the basis for the Broadway musical Coco starring Katharine Hepburn as the legendary designer. Sebsequently many hollywood films have been dedicated to the fashion magnifico, Coco Chanel. To date, films about her fascinating life from a hunble background to becoming a pioneer in fashion are still being produced, namely Coco and Igor Stravinsky, 2009 (as shown by the poster on the left). Her nonconformist attitude and style has kept her at the forefront even after her death nearly 40 years ago. Many of her famous quotes and work ethic has been an inspiration to many modern artists and designers from a wide variety industries. (as shown in the quote above by Kimbrtly Chrisman Campbell). The brand Coco Chanel has been avant-garde in the fashion industry for over 80 years and will continue to be dominant for many years to come. From Marilyn Monroe, Princess Diana to Emma Watson and there will be no end to the list of her admirers.

“The reason Coco Chanel is still so compelling 40 years after her death is that she refused to follow trend. As a result her work was never dated.” - Dr. Kimberly Chrisman-Campbell (fashion historian) (5)


orn on the 29th of November 1889, Clive Staples Lewis captured thousands of readers through his master of the written word. The tragic loss of his mother at age ten caused Lewis to isolate himself from others, turning instead to books for comfort, from Beatrix Potter to his own stories. Although Lewis was a Christian by birth, he abandoned the faith years later, only to be become reconciled with God while studying at Oxford as a young man upon meeting J.R. R. Tolkien and reading the works of G. K. Chesterton. After his conversion, Lewis became to preach the Gospel in earnest through his books, moving many to the Church. Throughout his life, Lewis always believed that to find God, one must lose oneself before they can find their true purpose and be able to do real good, because otherwise, all actions would be tainted by human sin. (Lewis, C.S, Beyond Personality. BBC Radio Address,) Although scorned by many of his colleagues for publicly addressing his religion. Lewis continued to use his faith as an outstanding tool in his writings and academia.

C.S. Lewis: Larger than Life

His apologetic view on Christianity which utilized reason instead of spirituality as a way to convert and bring others towards the faith changed the way people viewed religion and whether it was considered a logical possibility. According to Lewis, religion also changed the way people lived their lives; non-Christians valued materialistic things more than individuality, but for Christians, the individual is most precious, because it lives for eternity. (Lewis, C.S. God in the Dock, 1994.) Lewisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s other major influence lies in the literary field; inspired since childhood as an avid reader (The Stone Table, C. S. Lewis Media and Images: All Black and White Images), his vivid imagination showing through especially in his childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fiction with the acclaimed series the Chronicles of Narnia that have lasted throughout the decades and made into popular movie adaptations. The characters of the stories ring true, but how the moral problems are wrestled with and presented in the fantasy realm of Narnia mirror the real world and the problem of religion is what truly makes these books a timeless classic. Lewis wrote because he enjoyed it; he believed that a writer should always maintain a clear concise style while communicating to the reader, but that every writer was unique in their own way. ( The Christian Broadcasting Network, C.S. Lewisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Last Interview, 1963.) \ The worlds he created spring to life from the page without a sound, filling our minds stories dazzling with color, sound and feeling, inspiring many writers and pastors alike, changing the fantasy genre into new, uncharted territory for fearless readers to explore. (The Lion, Witch and Wardrobe, 1950.) He died on November 22nd, 1963, age 64. C.S. Lewis had a major influence both within his literary genre and outside with his work on Christianity that is still felt today. He is a man larger than life, and one never to be forgotten.

By: Jenny Yau 9A

(Lewis, C.S. The Stone Table, Narnia Images Gallery. 1960.) LEWIS, C. (Lewis, C.S. The Christian Broadcasting Network, C.S. Lewis's Last Interview. 1963.)

“If I didn’t enjoy writing I wouldn’t continue to do it.” (Lewis, C.S. The Christian Broadcasting Network, C.S. Lewis's Last Interview. 1963.)


The way for a person to develop a style is to know exactly what he wants to say, and to be sure he is saying exactly that. The reader, we must remember, does not start by knowing what we mean. If our words are ambiguous, our meaning will escape him. Writing is like driving sheep down a road. If there is any gate open to the left or the right the readers will most certainly go into it."

(Lewis, C.S. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. 1950.)


an’t you lead a good life without believing in Christianity?” This is the question on which I have been asked to write, and straight away, before I begin trying to answer it, I have a comment to make. The question sounds as if it were asked by a person who said to himself, “I don’t care whether Christianity is in fact true or not. I’m not interested in finding out whether the real universe is more what like the Christians say than what the Materialists say. All I’m interested in is leading a good life. I’m going to choose beliefs not because I think them true but because I find them helpful.” Now frankly, I find it hard to sympathise with this state of mind. One of the things that distinguishes man from the other animals is that he wants to know things, wants to find out what reality is like, simply for the sake of knowing. When that desire is completely quenched in anyone, I think he has become something less than human. As a matter of fact, I don’t believe any of you have really lost that desire. If Christianity is untrue, then no honest man will want to believe it, however helpful it might be: if it is true, every honest man will want to believe it, even if it gives him no help at all. To the Materialist things like nations, classes, civilizations must be more important than individuals, because the individuals live only seventy odd years each and the group may last for centuries. But to the Christian, individuals are more important, for they live eternally; and races, civilizations and the like, are in comparison the creatures of a day.”

~(C.S. Lewis, Man Vs. Rabbit, God in the Dock, 1994.)


istory isn't just the story of bad people doing bad things. It's quite as much a story of people trying to do good things. But somehow, something goes

wrong. Take the common expression: "cold as charity". How'd we come to say that? From experience. We've Works Cited Baynes, Pauline. The Lion, the Witch and Wardrobe . 1949. The Lion, the Witch and Wardrobe . By C. S. Lewis. London, United Kingdom : Geoffrey Bies, 1950.

learned how unsympathetic and patronizing and conceited charitable people often are. And yet hundreds and thousands of them started out really anxious to do

N. pag. Print.

good, and when theyd done it, somehow it just wasn't

Lewis, C. S. Beyond Personality-Mere Men: BBC Radio

as good as it ought to have been. The old story: What

Talk. London . 21 Mar. 1944. BBC Home Service Radio. BBC, London, England, 21 Mar. 1944. http://www.

you are comes out in what you do. A crabapple tree Web. Transcript. 9

can't produce eating apples. As long as the old self is

Nov. 2011.

there its taint will be over all we do. We try to be kind

Lewis. C.S. “God in the Dock: Man or Rabbit.” Oct.

and become patronizing. Unselfishness becomes a form

1994. File last modified on Oct. 1994. Man or Rabbit. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

of showing off.

Lewis, C.S. “NARNIA The Final Interview of C. S.

I don't mean of course that we're to stop trying to be

Lewis.” Interview by Sherwood Eliot Wirt. http://www.

good. We've got to do the best we can. If the soul's just The Christian Broadcasting Network, Inc., 7 May 1963. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. The Stone Table. “The Stone Table C.S. Lewis Gallery.”

fool enough to go into battle with a dirty rifle he must't run away. But I do mean that the real cure lies far

deeper. Out of our self and into Christ we must go.

The Stone Table, 29 Apr. 2006. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

Give up yourself and you'll find your real self. Lose your life and you'll save it. Submit to death, submit with every fiber of your Being and you'l find eternal life. Look for Christ and you'll get Him, and with Him, everything else thrown in. Look for yourself and you'll get only hatred, loneliness, despair, and ruin. ~(Lewis, C.S. Beyond Personality: Mere Men, BBC Radio Address, March 21st, 1944)


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charactures stories, but there y Wonka from te Factory”, and BFG”

This is how Roald Dahl influences the society within and beyond their genre. He was born in Llandaff, South Wales. (Felicity, Dahl) Roald Dahl was famous for writing many books including “Charlie and the Chocolate Factory.” Then, he died at the age of 74 in 1990. (Bishop) Roald Dahl has influenced many people, especially children because of the stories he . So what kept him going? Well, the children were his friends, which is kind of like his energy. The fact that they loved his stories and everything else was a miracle to Roald Dahl. Roald said that he felt a bit like a pop star. (Felicity, Dahl) Roald Dahl believed his passion in writing for children was his true purpose, and his secret is to get the children reading. His goal is to let them be able to absorb the books, and not be frightened of them. He said that although the contents of his books are not going to teach children anything at all, it will make them love to read, and that is very important to him. (Bishop)

Because of Roald Dahl, Ivan Brett started writing short stories. And two years ago, he switched to Children’s fiction, and he says its probably because of Roald Dahl again. Roald Dahl made his biggest impression on him when Brett started reading Roald’s adult short stories. Ivan Brett said, “The economy of writing is superb: every word is necessary. Add to this the macabre plot twists and irreverent use of language, he’s absolutely perfect the art.” (Brett) In 1961, a TV series called “Way Out” appeared on television starring Roald Dahl and Richard Morse. The genre of the show was on drama, horror, and sci-fi. (Internet Movie Database) Roald Dahl was the main host of this show, usually talking about how to murder someone without getting caught. This shows that Roald Dahl has influenced beyond his genre, and not only influencing readers and writers. Then, in 2005, a movie director named Tim Burton created a movie based on Roald Dahl’s “Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Because this movie was created, Roald Dahl has influenced the movie industry in Hollywood. Although this movie has been released for almost 6 years, it is still ranked in the top 5000 movies in the world! (Internet Movie Database)

Works Cited: Wood, David. “Past Performances - DORSET THEATRE FESTIVAL.” Upcoming Events - DORSET THEATRE FESTIVAL. DTF, 2010. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. Alderson, Andrew, and Anita Singh. “Roald Dahl a Real-life James Bond, but He Couldn’t Keep Lips Sealed.” The Age - Business, World & Breaking News | Melbourne, Australia. The Age, 2010. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. The Book Zone. “Roald Dahl Day 2011.” The Book Zone (For Boys). BlogSpot, 2011. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. Source/Q, ArrangementI With. “Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (2005) - IMDb.” The Internet Movie Database (IMDb). IMDb, 2011. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. IMDb. “’Way Out (TV Series 1961) - IMDb.” The Internet Movie Database (IMDb). IMDb, 2011. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. Bishop, David. “Roald Dahl interview (1989).” Vicious Imagery. Katie Williams, 2007. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. The Guardian. “My years with Roald, by the ‘love of his life.’” The Guardian. The Observer, 2008. Web. 8 Nov. 2011.

Salvador Dali


Written by: Jeannie Fong

alvador Dali was, safe to say, an eccentric man. He once said, â&#x20AC;&#x153;There is only one difference between a madman and me. The madman thinks he is sane. I know I am mad.â&#x20AC;? At the age of ten he was receiving drawing lessons, and he soon found the style that would make him so famous - the surreal-like dream state.

He took his inspiration from dreams that he had, and soon he made up a whole world of dreams depicted in his paintings. His more famous paintings are The Persistence of Memory and The Temptation of Saint Anthony, as well as Swans Reflecting Elephants. His paintings were unique and different to the art from the time period he was in, and many people took new interest in his art.

The Temptation of Saint Anthony, 1946: Oil Paintings Here

The Persistence Of Memory, 1931: Reality Bites

“Don’t bother “Don’t bother about being mod” he would say. “Unfortuabout being modern. ern, nately, it is the one thing that, you do, you cannot Unfortunately, it is whatever avoid.” He took traditional and themes, and added his the one thing that, universal own modern surreal twist to it, whatever you do, and it was this that the people loved. you cannot avoid.”

Swans Reflecting Elephants, 1937: HD Desktop Wallpapers

According to the Dali Museum in Florida, he soon became the leader of the Surrealist movement in art. Though people knew him as “the surrealist artist”, he wasn’t limited to a particular style or a particular media. He had a series of 19 large canvases which show his more classic works, like The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus, 1959 (TerminArtors)

Beyond his genre of art, Salvador Dali also collaborated with filmmakers and photographers. In 1945, Dali collaborated with animator Walt Disney in a short animated film titled “Destino”. It wasn’t released until 1999, when Walt Disney’s nephew, Roy E. Disney, stumbled on it when working on Disney’s Fantasia 2000. It was featured in the special edition of Fantasia 2000.

Destino, 1945: Films Fix

Many people have taken Dali’s idiosyncratic style and used it as a creative inspiration. Brazilian artist Leo Burnett from São Paulo created a Dali-inspired art collection, shown below. It combines Dali’s concepts with modern-world worries, and Burnett says, it helps if you are “… lost in the weird world of investments.”

In 1948, Dali was featured in Philippe Halsman’s masterpiece, The Dali Atomicus. They worked on the concept together and were fascinated by the idea of “suspension” in a photograph. This surreal photograph combines the ideas of both artists, creating a masterpiece that would be featured on a two-page spread in LIFE magazine. Isle of Ideas

Isle of Ideas

It is clear that Dali’s work has changed the view of the world for plenty of artists worldwide, and his work will be used as inspiration for many. Dali’s eccentricity in himself also inspired people. He once said, “Since I don’t smoke, I decided to grow a mustache...I always carried a jewel-studded cigarette case in which were carefully placed several mustaches... I offered them politely to my friends: “Mustache?” ...Nobody dared to touch them. This was my test regarding the sacred aspect of mustaches.” Countless people would say he was a madman, but he would be a madman remembered by many.

Soft Self-portrait With Fried Bacon, 1941: Arnaud Boulanger Sketchbook

Works Cited “The Dali Museum.” The Dali Museum. Salvador Dali Museum, 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. <>. Dali, Salvador. Destino Dali 5. 1945. Films Fix. Films Fix, n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2011. <>. Dali, Salvador.. The Temptation of Saint Anthony. 1946. Oil Paintings Here. Web. 4 Dec. 2011. <>. Dirk. “Art Direction - Brazilian Style, Part 3.” Isle of Ideas. Isle of Ideas, 10 Jan. 2011. Web. 4 Dec. 2011. <>. “The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus.” TerminArtors. TerminArtors, 10 July 2007. Web. 4 Dec. 2011. < Columbus>. Full Works Cited



a M , i l a D r o d a

“I wanted Dali because of the architectural sharpness of his work. Chiricohas the same quality, you know, the long shadows, the infinity of distance and the converging lines of perspective. But Dali had some strange ideas. He wanted a statue to crack like a shell falling apart, with ants crawling all over it. And underneath, there would be Ingrid Bergman, covered by ants! It just wasn’t possible.” - Alfred Hitchcock


alvador Dali was a Spanish artist, born in 1904. He was insane in his actions and because his style was surreal, with subconscious imagery and twisted realities and objects, very unorthodox at the time, but was eventually accepted in the surrealist movement, and some great art was created. Salvador Dali was an inspirational figure, although seeming a little odd. As you can tell by his quotes, he tried to be inspirational, he wanted you to look at his paintings and walk away changed, feeling, looking or thinking about something differently. This shows that he tries to influence people beyond just in art, he is inspiring others too, with the different themes of his paintings. His other quote, on the other hand, shows his thoughts of and dedication to surrealism, proving he did care about and aid in starting the surrealism movement. The Mike Wallace Interview with Salvador Dali shows him as a crazy clown, but despite this he creates amazing art, because he includes his techniques and painting skills and the clowning together to show his personality (Dali). This proves that he is not only a capable artist, but also an inspiring one, how he incorporates his good and crazy personality. You can also interpret this as an inspiration beyond art, saying be yourself in all that you do. The art magazine TATE ETC. reviewed Dali’s work as reviving, people have recently been becoming more interested in his work. It also goes on talking about magazine covers and a newspaper he designed (Pécoil).

This shows Dali’s influence in art, as seen in the popularity of him and his work, even going on to magazine covers. He is also regarded in the fashion world of the Vogue magazine as good enough to design fashion related covers, showing influence beyond his genre of art. Jane Migliore, a contemporary American painter, admitted the influence of Dali’s work in her surreal paintings (Hortillosa). This shows that even to this day, Dali is still influential, inspiring artists with his unique style to pursue a representation of the opposite of reality and logic. Dali also influenced Alfred Hitchcock. He said that Dali was the one perfect for designing the movie he was directing because he was not only a great artist, like many others, but also his ideas, much like his personality, were wild and strange. This proves that Dali’s personality and artistic ability and style made him very popular and influential even to people beyond the artistic world, these people mostly being designer, looking for creative and unique ideas. Salvador Dali had his time to create art, but the art was regarded as unorthodox and unaccepted until the surrealism movement, where it was accepted for a while, then forgotten again. I think it may be possible as we continue advancing technology and research that the surrealistic work of Dali will be reintroduced and fully understood and appreciated when we develop research or interest in the subconscious, the realm where Dali’s work would become normal.

Halsman, Philippe. Portrait of Salvad Times,

Migliore, who admitted being heavily influenced by Spanish surrealist painter Salvador Dali , said the unorthodox associations in her paintings show the exact opposite of the logical, cause-and-effect universe she sees around her. - Exerpt from newspaper aticle Migliore’s work has surrealistic feel HORTILLOSA, SUMMER DAWN. “Migliore’s work has surrealistic feel.” Jersey Journal, The (Jersey City, NJ) 4 Nov. 2011, First edition or full run; Bayonne, News: U6. NewsBank. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

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“A true artist is not one who is inspired, but one who inspires others.” “Surrealism is destructive, but it destroys only what it considers to be shackles limiting our vision.” - Salvador Dali

dor Dalí. 1954. New York

WALLACE: Well now wait. Wait. Despite your hi-jinks, time and again you have called yourself a genius and you’re very serious about this. Now you want to be evidently, you want to be a genius in two fields. First of all, you have called yourself a genius? DALI: In many different fields, you know. WALLACE: You? DALI: Yes.

On the surface, his painting is filled with nostalgia for a golden age of art, a fascination with the illusionistic and technical virtuosity of the Old Masters. Youthful works such as The Basket of Bread (1926) are done in an ultra classical style reminiscent of Velázquez and Zurbarán. However, there was more to Dalí than being a modern master. His re-use of paintings, such as Millet’s Angelus, revealed an ambivalent interest in religion, as much as it did the desire to recycle popular imagery. And his special form of anti-Modernist provocation that never lessened during his lifetime, as well as his involvement in the culture industry and popular culture, may explain the current revival of interest in his work. He published a great deal in magazines. He designed the cover of Vogue in 1939, 1944 and 1946, and edited a whole issue in 1971 for the French edition. He also designed covers for Town and Country and American Weekly. In the mid 1940s he decided to launch his own newspaper, Dalí News (a pun on the title of the New York Daily News), which was entirely devoted to the topic of Dalí – the man, his exhibitions, his paintings and his films. - Exerpt from TATE ETC. - Europe’s largest art magazine Pécoil, Vincent. “The First Pop Star of Painting.” Tate ETC. 2005: n. pag. Rpt. in Tate Online. By Vincent Pécoil. 3rd ed. Europe: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Tate ETC. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

WALLACE: What else besides an artist? DALI: The most important in my life, modern clown, modern painting, modern draftsmanship is my personality. WALLACE: Draftsmanship? DALI: My personality? WALLACE: Oh yes. DALI: My personality is more important than any of these little facets of my activities. WALLACE: In other words, what is most important to you... DALI: Is my personality. WALLACE: expressing Dali, not the painting, not the clowning, nothing but... DALI: The painting, the clowning, the showmanship, the technique everything is only one manner for express the total personality of Dali. - Exerpt from Salvador Dali: The Mike Wallace Interview Dali, Salvador. Interview by Mike Wallace. The Mike Wallace Interview. 19 Apr. 1958. Harry Ransom Center. Web. Transcript. 9 Nov. 2011.

“When the creations of a genius collide with the mind of a layman, and produce an empty sound, there is little doubt as to which is at fault.” - Salvador Dali

i l a D r o d a v l a S About Dali He was born on May 11th, 1904 in Catalonia, Spain. He was part of the French

Surrealist group in Paris. During his life, he contributed to many forms of art. He died on January 23rd, 1989.

Career The peak of his career was during the 1930’s when he created his most famous

work, The Persistence of Memory (Salvador Dali, Persistence of Memory). He continued to make more impressive work such as the Sleep (Salvador Dali, Sleep). After conflicts with the French Surrealist group, he started to experiment with other forms of art such as theatre and other forms of media.

31 9 1 , y r o m e M Persistence of

WALL A yoursel CE: You h ave ca f a gen lled ius? DAL I: fields, In many dif ferent yo WALL u know. A DAL CE: You? I: Yes -Excer pt Fro m Mi Intervi ke Wa ew llace

s k r o W s â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Dali

Influences in the Current Society Salvador Dali had, and still has, a considerable influence on art and the society. He

was a self-proclaimed genius, contributing to many forms of art (Interview by Mike Wallace). He is one of the most well-known surrealist for his unique style of art and is also remembered for his eccentric looks and personality.

During mid-19th century, Dali was a leading surrealist, creating the method “Paranoiac-Critical” which is a method for surrealists to access their subconscious mind. His works explored the mind of humans, including dreams and thoughts. He appeared in public very often and on occasions, preformed very strange stunts. In one instance, he appeared for a lecture in a diving helmet. He was also seen driving a car full of cauliflowers (Interview by Mike Wallace). His most famous work, the Persistence of Memory, the painting of the melting pocket watches in a desert-like surrounding, is one of the most famous piece of surrealist art (The Persistence of Memory). He created paintings such as Sleep and Metamorphosis of Narcissus as well as many other surrealist paintings. Later in his career, he contributed to other forms of art, such as theatre and sculptures. During his lifetime, he was internationally known as a modern artist appearing on the Mike Wallace Interview, a television show in the 1960‘s. His influence is still very visible today. The melting clocks from the Persistence of Memory are a symbol of surrealism and are known to many people across the globe. His legacy as an artist is very obvious. The Dali museum was newly renovated in Florida in January 2011 costing a fortune of US$ 36 million. The entire museum is solely dedicated to the works of Dali which is evidence that Dali’s works continues to be admired by many, even 20 years after his death. (British Broadcasting Corporation) Despite Dali’s reputation as a crazy person with his peculiar personality, he is held in high regard among artists. Dali will be remembered as a representative of surrealist art and for his part in developing the art form. He will remain to be an influential figure in the modern art society.

Citations “Salvador Dali Biography.”, 2011. Web. 6 Nov. 2011. <>. British Broadcasting Corporation. “Salvador Dali museum re-opens in Florida.” BBC News. British Broadcasting Cooperation, 12 Jan. 2011. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <>. Dali, Salvador. Interview by Mike Wallace. Harry Ransom Center. University of Texas at Austin, 2008. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. <http://>. Dali, Salvador. The Persistence of Memory. 1931. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Museum of Modern Art. Web. 2 Nov. 2011. <>. “Salvador Dali.”, 2009. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. <>.

Words of Wisdom by Gabriel Katsuya

nne Frank was a young girl of ten years when World War broke out for a second time. She was one of the millions of Jewish victims that died during the Holocaust, but what made her so special? It is the fact that she has written, arguably, the most famous and influential account of a victim of the Holocaust. Anne Frank’s influence in the world is tremendous, affecting the world both within and beyond her genre of literature. Anne’s story has served as and influence and inspiration for generations of writers. It has been critically acclaimed throughout the world, being called “well-constructed novel” (Levin) and has been said to write “one of the wisest and most moving commentaries on war and its impact on human beings” (Roosevelt). Writers such as Meyer Levin and Josh Berryman have spoken of how great an impact the diary had on them, and how Anne’s “one voice speaks for six million” (Berryman). Anne’s influence extends much further than literature, however. She has influenced various important political figures


Eleanor Roosevelt on Anne Frank

throughout the world. People such as Nelson Mandela son Mandela, Eleanor Roosevelt and Hillary Clinton have talked of how Anne has made such an impact on them. “[She] awakens us to the folly of indifference and the terrible toll it takes on our young,” Clinton said. Clinton She awakens us to goes on to relate the folly of indifference these events to the genocide in (Clinton) Rwanda, and explains how Anne Frank’s story motivated her to work towards change throughout the world, and should do the same for all who read it. Nelson Mandela spoke of how he read Anne’s Diary during apartheid when he was imprisoned and how he “derived much encouragement from it.” Mandela related Anne’s struggle against Nazism to his fight against apartheid, and commented how “these [political] beliefs are patently false, and because they were, and always will be, challenged by the likes of Anne Frank, they are bound to fail.” Anne Frank’s influence further extends to social services with the foundation of Anne Frank Fonds, an organization started by Anne’s father, Otto Frank. Anne Frank Fonds receives grants from over 80 international organizations, which it then hands out to “charities that work on fields that were close and important to Anne, namely peace building, co-existence, tolerance, interreligious dialogue, and children’s and women’s rights” (Eldridge). Anne Frank’s legacy has influenced people throughout the world. From writers such as Beryman and Levin to political figureheads like Nelson Mandela and Eleanor Roosevelt, Anne has shown them the horrors of World War II, and inspired them to change the world for the better. Anne Frank Fonds further exalts Anne’s legacy. It has existed for over 45 years, providing funds to various charities and organizations throughout the world, and will certainly continue to do so for years to come. Anne Frank’s name has truly been immortalized through her writing and this writing’s influence on the world.

Left: Nelson Mandela on Anne Frank in Johannesburg Bottom: Anne Frank Fonds Logo as of 2011

Adress by President Mandela at the Johannesburg Opening of the Anne Frank Exhibition in the Museum of Africa n our country, people were kept apart, and the majority of the population subjected to terrible privations, by design of the apartheid rulers. As we experience this new dawn, it is therefore important that all our people understand how different sectors of society experienced and reacted to the many events that make up our common past. This applies also to those whose experiences include the Second World War: in the Netherlands, in Germany, in the former Soviet Union and other parts of the world. For us to understand the people of these countries, and particularly the Jewish people of today, we have to be aware of the history of the Holocaust which so profoundly affected them. To know the past in its full measure, is to take the first important step towards learning from it. If Anne Frank whose writing talent has brought us together tonight - had survived, she would be a young lady of sixty-five. We salute her. By honouring her memory as we do today, we are saying with one voice: Never and Never Again!


[...] Apartheid and Nazism shared the inherently evil belief in the superiority of some races over others. This drove adherents of these ideologies to perpetrate unspeakable crimes and to derive pleasure from the suffering of their fellow human-beings. But because these beliefs are patently false, and because they were, and will always be, challenged by the likes of Anne Frank, they are bound to fail. The victory of the democratic forces in South Africa is a contribution to this world-wide effort to rid humanity of the evil of racism. It is Anne Frank’s victory. It is an achievement of humanity as a whole. During the many years my comrades and I spent in prison, we derived inspiration from the courage and tenacity of those who challenge injustice even under the most difficult circumstances. As my colleague, Govan Mbeki indicated at the Port Elizabeth exhibition, some of us read Anne Frank’s Diary on Robben

it. Combined with news of the heroic strug-

gles of the people, led by the ANC, as well as the support of the international community, the tales of heroes and heroines of Anne’s calibre kept our spirits high and reinforced our confidence in the invincibility of the cause of freedom and justice. The Anne Frank Foundation in Amsterdam deserves praise for the consistent stand it has always taken against fascism and apartheid. [...] However, much work needs to be done by all of us to help change attitudes - be it in the work-place or any other area where people interact.

Bibliography “Anne Frank Timeline.” Anne Frank Museum Amsterdam - the Official Anne Frank House Website. Web. 09 Nov. 2011. “”All “Anne Frank.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 09 Nov. 2011. “Anne Frank.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 09 Nov. 2011. “CS5.5 Design Premium Feature Tour - Create More Compelling EBooks with InDesign CS5.5.” Adobe TV. Web. 09 Nov. 2011. Frank, Anne. Anne Frank, the diary of a young girl. N.p.: Puffin Books, 2002. N. pag. Frank, Anne. Anne Frank’s Tales from the secret annex including her unfinished novel Cady’s life. Ed. Gerrold Van der Stroom. Trans. Susan Massoty. New York: Bantam Books, 2003. N. pag. Print. Lindwer, Willy. The Last Seven Months of Anne Frank. United Kingdom: MacMillan’s Child rens Book, 1999. N. pag. Print

“ Nelson Mandela about the Diary of Anne Frank - YouTube.” YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 09 Nov. 2011. < watch?v=PHd2Y98pvbc>. “Otto Returns Back Alone.” Anne Frank Museum Amsterdam - the Official Anne Frank House Website. Web. 09 Nov. 2011.

Pri “ People.” Anne Frank Museum Amsterdam - the Official Anne Frank House Website. Web. 09 Nov. 2011.

o l h a K a d i Fr By Lindy Wong


orn in 1907 and died in 1954, Frida Kahlo is the most famous female Mexican artist of contemporary art. She has brought up psychological discussions about her life because of the way she translated her story through various works (Motian-Meadows). Known for her marriage with famous Diego Rivera and her Mexican dress, Frida Kahlo has become a feminist and cultural icon (Herrera). Frida Kahlo painted the personal struggles within her lifetime. Because of the autobiographical information she incorporated into her paintings, many artists had been inspired by this style and turned towards it, narrating their own their lives in a more metamorphic way. (Herrera). She is considered to set the horizon or give permission for those who narrate their lives into their artworks personally, being one of the first to actually do so (Taylor). Kahlo painted about her life, for instance the struggles with her husband, Diego Rivera, as seen in â&#x20AC;&#x153;"Diego and I"â&#x20AC;? and â&#x20AC;&#x153;"The Two Fridas", which expresses pain and love from Rivera ("The Two Fridas"). A major low point in her life was when she realized she could not give birth to a child, trying more than once as Rivera's diary had described ("Diego River - My Art, My Life"). Some artists who consider Kahlo to provide strength pay homage to her through incorporating her image in their artwork and creating altars. Other artists also take on her folkloric style, releasing a unique charm (Herrera). Kahlo has also created a huge unintentional impact on the fashion industry today. Kahlo wore dresses with the pride of her

indigenous Mexican culture, adopting the southern Mexico's matriarchal community of Tehuana. Her cultural dresses provide an inspiration for several international designers and photographers today, as seen in Simon Simonton's work (next page) ("Frida Kahlo: The Unintentional Fashion Icon"). Moreover, Frida Kahlo also acts as a role model to many strugglers - the gay community. Gay men adopted her as an inspiration to reach a more open society as Frida Kahlo was bisexual, having affairs with both men and women in her life. Some of Kahlo's works have tried to address the issues caused by sexual orientation. But not only that, Kahlo is so apparent in culture, she is on stamps, a magazine cover, and plays (e.g. the Ochre House's Kahlo play) and documentaries (Mencimer). Kahlo, also a feminist icon, had painted feminine reality of which things that remain hidden in women's lives are actually seen. She painted topics that women weren't able to address so publicly, like pregnancy, abortion and gender roles, appealing to feminist scholars and also men. Many female artists in the United States admire her for several reasons; her strength through coping past all unfortunate events of health problems and emotional pain and how she was a female painter in a society dominated by men (Herrera). The Tate Modern exhibition has been open to people under 18 since 2005, opening Frida Kahlo's legacy into the hearts of another generation ("Striking Legacy of Artist Kahlo").

(Left) Diego and I 1949 Frida Kahlo Throughout Kahlo's life, many complications arose between the love of her life, Diego Rivera, a muralist and famous artist of the same time period, nevertheless, Kahlo -loved and was devoted to him. Kahlo, Frida. Diego and I. 1949. Collection of Mary-Anne Martin/Fine Arts, New York. Write Design Online. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.

(Right) Frida Kahlo and her painting "The Two Fridas", depicting emotional expressions of Diego Rivera. Frida Kahlo with her Painting. 29 Aug. 2011. Time is Art. WordPress, n.d.

Web. 6 Dec. 2011.

An Excerpt from Diego Rivera’s Diary (Below) Dante Martinez plays the role of Frida Kahlo in the Ochre House's Kahlo play. Photographer: Tom Fox Fox, Tom. Ochre House's Kahlo Play. N.d. The Dallas Morning News. The Dallas Morning News, 18 Nov. 2011. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. < tainment/columnists/lawson-taitte/20111118-ochre houses-kahlo-play-explores-the-painters-tortured life.ece>.

"When asked her greatest ambition, she would announce to her flustered teachers and schoolmates, "To have a baby by Diego Rivera just as soon as I can convince him to cooperate." Frida was not deterred by the doctors' warnings. While we were in Detroit, she became pregnant. Her pregnancy was painful. The many women with whom Frida had made friends in Detroit, who had come to love her, did everything in their power to help her have the child. With the best of care, however, she suffered a torturous miscarriage. She became so ill that I forbade her ever to conceive again. Nevertheless, Frida's desire to have a baby was so strong that she again risked her life by becoming pregnant three other times. Each pregnancy ended in a painful loss. But none was as acutely distressful as this first one in Detroit. Frida's tragedy -- for such she felt her experience to be -- inspired her to paint a canvas depicting a miscarriage and expressing the sensations and emotions it gives rise to. She also painted a picture representing her own birth. Immediately thereafter, she began work on a series of masterpieces which had no precedent in the history of art -- paintings which exalted the feminine qualities of endurance to truth, reality, cruelty, and suffering. Never before had a woman put such agonized poetry on canvas as Frida did at this time in Detroit." “Diego Rivera -- My Art, My Life: An Autobiography (with Gladys March).” The Ralph Nader Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

Frida’s Everlasting Legacy

(Right) A dress designed by Simon Simonton, inspired by Frida Kahlo and photographed by Michael Oswald. Designer: Simon Simonton (Photo by Michael Oswald). N.d. Trend de la Crème.

Works Cited: Brooks, Mike. “The Two Fridas.” Frida Kahlo Fans. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. Herrera, Hayden. “Frida Kahlo’s Legacy The Poetics of Self.” Ellen Berman. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. Mencimer, Stephanie. “The Trouble With Frida Kahlo.” Washington Monthly. The Washington Monthly, June 2002. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. Motian-Meadows, Mary. “Kahlo As Artist, Woman, Rebel.” Solidarity. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. “Striking Legacy of Artist Kahlo.” BBC. BBC, 7 June 2005. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. Taylor, Victor Zamudio. “Excerpts From an Interview with Filmmaker Amy Stechler and Writer and Scholar Victor Zamudio Taylor. .” Interview by Amy Stechler. PBS. WETA, n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

The Legacy of E. Gary Gygax By Lauren Chickles

The Cover of Gary Gygax’s Advanced Dungeons & Dragons Player’s Handbook


ary Gygax (pronounced GUY-gax) was the father of role-playing games. He was born in Chicago, Illinois on the 27th of July, 1938 (Keith, ”The Ultimate Gary Gygax Interview.”) Gygax’s story begins in the 1970’s the decade in which Dungeons and Dragons (or D&D) was first created. Gaming before then mainly consisted of board games like Chess and Diplomacy to name a couple. Then in 1972, Gygax wrote the first manuscript then labeled, “The Fantasy Game” (Keith, ”The Ultimate Gary Gygax Interview.”) After positive feedback, Gygax wrote an 150 page manuscript which was then released in 1974 as the first three rules booklets for Dungeons and Dragons.

Gygax greatly influenced those within the gaming industry and those outside of it. Within the genre, Gary Gygax was the first to take the step outside of the boundaries of board games and set rules. With the introduction of role-playing, the number of games sky-rocketed. Outside of this, Gygax heavily influenced the fantasy genre, not only games but books even movies. With Gygax’s extensive look into the fantatasical worlds,the gap between films/books and games was breached. Even though Tolkien had written, The Lord of the Rings, the fantasy genre had not garnered much interest before Gygax brought those worlds forward and breathed life into them (Schiesel, ”Gary Gygax, Game Pioneer, Dies at 69.”)

“Role-playing isn’t storytelling. If the dungeon master is directing it, it’s not a game.” - Gygax (Kushner, “Dungeon Master: The Life and Legacy of Gary Gygax”) The quote above personifies what D&D was basically about. Dungeons and Dragons was not about what the Dungeon Master or DM told you to do, it was about a game that revolved around the players and a world setting that was affected by what they chose to do. These actions would have rewards and consequences but were open-ended and limited only by the DM’s imagination and the rules set by Gygax. If Dungeons and Dragons was a game that revolved solely on the descisions made by the DM, the game would not have been as successful. Since, it was based on the players, people became more involved as their alter-egos or characters paved roads in the worlds provided to them, that were both devastating and renewing.

Even though Gygax died only 3 years ago, he still influences people today. Today, there is quite a few games, softwares and books of the fantasy genre that have been inspired by his work. As it is now, Dungeons and Dragons has now developed into its latest edition. Furthermore, D&D has gained interest even from the new technology based generation. Works Cited Easley, Jeff. AD&D Player’s Handbook Cover. Player’s Handbook. By Gary Gygax. U. S. A: TSR, 1978. Front Cover. Print. Fonts101Bot. “Souvenir Demi BT.”, 15 Apr. 2010. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. Keith. “The Ultimate Gary Gygax Interview.” The Kyngdoms. The Kyngdoms, 10 Aug. 2005. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. Kushner, David. “Dungeon Master: The Life and Legacy of Gary Gygax.” Wired. Condé Nast Digital, 10 Mar. 2008. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. Schiesel, Seth. “Gary Gygax, Game Pioneer, Dies at 69.” The New York Times. The New York Times Co., 5 Mar. 2008. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. Whoneycutt. “Hot & Cold.” kuler. Adobe Systems, 22 Feb. 2008. Web. 22 Nov. 2011.

Marilyn Monroe By Bayley Solarz

In 1926 Norma Jeane Baker was born, in LA, who would become one of the the most celebrated and influential people of all time. She spent most of her childhood in foster homes, or at friend’s houses as a result of no father and her mother’s mental health. She made only 30 films in her life, but her status will remain in history forever. Marilyn became influential later on in her life, just before and long after she died. Her story was known more later in her life. About how she had had a hard childhood, and that then affected the way people looked at her. (IMDb). She was influential during her time because she was a screen goddess. All of the women wanted to dress and be like her, while all of the men wanted to be with her. She was the woman that offered pleasure without challenge, and didn’t judge or ask for anything iin return. Everyone would go and see the newest movie she was starring in, or the latest calendar she was apart of. She was popular because she personified the secret fears of women, and the secret hopes of men (PBS). She was actually very smart, and had an intellectual side to her that nobody really knew about until her diaries came out.

During her time, it was thought that she was just a dumb blonde that didn’t know anything. It wasn’t until her diaries were released that they knew it wasn’t true. An executive editor who read the diaries even said, ‘There are fragments of poetry that are really quite beautful.’ In these diaries, she would take notes on how she could improve her acting performances, and also what she thought of Italian Renaissance art (Telegraph). At the time, it was

said that no famous person would still be thought about because popular culture was changing too fast, but even today, she is still in peoples minds, there are huge photos of her displayed in shop windows, and is spoken about on TV (PBS). Her history, achievements, contributions to society and the legacy she left behind have made her one of the greatest icons of the world. She has inspired many people - writers, musicians, and artists like Madonna, Lady GaGa, Elton John, Andy Warhol and Joyce Oates (Telegraph). She suffered from depression and selfdestruction, yet she is still influencial because of the way she picked herself up and started over on a clean slate. She got into a good buisness and ended up with quite a bit of money, she was beautiful and lots of people want to look like her. People look up to her, she is an icon. My own mother looks up to her and is fascinated with her story and the influence she has made.

“I knew I belonged to the public and to the world, not because I was talented or even beautiful, but because I had never belonged to anything or anyone else.”

1. “Marilyn Monroe.” IMDb., Inc, 1999. Web. 4 Nov. 2011. <>. 2. “Marilyn Monroe.” Official Marilyn Monroe website. The Estate of Marilyn Monroe, LLC, 2011. Web. 6 Nov. 2011. <>. 3. “Marilyn Monroe’s diaries show her intellectual side.” The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited, Apr. 2009. Web. 6 Nov. 2011. <http://>. 4. Steinem, Gloria. “The Woman Who Will Not Die.” PBS. Educational Broadcasting Corporation, 1986. Web. 4 Nov. 2011. < marilyn-monroe/still-life/61/>. 5. Thomas, Justin. “A Gallery of Marilyn Monroe Photographs.” ego TV. Hutch Media, June 2011. Web. 6 Nov. 2011. <>.

Arthur Miller Playing for T


rthur Miller, an american playwright who was born in 1915 and he is the one who made one of the most famous playwrights in history. Earning countless awards and prizes including the pulitzer prize he is easily distinguished to be the best of the best if you want a playwright. Arthur Miller influenced his own genre of playwriting with his spectacular works of art that he created within his lifetime. Arthur Miller, known as one of literatures most influential writers of all time because of his though provoking plots and entertaining playwrights he knows he is one of the greatest literary geniuses that influenced the world (miller). Arthur Miller, a man with all perspectives, known to influence and spread the field of literature to the world (Ferris). Arthur Miller is known for his influence on his field for a few playwrights is amazing and with countless awards people will be influenced by such an influential person. Even with more than 2 famous playwrights under his belt what more can he do (Mediapedia). Even with all of these achievements, how did Arthur Miller affect the not only his genre but other fields as well? Within his plays he not only focuses on enhancing the

entertainment of the viewer but he also allows shady problems within our society today, influencing the view points of the viewers in the audience (Ferris). Arthur Miller influence on the society may be vague but he influenced the world with his controversial playwrights that shown lights to problems with our society today. With his influences on the audience how else could he have influenced the world and the views we have on society. Well, Arthur Miller not only wrote playwrights but he wrote books on his views of the world. “ A good newspaper, I suppose, is a nation speaking to itself” is one of the most influential quotes during his lifetime (seeing). Arthur Miller made this quote vague on purpose because a quote could be interpreted differently but within a general area and that is exactly what he did. People, life, the world, Arthur Miller influenced it all and with his life at an end he will never stop influencing the world about his controversial views how life works itself. His life may have ended but his legacy will never end and he will live into history, known for his talent and perspective that influenced the world.

“A lot of people are eliminated earlier from the productive life in this society than they used to be.” -Arthur Miller

“It’s about challenges that were not met when they came up and so those challenges return and haunt people. History is of the essence in that form.” -Arthur Miller


An Excerpt From the Interview with NEH Chairman, William R. Ferris for the Humanities Magazine Ferris: When Death of a Salesman opened in 1949, Brooks Atkinson wrote in his New York Times review that you had written a superb drama. He went on to say, “Mr. Miller has no moral precepts to offer and no solutions of the salesman’s problems. He is full of pity, but he brings no piety to it.” Is there more of a moral message in Salesman than Atkinson saw there? Miller: It depends on your vantage point. Willie Loman’s situation is even more common now than it was then. A lot of people are eliminated earlier from the productive life in this society than they used to be. I’ve gotten a number of letters from people who were in pretty good positions at one point or another and then were just peremptorily discarded. If you want to call that a moral area, which I think it is, then he was wrong. What I think he was referring to was that the focus of the play is the humanity of these people rather than coming at them from some a priori political position. I think that is true.

These are some of the most famous and influencial playwrights that Arthur has written within his lifetime.

Work cited: “Arthur Miller Black and White Photo.” EMSWORTH. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. “Seeing Eye to Eye: Arthur Miller.” Boston Review — Home. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. Miller, Arthur. “SPRING THEATER; Looking for a Conscience - New York Times.” The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. Web. 09 Nov. 2011.  Ferris, William R. “Arthur Miller--Interview.” The National Endowment for the Humanities. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. Mediapedia. “The Crucible.” Wikimedia. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. Makanjuuola, Tomi. “Death of a Salesman | The New Current.” The New Current | A Fresh Stream of Student Media! Web. 06 Dec. 2011.

Diamonds are a girlâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

Best friend Best friend By Brandon Wong


hen you walk down the gloomy streets of many cities, you may have come across a beautiful, blonde individual within pictures or life-size cutouts, which seem to radiate out into the open streets. But you don't have a clue to who this lady is. It's Marilyn Monroe, one of the most iconic individuals of the 20th century. Marilyn Monroe has been known for her glamorous image, modeling and her appearances in countless movies. One of the most well known movies she starred in was the "Seven Year Itch", in which she filmed her famous scene of being blasted from subway grating below, which caused her dress to rise,

and her face depicting an explosion of joy. (Wilder). Although Monroe spent most of the exposition of her Hollywood career playing secondary roles in movies such as All about Eve and Asphalt Jungle, she was able to stand out and become the A-plus star in Hollywood she was, and is currently known as. (Life) The film Niagara and Gentlemen Prefer Blondes were movies that allowed her to play the vulnerable, dumb, sensual blonde, which are stereotypes we associate blonde individuals with. (Kashner). On screen, Monroe was considered to have one of television's biggest personalities. Although Monroe's talent wasn't the main driving force behind her fame, her charisma onstage and in person allowed fellow actors/


-Monroe's fame was such that

she supplanted in popularity the ultimate World War II pinup girl, Betty Grable - Kashner

As a very beautiful American woman who, during that period of time in the '50s, represented the '50s. You know, that' what she was, that's what she is. And, you know, God bless darling Marilyn - Larry King Live, CNN

Marilyn Monroe Starring in the motion picture the "Seven Year Itch"

â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Monroe Build-up was one of the greatest in Hollywood Historyâ&#x20AC;? - The Sun

ing the famous Betty Grable (The blonde in the body suit) as the most popular pinup girl during the Second World War. To several, Monroe is considered as the "Dumb" actress people associate blondes to be. But to individuals who analyzed her personal diary, she is known to write beautiful and affecting poems that sparked the imaginations of her life to Marilyn Monroe is considered to be one of the those who read them. (Kashner). most famous actresses of all time and yet, her fame doesn't stop that the steps of Hollywood, Marilyn Monroe's image and legacy has albut rather on the steps of the world. Whether lowed our modern day society to move forward like it has never done before. Although it from modeling to photographs, the buildshe remains in our lives as a basic, minor up Monroe created for herself was probably the greatest in history. (Sun). The successes of thought within our minds, Marilyn MonMonroe's Hollywood career led to her surpass- roe has played a significantly powerful part in actresses and directors to experience the joys of working with this young and delightful woman. Many people, colleagues and film directors considered Monroe as the beautiful American woman who represented the 1950s due to her astounding achievements within the Hollywood industry.

“For, “For, with all Holwith lywood at her feet, all she is obsessed Hol- by an irrational ly- childhood ambition: she wants very much to became an actress” - Life magazines

modern-day pop culture and our lives. Monroe's legacy doesn't just live in Hollywood or within art, but rather in the lives of everyone.


Kashner, Sam. “Marilyn and Her Monsters.” Vanity Fair Nov. 2010: 1-5. Web. 6 Nov. 2011. < marilyn-monroe-201011>. King, Larry. “CNN LARRY KING LIVE.” CNN. CNN. 1 June 2001. CNN Transcripts. Web. 6 Nov. 2011. Life Magazine. “Marilyn Monroe: The Talk of Hollywood .” Life Magazine 7 Apr. 1952: n. pag. Print. The Sun. “Miss Monroe Found Dead.” The Sun 6 Aug. 1962, Baltimore, MD ed.: A1+.Print Wilder, Billy. The Seven Year Itch. 1955. Wordpress. Wordpress, 1 Oct. 2011. Web. 6 Nov. 2011. <>.

“I’m selfish, impatient and a little insecure. I make mistakes, I am out of control and at times hard to handle. But if you can’t handle me at my worst, then you sure as hell don’t deserve me at my best.” - Marilyn Monroe

Blair, Taylor. Subway Dress. JPEG Blair, Taylor. TheThe Subway Dress. N.d.N.d. JPEG file.file.




arilyn Monroe. The independent, beautiful sex symbol of the early 1900‘s. When Marilyn passed away suddenly in 1962, the world was shocked. And almost half a century later, her traces are still evident in our culture. How did Marilyn maintain such a long-lasting impact? Marilyn’s quote on impatience, selfishness and insecurity reflected her influential personality. She wanted to be taken seriously, like a real actress, and not a “dumb blond” (Green). She as unalike to women of the 1900’s. She was a breath of fresh air with a huge character. Her personality brought new trends to the industry, and she inspired future stars to be like her. Madonna, one of the world’s most well-known singer, was a result of the influence of Marilyn’s bold personality and work she had achieved in Hollywood (Claire). The Seven Year Itch was one of Marilyn’s most well-known and successful films (Blair) - it earned a whopping 5 million in box office (Solomon). Her costume and fashion style, her acting - all remembered and commemorated by the American public. After the film was released, it was evident that Monroe had succeeded in influencing the fashion. The American public began copying the fashion exhibited in the movie - Monroe-styled dresses became the new fad, the new high fashion. Not only was Marilyn’s fashion celebrated by the public, but so were her poses. When walking through New York City, many may see tourist copying Marilyn’s signature pose while standing on the subway gates (Blair). Marilyn started trends, and people were prone to follow them. She was memorable, even in the diverse industry of entertainment, for her distinct tastes, charisma and character. Playboy. Marilyn Poses for Play Marilyn’s impact is boy. 1 Dec. 1953. JPEG file. definitely beyond the borders of her genre in the entertainment industry. Things she did, despite whether or not she meant for them to be, has impacted the contemporary culture. When Playboy magazine had initially released, on their cover, a nude picture of Marilyn, the magazine sold millions of copies (Allen) - it was around the point where Marilyn had developed her infamous title of America’s sex symbol. However, behind the superficial sex symbol that she embodied, she had a larger impact on our contemporary culture.

Corbis, Bettman. Ella Fitzgerald and Marilyn Monroe, in Hollywood in 1954. 1954. JPEG file.

When the nude Playboy issue of Marilyn was released, there was a lot of argument and dispute over it. The more conservative culture in the 1900‘s did not approve of public nudity. The issue of Playboy featuring Monroe nude had caused conjured much negativity in the beginning. But humans are prone to change and adaption - people began to accept Marilyn’s risque image. Monroe’s Playboy shoot is the spark of the now multimillion dollar industry of pornography. Racism, was in fact, a widespread dilemma in America during the 1900’s. Black’s were not allowed to perform at nightclubs, and a long list of other limitations came with it. Ella Fitzgerald, in the picture with Marilyn Monroe, was a young black female singer, desperate for a job (Grannum). After being rejected at a popular nightclub, Marilyn Monroe called the owner of the club, and told him to book Ella Fitzgerald immediately . She promised to sit in the front row every night if he booked her (Bettman). The owner agreed, and Ella Fitzgerald’s perforMPTV. The Seven Year Itch (1955) mance was a success. Not . 1955. JPEG file. only had Marilyn spark Ella’s career, but she also played a big part in changing the American public’s view on racism. Though Marilyn has passed away for nearly over 50 years, her legacy still lives within us. She may not be around to implement new change, but all she has already achieved in her short 30 years will have a long-lasting impact on the human mankind.

Georgia O’Keeffe By: Megan Shum

Georgia O’Keeffe is considered to be one of the great-

est female artists of the 20th century. While most people may not be as familiar with O’Keeffe as they are with Picasso or van Gogh, they must have, at one time or another, been exposed to her works, large-scale flowers, bones and landscapes (Beautiful Paintings of Flowers). What is so unique about O’Keeffe’s work is the way she depicted and interpreted nature, so simple and pure. She spent most of her life at her famous house, Ghost Ranch, in New Mexico in 1929 (Georgie O’Keeffe). She lived a simple life and created a collection of bones, rocks, and nature of inspiring paintings. s an artist, she has profound impact on modern art development in America. As a woman, with overwhelming personality, O’Keeffe is a feminist icon. She has raised the awareness to the American public that a woman could be of equal to any man, even in a field that was for a long time dominated by men. ithout doubt, she has a significant impact on her genre. In a blog of an art teacher and a female painter, Jan Ketza, has revealed how she was inspired by O’Keeffe in her pursuit of becoming an artist. The first time she came across Georgia was when she was 16, feeling very frustrated by the difficulties of a female to become an artist. O’keeffe’s story affirmed her belief that she could be an artist O’Keeffe’s landscape paintings were an eye-opener for Jan, making her understand that she has to be inspired in order to create an art of her own (Georgia O’Keeffe- Loving Georgia). This is only one of the many examples of how O’Keeffe impacted the art practitioners and students over the years. ’Keeffe’s legacy also impacted people outside of her genre of visual arts as well. Being an icon of feminists, O’Keeffe’s story and success has overthrown the common belief that men are superior than women in any fields.




In memory of O’Keeffe, the Georgia O’Keeffe Mu-

seum has sponsored a “Woman of Distinction Award” to recognize outstanding contributions made by contemporary women to the society and culture. Since its establishment in 2007, five women of distinction have been awarded, and this year’s recipient an Opera Singer, Frederica von Stade (James M. Keller). Through this award, O’Keeffe’s legacy will continue to encourage women to excel and realize themselves into every profession. Keeffe is a very talented and creative artist. Her works, ranging from imagery, microscopic view of flowers, depictions of New York buildings, and skulls and bones of the New Mexico, are so diverse, so uniquely her own and so unrelated to trends and schools of her time but also so compelling to the modern art world. Most importantly, O’Keeffe’s works have a strong sense of her identity as an American artist, contrary to her contemporaries (largely male) who depend very much on European arts models (Rita Donagh). Her works have formed a cornerstone of the US modern art development in the past 70 years and will continue to shape its development in the decades to come. Her story will continue to inspire many women to strike for their goals.


Oxford Art Journal, I Vol. 3, No. 1, Women in Art (Apr., 1980), pp. 44-50

n 1965 Georgia O’Keeffe painted one of the more memorable images of the decade, a canvas eight feet by twenty-four feet, Sky Above CloudsIV (Fig. 1). This austere and monumental work is the last in a series of paintings which explore in an increasingly abstract manner the theme of aerial perspective. The method of working through several versions of a subject, from realism to abstraction, is one which she adopted at the start of her long career as an artist, following the example of Matisse whose work was shown in New York as early as 1909 at the Stieglitz gallery. The Sky AboveCloudsseries manipulates a simultaneously flat compositions - that of placing the subject on the picture plane bringing foreground and background abruptly into conjunction, without a middle-distance. The arresting originality of these late works lies to some extent within the imagery. Flying, and the vertical dimension of space, is not only a new subject in the iconography of art, but a uniquely contempor- ary experience. These paintings, are profoundly modern, yet embody a timeless notion of stillness in the midst of perpetual change and in complex ways are the resolution of the many polarities in O’Keeffe’s work. Within their sublime vistas, the spectator is held in a state of arrested motion above the horizon.In her recently published book Georgia O’Keeffe describes at length how Shapes recede rhythmically while remaining frontal, this interplay extending a device also common to earlier O’Keeffe compositions - that of placing the subject on the picture plane bringing foreground and background abruptly into conjunction, without a middle-distance. The arresting originality of these late works lies to some extent within the imagery. Flying, and the vertical dimension of space, is not only a new subjectin the iconography of art, but a uniquely contempor- ary experience. These paintings, are profoundly modern, yet embody a timeless notion of stillness in the midst of perpetual change and in complex ways are the resolution of the many polarities in O’Keeffe’s work. Within their sublime vistas, the spectator is held in a state of arrested motion above the horizon.


n her recently published book Georgia O’Keeffe describes at length how Sky Above Clouds IV was carried out. The physical difficulties alone fill one with awe: “It was a long trip with the brush across that twenty-four feet of canvas - once with water, twice with glue and twice with white paint to prepare it. And then I had to paint the picture.” The manual task of executing the work was as formidable as the artistic achievement, and remarkable from a woman in her seventy-eighth year.

Inspired by her... Inspired her...

By: Jan Ketza he Beginning...Lesson 1 fFrom Georgia O’Keeffe

T As I begin, I closed my eyes for a while to remind

myself of that magical day that my art teacher placed a book in my hands about Georgia O’Keeffe. Memories of hip-hugging bell bottoms, Carly Simon’s song “Your So Vain”, and tying back my long blond hair to keep it out of my paint pallet fill my mind. In my thoughts, I am sad, with the realization of my dream to be an artist for the rest of my life will be one of many sacrifices and financial stress. This is all I ever wanted to be. I have been instructed by my guidance counselor to find something else to do, than to be an artist so I can live better. I am 16, a sophomore at Morton West High School in Berwyn IL, and and art student with an amazing art teacher named Mr. Mounce.

He must have seen the sadness on my face that day

in class and pulled me aside to ask what was wrong. I was almost in tears just telling him and added the fact that all the living artist are men on top of it all, that are even supporting themselves by art. He replied that this was not so...and I asked him to please teach me about the women, so I can have something to hold on to.

He walked to his desk and brought me the book that

would change my life...It was a book about Georgia O’Keeffe. I was told to take it home and study every word...memorize every brushstroke...every composition...and believe in myself to be an artist like her.

There are moments in life that take your breath

away...Now as I am older, I know this was one of them for me. I just needed to know, that there was one woman out there that could do it... That I can have the creative life I wanted and I was going to be and ARTIST! To Be Inspired...Lesson Two From O’Keeffe

I did what my art teacher told me to do...I went home

craving to find my way to be an artist. I took that precious book and devoured every word, every image, and every page. I read it over and over again with so many times falling asleep to Georgia O’Keeffe’s paintings vivid in my brain...just burned into it. Often I would wake to a sharp corner of that book sticking me in the side. This repetitive action would become the foundation of my art education and build my confidence to begin that first good painting I would create.

I studied Georgia’s Landscapes and got lost in the ex-

otic land of New Mexico. Her flowers painted close up brought me sexual awareness and to look at things more close treasure small things in my life. The Bones I sensed history and immortality and with her paintings, painted to music, a sense of joy and artistic freedom that remains within me to this day.

To be inspired with my heart beating with artistic pas-

sion was liberating. I was so wound up with ideas it was hard for me to begin with one! So I took this new knowledge and applied it to a paint study in my art class. It began with learning how to build a frame, stretch canvas, prime the canvas, then begin the painting.

I knew what I was going to paint with instinct and began my first good painting at 16. The painting is a landscape with my profile superimposed on top of it. My eyes are closed, my hair is blond flowing in the breeze and I am dreaming of things I family, the earth, my first love, and my dream to be an artist. Name of the painting is Dreamtime inspired by the landscapes of Georgia O’Keeffe painted in 1973. This painting remains in my studio as a constant reminder of my artist journey with my many lessons from O’Keeffe.

Name of the Book is O’Keeffe, from the Whitney

Museum published in 1970. Sky above the Clouds is the painting on the cover and is on exhibit at the Art Institute of Chicago. It is big and glorious...And an old friend of mine I visit every time I go there.

Paint to Music...Lesson 3 From O’Keeffe I took this lesson and applied it to songs I found I believe to become a great artist one must be a that inspired me and when I listened to the music I

great art teacher too. One of the first remarkable lessons I learned from studying Georgia O’Keeffe was a story she wrote about listening to music as she painted.Her story goes as this...”I never took one of Bements’s classes at Columbia University, but one day down the hall I heard music from his classroom. Being curious I opened the door and went in. A low-toned record was being played and the students were asked to make a drawing from what they heard. so I sat down and made a drawing, too. Then he played a very different kind of record-a sort of high soprano piece-for another quick drawing. This gave me an idea that I was very interested to follow later-the idea that music could be translated into something for the eye.”

would get lost in it... In doing this I found myself going into my own world, my first sense of my art zone. The music would play, I would sing out loud and often make up my own words...just lost in the moment of having that paint brush in my hand, unconsciously selecting and making paint colors that pleased me, and the feeling of the brush’s sensuality upon my canvas. My art zone is the most beautiful place in the world filled with joy beyond belief. It is my place that in time I have learned to slip into and create.

Woman Woman of of Distinction Distinction

Mezzo-soprano Frederica von Stade has been named the fifth recipient of the Georgia O’Keeffe Museum’s “Woman of Distinction Award.” Internationally renowned as one of the most refined and sophisticated singers of her generation, von Stade will accept the award Aug. 7 at the Lensic Performing Arts Center and has signaled that she will sing on that occasion. As she eases into retirement, von Stade sang farewell recitals in New York and Chicago last spring and ended her four-decade operatic career less than a month ago in the Houston Grand Opera’s revival of Jake Heggie’s Dead Man Walking. The announcement was made Monday evening at the Georgia O’Keeffe Museum by Deborah Holloway, chairman of the O’Keeffe Art and Leadership Program for Girls, which will be the financial beneficiary of von Stade’s appearance this summer. Holloway noted that the award celebrates the museum’s namesake by honoring women who have exhibited strength of character while attaining extraordinary achievement in fields often dominated by men. The award was instituted in 2007, when the first recipient was author Gail Sheehy. The ensuing honorees have been Supreme Court Associate Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, journalist and social activist Gloria Steinem and photographer Annie Leibovitz. The 65-year-old von Stade, who is widely known by her nickname “Flicka,” made her Santa Fe Opera debut in 1971, in the role of Cherubino in Mozart’s Le nozze di Figaro (the production also included the company debut of the soprano Kiri Te Kanawa), and sang seven roles in the course of five seasons here. One of the opera world’s most applauded interpreters of Mozart, French lyric repertoire, modern American operas, and “trouser roles,” she has served as a mentor to many of today’s younger singers, including mezzo-soprano Joyce DiDonato, who will interview her onstage at the Lensic event. She has recently become active in educational programs for young people in California’s Bay Area, where she resides.

Work Cited

Donagh, Rita. “Georgia O’Keeffe in Context.” Women in Art 3.1 (1980): 44-50. JSTOR. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. <Beautiful Paintings of Flowers – A Tribute to Georgia O’Keeffe >. “Georgia O’Keeffe About the Painter.” PBS. Thirteen, 28 Apr. 2006. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. <>. Keller, James M. “Opera singer to receive ‘Woman of Distinction Award.’” Santa Fe New Mexican. N.p., 28 Feb. 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. < Opera-singer-to-receive--Woman-of-Distinction-Award->. Ketza, Jan. “LOVING GEORGIA.” GEORGIA O’KEEFFE - LOVING GEORGIA. N.p., 6 Sept. 2010. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. < search?updated-min=2010-01-01T00:00:00-08:00&updated-max=2011-01-01T00:00:00-08:00&max-results=3>. O’Keeffe, Georgia. Beautiful Paintings of Flowers – A Tribute to Georgia O’Keeffe . N.d. I love oil paintings. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. <>. - - -. Bella Donna. N.d. Wikipaintings Encyclopedia of Painting. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. <>. - - -. Hibiscus with Plumeria. 1939. Smithsonian American Art Museum and the Renwick Gallery. Smithsonian American Art Museum. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. < search/artwork/?id=73942>.

Pina Basuch Words by: Caitlyn Wong

““I foun d only t hat dan I expre cing wa ssed my s the w self. I s then - n ay poke ve ow I tal ry little k like a waterf all.”””

July 24th, 1940: Pina born in Germany

May 20th, 1978: “Cafe Muller” (Pina’s most famous work) first performed

1972: Became artistic director of Wuppertal Opera Ballet Pina Bausch is a well known dancer, choreographer, dance teacher and ballet diretor.

2012: Works by Pina featuring as highlight in Cultural Olympiad

June 30th, 2009: Died of cancer

She was known for her provocativeness, as she included sexually movements in her dances.

A film about Pina was released in early 2011. First premeiring in the 2011 German Film Festival.


ina Bausch - one of the most famous dancer, choreographer, and director in history and our world today. Pina was born on July 27th, 1940 and passed away two years ago after being diagnosed with cancer. Her outstanding talents and great achievements in dance have inspired many and revolutionized how people interpret dance . Despite her absence in the living world, her influence on the dance industry and cultural society still remains today. During the peak of Pinaís career in the 1970ís, her talent and contributions to the dance industry had made a significant difference on movements, dance theatre, and influenced the future generations of dancers. Her roots were in prewar German expressionism, and therefore she changed the perception of what people during that time can bring to a dance performance. Her choreography featured different concepts from the norm of dance, which included a deep sense of theatricality, absurd episodes and unusual sets. (Daniel J. Wakin) Before Pina, the majority of dances were very technical, but with Pinaís strong belief and passion she broke the barriers and walls of dance. Her expressive movements told a story and conveyed emotions and her wise methodís of creating

dance were and still are widely copied by people. In addition, her work has been a major influence on American contemporary dance choreographers. The dance company she opened called “Tanztheater Wuppertal” helped shaped modern dance and allowed many of her dances to be featured all over the world - including places such as Israel. (Elizabeth Ashley) However, during her period many critics and citizens found her a provocative and that some of her dances were very controversial, as they often included some form of relationship between men and women. A critic once stated that her choreography was the pornography of pain. To Pinaís defence, she quotes “I look for something else. The possibility of making them feel what each gesture means internally. Everything must come from the heart, must be lived.” (Kathyrn Sullivan, Howard Silver) Not only did Pina have a great impact on dance, yet she did have an influence on society and the arts culture. As you can see, her influence spread all over the world, even to places one may never expect. In an article from “The Israelî” sraeli artists believed that she had an influence over Israeli arts and not just dance. Her pieces of dance involved a lot of angst and strong emotions, yet it also showed audience members and fans of Pina, how beautiful the world is. Moreover, many of her choreographies were her interpretations of her opinion and perspective on

the relationships between men and women. - mostly violent ones. Being present when WWII was happening, people were able to understand and observe her how it was like for children to live in an environment of fear and violence, like Pina did. (Ismene Brown) Although Pina is no longer alive, her legacy and influence is still ongoing. Her company “Tanztheater Wuppertal” still exists despite her death, and everyone can keep her legacy by always accomplishing what you believe in, regardless of what others may think. In the coming olympics in 2012, pieces of Pina’s works will be staged as a highlight in the Cultural Olympiad. Nonetheless, the most obvious option of continuing her influence is to replicate her choreographies or to move with emotion.

Citations: Ashley, Elizabeth. "The Ongoing Influence of Pina Bausch." Dance Informa : n. pag. Dance Informa Digital Dance Magazine . Web. 2 Nov. 2011. < the-ongoing-influence-of-pina-bausch/>. Bausch, Pina. “Meeting Pina Bausch.” Interview by Ismene Brown. The Arts Desk . N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Nov. 2011. < theartsdesk-qa-meeting-pina-bausch>. - - -. “Meeting Pina Bausch.” Interview by Ismene Brown. The Arts Desk . N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2011. < theartsdesk-qa-meeting-pina-bausch>. Sachan, Sarah. “Israeli artists remember modern dance pioneer Pina Bausch , who has died in Germany at 68 .” The Israel 3 July 2009: n. pag. Access World News. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. < InfoWeb?p_product=AWNB&p_theme=aggregated5&p_action=doc&p_docid=12948418291165B0& p_docnum=1&p_queryname=1>. Wakin, Daniel J. “Pina Bausch , a German Iconoclast Who Reshaped Dance , Dies at 68 .” The New York Times 1 July 2009: n. pag. Access World News. Web. 2 Nov. 2011. < InfoWeb?p_product=AWNB&p_theme=aggregated5&p_action=doc&p_docid=1292C9B48F3130D0& p_docnum=1&p_queryname=4>.

Tiffany Chow

“DANCE! otherwise we are all LOST ” DANCE!

- Pina Bausch

Quote Citation: Pina. Dir. Wim Wenders. Perf. Wim Wenders. 2011. Film.

Pina Bausch was born in 1940 in Solingen as


She was an artist of the kind that the world is only blessed with from time to time. Her repertoire of works has inspired generations of audiences and artists, with an impact that is hard to overestimate. She was a dear friend to me, and I will miss her greatly. There is now a big hole in my life, and that of countless others. -Alistair Spaulding

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxy The first source (“Dance! Dance! Otherwise we are lost.”) is a quote said by Pina Bausch herself. She deeply loved dance, and was always engrossed in it. Dance was one of the ways where she could “escape” from the world, and enter her own fantasy world. To Pina, dance is a breathtaking collision of movements, mixed with all sorts of emotions. Not only did Pina believe that dancing can help express her own feelings, but she also believes that when you dance, you should put all your effort in, no matter what. Because without full concentration and focus, you would go nowhere in this specific genre. The second source (“She was an artist of the kind that the world is only blessed with from time to time... There is now a big hole in my life, and that of countless of others.”) is a quote said by Alistair Spaulding, one of Pina Bausch’s friend. This quote shows that Pina has impacted a lot of people because it reflects of how there will be a hole in Alistair’s heart, and countless of others forever. This quote also shows how strong Pina have impacted her own genre and the people outside of the genre because people respected her, and loved her dearly.

Quote Citation: Bassett, Kate, and Alistair Spaulding. “Pina Bausch Remembered.” 7 Dec. 2011. Reading.

Philippine Bausch. “Pina” was originally her nickname, which later was used to gain international standing from nearby Wuppertal with her dance theatre. At a very early age, Pina was expected to help out at her parents restaurant, where she observed every little detail about each and every person that came and go, and remembered bits and pieces of the music played during the time. These bits and pieces of memories are later found re-enacted in her plays. At age 14, Pina started training at the Fokwang School in Essen, under the instruction of Kurt Jooss. In autumn of 1973, Pina renamed the “Wuppertal” to “Tanztheater Wuppertal”, which in return helped the company gain international recognition.

“Theartsdesk Q&A: Meeting Pina Bausch.” Interview by Ismene Brown. The Arts Desk. The Arts Desk Ltd., 30 Mar. 2010. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. <>.

Q: Of course you have grass, earth, animals in the theatre - you seem to want to turn the theatre away from being an interior. Did you see some show that gave you that idea, or did you just want to break the rules? A: No, I didn’t see that anywhere. It was just my wish to see that on stage. And to get the stage design, it was first Rolf Borzik [Bausch's partner, who died in 1980] and since 1980 Peter Pabst. I feel like certain things you put on stage make you look at them differently. They may be all around you every day, but they don’t mean anything. Suddenly you put them on stage and you take a new look at grass, or mosquitoes, or the noise you make when you walk walking in water makes a different sort of movement from walking in leaves. Q: Whose art inspires you? Are there people whose work really you love? A: There are wonderful artists in the world, so many in so many fields; film, and music, everywhere, it’s wonderful how rich it is, and of course this gives you strength, because you know so many people are working sincerely on something. But it would be unfair to pick out people.

On the left, is an excerpt of an interview by Ismene Brown on March 30th, 2010, which is also my third source. From Pina Bausch’s answers, we can tell that she’s a very fair and gentle woman, who is easily inspired by everything and anything in life. She isn’t inspired by something unique or special, but is inspired by things that we all do on a daily basis. She wanted to think outside the box, and do something totally different from what other dancers or choreographers have done. She tried to get an ordinary thing from anyone’s daily life, and used it as a prop on stage. She wanted the audience to feel that dance isn’t just something where everything is different from what the normal world is. She wanted people to feel that dance can be anything --- A normal person’s lifestyle, a story, or even a fantasy.


Krüger, Wilfried. Pina Bausch. N.d. Wilfried Krüger. Tanztheater Wuppertal. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <>.

Pina has had a lot of impacts and have influenced a lot of dancers or choreographers nowadays in many ways. She has shown the world that dance is not only an “exercising routine” or “people jumping around”, but has told the world that dance can be used to portray the daily life of a certain person or thing. Pina has helped make dance such a unique talent for dancers to have, and is highly respected by a lot of people around the world. Pina’s influence on her own specific genre (and even outside of her genre) will last forever, because she was the one who opened “ the door”, and discovered many other ways that dance could be performed in.

Alexander Alexander Alexander Solzhenitsyn Solzhenitsyn Solzhenistyn NewsArticle Article News

Words from “One Day Life Ivan Words from “One Day in in thethe Life of of Ivan Denosovich” shocked Russia and helped raise Denosovich” shocked Russia and helped raise awareness about these labour camps. awareness about these labour camps. It stopped sympathy from leftist intellectuIt stopped sympathy from leftist intellectuEurope towards Russia. alsals in in Europe towards Russia. The leader Soviet Union, Mikhail The lastlast leader of of Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev said that Solzhenitsyn was Gorbachev said that Solzhenitsyn was thethe first talk about inhumane Stalinist first to to talk about thethe inhumane Stalinist re-regime and about the people who experienced gime and about the people who experienced it but were broken.HisHis works changed it but were notnot broken. works changed consciousness millions people. thethe consciousness of of millions of of people. In Paris, French President Nicolas Sarkozy In Paris, French President Nicolas Sarkozy said that Solzhenitsyn was one greatsaid that Solzhenitsyn was one of of thethe greatest consciences of 20th century Russia. Solzest consciences of 20th century Russia. Solzhenitsyn opened eyes world henitsyn opened thethe eyes of of thethe world to to thethe reality Soviet system. reality of of thethe Soviet system. He inspired millions, perhaps, with He inspired millions, perhaps, with thethe knowledge that one person’s courage and knowledge that one person’s courage and in-integrity could defeat the totalitarian machinery tegrity could defeat the totalitarian machinery empire. of of an an empire.

Interview Interview

Interview Interview

Over the years, critics have questioned SolzhenitOver the years, critics have questioned Solzhenitsyn’s relevance to politics and to culture. This past syn’s relevance to politics and to culture. This past spring you presented a paper at Calvin’s Festival spring you presented a paper at Calvin’s Festival of Faith and Writing titled “The Enduring Achieveof Faith and Writing titled “The Enduring Achievement of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn.” What are your ment of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn.” What are your thoughts on Solzhenitsyn’s literary legacy? thoughts on Solzhenitsyn’s literary legacy? In literature, only time will tell what his effect is. In literature, only time will tell what his effect is. I think that he will go down in the cultural history I think that he will go down in the cultural history of Russia as a hugely important literary figure. But of Russia as a hugely important literary figure. But we can hardly give a definitive verdict when his we can hardly give a definitive verdict when his main work is 5000 pages long, dwarfing Tolstoy’s main work is 5000 pages long, dwarfing Tolstoy’s War and Peace, and most of it is not available in War and Peace, and most of it is not available in the major languages of the world. That work is The the major languages of the world. That work is The Red Wheel … . It’s going to take a generation to Red Wheel … . It’s going to take a generation to give a just account of the value of that work. From give a just account of the value of that work. From Samuel Johnson we get the standard that the test Samuel Johnson we get the standard that the test of a literary classic is that it survives for 100 years. of a literary classic is that it survives for 100 years. That’s why I say time will tell. My prediction is that That’s why I say time will tell. My prediction is that when 100 years have passed, Solzhenitsyn will when 100 years have passed, Solzhenitsyn will be safely installed in the hall of fame of Russian be safely installed in the hall of fame of Russian literature. But it’s safe for me to make that predicliterature. But it’s safe for me to make that prediction, because I won’t be here to see. tion, because I won’t be here to see.

SPIEGEL: The idea of of thethe influence of of Or-OrSPIEGEL: The idea influence thodox Christianity onon thethe Russian world Article thodox Christianity Russian world Article cancan bebe traced throughout your works. week death, though, what stands traced throughout your works. In In thethe week of of hishis death, though, what stands outout is is What is the moral qualification of the who Solzhenitsyn was, what wrote. is very What is the moral qualification of the notnot who Solzhenitsyn was, butbut what he he wrote. It isIt very Russian church? We think it is turning into easy, in a world where news is instant and photographs Russian church? We think it is turning intoeasy, in a world where news is instant and photographs a state church today, justjust likelike it was centravel quickly they taken, forget how powa state church today, it was cen- travel as as quickly as as they areare taken, to to forget how powturies ago -an institution that in practice erful, still, written words are. And Solzhenitsyn was, turies ago -- an institution that in practice erful, still, written words are. And Solzhenitsyn was, legitimizes the head of Kremlin as the in the end, a writer. A man who gathered facts, sorted legitimizes the head of Kremlin as the in the end, a writer. A man who gathered facts, sorted representative of of God. through them, tested them against own experience, representative God. through them, tested them against hishis own experience, Solzhenitsyn: On the contrary, we should composed them into paragraphs and chapters. It was Solzhenitsyn: On the contrary, we should composed them into paragraphs and chapters. It was bebe surprised that our church has gained personality, written language that forced surprised that our church has gained notnot hishis personality, butbut hishis written language that forced a somewhat independent position durpeople think more deeply about their values, their a somewhat independent position durpeople to to think more deeply about their values, their inging thethe very few years since it was freed assumptions, their societies. It was not his TV appearvery few years since it was freed assumptions, their societies. It was not his TV appearfrom total subjugation to to thethe communist ances that affected history—it was written words. from total subjugation communist ances that affected history—it was hishis written words. government. Do not forget what a horHis manuscripts were read and pondered in silence, and government. Do not forget what a horHis manuscripts were read and pondered in silence, and rible human toll the Russian Orthodox thought into them provoked readers rible human toll the Russian Orthodox thethe thought he he putput into them provoked hishis readers to to Church suffered throughout almost the think, too. end, books mattered because Church suffered throughout almost the think, too. In In thethe end, hishis books mattered notnot because entire 20th century. The Church is just rishe was famous—or notorious—but because millions entire 20th century. The Church is just ris-he was famous—or notorious—but because millions of of inging from its its knees. Our young post-Soviet Soviet citizens recognized themselves work. They from knees. Our young post-Soviet Soviet citizens recognized themselves in in hishis work. They state is just learning to respect the Church read his books because they already knew that they state is just learning to respect the Churchread his books because they already knew that they as as an an independent institution. were true. independent institution. were true.

Narrative Alexander Solzhenitsyn made influences within and beyond his genre. He was a Russian novelist born on 1918 and died on 2008. He was imprisoned from 1945- 1953 since he commented critically about Stalin’s way of conducting war in a letter to his friend. After he was released, he became a teacher and wrote about labour camps. He influenced within his genre, which was the literary side through his books. In this article written by Anne Applebaum, it could clearly show the author’s feelings towards Solzhenitsyn’s literary legacy. The powerful content in his books encouraged readers to be thinking deeply into his books, meaning that they would understand the message Solzhenitsyn is trying to convey. For example, how Stalin camps were inhumane. His works lead the literary industry to remember written words could establish communication between readers and the author. (Applebaum) Furthermore, in an interview, Professor emeritus Edward Ericson, Jr. was inspired to focus on his scholarship on Solzhenitsyn. Meaning that he would want to enhance his literary aspects through this scholarship. Studying Solzhenitsyn’s work, he devoted a paper to the achievements made by Alexander Solzhenitsyn. (Anderson) Solzhenitsyn made a speech on June 1978, and recounted that three years ago lots of people didn’t agree with the speech “One World Split Apart” he gave, however, now, people agrees with his concepts with the press attitude. (Solzhenitsyn) He influenced beyond his genre, which was through literary to influence on ideology, religion and consciousness. According to a news article from The Courier Mail, it stated that the last leader of Soviet Union as well as the French president that his book “One day in the Life of Ivan Denosovich” raised awareness and made people realize to their consciousness. Meaning that even important figures of the world agreed that he had great courage to write books influencing worldwide perspective on the camps and Soviet system. (The Courier Mail) The image is the book cover of one of his influential books, “One day in the Life of Ivan Denosovich”. (Rainbow Resource) Moreover, in an interview between SPIEGEL and Solzhenitsyn, it was obvious that his works had influences on Orthodox Christianity. He believed Russia could only develop on its moral and spiritual qualities with the belief of Orthodox Christianity. (SPIEGEL) Possible future is that Solzhenitsyn would be remembered greatly as a literary Russian miracle. The continuing impact would be on the literary industry, convincing people to stay true to themselves and not neglect the powerful words. Also, with people recognizing what happened within the Stalin camps would ensure this wouldn’t happen in anywhere in the world. Soviet Union would continue on its communism ideology with some individuals within Soviet and most Westerns supporting with Solzhenitsyn’s beliefs.


The press too, of course, enjoys the widest freedom. (I shall be using the word press to include all media). But what sort of use does it make of this freedom? Here again, the main concern is not to infringe the letter of the law. There is no moral responsibility for deformation or disproportion. What sort of responsibility does a journalist have to his readers, or to history? If they have misled public opinion or the government by inaccurate information or wrong conclusions, do we know of any cases of public recognition and rectification of such mistakes by the same journalist or the same newspaper? No, it does not happen, because it would damage sales. A nation may be the victim of such a mistake, but the journalist always gets away with it. One may safely assume that he will start writing the opposite with renewed self-assurance. MLA Citations Adobe. “Themes.” kuler. Adobe, 2011. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. MLA Citations Anderson, Myrna. “Professor emeritus Edward Ericson, Jr. reflects on Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn .” Calvin College. Calvin College, 2008. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. Applebaum, Anne. “Death of a Writer.” Slate. Slate, 4 Aug. 2008. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. The Courier Mail. “Nobel writer dead - Tributes flow for Russia’s dissident son Solzhenitsyn and his heroic life of survival.” The Courier Mail 5 Aug. 2008: n. pag. EBSCOhost Research Databases. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. Dafont. “Fonts.”, 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. Rainbow Resource. One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich . 1962. Rainbow Resource. Google, 2006. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. - - -. “A World Split Apart.” Columbia University, 1997. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. SPIEGEL ONLINE INTERNATIONAL. “Interview with Alexander Solzhenitsyn.” SPIEGEL. SPIEGEL, 23 July 2007. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

Theodor Seuss Geisel By: David Mok

Theodor Seuss Geisel


heodor Seuss Geisel, better known as the beloved Dr. Seuss, was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, on March 2, 1904. When he died on September 24, 1991, his books had changed the world (Theodor Geisel Biography). Within his life, his books changed the way we read children’s books entirely. Back in his time, the most popular children’s books were the Dick and Jane series. However, when The Cat in the Hat came out in 1957, it instantly became a bestseller and by the 1960’s, Dr Seuss had made the world forget all about Dick and Jane and instead thrilled the world with each of his new books. But how was The Cat in the Hat different from other books that made it so famous? One day, Dr. Seuss read a study in Life magazine that explained illiteracy in children was caused by boring children’s books (Dr. Seuss Biography). William Ellsworth Spaulding, director of the educational sector at Houghton Mifflin, sent a list of 348 words that he felt were important to first-graders to Dr. Seuss. He challenged Dr. Seuss to make “a book children can’t put down.” The result: The Cat in the Hat (Dr. Seuss Biography). Instead of being a plain old children’s book, Dr. Seuss made rhymes using those words, making The Cat in the Hat very catchy and enjoyable to read. He also had a rule about writing. He said, “We throw in as many fresh words as we can get away with. Simple, short sentences don’t always work.

You have to do tricks with pacing, alternate long sentences with short, to keep it alive and vital. Virtually every page is a cliff-hanger-you’ve got to force them to turn it.” However, some of his books wren’t just for enjoyment of reading. Some of his books had political meaning as well. One book, Horton Hears a Who!, has a hidden meaning. The story is an allegory about Japan and America after WWII. Horton represents America, who tries to help Japan survive after WWII. Who-ville represents Japan. They are almost destroyed but they survive through help from a friend. The other animals that make fun of Horton and try to get rid of Who-ville are the countries that refused to help Japan and hoped for its demise. In addition, when Horton says, “A person’s a person, no matter how small!” (Seuss 8) has been used many times by pro-life supporters to further their own cause. Another example of political allegory in his stories is evident in Yertle the Turtle. Dr. Seuss himself explained that Yertle represents Hitler and the Nazis. Yertle built his power on top of his own people and that is the same case with Hitler and the Nazis. As shown by these two books, Dr. Seuss didn’t only just influence reading but also politics. His landscapes of his books has also affected different paintings by artist (Greg). The success that The Cat in the Hat and countless other books brought Dr. Seuss has immortalized his legacy in the coming future. When we are older and have children of our own, we will read Dr. Seuss books to them and in turn, they will as well. This cycle will not end in the foreseeable future and we will remember Dr. Seuss for years to come.

We throw in as many fresh words as we can get away with. Simple, short sentences don’t always work. You have to do tricks with pacing, alternate long sentences with short, to keep it alive and vital. Virtually every page is a cliffhanger-you’ve got to force them to turn it.

Dr. Seuss’ famous characters

Dr. Seuss sketching The Grinch from How the Grinch Stole Christmas!

Did you know? His first book was rejected 27 times. He had a sister who called herself Marnie Mecca Ding Ding Guy. Green Eggs and Ham was written with only 50 words. He was one-quarter German. Dr. Seuss sketching his beloved characters. Works Cited: “Dr. Seuss Biography.” Chevron Carsville. ISL Consulting Co., 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <>. “Dr. Seuss Biography.” Dr. Seuss. The Chase Group, LLC., 2008. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <>. Greg. “THE SECRET INFLUENCE OF DR. SEUSS: JARED PANKIN AT CARL BERG.” Ideas For Dozens. Urban Hongking, 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <>. Seuss, Dr. Horton Hears A Who! Illus. Dr. Seuss. 1954. New York City: Random House, 1982. Print. “Theodor Geisel Biography .” Encyclopedia of World Biography. Advameg, Inc.,2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <>.

s ’ a c i r e m A g n i c u satirist, d tIn ro author,

and humorist...

k r a M Twa in m I “

, i n a a m c i r t e h m e a a merican” n a t on

1835 - 1910 “The Father of American Literature” — William Faulkner, Novelist 1956

The unruly mess of white hair with the matching moustache and eyebrows, the white suit and the ever-present cigar. Did you know...

e s i r p r e t n E l a i r o t i r r e T s t c a F n i a w T k r a M MAY 18, 1862

r 1835. e b m e v o N n o i r u lorida Misso F n i n r o b s a w s lemen


mark e m a n n e p s i h nder , Samuel Clemens Twain xceptionally fawas an aeuthor during his voredime and is still lifet dered as one of consica’s top writers. Ameri eing b f o s y a d s i h rom lot in i p t a o b r e v i r a is loped h e v e d e h , 7 5 8 n 1 wai ’,- a T k r a M ‘ e m a n pen lgy meea.n o n i m r e t r e v i r vigat ing safe to na 1865, g n i r u d n o r e ave/ at fame n i a . < g 11 o 20 . t ec D n 6 a . g eb e W he b s short story e. N.p., n.d. ark Twain. N.d. Dav M i h r e . aft cation “The Celw teche n homepage/sid/7909> n i s t n i e l m b t g u s p Fro nve housesr,uphte in umpingun o bad i t g n e i u h s . i ” l y b ebrateadvJ t u p d ras Co First ogy anf lf bankwriting l e o s n m i h d of Cal Cle n u o ’ y ’ emens cent lemens entuall C v e , n o Then, The n e h t lty and o m e o u nn r r I F c . , 4 d 9 “ 8 ee k 1 r d g e oo b man e human nature. lish d on hu as pubd e s u c o f Abroad9”,w“ n e v de of th A i e s h k T r a d e 6 h 8 t 1 n i n i ghyer res u w a a d S t m s e o g T n f u o o y s e re, his tur ntu u e , z v n i d a e A e s J e c h , i T 9 t “ 0 p 9 e d 1 l n i n 1876 akleberry Finn” in om an erp, Samuel Clemens r f d e i d r e t c e u t H ate the age of 74 in wro of l e h h t , n l o a m t r o u t o n f I and 1885. ks, a variety of l 1910cautt i r p A n o d e i oo d s b 28 ecti , letter Redding, Conn short settocrhieess and sk






“In 20 years, you will be more disappointed in what you didn’t do than what you did”

Twains Legacy

It’s a story that begins with a comet blazing across the heavens. Starting from literary icon Mark Twain’s early life, his writing was inf luenced to a great extent. In his schoolboy days, he had no aversion to slavery; the local papers had nothing against it and the local pulpit taught that God approved it. But subsequent to his mother’s simple speech where he learned of the horriff ic and traumatic pasts almost every slave holds, Twain had an epiphany and realized that with human rights so firmly exaggerated and cemented in their society, slaves, being human, should be privy to these rights as well (“Excerpts from Mark Twain’s Autobiography”).

Later on, his opinions were expressed through his finest creations, “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer” and the sequel “Huckleberry Finn”; commonly named among the Great American Novels. Written during the post-civil war period, when there was an immense negative white reaction against the African Americans, the novel personifies the hunt for freedom; freedom from racism. Twain took aim straight against racial prejudice, increasing isolation of the races, lynching and the commonly acknowledged judgment that African Americans were sub human. Plus, Mark Twain was a stalwart supporter of women’s rights and a diligent activist against women’s suffrage. Considered as one of the most famous in history, Twain’s inspiring and motivational “Votes for Women” speech urged for women’s voting rights, making the audience reconsider about their opinion, actions and possibly a new standpoint (“Votes for Women”). Not only did Twain pay for at least two African Americans to attend university, from Twain’s support, Helen Keller was able to pursue her college education regardless of her disabilities and financial limitations. In short, not only did Mark Twain use literature to inspire others to have a more open mind on sensitive issues, he also put his words into actions by supporting others both financially and emotionally. Apart from believing in human liberty, Twain also distills deeper truth about human nature and is an avid critic of American society. He reopened America’s scars

of Civil Rights through his novels and broadened awareness on the topics like anti-slavery and pro-equality, leading to more action in the civil rights movement. Plus, he understood the dissimilarities that divided America and the traits that drew it together. His first novel, “The Glided Age”, written in 1873, satirizes the post-civil war years, materialism and corruption in the 1870s. Twain was also an anti-imperialist; he had round-the-world lectures and became an outspoken critic of imperialism. He is opposed to having the eagle (America) put it’s talons on any other land; one should only be there to conquer, not redeem. He believes that the people should be free, able to handle their own national issues (“Mark Twain on Imperialism”). Twain’s legacy lives on until today as his fame continues to accumulate. His name has been used to advertise products and inspire artists and novelists. Schools, lakes, bridges and even asteroids have been named after him. Monuments and memorials also been constructed worldwide to honor America’s most famous writer and his legacy. He will be remembered for one of the most important writers that reshaped opinions on race and slavery. He was the voice for the diverse nation, a keen social observer and conscientious reporter who was born and died when the Halley Comet passed by earth.

(above) The first erected us statue of fictional characters is the statue of huckberry Finn and tom sawyer. This important landmark in Hannibal, Missouri proves Mark Twains legacy is still remebered. Also, it serves as a rembmbrance of the important lesson and strong message of the two novels. Work Cited: Alien-dreams. Aged Paper Texture. 11 Nov. 2008. Deviantart. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. “Autobiography Volume 1.” Mark Twain Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. Bashcorpo. Grungy Paper Texture v.1. 15 Sept. 2005. Deviantart. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. Bashcorpo. Grungy Paper Texture v.8. 13 Aug. 2006. Deviantart. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. Cohen, Morton, N. “Mark Twain and the Philippines.” N.d. PDF file. “Editable old newspaper template.” Presentation Magazine. N.p., 24 Jan. 2011. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. “Mark Twain on Imperialism.” HistoryWiz. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. “Mark Twain Speech Votes For Women.” Famous Speeches. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. Twain Cigar. N.d. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.

M a r k

Samuel Langhorne Clemens, a.k.a. Mark Twain, pictured in 1900

Advenrtures of Tom Sawyer (1st edition 1876) Tom Sawyer fishing

Work Cited

Advenrtures of Tom Sawyer (1st ed., 1876). 1876. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. Library of Congress. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <>. Arturo, Mario. “1 font on DaFont for BetterHeather.” N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. <‌search.php?psize=m&q=BetterHeather>. Klein, Manfred. “1 font on DaFont for OldNewspaperTypes.” dafont. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. <‌search.php?psize=m&q=OldNewspaperTypes>. “Mark Twain Quotes  Quotable Quote .” goodreads. Goodreads Inc , 2011. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <>. Samuel Langhorne Clemens, a.k.a. Mark Twain, pictured here circa 1900  Read more:,9171,1820166,00.html#ixzz1dDRZ8qN6 . N.d. TIME Magazine “The New York Times, October 2, 1876.” Editorial. The New York Times 1867-1970., n.d. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <>. “tint gold wood.” kuler. Adobe Systems Incorporated, 27 Nov. 2008. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. <‌#themes/‌search?term=Tint%20gold%20wood>. Tom and Huck statue, Cardiff Hill, Hannibal, MO. N.d. DRIVE TO UTAH - 2008. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. <‌ubn/‌utah_drive.html>.



Kristy Chan 9E

he great American novelist and humorist, Samuel Langhorne Clemens known as Mark Twain, is best known for his novels, The Adventure of Tom Sawyer and the sequel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Based on stories of the Missouri frontier life and his opinions on human rights, he conveys his messages through his spectacular breathtaking stories inspired by his childhood. Clemens was known for always wearing white (Samuel L. Clemens) and writing novels as well as newspaper articles against political liberalization and slavery. Well the reason for always dressing in white? White, if defined in a historical manner means being counter revolutionary, and opposing political and social ideologies. The first edition cover page of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer from 1876 was a type of engraving on wood (Adventures of Tom S.). This picture represents the time and era of when the book was written, and gives a clear evocation of their life. As a kid who grew up in Hannibal, Missouri a slave state, he once was supporting the use of slavery, as his uncle was an owner of twenty. His family has hired a slave named Sandy, and Clemens described him as lighthearted and gentle, but was the noisiest being there ever was, and it was “maddening, devastating and unendurable” (Twain quotes) for him. Finally when Clemens could no longer take the singing and whistling he broke out and complained to his mother. His mother simply said that “when he sings, it shows that he is not remembering and that comforts me” (Twain quotes), and because Sandy will never see his parents again, they must not hinder when he sings. Those words spoke to Clemens as he realized that slavery destructs families, and begins communicating his thoughts of slavery through his novels (Twain quotes). The Tom and Huck statue in Hannibal Missouri (Tom and Huck) was dedicated on May 27th in 1926, sixteen years after Clemens death, but it proves that his legacy still lives on. Tom and Huck from The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, represent Clemens in the mind of the readers. It proves that his passion for the issue of human rights has touched many of his readers as a human rights activist. Beyond his genre, Clemens had influenced the political view of many citizens and politicians in America. In the October 2nd, 1876 issue of The New York Times it published the transcript of a political meeting he presided at. He gave a speech about how the civil system then and how idiotic and contemptible it is, showing his discontent towards the society as an anti-imperialist (New York Times). He hinted that Tom and Huck Statue at Hannibal, Missouri they would not hire someone who knows nothing about the occupation, just like how they should not force people away from their homes to a foreign land as slaves. Mark Twain’s literacy works can interest further generations and educate them about slavery and human rights, as well as stand up for what they believe from his attitude in politics.

Andy Warhol

“Everyone will be famous for 15 minutes.” -Andy Warhol By: Nicole Yu

"Making money is art, and working is art and good business is the best art." -Andy Warhol Fields

Representative Works


The Campbell’s Soup Can, The Dollar Sign


“Chelsea Girls” “Woman in Revolt” “Empire”


“Andy Warhol’s Fifteen Minutes”

Andy Warhol was the leading figure of the pop art. Some criticized Warhol's art superficial and commercial, some think he captured the 60s American Consumerism culture. (BBC, 1981) His works inspired by basically everyday li fe, anything can be beautiful and even trash soup can can be turned into art. “What's great about this country is that America started the tradition where the richest consumers buy essentially the same things as the poorest. President drinks Coca-Cola, Liz Taylor drinks Coca-Cola, and just think, you can drink Coca-Cola, too.” -Andy Warhol

Warhol influence within genre: !usic

Andy Warhol not only fostered the band he adopted Velvet Underground, but his style and attitude also inf luenced many art rock group in New York. His famous musician friends, including David Bowie, Grace Jones and the music celebrity that he painted for, e.g. Michael Jackson, are all part of his inf luences in the music industry. Andy Warhol was even referred as “ the greatest rock artist who never played an instrument”. (Dalton,2011)

Painted in 1984 when the thriller was such a big hit.


Andy Warhol was a film maker and he made more than 60 films and many short documentaries throughout his li fe. A lot of his works were found to be silent and static, for example, his work “Empire” in 1964 was a 8 hours footage of the Empire State Building.(Wikipedia, 2011) His also built up Factories of Andy Warhol where films were produced in a small scale and he brought up “superstars” such as Viva, Candy Darling. His boldness and edginess in film topic such as gay relationships and sexuali ty brought a new era in film industry. (Thomas, 2011) TV

"I love television," Warhol once said. "It is the medium I'd most like to shine in. I'm really jealous of everybody who's got their own show on television. I want a show of my own." (PBS,2011) Television was certainly a field that could find traces of Andy Warhol inf luence. He create two cable television shows, Andy Warhol's TV in 1982 and Andy Warhol’s Fifteen Minutes for MTV in 1986. (Swenson,2011) He set the trend of putting fashion on the TV screen, his show was about fashion and even make up demonstration which you could find them still very popular now.

The 8 hours “Empire” filmed in 1964.

!nfluences beyond the genre "conomy

A piece of Andy Warhol art caused millions of dollars, his related TV shows, movies, prints, patents. . showing that art, especially commercial arts can bring a considerably large impact to the economy. One primary source helps proving this, a book “The Warhol Economy: How Fashion, Art, and Music Drive New York City” written by Elizabeth Currid actually referred this kind of cultural economy as “The Warhol Economy”. (Currid, 2007) #olitical

A lot of Warhol paints are poli tical figures, such as John F. Kennedy, Mao Zedong and so on, his works may imply a close relationship between poli tics and arts. Images of the poli tical leaders may serve as a means to increase their popularity and spread their inf luences. (e-f lux, 2008) From a primary source which is one of the Andy’s paints, is a Richard Nixon image with words “ Vote McGovern” to support George McGovern’s presidential campaign. (Jones, 2001)

“ The Warhol Economy” written by Elizerbeth Currid.

“Vote McGovern” painted in 1972.

$ontinuing impacts

After two decades of Andy Warhol’s death, his inf luences are not diminishing. His Pop culture inf luences on music, film and fashion still prevailing. By transforming the trashy soup into arts, Andy Warhol is the icon of pop culture that redefining what was beauty and art. . Citations: "Andy Warhol ." Wikipedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. <>. "Andy Warhol A Documentary Film." PBS. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. < a-documentary-film/44/>.

Biography for Andy Warhol." The Internet Movie Datacase . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. < nm0912238/bio#quotes>. Swenson, Gene. "Interview ." Maria Buszek. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. < PoMoSeminar/Readings/WarholIntrvu.pdf>.

Thomas, Kelly Devine. "My Andy Warhol ." Authenticating Andy. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. <http:// articles_3.asp>.

Andy Warhol By Nina Mueller

“He was not in terested in bein g a mentor, he was interest ed in what new people had to say and wha t we were doin g. He took as much as he gav e which was ju st perfect.” - Dianne Brill One of Andy W arhol’s muses


ndy Warhol is remembered for his artistic influence through the creation of Pop Art. Born 1928 in Pennsylvania, Warhol pursued his childhood art passion: his peak period was the 1960s, when his most famous pieces were created. Warhol died in 1987, leaving behind a legacy which shaped the art world. Andy Warhol was very influential within his genre. We can see through his photograph how Warhol preferred unique and expressive images, impacting the way people and objects were portrayed. Warhol’s Marilyn Monroe painting demonstrates Pop Art and gives us an example of how this new art form, Warhol’s most renowned legacy, impacted the art world. This style, which involves using bright colors and contrast, was a radical development that drastically altered visual arts by redefining fineart and bringing consumer art into being. Art like this painting was recognized and made popular only after Warhol’s career took off, proving his influence within his art genre, but also on society at the time. Warhol’s quote demonstrates his influence within his genre as well. This quote evidences how influential Pop Art was within Warhol’s genre. We are shown how Warhol’s Pop Art influenced people to regard objects differently, giving an impression of how this affected artists and art-work of the time similarly. Through this same quote, we are shown one of Warhol’s influences beyond his genre as well: how he used Pop Art to create a new state-of-mind and help people view their society differently, hereby possibly influencing their actions and opinions. Warhol’s Pop Art period may have inspired people to defy the norms of everyday life, hereby creating a more widely ranged and unique society.

Andy Warhol’s influences also spanned beyond his immediate genre. Dianne Brill’s quote about Warhol demonstrates this impact, as well as his legacy. This quote demonstrates Warhol’s open-mindedness, which would have affected his art. Brill demonstrates how Warhol’s many paintings not only reflect his personal interests, but the interests of society at the time as well. We are given an impression of the impact of his first main legacy: how the Pop Art-style works Warhol left behind offer our society a unique window into the past by demonstrating popular subjects from his time period, preserving these for future generations to see. Warhol’s primary influence beyond his genre, and his second main legacy, is demonstrated through Joel Wachs‘ quote. He describes Warhol as a visionary, indicating how even today, twenty-four years after his death, Warhol and his works remain an inspiration to artists. We are shown how Warhol wished to create an art foundation, proving his passion towards art and his legacy of encouraging future generations of artists. To conclude, Andy Warhol is one of the most influential artists of the 20th Century, with cultural and social impacts both within and beyond his genre. Looking forward, Warhol will continue to be remembered for his multiple legacies, and will remain an inspiration to future generations of artists.

a e e s r e v e n d l u u o c o y u e o c y n , o p o d P n ’ t A o . in ‘g e a h u g t o a a y y c i e a r e w m e “Onc A m a e s e s e r h t e v n i e a n d l u o c sign ag u o y , p o P t h g u o h t .” n i a g a y a w e m sa l o h r a W - Andy “As we look to the future, the Warhol Foundation will continue to be guided by the vision of its founder and benefactor, whose dying wish was to establish a foundation to advance the visual arts.  We will devote our energy and resources to expanding support for artists and arts institutions throughout the country, and we hope that the foundation’s accomplishments will inspire others to follow Andy’s visionary lead.”  - Joel Wachs President of the Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts

Works Cited Brill, Dianne. E-mail interview. 5 Nov. 2011. Diniz, Pepe. Pepe Diniz Andy Warhol 1975 Painting/Print Artwork. 1975. Pop Art Machine. Web. 28 Nov. 2011. < hol-1975-painting-artwork-print.jpg>. Wachs, Joel. Warhol Foundation. Web. 7 Nov. 2011. <>. Warhol, Andy. Brainy Quote. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <>. - - -. Marilyn Monroe . N.d. Art Observed . Web. 1 Nov. 2011. <>.

Quick Facts Date of Birth: 6th August 1928 Date of Death: 22nd February 1987 Nickname: The Prince of Pop Art Andy Warhol began his art career as an illustrator for several magazines. Warhol became famous for the creation of consumer art in the 1960s, a new style both in technique and subject matter, which involved painting heavily-used and well-known objects, such as his famous Campbellâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s soup paintings.

Andy Warhol was not only a painter: he worked with sculpture, photography and film-making as well. Pop Art was the style Warhol most often used in his paintings. Throughout his life, Andy Warhol was aquainted with many famous people, for example Marilyn Monroe, and was often inspired by these individuals. An unsuccessful assassination attempt was made on Warhol. In Pennsylvania, there is a museum dedicated solely to the works of Andy Warhol.


Woolf Written by: Ashley Wat


nspired by her literary reputable and respected father, Sir Leslie Stephen, Virginia Woolf defied all political and emotional difficulties in Victorian England to become a renowned author and publisher in the twentieth century. As a modernist writer, she is also viewed as a first wave feminist.

It is through her that women continued to fight for their rights; and gained the equality they enjoy today. One of her books, Mrs Dalloway, is made into a movie in 2002 and its leading actress, Nicole Kidman, who played the role of Woolf, also won the Academy Award for Best Actress in the same year (Conrad).

In Virginia Woolf’s era, women did not enjoy the same rights and privileges as their male counterparts. Despite of social, political and personal setbacks, her hard work, perseverance and unfailing determination helped her to break into the literary world of men (Lombardi). She was a co-founder of the Bloomsbury Group which included both distinguished male and female intellectuals who shared views on various political, philosophical, historical as well as material issues (Rahn). These informal meetings and discussions inspired and helped her in her writings; and the Group is still going strong in the publication sector. There is also the Virginia Woolf Society of Great Britain as well as the International Virginia Woolf society (Cuddy-Keane). Their primary objective is to promote the study and works of Virginia Woolf; and encourage writers to meet, learn and help each other; not to mention the awarding of scholarships to the various literary and artistic fields.

Many women around the world are still disadvantaged and do not have the same rights and equality they should have. Woolf’s writings, whether it is fictions, non-fictions, poems, or critical essays, but most notably Three Guineas and A Room of One’s Own, (World Biography) will continue to encourage and inspire, and give hope to these underprivileged to battle such inequalities. Virigina Woolf herself will act as a role model as she had to fight gender disparity despite the nervous breakdowns she had to live through (Rahn).

Virginia Woolf is considered to be a first wave feminist (Selden & Widdowson). In her writings, she did not only talk about the social and economic inequality, but also promoted ideas which women could use to challenge and transform the patriarchal society (Gordon).

The truth is, I often like women. I like their unconventionality. I like their completeness. I like their anonymity. “The Bloomsbury Group.” The Literature Network. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2011. <>. Lombardi, Esther. “Virginia Woolf Biography.” N.p., 2011. Web. 7 Nov. 2011. <>. “An Overview of Feminist Theories.” English E-corner. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2011. <>. Bautista, Elena. “Mrs Dalloway, by Virginia Woolf (II).” This is a literary blog. N.p., 21 Jan. 2011. Web. 1 Dec. 2011. <http://thisisaliteraryblog.wordpress. com/2011/01/21/mrs-dalloway-by-virginia-woolf-ii/>. Portrait of “Virginia Woolf” by Roger Fry, 1912. 20th century. in the Theater if One World. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <>.

(Virginia Woolf, 1902)


e h T

s e l t a Be

By: Andrea Wong

: y e n t r a cc es

l t m a e l b Pa u o n e o f T h e

Gordon Waller with Paul

John Lennon with Paul McCartney

Paul McCartney in the 50’s


As a member of the Beatles, Paul McCartney wrote and performed songs that revitalized popular and critical interest in rock and roll. After the group broke up, he further secured his importance in music history through his work with Wings and as a solo artist. James Paul McCartney was born on June 18, 1942, in Liverpool, England. He was into music at a very young age and he joined the Quarrymen in 1956 and began writing songs with the group’s founder, John Lennon. McCartney served primarily as a bassist and vocalist, singing the lead on “Yesterday” (1965), “Penny Lane” (1967), “Hey Jude” (1968), and many others. McCartney returned to a solo career with albums such as McCartney II (1980), Press to Play (196), Flowers in the Dirt (1989), Off the Ground (1993), and Flaming Pie (1997). During the course of his career, McCartney was honored with many awards. In addiction to the numerous Grammy awards he received for his work with the Beatles and with Wings, McCartney received a lifetime achievement award from the National Acamdemy of Recording Arts and Sciences in 1990. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice - in 1988, with the other Beatles, and in 1999 as a solo artist. In 1997 he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II. Quotes from Paul McCartney on the Beatles legacy and influences

“We just wanted to be good, to have fun with it. We wanted to develop music and all that happened. Luckily, 30 years on from it, we’re still very influential.” “It was Elvis who really got me hooked on beat music. When I heard “Heartbreak Hotel” I thought, this is it.”

How was Paul McCartney and the Beatles influential? Paul McCartney was a big impact to a lot of people. He affected a lot of people that were and still are working in the music industry as well. He and his band influenced a lot of young teenagers at that time. In the 1960’s, the Beatles brought mop-top haircuts, collarless blazers, and Beatles Boots into fashion. His music was very influential, many artists were amused and tried to follow the Beatles’ style. The Beatles also invaded America’s music and it all started when they created the band. They’ve also wrote many meaningful songs related to love and peace. The Beatles, whose music has been played by prestigious symphonies around the world and has been sung by renowned singers such as Frank Sinatra and Tony Bennet, were a vibrant moving force of the 1960’s’ they permanently changed the course of music and soundly influenced the lives of future generations. Though Rock N’ Roll had been around for 10 years before the Beatles became famous, it was still a relatively new form of music that had plenty of potential. The Beatles were elevated from obscurity by utilizing the music’s potential. The Beatles, who were definitely working class, were the ultimate rags to riches story. As the fifties drew to a close, the Beatles were on a path that forever changed history. One major effect that they had on society was the drug influence of their music. Because a lot of artists take drugs, people will start to think it is cool to do drugs. Taking drugs because the “in” thing to do. The press went into an uproar when they found out the initials to the Beatles’ “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” was LSD, a popular but addicting drug. Anything the Beatles touched turned to gold. At around the year 1970, Paul McCartney decided to quit the group. Although they split up, their influences remained. The Beatles have influenced people in ways never dreamed of. The Beatles’ constant preaching of love has changed a whole generations’ thinking, and may have helped to bring an end to Vietnam War. The Beatles, the greatest rock band ever to exist, does not record as a group anymore, but their influences will continue for years as the youth of each generation listens to the music that changed the world. (Larry Coffey)

“McCartney, Paul.” Britannica Student Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition.Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <>. Mason, Anthony. “Paul McCartney carries the legacy on .” cbsnews. N.p., 13 Dec. McCartney, Paul. Interview by Jay Spangler. beatlesinterviews. N.p., 28 Aug.

1965. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

Zzounds. “The Legendary Beatles .” zzounds. N.p., 16 Nov. 2000. Web. 9 Nov. “Paul McCartney Speaks About The Beatles’ Legacy .” Studio. 4 May 1968. “Paul McCartney Talks About Musical Influences .” 12 Oct. 1962.

2009. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

2011. InfoTrac Custom Newspapers. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

The Beatles. “Hey Jude .” The Beatles Again . Apple (Capitol), 1970. BizInfo

Online. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

Kozzin, Allan. “Still Needing, Still Feeding the Muse at 64.” The New York Times Mills, Heather. “Paul McCartney has been dead since 1966.” The Daily Mash 18

3 June 2007: n. pag. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. Mar. 2008: n. pag. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

“Paul McCartney | Sound Check Music Blog.” Sound Check Music Blog | Real Music Discovery. Your Source for Daily Music News. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <>. “May Day Ball.” Auckland Jolly People Charity Events. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <>. Los Que No Vieron La Pelicula!!!!! - Taringa!” Taringa! - Inteligencia Colectiva. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <!!!!!.html>. “Abbey Road Cam.” Revenge of The Living Blog. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <>. The Swinging Sixties. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <>. “Mister Oldies.” OldiesMusicBlog. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <>.


â&#x20AC;&#x153;There was only one Billie Holiday. She

feeling than I do. She had her own

Billie Holiday, known as the Lady Day, is

“Lady Day is unquestionably the most important influence on American popular music in the last 20 years. With a few exceptions, every major pop singer in the United States during her generation has been touched in some way by her genius.”

- Frank Sinatra

considered the greatest jazz vocalist of all time. Holiday lived a tempestuous and troubled life. But because of this, her singing expressed a great depth of emotion that spoke hard times, injustice, and even triumph, which was the reason to many of her influences within and outside of her genre. Holiday was able to influence society within her genre through her emotions reflected in her unique, expressive voice. This changed the world of jazz and also inspired many other artists to elect her as one of the greatest and favorite, most original jazz singers. Frank Sinatra, an American singer and actor who was always dazzled by her soft, breathtaking beauty, said in an interview with Melody Maker that she was one of the greatest influences upon music a year after she passed away. (Sinatra) This evidently proved Holiday’s legacy and musical influence as it shows how other artists within the same domain never hid their admiration and respect for her style and capabilities that significantly impacted the world of jazz. Ella Fitzgerald, a jazz vocalist whose style was significantly influenced by Holiday, says in an interview with Dean Robbins how Holiday’s originality of sound and feeling differed from other jazz singers and because of this difference, it made her special and the single greatest influence. As Fitzgerald mentioned, Holiday’s style was irreplaceable because of her strong emotions expressed through song and how this style was perceived it. (Fitzgerald)

had a different type of

original style, and nobody could touch it.”

- Ella Fitzgerald

By Dorothy Chan

Holiday served as idols to many -

“When I was still in my teens, I met one of them being another jazz a woman who became my idol. She was vocalist, Carmen McRae. In an my idol then and continued to be my interview with Art Taylor during 1970, idol; though she is dead now, she is still McRae explained how Holiday was the my idol. That’s Billie Holiday. I met Lady main influence to the early stages of when I was very young, and she was one her career and also played an of the most impressive women I have ever important part in personal life and her met in my life. She really scared me as far music career. (McRae)Through this, as singing was concerned. She seemed so Holiday’s musical influence is shown utterly perfect to me that I felt anything as her style was able to motivate other after her would be anticlimactic. artists and help them develop Consequently, I was afraid of becoming individually as a vocalist. what I had hoped to become at an earlier stage in my life. That was a very important phase to me. After that I had some minor experiences with Benny Carter’s band, Mercer Ellington’s and Count Basie’s band, just short stints which really couldn’t influence me much because I was too young. What helped me was Billie Holiday, which happened at a very early stage in my life.”

- Carmen McRae “Lady Sings The Blues” is an autobiography, which introduces first-hand information from Holiday herself about her life, influence and contribution. As a child, Holiday lived under poverty and was involved in prostitution. Later on, she also struggled with alcoholism, a severe drug addiction, racism and sexism. However, she was unafraid to expose her troubles and personal difficulties, which triumphed through a deep and emotional artistic spirit (Lady Sings the Blues” in a 50th anniversary edition).


Strange Fruit Lyrcis Performed by: Billie Holiday Songwriters: Allan, Lewis; Pearl, Maurice; Wiggins, Dwayne P. Southern trees bear strange fruit Blood on the leaves and blood at the root Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze Strange fruit hanging from the popular trees Pastoral scene of the gallant south The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth Scent of magnolias, sweet and fresh Then the sudden smell of burning flesh Here is fruit for the crows to pluck For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck For the sun to rot, for the trees to drop Here is a strange and bitter cry

Holiday’s great influences in musical history and society is still

continuing and will continue to impacting the society. Her unique voice and way of expressing emotions through music will continue to inspired many artists and the world of jazz, and her personal struggles with racial discrimination displayed through the arts will help raise awareness of racism. Work Cited Fitzgerald, Ella. “An Interview with Ella Fitzgerald.” Interview by Dean Robbins. Dean Robbins. Dean Robbins, n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. “Lady Sings the Blues” in a 50th anniversary edition. N.d. SFGate. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. McRae, Carmen. “Carmen McRae: ‘We were happy in the days of Fifty-Second Street.’” Interview by Art Taylor. Carmen McRae. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. Schermer, Victor L. “Billie Holiday Fifty Years Later: A Tribute and Reassessment .” All About Jazz. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. “Strange Fruit lyrics.” eLyrics. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Nov. 2011.

By Dorothy Chan


“ trange Fruit,” a haunting antiracism song about the lynching of a black man in the south performed famously by Holiday, is probably one of the main reasons to her influence outside of the musical genre. Holiday’s climax years came right after her performance of this song, released on record in 1939. It quickly became popular and had a significant impact to the politically aware, many artists, musicians, performers and intellectuals about racism in America. Holiday’s powerful emotions expressed in this song struck the hearts of many. As a black woman herself who was also a victim of racial attacks from the public, her unique and highly influential version of the song helped raise political awareness of racism and eventually became an anthem of expressing anger and awareness in the rise of the mass civil rights movements in the 1950s and 1960s. (Strange Fruit Lyrics)


“In Terms of ... The Words which comes... out of Bob Marley’s Music ... his lyrics . I think he is most definetly a leader ... he is a leader in terms of the vice of the ghetto” - Cullen Campbell (60 minutes)

“Bob Marley.” Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica Online School Edition, 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. “Bob Marley.” Encyclopedia of World Biography. Vol. 24. Detroit: Gale, 2005. Gale World History In Context. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. Burnett, David. Bob Marley - “Soul Rebel.” 19761977. David Burnett. David Burnett Official Website. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. Marley, Robert Bob, Nesta. “A Final Interview.” Interview by Anita Waters. Webbly. Webbly, 18 Sept. 1980. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. Marley, Robert Nesta. Interview by George Negus. Sixty Minutes. Channel Nine - Australia. 1979. Television. Ramsey, Shawn. “40 Free Fonts Ideal For Retro And Vintage Designs.” Blue FAQ’s. Blue FAQ’s, 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. Serpick, Evan, Simon, and Schuster. “Bob Marley.” Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock and Roll. Rolling Stones, 2001. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.

“Possesions make you rich? I dont have that kind of Richness, My richness is life, Forever” - Bob Marley (60 Minutes)

Bob Marley has not won a Grammy Award Until 2001 when we was given the Grammy Lifetime achievement award.

According to bob marley’s Offfiical website, Bob was an avid Soccer fan and player.


obert Bob Nesta Marley can be considered one of the best songwriter - singers of all time. Bob Marley can be considered the father of Reggae and especially the person that popularized Reggae world wide. He was born in Jamaica and is said to be one of the first superstars to be born from a third world country. He was a man the greatly influenced the way music changed and also influenced things outside of the music industry.

Bob Marley spent most of his free time listening to music or playing soccer. He is from TrenchTown, Kingston Jamaica which is sometimes compared to an open sewer or the ghetto of Kingston. (Bob Marley ,Britannica) It was life in the ghetto and ska, a Jamaican mixture of jazz and the rhythmic beats of Jamaica that inspired Bob and his meaningful lyrics. Bob Marley really wanted Reggae to be about getting the truth around and the best way to do this is through music. That is what Bob Marley envisioned and he did. (Waters, Anita) His songs were about determination, rebellion and faith. These songs include “No Women No Cry”, “Rastaman Vibration” and “Exodus” are all examples of these inspirational lyrics. (Rollings Stones). The question begs, did Bob Marley think that Reggae would go this far? He definitely wanted Reggae to go somewhere but could never imagine how far it went. Bob Marley was also religious. Was he Christian? Baptist? Jewish? No, he is a Rastafarian. This is a huge religion throughout Jamaica and Bob spread the word about this along with his music. Rastafarians believe that their god, former emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie can be reached by taking the herb. Now what is the herb? Ganja or marijuana is smoked in order to get in touch with their god. (60 Minutes) Songs such as Rastaman Vibration is a song that really shows what Rastafarians are all about because it carries a speech spoken by Haile Selassie. (Waters, Anita) Bob really believed in this religion and spread his belief and wisdom through his music.

Only Yesterday K

Michelle Wong

Karen Carpenter also influenced many contemporary artists, from Madonna to Shania Twain to Sonic Youth to Klaatu. They all agree that Karen had the most harmonious and soothing voice, and it was the beautiful sounds that allowed them to be who they are today (Quotes About Karen). Some other artists’ songs weren’t popular, and Karen was the one that made them well We still remember Karen for her excep- known. tional gift to the music world, and to her fans. The Grammy Award-winning duo Karen’s death was tragic, but her story increased public awareness produced lots of albums, and amongst the 11, 9 of them became a gold album. of the consequences of anorexia, and inspired cures for this disease. Karen also had 10 gold singles, and 17 Ipecac, a drug that was thought singles in the Billboard Top 20, 6 hitting number 2, and 3 hitting number 1. to be harmless was overtaken by Therefore, the Carpenters had their own Karen, leading to her heart failing. brass star on Hollywood’s Walk of Fame. The American Academy of PediKaren’s melodies soared through numer- atrics had a meeting about it, and because of Karen, doctors realized ous of concert halls, and millions of fans all around the world loved her, and that it’s harmful if a large dose of it has been taken. They wouldn’t have sang along with her (A Song For You). known it if it wasn’t for her bringAs Richard says in an interview, Karen’s voice made examples, and shaped ing it to public spotlight. Therefore, American pop (Ragogna). Without her now, it’s illegal to purchase ipecac by yourself, doctors have to prelight, airy melodies, pop music today scribe you with it (Shannon). would be different. aren Carpenter is still touching many lives with her astonishing vocals as the lead singer in the band “The Carpenters” today. Together with her brother, Karen topped the world in popular pop music. Sadly, on February 4, 1983, after a long yet heroic battle with anorexia, the beloved singer left, but her voice and legacy still remains.

On April 23, 2009, Mike Ragogona (MR) interviewed Richard Carpenter (RC) about the progress The Carpenters made over the years, and how he felt about it all. MR: What do you feel was your contribution to music through your records? RC: Along with the gift of Karen’s voice, musical and impeccably made examples of American pop. MR: And Karen’s vocals, especially on tracks like “Superstar,” were unusually intimate for the era.RC: So many people have said to us, “We can understand every word to your songs,” which, with all the pop and rock records at the time, was difficult to do. When we were mixing, I remember saying, at least once, “Just a little more lead.” The engineer looked at me and said, “More lead?” I made it a point to really feature Karen’s voice. She was born to be recorded. Ragogna, Mike. “The 40th Anniversary of Carpenters/‌Interview with Richard Carpenter.” Huffington Post 11 May 2009: 1. Huffington Post. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.

Her quotes and sayings also reminded people to stop being anorexic, and that it’s actually not worth loosing your life for your physical image. When Karen realized that she desperately needed help, she was afraid she was going to loose everything she hoped for (Mary-Kate’s Battle). Karen started asking for help, and lots of young anorexic girls reflected back on themselves. Karen gave these girls the courage to start eating again, because they know that there’s someone else out there who feels the same way as she does. They felt Karen’s love and warmth. Karen Carpenter will continue to have continuing impacts on mankind. Her voice of perfection will always live in the hearts of people, which will influence more artists. Her sacrifice for the medical world will save thousands more lives in the years to come, and no one will forget what this beautiful yet strong lady did for our world.

Q Magazine listed the faves of two of todays’ top female artists. ... Said Madonna: “Two of my inspirations were Karen Carpenter and Nancy Sinatra. Karen Carpenter had the clearest, purest voice. I’m completely influenced by her harmonic sensibility.” “Quotes About Karen.” LeadSister. Invision Power Services, Inc., 2001-2011. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.

A Song for You Karen Carpenter. Richard and Karen Carpenter. Mary Carpenter, 1976. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.

But the evidence against ipecac efficacy began to mount. Although there were well-designed studies suggesting potential value, the weight of evidence firmly pointed to a lack of clinical benefit. Additionally, continuing reports of adverse events, ipecac abuse by bulimics and even its use as an agent for Munchausen’s syndrome by proxy forced toxicologists and other poison specialists to reexamine the role of ipecac in poisoning treatment. As questions persisted, clinical practice quickly began to change; ipecac virtually disappeared from emergency departments as its use was discouraged. Because the number of ingestions for which ipecac is contraindicated continued to grow, poison centers across the nation increasingly referred poisoned children to emergency departments for assessment and administration of activated charcoal rather than recommending ipecac and home monitoring. The results have been striking; data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers indicate that the use of ipecac has fallen by >95% over a 15-year period (from 15% of childhood poisonings in 1985 to 7% in 1989 to 0.7% in 2001). Finally, a critical assessment of ipecac led in 1997 to publication of a consensus statement by the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, which concluded there was no firm evidence to indicate that ipecac had a role in treatment of the poisoned patient. In June 2003 an Advisory Committee recommended to the FDA that ipecac have its over-the-counter status rescinded, making it available only by prescription (FDA finds ipecac’s risks outweigh benefits. Boston Globe, July 1, 2003).

“I’m just afraid I’m gonna miss it all... being married... being a mother.”

~ Karen Carpenter

“Mary-Kate’s Battle Reminder of Devastation of Eating Disorders.” Netscape. Netscape Communications Corp., 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.

Karen Carpenter

Shannon, Michael. “The Demise of Ipecac.” Pediatrics (Nov. 2003): 1. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.

Karen, Celine. Karen Carpenter. 1975. Flickr. Yahoo!, 9 May 2010. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.

The Carpenters 70â&#x20AC;&#x2122; sGolden Duo Kelly Wu 9E

Karen CarpenterAnorexia Nervosa The Tragedy that affected the world

Karen’s disorter:

Even though the Carpenters have been honoured with their huge success, Karen Carpenter has unknowingly been attacked with anorexia nervosa, the situation of being dangerously overweight. Always being conscious about her weight, she was just another happy and healthy looking singer who was looked up to, and no bells ever rung to anybody, as anorexia itself was not a highly aware problem. (Events-In-Music) The photograph shows Karen Carpenter performing, looking just as radiant as ever, but with noticeable thin arms and veins in the neck. On February 4th, 1983, Karen Carpenter was found dead in her parents’ home of cardiac arrest. (Rolling Stone)

Future Influence: Karen’s death was definitely a wake-up call for the world. Since then, eating disorders have been more aware than it ever was before, as it sparked interest for people to study about it, and soon clinics started opening to treat patients of the same issue. Karen Carpenter became an anorexic icon whose death inspired us to find a cure. (Library Think Quest) Musically, even though times go by and people’s musical tastes evolve, The Carpenters has already becaome a musical icon and with their touching music, they will not be forgotten for a very ,long period of time.

Citations: Petrucelli, Alan W. “The Skinny on Karen Carpenter: She Who Spelled “Diet” With The Emphasis On “Die”” Examiner. 31 Jan. 2010. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <http://www.examiner. com/stage-and-screen-in-pittsburgh/the-skinny-on-karen-carpenter-she-who-spelleddiet-with-the-emphasis-on-die>. “The Carpenters Pictures (7 of 7).” Mp3 Lyrics. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <>. Nunez, Carly. “We’ve Only Just Begun Lyrics.” E Lyrics. Song Lyrics. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <>. “The Carpenters Pictures (2 of 7).” Mp3 Lyrics. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <>. “The Carpenters.” LyricsPond. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <>html>.

“MIKA: Unidentified Flying Object on the British Pop « Crazymoune.” Crazymoune. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <>. Birch And Roennow. “Open Calls.” Apparat LAB. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <http://www.apparatlab. dk/open-calls>. Simon & Schuster. “The Carpenters.” Rolling Stone. Rolling Stone, 2001. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <>. “We’ve Only Just Begun - The Cultural Impact of Karen and Richard Carpenter.” Events In Music. SBI. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <>. “Battling Anorexia- The Story Of Karen Carpenter.” Think Quest. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. <http://>.

“Most angry, most political, most versatile, most inspirational band of the punk era.” Simon Cosyns, The Sun



he Clash is a British punk band of four, active from 1976 (Cosyns, Simon); since then their passion, musical style, and lyrics have influenced countless others not only within the realm of music, but also outside of the genre. Known as the angriest, most political and inspirational band of the punk period, The Clash had great flexibility with their sound, dipping into other genres of music like reggae, ska, funk, and garage rock, creating a synthesis similar to the progression of what one’d call alternative rock today (Cosyns, Simon). Adding onto modern impacts, Green Day, The Offspring, and Blink-182 are a few of the wellknown bands in the USA today who have been triggered by The Clash. With their fiery politics-riddled lyrics (Crandall, Bill) combined with a moralistic passion that had been evident in their live shows (Morello, Tom), The Clash adopted a purpose that everyone could understand and relate to, earning them millions of disciples. In fact, four of them would later find themselves covering The Clash’s “London

Calling”– these four being Bruce Springsteen, Elvis Costello, Dave Grohl, and Steve Van Zandt, which are all active rockers to this day (Crandall, Bill). It’s true that The Clash have succeeded in influencing others– be it bands or individuals– within the rock society to carry on their legacy of sound and purpose, but that’s not everything that defines The Clash. Unlike many other groups of the 70’s and 80’s, or even now, rather than conforming to materialistic values of going commercial, The Clash dismissed possibilities of negative reception from listeners, and their label’s rejections for whatever the band had decided to produce; rather, their sole intention was just to get their music out there to everyone. Even when a news article appeared saying nasty things about the band, the comments were shrugged off and overpowered by the realization that The Clash had appeared on newspaper for the first time (Cosyns, Simon). Clearly, here’s a band who doesn’t let put-downs or conformity get in the way of music making or spreading their heartfelt sounds to the public. Incidentally, the musical world isn’t the only one

impacted by The Clash. In fact, their achievements were able to extend into the society. Many of the band’s songs featured political ideas in their lyrics, idealistic and rooting for the underdogs (Morello, Tom). Racism, poverty, and injustice were all issues The Clash protested against, providing a feeling of social, moral responsibility to the public, as well as a role for the kids in the working class (Cosyns, Simon). The Clash had passion and desire to evolve the musical world and the society by means of just doing what they love while being unaffected by public opinion and not succumbing to conformity or materialistic values, and shedding light upon the problems and issues in our society, spurring on public action against them. Maybe each time one of these things are achieved, may one be reminded of the spirit of The Clash. - by Sabrina Wong

“Melody Maker said, ‘We saw The Clash play with The Sex Pistols in Sheffield and they were rubbish.’ We were like, ‘Wow, we’re in the newspaper.’ It didn’t matter what they wrote.” - Mick Jones, guitarist. (from interview by Simon Cosyns)

“Revolutionary sounds with revolutionary ideas” “ [The Clash] cares more about its fans than its bank account” - Tom Morello, writer for Axis of Justice

Excerpt of Lyrics from “Know Your Rights” This is a public service announcement With guitar Know your rights all three of them Number 1 You have the right not to be killed Murder is a CRIME! Unless it was done by a Policeman or aristocrat Know your rights

The Legacy Lives On Cosyns, Simon. “’Losing Joe was like losing Einstein ... all these great thoughts going on in his head.’” Interview. The Sun. News Group Newspapers, 19 Dec. 2008. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.

Crandall, Bill. “Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: The Clash.” Interview. Rolling Stone, 28 Feb. 2003. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. “Know Your Rights.” N.p., n.d.Web. 9 Nov. 2011 Morello, Tom. “The Clash Legacy.” Editorial. Axis of Justice. Axis of Justice, Wordpress, 24 Dec. 2010. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. The Clash photos. 14 July 2009. NME. IPC Media, 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

Right: An album cover featuring The Clash Live at Shea Stadium.

(Source Citation: “If you don’t know what’s happening, just ask the person next to you”: The Clash’s Live at Shea Stadium. N.d. Condemned To Rock n Roll. Blogger, 3 Dec. 2008. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.)

Ella Fitzgerald Love & Kisses


ix decades after the succession of the world famous American singer, Ella Fitzgerald, her international legend continues to carry on, influencing people of today inside and outside her genre. Although her voice was so perfect and pure, it hid one of nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s darkest history (Bernstein). Through her harsh teenage years, she managed to overcome all the pain, surviving in a place where race and class lost all dominion; establishing her voice in society and leaving a legacy behind.

“I sing like I feel.” “The First Lady of Song”, Ella Fitzgerald sold over 40 million albums and won 13 Grammy awards over the course of her career; keeping her title for over half a century as the most popular female jazz singer in the United States. Ella Fitzgerald almost single-handedly created the genre of modern jazz, and influenced many people to be like her; which led to progression and development in talent in the music industry during the following years (Wofford). Photos of Ella Fitzgerald in her youth (see photo left) reflected on her rough past, while the one of her as a grown women (see photo right), tells us the story of how she had moved away from the past and developed into the well respected person she will always be. Many were moved by her ability, strength and she inspired them to take up music and “sing like you feel” (Fitzgerald). After the passing of this jazz legend during 1996, many believed the music industry had suffered a humongous loss as Ella Fitzgerald was one of a kind, and irreplacable. Her death had impacted the jazz world, and the nation as she was someone of so much talent, grace and class (Clinton).

Not only did Ella Fitzgerald influence her genre, but her voice had strongly impacted society at the time. Referring to an interview made in 1996, remembrance to this iconic figure, Ella Fitzgerald was spoken of as a leader. The release of her song, “You Showed Me The Way”, was so powerful; the way she presented the song with such warmth and maturity had led many the way and gotten them out of their darkest periods (Torme). Despite her struggle in life during her teenage years, having to be broke and alone throughout the Great Depression; she had matured through the memories, resulting to the stronger person she had later became. Other than her influences created through her music, Ella Fitzgerald also had deep concern for child welfare. She would make donations toward disadvantaged youths often, and promote the importance of child rights and equality they should receive. She was a role Works Cited model to the public, her genuine approach and message she send through music, the many i Berstein, Nina. “Ward of the State; The Gap in Ella Fitzgerald’s nfluences she have made in and out of her genre. Life.” The New York Times 23 Ella Fitzgerald died from bad illnesses and diabetes on June 15, 1996, and memorials were held in memory of her, continuing to be missed up to this day. The Ella Fitzgerald Charitable Foundation had been established later, going in sync with the Virginia health care system in hope to provide diabetes care across the nation. Although Ella Fitzgerald is no longer with us today, but her legacy, impact on many lives and the world, will continue to last for the next century to come.

June 1996: n. pag. The New York Times. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

“Online NewsHour: Remembering Ella Fitzgerald.” PBS News Hour. MacNeil/Lehrer Productions, 17 June 1996. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. “Ella Fitzgerald.” Squidwho. Squidoo, 2011. Web. 3 Dec. 2011. Varga, George. “ELLA FITZGERALD 1918 - 1996 Artists, admirers mourn passing of ‘one of a kind.’” The San Diego Union Tribune 16 June 1996, 1, 2 ed., News sec.: A1. Global NewsBank. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. Vechten, Van. Portrait of Ella Fitzger ald. 1880-1964. Photograph. Van Vechten Collection.

Elvis A source book all about Elvis Presley Created by: Janice Choi

The memorandum that records the meet up of elvis presley and richard nixon


lvis Aaron Presley was born on 1935, January 8 in Tupelo, Mississippi. He was the king of Rock ‘n’ Roll and was the best-seller chart in the age of rock and roll. Elvis Presley was one of the most influential people, influencing the development of music and beyond his genre. Elvis Presley inspired millions of singers who considered him as the king and the legend of the world. The Beatles met up with Elvis on August 27, 1965 and John Lennon was interviewed later on. In the transcript of the interview, he described Elvis Presley as the legend of their life and most importantly how Elvis had inspired them as a musician. He thought that Elvis’ voice was extraordinarily fascinating, Elvis had his special style. John Lennon opined that without Elvis, there would be no Beatles. (Australia) We can see that Elvis had a significant impact on the Beatles and this is how he influenced within the genre of music. Moreover, the first two photo on my cover page showing his playing guitar, taken by a fan in his concert on June 27, 1977 in Indianapolis where there were about 18000 audience at the Market Square Arena demonstrates his popularity and therefore influence. His unique style of performance attracted thousands of fans and influenced their perception towards music. With Elvis’s innovation in his hair style and fashion, songs are no longer auditory only but also visual (King) The second photo on the top of this page showing Elvis performing the song “Heartbreak Hotel” in Tupelo, which was the number 1 hit at that time illustrates how his close interaction excited the audience. He changed the way of a performance from only singing on stage to performing with interaction with the audience. (Spokesman)

The memorandum for the president file written by Bud Krough released by the White House outlines the conversation between Elvis and the former president Richard Nixon who fully concurred with Elvis’s ideas as to how Elvis could positively influence American teenagers regarding drug culture and hippies. Elvis’s meeting the president talking about how to influence teenagers illustrated not only his credibility but also changed the way politicians perceived musicians whose possible influence on social policy cannot be ignored (Kroug) My second source that explains how Elvis Presley influenced beyond his genre is the Elvis tribute artist contest in 2007, held by the Elvis Presley Enterprises, Inc for the best representation of Elvis’s legacy. Hundreds of Elvis tribute artists licensed by the official company and twentyfour best impersonators travelled from around the world to Memphis attended the competition and the winner won the first ever-ultimate title. The contest came back again in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011. Elvis’ special, unique hairstyle and fashion inspired many people to dress and act like him. (2012 Ultimate ETA Semifinalists) Elvis Presley’s future possible impacts on the world can be many and varied including the potential influence artists and singers can exert on politics and the inherent importance of audienceperformer interaction.


the transcript of the interview with john lennon from the beatles

ohn Lennon: When I first heard ‘Heartbreak Hotel’, I could hardly make out what was being said. It was just the experience of hearing it and having my hair stand on end. We’d never heard American voices singing like that. They’d always sung like Sinatra or enunciated very well. Suddenly, there’s this hillbilly hiccuping on tape echo and all this bluesy background going on. And we didn’t know what the hell Presley was singing about, or Little Richard or Chuck Berry. It took a long time to work out what was going on. To us, it just sounded like a noise that was great. It was nice meeting Elvis. But the fans and the press still got wind of it and were there in their hundreds trying to get in, and although we were used to crowds, the thought of Elvis and the Beatles being together at one time just blew the minds of some of the people. ‘Anyhow, Elvis was inside waiting to greet us. lifetime. Without him, there would be no Beatles. Iknow Paul, George, and Ringo were feeling as nervous as I was. This was the guy we had all idolized for years-from way back when were just starting out in Liverpool. He was a legend in his own lifetime, and it’s never easy meeting a legend in his own.

The 2012 ultimate elvis tribute artist contest


n 2007, Elvis Presley Enterprises, Inc. announced an inaugural Elvis tribute artist contest event that was a search for the “best representation of the legacy of Elvis Presley.” Twenty-four of

the best ETAs from around the world, who had each won a preliminary round of the competition, traveled to Memphis during Elvis Week 2007 to compete, with Shawn Klush of Pennsylvania winning the first-ever ultimate title.

Once again, in 2012, Elvis tribute artists will have their chance to compete for the ultimate title by showcasing their “best representation of the legacy of Elvis Presley.” Preliminary rounds for the 2012 contest have already started.

Works Cited: Elvis Australia. “Elvis Meets the Beatles.” Elvis Australia . Elvis Presley      Enterprises, 7 July 2005. Web. 3 Nov. 2011. Presley, Elvis Aaron. Elvis Presley Singing. 26 June 1977. Indystar. A Gannett      Company, 25 June 2010. Web. 1 Dec. 2011. Presley, Elvis Aaron. Letter to Richard Milhous Nixon. 21 Dec. 1970. The George Washington       University. Web. 3 Nov. 2011. Presley, Elvis Aaron. “2012 Ultimate ETA Semifinalists .” Elvis Presley . Elvis Presley       Enterprises, 2011. Web. 3 Nov. 2011. Spokesman. Elvis. Sept. 1956. Spokesman Mobile. N.p., 17 Aug. 2007. Web. 1 Dec.      2011.

We are the champions my friend...

I don't want to change the world with our music... I like to write songs for fun, for modern consumption. People can discard them like a used tissue afterwards. You listen to it, like it, discard it, then on to the next. Disposable pop, yes.

The Immortal Queen ...and we’ll keep on fightin’ till the end

“Freddie was unique - one of the biggest personalities in the whole of pop music.

He was not only a singer but also a fantastic performer, a man of the theatre and someone who constantly transformed himself. In short: a genius.” Lady Gaga


o most people, Freddie Mercury was just the lead singer of the legendary band, Queen. The truth is, he had influenced the world not just through his music and performances, but had also made a massive impact beyond his genre. Freddie Mercury was nothing like the average musician. His onstage, over-the-top personality made him the main inspiration of quite a few modern-day pop icons, one of which is the idol Lady Gaga. She admired him for his charisma and the way he always changed his concept and appearance. Her stage name was even taken from one of Queen’s hits, “Radio Gaga” (Dingwall). However, he had a humbler side behind the curtains. Even as the lead singer, he never

considered himself as the “leader” of Queen and believed everyone mattered in the band. He also influenced the genre of rock ‘n’ roll much more than he had intended. All he was aiming for was to create music that was enjoyed temporarily and moved on from (Mercury), but his works became classics that are remembered even to this day. Some of these immortal songs even influenced more than Queen fans. The lyrics of “We Are The Champions” are not only empowering, but also show his perseverance and his dedication to those who have supported him, making him a respectable role model (Mercury). There was one very significant impact he had on society that extended well past his genre. Although he had HIV/AIDS, he never

shared it to the public until the day before his death. Through his AIDS statement, he made it clear that he wanted to encourage not only his fans, but also the world to combat the illness (AIDS Statement). His band mate and long time friend, Brian May, confirmed this when he told the press that Freddie Mercury had actually given to the Terrence Higgins Trust, a major British association helping others to fight the disease, through his will (O’Donnell). Freddie Mercury may not be alive now to see how he had changed the world, but his legacy lasts. His music continues to be popular, and his contributions to modern society on AIDS awareness cannot be forgotten. He may not be physically present in the world, but he will always live on in spirit.

"The Terrence Higgins Trust has been completely swamped with donations... And Freddie donated a large part of his will to them. So the fact that he said it so clearly has increased awareness in this country by a huge amount." - Brian May, Queen guitarist

Works Cited Dingwall, John. “My New Album Is All about the Dark Side, Says Lady Gaga.” Daily Record. Scottish Daily Record, 2009. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. Freddie Mercury. N.d. Hynco. Hynco, 2011. Web. 1 Dec. 2011. Freddie Mercury holding microphone. N.d. Easterndrugs Healthcare Blog. Eastern Drugs, n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2011. Mercury, Freddie. “The Man Who Would Be Queen.” Interview by Melody Maker. Mr Mercury. WebRing, 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. - - -. Interview by Don Rush. QueenOnline. MMX, 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. - - -. "We Are The Champions". Lyrics. News of the World. EMI. 1977. 6 Dec. 2011. O’Donnell, Jim. “Setting the Record Straight Queen Member Defendes Freddie Mercury’s Life.” Plain Dealer [Cleveland] 17 Apr. 1992: 24. Global NewsBank. Web. 6 Nov. 2011. “Queen Star Dies after Aids Statement.” Guardian 25 Nov. 1991: n. pag. The Guardian. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

"I wish to confirm that I have been tested HIV positive and have Aids... I hope everyone will join with me, my doctors and all those worldwide in the fight against this terrible disease." Freddie Mercury


freddie mercury Q u i c k Fa c t s - Birth Name: Farrokh Bulsara - Born in Zanzibar, 5 September 1946; raised in England - Passed away in 1991 at the age of 45 due to AIDS - Nationality: British Indian - Profession: Lead singer-songwriter of the British band Queen - Had a vocal range of up to four octaves - Achieved a degree in Art & Graphic Design at Ealing College - Music genre: Rock - Hard Rock & Glam Rock - Some of Queen’s famous songs: “Bohemian Rhapsody”, “We Will Rock You”, “Somebody to Love”, “We Are The Champions”


rcury e M ie d d e r F “I adored d a hit called Radio a a nd Queen h e. Fredm a n e h t e v why I lo ’s t a h T . a est perg g a g G i b e h t f o e - one u q i n was u e s H a . w c i s u die m le of pop o h w e h t rmn fo i r e p c i t s a t n sona lities a lso a fa t u b r e g n i s one who e m o s not on ly a d n a e e theatr h t f o n a m a er, himsel f. d e m r fo s n a r consta ntly t nius.” e g a : t r o h s In (2) a g a G y -Lad

Q: What kind of person are you? F reddie : “How do you expect me to answer a question like that, dear! There are various aspects of me. The thing I treasure most, above music, is meeting people. I like being sociable, going out to functions and things and, generally, I’m likeable, I think. But I can change and be very moody and obnoxious. I’m a sort of chameleon. Success is teaching me a lot of things and I’m adapting. You’ve got to learn to come up with decisions very quickly. There’s no beating about the bush in this business.” (3)


, Mercury ie d d e r F een on, h n Deacmembers of Qu o J t h g lef t to ri ay - the (5) FromTaylor, Bria n M Roger

The Mercury Phoenix Trust After Freddie died of AIDS in 1991, the remaining members of Queen founded this organization in order to raise money and awareness about victims of AIDS in his memory. Additionally, Queen and several other musicians organized the Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert in 1992, and all the money made from this concert was distributed through the Mercury Phoenix Trust. Since then, this organization has been responsible for donating more than $15 million to victims of AIDS worldwide. It has joined forces with various foundations around the world. The Mercury Phoenix Trust aims to continue raising awareness about AIDS through its fundraising activiWties and through the use of Freddie Mercury’s name, magic, and music. (4)


reddie Mercury - known by many as the “King of Queen” - has made big impacts on society within and beyond music since the 1970s. For many, he was considered to be the epitome of rock music. Today, even after 20 years of his death, his legacy lives on. He influenced generation after generation with not only his spectacular voice, but also his charismatic stage presence and rebellious attitude. The black and white photo of Freddie from Queen’s famous Wembley stadium performance shows his spirit and charisma on stage. Many say that he was a shy person who kept to himself most of the time, however, concluding from his confident and proud expression, this photo shows that his attitude changes drastically when he steps on the stage to perform with Queen. This is an indication of how Freddie influenced other artists, especially by his wonderful stage presence. The next source is a quote from Lady Gaga, whose stage name was influenced by Queen’s song “Radio Gaga”. She states that she thinks Freddie is a big personality and had an impact on her career. This quote is evidence that his legacy impacted society because not only does Lady Gaga admire his singing, she also praises him for his ability to constantly transform himself and try outrageous new things, which inspires others to be creative and think out of the box. In an interview from 1974, Freddie described his personality and what he thinks of himself. This is a good source because it is a clear revelation of Freddie Mercury’s personality, and it is evident that behind the singing and performances, there is a real person who has hobbies and opinions like everybody else.

After Freddie passed away due to AIDS in 1991, The Mercury Phoenix Trust was set up in Freddie’s name, and in honour of his bravery during the fight against AIDS. To this day, The Mercury Phoenix Trust has been responsible for donating over $15 million to the victims of HIV/AIDS around the world. This proves his legacy within and beyond his genre because many people know about Freddie, therefore through his name and music, people around the world are able to raise awareness of HIV/AIDS and this organization. The photo of Queen at an event called Les Ambassadeurs shows the bond between the four of them; not only are they band members who rock out onstage together but they are also friends who enjoy spending time with each other offstage. Furthermore, it shows the fashion and hairstyling in the 70’s to 80’s, such as the fancy patterned shirts, the afro and mullet. It is indisputable that Freddie Mercury’s legacy will continue to thrive and influence the forthcoming generations. Through his music and lyrics, artists and musicians will be able to gain inspiration as well as learn from his incredible vocal abilities. Additionally, through his outstanding performances, performers will be encouraged to let their creative side unfold and put lots of effort into their performances. Freddie Mercury was a fighter, a lover, a prodigy, a man who was never afraid of letting his personality shine through. But on top of it all, Freddie Mercury was - and will always be - a hero.


(1) Freddie Mercury. 1986. Flickr. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. (2) Gaga, Lady. “My new album is all about the dark side of celebrity, says Lady Gaga.” Interview by John Dingwall. Daily Record. Daily Record, 2011. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. (3) Mercury, Freddie. “The Queen Bee.” Interview by Caroline Coon. Melody Maker Dec. 1974: 3. The Guardian. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. (4) “The Mercury Phoenix Trust.” The Mercury Phoenix Trust. Normed Advance, 2011. Web. 3 Dec. 2011. Guardian. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. (5) Queen at Les Ambassadeurs. 1976. Coventry Telegraph. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.

Once you are dead, you are made for life

Jimi Hendrix

White, Noel. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Jimi Hendrix - The superstar.â&#x20AC;? Classic Rock Legends . Classic Rock Magazine, Dec. 2007.

A guitar legend

Julian Snelling


imi Hendrix was not only influential in his time in Music, but his influence also extended outside of his passion. In music during his time he sang of passion, of love of war in which he morphed and formed a new sound. He was the basic founder of Heavy metal, jazz fusion and punk. All of which now days could be identified as three of the most distinct and unalike to any other genres recognized in the music industry. Although besides music people outside, not his fans or his followers were influenced as well in maybe a more subtle way. Due to the fact that Jimi Hendrix wrote and sang about the themes of passion, love, suffering, they all revolved around the base of one big idea, war. In his time the Vietnamese war was in it’s prime, many revolutions such as the Cold war had just been settled, therefore lots of tension had arose, people were nervous and such protesting. In fact Jimi was one of those people, he was an anti-war supporter, in fact according to the New York Times author Peter Watrous (, to stop himself from being recruited to fight in the war he pretended to be gay. After his songs went big, people started to realize what war was doing to people, to families and to countries. It wasn’t just fighting for freedom, they were fighting, killing and murdering thousands of people. As he career and popularity rose and his face became the cover of several magazines, his message to the world had been spread. He showed his fans and people a new way to non-violent protesting, he introduced a new art form, one of which simply portrayed an emotional as well as a physical message to the people at first glance, one that could be recognized by many as well as followed by many, one that would stand and live forever.

Getty, Paul. “Jimi Hendrix Photo Timeline.” Life Magazine Timelines. Getty Images, June 2001. Web. 7 Nov. 2011. < jimi_hendrix/?collectionType=time line>.

Excuse Me while i kiss the sky

Jimi hendrix


imi Hendrix was one of the greatest musicians of the 20th century. Born in 1942, Seattle, Washington, he loved music as a child and joined several bands before founding the Jimi Hendrix Experience in 1966. He had generated an amazing collection of songs over the years. His short but colourful life ended in 1970, when he was just 27. However, his spirit and influence still lives on. Jimi Hendrix was a great influence on not only music but also society through his songs, lyrics, tunes, and presentation. Every guitarist owes their inspiration to this guitar legend. Jimi Hendrix had created our modern guitar sound: his own unpredictable, discordant combination of sounds from all genres of music, such as blues, jazz, folk, funk, and rock. The result is a unique, controlled distortion of sounds. Jimi Hendrix added a degree of wildness to the style and presentation of music. He set fire to a guitar onstage, then wildly swung it around and smashed it into pieces. (“Fragments of Fender Stratocaster”). Afterwards, he stated he did such things because he felt an unexplainable feeling to let loose (Hendrix). This reckless behavior influenced our loud, heavy modern music nowadays, as people are more willing to go to greater depths for creativity. But not only his presentation and tunes were works of genius, but also his lyrics. Jimi Hendrix used metaphors to compare an obstacle to a mountain and overcoming them with his own powers within (“Voodoo Child”). His lyrics were inspirational and motivating.

Jimi Hendrix used his music and lyrics to communicate the message that there should be equal rights for everybody, regardless of race or sex. He was not only an influence in guitar and music, but also on equality. He used his music to try to get people to act (“Jimi Hendrix Quotes”). Even as a child, he had drawn cartoons on domestic strife and equality between sexes (MacDonald). As an African American, he suffered from racial segregation and discrimination throughout his life. He became the world’s first black rockstar, and proved that in music and in life, race did not matter. As a black, he played the type and style of music that was considered the white man’s domain, such as rock and roll. As a result, people began to accept black people joining the white community. He believed music would bring people together, and he proved that he was correct. Today, Jimi Hendrix is still one of the best and most influential musicians, having contributed remarkable spirit and vitality to music. He changed the face of music, and although he is no longer with us, he will continue to do so. Although we may be unaware of it, we encounter his contributions everyday from the style he had inflicted. As Jimi Hendrix had once said, music is the only way to change something in this world (“Jimi Hendrix Quotes”), as he had successfully done so and changed the views in music and society through his songs, lyrics, tunes, and presentation.

Excerpts from Jimi Hendrix’s January 1967 Interview How does the Experience get such fusion when you’re basically a bluesman, Noel’s a rock man, and Mitch a jazzman?

I don’t know! Actually, this is more like a free-style thing. We know what song we’re gonna play and what key it’s in and the chord sequences, and we just take it from there. And so far it hasn’t bugged me in any way like saying, “Oh, no! There he goes playing that rock and roll bass pattern again.” Everybody’s doing pretty cool.

How about free expression in jazz?

I’d have to be in a certain mood if I could sit up and listen to it all day. I like very different jazz, not all this regular stuff. Most of it is blowing blues, and that’s why I like free-form jazz – the groovy stuff instead of the old-time hits like they get up there and play “How High Is the Moon” for hours and hours. It gets to be a drag.

What do you think of the auto-destruction and the things The Who are doing?

We don’t really break anything onstage – only a few strings. Actually, we do anything we feel like. If we wanted to break something up, we would do it. There’s a lot of times in the past I have felt like that too. But it isn’t just for show, and I can’t explain the feeling. It’s just like you want to let loose and do exactly what you want if your parents weren’t watching. I dig The Who – I like a lot of their songs! The Byrds are pretty good too, though I know you don’t dig them over here. They’re on a different kick. I like them.

How do you feel onstage?

I get a kick out of playing. It’s the best part of this whole thing, and recording too. I wrote a song called “I Don’t Live Today,” and we got the music together in the studio. It’s a freak-out tune. I might as well say that, ’cause everyone else is going to anyway. Do you want to know the real meaning of that? Now, alright, I’ll tell you this – don’t think anything bad, okay? This is what they used to say in California ages ago: “Guess what – I seen in a car down on Sunset Strip. I seen Gladys with Pete and they were freakin’ out.” That’s what it means – sexual perverting. Now they get freakin’ off and out in all these songs, so it’s got nothing at all to do with sex now, I guess. Anyway, that’s what it used to mean – perversion, like you might see a beautiful girl and say she’s a beautiful “freak,” you know. [Laughs.] I’m being frank – that’s all, so I guess I’ll get deported soon. Works Cited Curtis Knight and the Squires, with Jimmy Hendrix on guitar, in performance, circa 1966. 1966. Experience Music Project Museum, Seattle, Washington. EMP Museum. Web. 7 Nov. 2011. Fragments of Fender Stratocaster electric guitar smashed by Jimi Hendrix. N.d. Experience Music Project Museum, Seattle, Washington. EMP Museum. Web. 7 Nov. 2011. Hendrix, Jimi. “The January 1967 Interview.” Interview by Steve Barker. Jas Obrecht Music Archive. Jas Obrecht, 2011. Web. 7 Nov. 2011. “Jimi Hendrix Quotes.” ThinkExist. ThinkExist, 2011. Web. 7 Nov. 2011. MacDonald, Patrick. A cartoon drawn by Hendrix in 1958, showing domestic strife, something Jimi had seen his share of. 1958. The Seattle Times. The Seattle Times Company, 4 Nov. 2007. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. “’Voodoo Child (Slight Return),’ Handwritten Lyrics by Jimi Hendrix, 1968.” 1968. Experience Music Project Museum, Seattle, Washington. EMP Museum. Web. 7 Nov. 2011.

â&#x20AC;&#x153;You have to go on and be crazy. Craziness is like heaven.â&#x20AC;? “Michael Jackson Photo Gallery.” A+E Television Networks, LLC, 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. Encyclopædia Britannica. “Jackson, Michael.” Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.

Michael Jackson

By Gary Ge

Jackson, Michael. Interview by Oprah Winfrey. The Oprah Winfrey Show. Syndicated. 10 Feb. 1993. Web. Transcript. 10 Nov. 2011.Stevens, Hampton. “Michael Jackson’s Unparalleled Influence.” The Atlantic. The Atlantic Monthly Group, 24 June 2010. Web. 8 Nov.

Jackson, Michael. “Jackson Interview Transcript.” Interview by Ed Bradley. Ellen Crean. 60 Minutes. Jeff Fager. 60 Minutes. 5 Mar. 2009. CBS News. Web. Transcript. 8 Nov. 2011. Twiglet, Nubby. “Michael Jackson’s Influence On Fashion.” Nubby Twiglet, 2011. Web. 8 Nov. 2011.


ichael Jackson was an American singer, songwriter, and dancer. A cultural icon and musical legend, Jackson was one of the most popular and influential entertainers of all-time, leaving ineradicable imprints in popular music and culture. Despite the struggles of his abusive childhood, he was bought up in a renowned musical family of the rock era, with his dad shaping him and his brothers into the impressive Jackson 5 child star group, as seen from photos of the time on the website “Biography.” Today’s hip pop and pop would be nothing without Jackson’s voice, musical style, and dance moves. Many subsequent artists were inspired by his phenomenal performance, which set the bar of standards for around the world. His love and passion for music touched the heart and souls of his listeners. With this, he broke boundaries of race, color, and age, as he liked to feature people of different race and age in his videos. Jackson was also the first black man on MTV. Thanks to him and his “Billie Jean” video, black people began appearing on MTV. Jackson also changed the music video industry, turning them from mundane singing performances into extraordinary, intuitive mouthing of words to short films with a story line, giving music a rich, vivid imagery. Jackson’s “Thriller” video is a prime example of a song complemented with a superb music video. However, some people say that the music industry did everything to encompass Jackson’s talent and shrunk after the cultural moment when he stopped producing his work. Additionally, his interviews really

exemplify his passion for music. He really enjoyed performing, even as a child.

“In always enjoyed the feeling of being onstage - the magic that comes (Jackson, Interview Magazine).” In another interview conducted by Oprah Winfrey, Michael talks about how he believes fame and fortune is a secondary thing. No wonder why he was able to sell 750 million albums. Jackson often sung about the issues of the world and the environment, making it a trendy thing during the process. He donated to charities helping the African continent and visited sick children in hospital. He was simply a phenomena and an angel. It can be seen in his 2009 interview on 60 Minutes. It is blatant that he has legitimate feelings about children, and that all the charity and help he has done for Africa is not for publicity. Besides his cultural and musical influence, Jackson’s impact in fashion is also felt till this day. The sequins, military jackets, skinny silhouettes, exaggerated shoulders, excessive zippers (as seen in Grazia’s Michael Jackson magazine). All this can been seen everywhere in fashion today. All over the world, bits and pieces of Michael’s legacy will forever remain, scattered throughout today’s music and fashion. Long live the King of Pop and Fashion!

Jackson, Michael. “Thriller.” Thriller. Quincy Jones, 1982. Dir. Quincy Jones. YouTube. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. Ruiz, Elmira. “Michael Jackson: The Most Influential Legend of all Time.” Queensborough Communique [Queensborough] Nov. 2009: 2. PDF file.

Michael Jackson Joyce Chau


ichael Jackson, the King of Pop, was extremely successful with his musical career. He started the Jackson 5 band with his brothers, but branched off into a solo career in the 1970s, releasing hit songs, like Thriller, recognized by everyone. Unfortunately, Michael passed away in 2009 due to cardiac arrest. Michael changed the musical world, but he also impacted the world beyond this profession. The song Thriller, from the album of the same name, is one of the most popular songs ever recorded in history and to this day, over 110 million copies of the 28 times platinum album have been sold internationally. Though it has been decades since it’s release date, Thriller is still a tremendously admired by all. Thriller is not the only hit – songs like We Are the World and

Man in the Mirror were liked by many as it was relatable to everyone around the world. More importantly, he was the one who discovered and popularized modern pop music (Exclusive: How Michael Jackson’s ‘Thriller’ Changed The Music Business). Michael also changed the way music videos were made with this song by turning the video into a short film. Thriller was released on MTV, and since then, African-Americans gained more respect for their music videos, diminishing the racial barrier. If it weren’t for the King of Pop, the music video world would be a different story today (The Morning Mix: Michael Jackson’s “Thriller” Jacket Sold For $1.8 Million). Known for the smooth Moonwalk moves on stage, dancing was a huge part of Michael

“If it were not for Michael Jackson I would not be where or who I am.” - Britney Spears

Jackson. From dancers to choreographers, everyone looked up to his stylish acts. Inspired, many dancers included Michael’s moves into their own dance, paving it’s way into modern dance culture. His dance sparked the interest of many, as everyone watched his slick glides with awe and admiration (Caputo). With so much accomplished, it is not surprising that other pop stars have followed Michael’s footsteps, to become who they are today. He changed the way they looked at music and motivated them to work hard and chase their dreams. Amongst all, Britney Spears was one of them, stating that Michael was the one who inspired her to be who is today. As a tribute, she even based her Circus tour on Michael’s 80s tour (Michael Jackson – His Influence).

Michael Jackson not only focuses on his career, but is also greatly aware about his surroundings. In 1992, he formed the Heal the World Foundation, a charity that works with the less fortunate children around the world. With his voice, he spread the word about this foundation and raised money by touring. His love for children touched others, encouraging them to take part in making a difference ( Jackson). Unfortunately, Michael Jackson is not with us today, but his legacy will live on for years to come. Pop stars will likely continue to look up to him and be inspired. Furthermore, his interest towards humanitarianism will impact others to make a difference too.

“The only reason I’m going on tour is to raise for the newly formed, Heal The World, an international children’s charity, that I’m spearheading to assist children and the ecology.” - Michael Jackson, 1992 Heal the World Foundation Speech

Caputo, Jenna. “Remembering Michael Jackson’s Influence on the Dance World.” Examiner. Clarity Digital Group LLC, 26 June 2009. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. “Exclusive: How Michael Jackson’s ‘Thriller’ Changed The Music Business.” Billboard. Billboard, 3 July 2009. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. Jackson, Michael. Heal the World Foundation Speech. Pepsi. Radio City Music Hall, New York. 3 Feb. 1992. Speech. “Michael Jackson - His Influence.” Q News. Bauer, 26 June 2009. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

Michael Jackson Wallpaper 10. N.d. Memory on Michael Jackson: Wallpapers. Moyea Software, 26 June 2009. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. “The Morning Mix: Michael Jackson’s “Thriller” Jacket Sold For $1.8 Million.” Idolator. Buzzmedia, n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.

John Lennon

John Lennon was born in Liverpool, England, 1940. He was the frontman for the Beatles, the infinitely famous and legendary band that gained most of their popularity in America. They have left behind a huge legacy in the musical world. John Lennon was arguably the most influential member, and tabloids claim at the time of his death, that he was a musical genius who wrote many of their songs, like “Don’t let me down”, “Tell me why”, and, “Yes, it is.” He was a famous musician and ultimately, a peace activist. He really brought light onto the topic of peace, and sent out the message that peace is achievable, if you want it. After he split from the Beatles, he began making songs promoting peace, and one of the very famous songs was “Imagine.” In the Rolling Stones 500 best songs of all time, “Imagine” ranked 3rd, and critics stated that it was John Lennon’s “greatest gift to the musical world.” In fact, the magnitude of John Lennon’s peace campaigning even alarmed the US government, and they tried to get him deported during 1972 to 1976, the time of Nixon’s election. Fortunately, as stated in the present mayor of Englewood’s website, being a previous lawyer, he helped Lennon stay in America and continue spreading the word of peace. He also affected the fashion world, believe it or not. There are round tinted spectacles now dubbed the “Lennon glasses,” and are deemed hipster, which is cool, in the present. According to his son’s, Julian Lennon’s website, John Lennon was murdered on December 8th, 1980 outside of his New York apartment, by a crazed fan by 5 gun shots. John Lennon was a great musician and he changed the world’s view on peace. Because “War is over. If you want it.”

“Imagine all the people, living life in peace.”

may say I ’m y ou , o a u there’s n countries. o e n i Y It is dr g e . n a I m o s a a g m ea e ine n n’t . I will b h o e n rld po ard m re’s no he e h t o e ave sse t ly wo agin n s


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Rolling Stones. “500 Greatest Songs of All Time John Lennon ‘Imagine.’” Rolling Stones. Rolling Stones, 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. < the-500-greatest-songs-of-all-time-20110407/john-lennon-imagine-19691231>.

e a u Im o. or h e us only sky. Im n. Im . You to a d g i bov n a ee e A a

eday you’ll j so m o in pe the people living li l f l e i n u ho ne a rotherhoo p d o s f agi nger. B m eac .

Imagine Peace. “ John Lennon.” Imagine Peace. Yoko Ono, 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <>.

Wildes, Michael J. “Wildes Packs the House for Family Affair.” Michael Wildes. Michael J Wildes., 2001. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <>. Julian Lennon. “John Lennon.” Julian Lennon. Julian Lennon, 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <>. Imagine Peace. “ BED PEACE 2009: 40th Anniversary 1969-2009.” Imagine Peace. Yoko Ono, 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <>.

Aleciane. Madonna as a redhead. 2005. Fanpop. N.p., 2007. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://www. madonna/images/284305/title/ madonna-wallpaper>. Ciccone, Madonna. “Madonna Interview in The Face.” Interview by Miranda Sawyer. The Face Aug. 2000: n. pag. The Madonna Catalog. Web. 11 Dec. 2011. < music/theface.htm>. Inglis, Ian, and Gary Burns. Performance and Popular Music: History, Place and Time. Hampshire: Ashgate, 2006. Google Books. Web. 11 Dec. 2011. <http://tinyurl. com/bookmadon-

naperformance>. Jbnyc. “Madonna: A Critical Analysis.” MadonnaTribe. N.p., 2007. Web. 20 Nov. 2011. <http:// www.madonnatribe. com/idol/back_to_ school_01.htm>. Kellner, Douglas. “Cultural Studies, Multiculturalism, and Media Culture.” N.d. U. of California Los Angeles. http:// pages.gseis.ucla. edu/. Web. 11 Dec. 2011. <http:// pages.gseis.ucla. edu/faculty/kellner/ papers/ SAGEcs.htm>. “Lady GaGa Biography.” Metrolyrics. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2011. <http://www. lady-gaga-biography. html>. “Madonna Biography.” Biography.

Alex Dopp

The queen of reinvention, pop artist, dancer and author Madonna has been making an impact for 30 years.


adonna, born Madonna Louise Veronica Ciccone on August 16 1958 in Michigan USA, grew up to become a singer, dancer, actress, author and icon. In the eighties her tunes reigned over dance floors and she was crowned the “Queen of Reinvention” (Madonna official site). Madonna began her career as a dancer, a talent that gained her a scholarship through university and a job in New York City. Her first song ‘Everybody’ topped the 1982 dance charts, a hit. She convinced her producer to release an album, Madonna, which became the first of many. Though not initially a hit, the album grew in popularity, and Madonna made her first impact on the society. Young girls were imitating Madonna’s image in their everyday lives: fishnet stockings, lace lingerie, fingerless gloves and large crucifix necklaces were made popular by Madonna’s fashion sense. (Madonna Biography, Biography. com).

N.p., 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2011. <http://www. people/madonna-9394994>. Madonna. N.d. People Magazine. Time, n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://www.>. Madonna in concert. N.d. PoshFashion. Blogger, 16 Aug. 2011. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. <http:// www.poshfashionnews. com/2011/08/ madonna-pictures-of-beautyqueen.html>. “Madonna Media.” Madonna. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2011. <http://madonna. com/ media/>. Redriverpak. Madonna as Marilyn Monroe. N.d. Flashbacks of an Idiot. Wordpress, n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. <http://idiotflashback.wordpress. com/2010/2/24/ madonna/>.

Madonna was one of “ We are living in a mate- the first to start a new era for rial world / And I am a ma- women, in areas other than fashterial girl” ion. Before her, ~ Material Girl, Madonna men were considered strong, opinionated and generally dominant. Though there were some tough women, women were still innocent, playful and lower than men, and Madonna can be seen as the first icon to give women power as a gender. Her songs offer great evidence: in ‘Like a Virgin’, Madonna sings about how her sexuality makes her stronger and empowers her, as opposed to making her a possession of the man involved. Even her presence is powerful: in an interview with The Face’s Miranda Sawyer, Madonna expresses her view by quoting the 1980 movie The Cement Garden: “’It’s OK for girls to dress like boys, to wear shirts and boots and blah blah blah. But for a boy to dress like a girl is degrading, because you think that being a girl is degrading - but secretly you’d love to know what it’s like.’ I just was like, ‘Oh my God, that is so brilliant!’” Continuing impact outside of her genre, she proved to be more than a pop star by giving various cultures their identities, and they drew from her strong feminine power (Kellner, “Cultural Studies, Multiculturalism, and Media Culture”). For example, Madonna’s powerful images inspired the gay community to raise their voice in a time when being gay was encouraged by the media as ‘abnormal’ and ‘unnatural’. Within the music community, Madonna can be noted for her outrageous performance style: she has played many different ‘roles’ to create interesting performances for her viewers, such as her famous ‘Like a Virgin’ performance at the MTV Video Music Awards in 1984, when she rolled around onstage provocatively in a wedding dress while singing (Inglis, Performance and Popular Music: History, Place and Time). The impact can be seen in modern pop star Lady Gaga, who has cited Madonna as a personal influence (Lady GaGa Biography), has a similar empowering presence and unorthodox fashion sense. Madonna’s final influence is in her music videos. She created videos that pushed the ideas of society of the time, and encouraged further artistic direction. For example, in the video for ‘Express Yourself’, Madonna wore chains, but she “explained in interviews that the chains repre-

sent desire, which she placed on herself, clearly showing that she is in control since a man did not place the chains on her” (jbnyc, Madonnatribe).

“That is may-jah. Who works out in a collector’s item tank top? She does!” - Charnin Morrison

m“ a d o n n a We are all free citizens. And, it is our responsibility to share that freedom with the rest of the world!”

- Madonna


he American singer, songwriter, actress, and entrepreneur- Madonna, is a dynamic woman still widely recognized within the entertainment industry. During her popularity climax in the 1980s and 90s, she has achieved levels of power and control that has allowed her to not only significantly influence music’s pop culture style but to also leave a legacy beyond her genre in the fashion world and through charitable actions.

Once a sultry siren, a marketing phenomenon, and a movie diva, Madonna has inspired countless through her captivating speeches and her passionate lyrics that she composes. Her one quote on global freedom during the Amnesty International Tour, reflects on Madonna’s level of social awareness towards international issues where freedom is limited amongst citizens. As an influential icon, she shows great sympathy and utilizes her power to its full potential, taking the opportunity to enlighten the public of what should be recognized on an intercontinental scale (Madonna MTV Year In Madonna 1986).

Likewise, Madonna also communicates through her album covers. Madonna’s first album was released in 1983 and is noted for heralding Madonna’s arrival in the music scene and launching her career as a disco diva. The image of her opening colour appeared in black and white and not as shocking as the later; however, this image displays a powerful message through her facial expression, her pose, hair style, make up and fashion style (Madonna Original Recording Remastered). As an impacting citizen that many idolize, Madonna has opened a new door to many women who are hesitant of changes through her confident personality and has contributed to changes within the music culture of her era.

Madonna’s career ranged from pop charts, to

MTV, continually redefining herself; however, the extent of Madonna’s impact is certainly beyond the limitations of her genre in the entertainment industry. Through an interview with Time Magazine, the article disclosed Madonna’s plans to supply financial aid to orphaned children in Malawi. Such charitable acts, exceed the musical genre and illustrate Madonna’s commitment and compassion towards assisting the more unfortunate. Nevertheless, it is because of her musical success that she is granted opportunity to undertake such projects (Luscombe). In addition, the lyrics Madonna authored Madonna’s impact within the fashion indusherself, have deeper meanings that comtry can be seen through the New York Times municate towards citizens of America. of 2008, Costumes for many other artists have During 1985, when the song “Gambler, been a result of Madonna’s influence and the arGambler” was written, there were great ticle comments of how Madonna is the fashion uprisings of Women’s Rights and Madonna statement and by bearing the responsibility as a was one of the few who stepped outside public icon, she creates the trends that the pubher box and communicated herself to soci- lic follow (Wilson). ety. The phrase from the lyrics, “you can’t stop me now”, is repeated numerous times As a current icon, Madonna still lives amongst throughout the song as this was her mesus and continues to act as a responsible citizen, sage of freedom within her gender during as to come to the aid of others. Madonna has her time and for future generations (Cictaken music’s culture and restyled it just like she cone). has done with the fashion industry further past the borders of her genre, thus creating a lasting significance on the world.

Word Cited: Ciccone, Madonna. “Gambler.” LyricsMode. N.p., 3 Oct. 1985. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.  Luscombe, Belinda. “Exclusive: Madonna Speaks About Her ‘Big, Big, Project.’”       Time 3 Aug. 2006: n. pag. Time. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.  Madonna - MTV Year In Madonna 1986. Youtube. N.p., 1986. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.  “Madonna (Original Recording Remastered).” Amazon. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.  Wilson, Eric. “Who’s That Girl?” The New York Times 17 July 2008: n. pag. The       New York Times. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. fashion/17MADONNA.

You’re not happy with the way I act You better turn around boy, don’t look back You’re getting angry, you know I can see You’re just jealous ‘cause you can’t be me You can’t stop me now ‘Cause I’m right and I’m making advances Let me show you how


“Tonight, I’ll be taking my chances

-Madonna “Gambler Gambler” Lyrics

“Of course there are no doubt people who on a fling say some-

thing, but that’s not what Madonna’s doing, it’s not what Angelina’s doing, it’s not what Bono’s doing,” he says. “In the very noisy and complicated world that we have, people that reach large numbers of people, like Madonna does, have an extraordinarily important role to play. When they’re devoting their time, their money, their name, a lot of effort, a lot of organization skill to all of this, it makes a huge difference. The cynics are just wrong. They don’t get it.” -Jeffrey Sachs

Miles Davis Narrative: Famous for his cool persona, Miles Davis never stayed with a single genre of music. A professional trumpet player, he is loved by all for his lyrical flow and always changing style, and is remembered today as one of the greatest Jazz musicians of all time. Davis’ always loved exploring new, different genres of music. Playing rock and jazz when Bebop was popular, then later on having interest in pop as well. His most famous album, Kind of blue, completely changed the world of jazz, making improvised scales and modes instead of the back-then traditional chords. (“Miles Followed His Heart”) Davis’ himself hated categorizing music, calling them social music and explaining that new music keeps what the artist likes and discards what the artist didn’t like. (“1982 Interview”) Everytime Miles Davis changes the genre of his music, the world would follow him as he changed. From hard bebop to rock to jazz to pop, he was almost an instrumental influence in the music the world listens to. Perhaps Davis’ most memorable feature is his style. He was often photographed. Soon, he became famous for persona. Mysterious, dark and cool all into one. Often wearing a trench coat, it soon became his second most signature feature, other than his trumpet. (The Phenomenal Miles Davis) His style of speaking was smooth and slow, and his erratic way of performing soon became legendary. Even in the midsts of 2011, he was remembered for defining the meaning of style. (Why style is more Miles Davis than Justin Bieber) Davis’ legacy will continue on for a much more longer time to come. His persona and style was nothing like the world has ever seen before, and his influence on the world’s opinion on music was one of the greatest in the 20th century.

1982 Interview: G = Bryant Gumbel M = Miles Davis M: We vowed that we wouldn't play cliche. You know that was old stuff. G: But for the most part jazz is over the years, what, one of the mainstream of american music? M: I don't like the word jazz. G: You don't? What would you call it? M: I think 'social music'. All the social melodies out in air, its not jazz anymore G: I'm curious, what do you think about most popular music today? M: That's the social music I'm talking about G: You think its good? M: Yeah. You take out what you want and leave what you don't like. You know like fool. G: (laughs) M: You understand what I'm saying you know its no big thing, just the mind ofG: But you don't like *unknown name* right? So you just ignore it? M: Right. What I don't like is using.... it doesn't fit me. You know it, it just fades off my face if I try to play something, it doesn't align right with my clothes, my life style. G: Is it all important to you how people would ultimately rank you? Or judge you? M: They like me. You mean rank like rank? G: Yeah like rank up. Like the best. M: When you say best, you can't say best in any form of the arts. There's no best dancer. G: Because theM: No best actor. Because TR is 98% of it. But this wouldn't say I'm one of the best. G: What should we tell folks? That Miles Davis has olden with age or that now people are just willing to listen to what he's always been? M: Don't... nothing! Well... yes. Well we'll see what I do next. G: Well you like that mystery. M: They like it. I'm cool.

The Phenomenal Miles Davis In acting classes, it is called “Presence.” In Hollywood, it is called “star quality.” The Madison Avenue expression is “projecting an image.” Whatever the term, Miles Davis had it.Eventually, it became more appropriate to speak of Miles Davis as a showbusiness phenomenon than a musician. A percentage of his audience felt it had gotten full value for its money if Miles appeared in one of his famous suits.The striking cover of one Columbia album shows Miles’ lovely wife, Frances, seated alone at a table. At the opposite side is Miles Davis, trenchcoat worn cape style, head bent to light a cigarette from the match held in his cupped hands. Photographed in black and white, it is strongly reminiscent of a still from the Humphred Bogart-Ingrid Bergman movie Casablanca (“Don’t go to the session tonight, Miles”).The most photographed jazz musician in the world, Davis captured the imagination of a section of the public to which he appealed in much the same way Bogart did, or better still, Bogart’s successor, Frank Sinatra.

Bibliography Hancock, Herbie. "'Miles Followed His Heart'" News Bank. 14 Oct. 1991. Web. 03 Nov. 2011. <>. Idonije, Benson. "The Phenomenonal Miles Davis." The Guardian Life Magazine. Blogspot, 28 Feb. 2010. Web. 03 Nov. 2011. <http:/ miles-davis.html>. Miles Davis. Digital image. Vinyl Revinyl. Wordpress. Web. 03 Nov. 2011. < loads/2008/08/milesdavis.jpg>. Miles Davis Interview, 1982 - YouTube. Perf. Miles Davis, Bryant Gu bel. 1982 Miles Davis Interview. NBC, 16 Nov. 2006. Web. 03 Nov. 2011. <>. Spearman, Joah. "Why Style Is More Miles Davis Than Justin Bieber." The Huffington Post., Inc, 02 June 2011. Web. 03 Nov. 2011. < man/why-style-is-more-miles-d_b_819295.html>.

Why Style is more miles davis than justin bieber Style, like the best music, often starts with the individual... the lone creative. At its most basic form, style starts with a mood rather than a magazine. It’s how you feel in the morning when you wake up and how your clothes speak to that mood. Style is the indie favorite while fashion is the pop hit. Style doesn’t need an arena tour or an army of publicists. Style is more about creative construction than mass production. Style is much more Miles Davis than Justin Bieber.

Miles Followed His Heart Miles cared more about the music than about his ego-and he had a big ego. He had no problem getting the spotlight. If anything, he had to remove himself from the spotlight so his sidemen could shine. He would walk offstage, and that was misinterpreted as contempt for his band or his audience. He never purposely turned his back on the crowd. If he had to turn to face the drummer to get a musical conversation going, he did. Every step of the way, he followed his heart. We won’t see Miles anymore, and we won’t be able to hear what he might have come up with next. But we have more than we could ever have expected from one man. He made several lifetimes’ worth of contributions. To be around him was to be influenced by him: he himself was a statement. And he had exquisite taste. Even if he had only a hundred dollars left, he’d have a fine Italian suit made for him. I remember one time going to his house and he was cooking dinner in his tuxedo; Miles was a great cook. He was a man of deep conviction about everything, and it was exemplified in his music. He taught us to reach down inside ourselves for the truth. That’s what Miles did. He always played the truth, as he saw it. - Herbie Hancock, pianist

The Sex Pistols “Cause I wanna be anarchy, It’s in the city..”


he Sex Pistols were a punk rock band, founded in the early 1970s made up of four talented musicians. The band initiated the punk rock movement in the U.K. The band was the talk of the town as their speech and dress caused controversy within the British public. The band split soon after their coming, however their bold lyrics and tenacious attitude left them a spot in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. They are now one of the most well known bands. They have not only created an impact within the music, but fashion industry as well.


Photo: (From left side) Paul Cook, Sid Vicious, Johnny Rotten, Steve Jones Photo: (From left side) Paul Cook, Sid Vicious, Johnny Rotten, Steve Jones

Nevermind The Bollocks, Here’s The Sex Pistols “Don’t be told what you want Don’t be told what you need...”


hat would you do if you were sixteen and bored? The Sex Pistols transformed a musical generation of adolescent U.K. teens. The band’s first single “God Save the Queen” sparked rebellion and disgust among the British public, nevertheless gained respect and distinction for their name (God Save). Through the customary eyes of the UK, The Sex Pistols’ challenged pop culture with exuberant humor and irrational behavior of adult attitudes towards censorship within music during the 1970s. The conscience of a nation steeped in righteousness, nobleness and honor was pricked by the stamina and ambition of one band’s struggle for change. But the weight of culture can only tolerate so much… The Sex Pistols formed in 1975 with vocalist Johnny Rotten, guitarists Steve Jones, drummer Paul Cook, and bassist Glen Matlock. In early 1977 Glen Mat-

lock was replaced by Sid Vicious (Today Show). The Sex Pistols were responsible for initiating the punk rock movement in the United Kingdom and inspiring many upcoming bands. The band took Britain by hold and provoked a tremendous amount of controversy. The Sex Pistols did not only impact the music but fashion industry as well. The Sex Pistols challenged a generation within a period when cutting holes in your clothes or writing a slogan across your outfit that expressed your own personal discontent was seen as complete vulgar behavior and was deemed as civil disobedience. Youth rebelled against the ‘status quo’ and followed the band’s punk rock style. Torn fashion became punk fashion. Self-mutilation and body piercings became popular as well, ‘rejection of prettiness’ and body piercing was not a norm then. The chosen placement of

body jewelry and tattoos of the new punks was deliberately intended to offend the more conventional members of society. The fashion was also unisex and men began to sport facial jewelry (Weston Thomas). Despite their many accomplishments the band split in January 1978 when Rotten left the band and announced it’s break up after a turbulent tour in the United States. Vicious died of a heroin overdose in February 1979. In 1996, Rotten, Jones, Cook and Matlock reunited for the Filthy Lucre Tour; since 2002, they have staged further reunion shows and tours. On 24 February 2006, the Sex Pistols—the four original members plus Vicious—were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame but they refused to attend the ceremony, calling the museum, in true Sex Pistol fashion, “a piss stain”.

Fashion Era, and Paulina Weston Thomas. “1970s Punk Fashion History.” Fashion     Era. Fashion Era, n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. <      punks_fashion_history1.htm>. - - -. “God Save the Queen Lyrics.” Lyrics Freak. Lyrics Freak, 2009. Web. 9      Nov. 2011. <      god+save+the+queen_20123626.html>. Never Mind the Bollocks Here’s The Sex Pistols . 1976. JPEG file. The Sex Pistols. The Sex Pistols . 1977. JPEG file. - - -. “The Sex Pistols .” Interview by Bill Grundy. The Today Show. The Today      Show. 1976. YouTube. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. <      watch?v=ohQntZT8amY&feature=related>. Photo: (From left) Sid Vicious, Johnny Rotten, Steve Jnoes, Paul Cook)

The King of the Crooners “If you don’t know the guy on the other side of the world, love him anyway because he’s just like you. He has the same dreams, the same hopes and fears. It’s one world, pal. We’re all neighbors.” Frank Sinatra

“I’m for anything that gets you through the night, be it prayer, tranquilizers, or a bottle of Jack Daniels. But to me religion is a deeply personal thing in which man and God go it alone together, without the witch doctor in the middle. (B,David) ” Frank Sinatra


rancis Albert Sinatra, one of the most famous jazz player’s of the 1900’s, but why? Francis Albert Sinatra was born in December 12, 1915 and sadly passed away May 14, 1998. He had 2 children, Nancy and Frank Jr. Sinatra. He was known for many things, mainly being a solo singer & singer in a band with Harry James and Tommy Dorsey. He changed what people thought about the 1940’, a time of war, depression, and poverty. When he was on the stage, he could make people forget those harsh times. Frank Sinatra was influential as a singer and as an actor. He changed the music scene, but affected movies too(Cattaneo,Hank). He was always smiling when public and his charm made him that much more popular. He affected society in so many ways, such as changing the face of music of people’s opinions on music during his era of popularity, the 1940’s(Sinatra). Even though he wasn’t that popular around men for not having to go to war because he was mentally unstable and had an ear problem, he still was able to convince people that that wasn’t the most important point, the most important point was showing people his music was great, and it worked.


eople loved his music, his music was #1 in the charts and he became one of the most celebrated jazz artists of his time.I think the main image supports him is because it shows his million-dollar smile, and a face with determination. The quote shows a philosophical side, which not a lot of people in this world have. His music has changed people’s opinions of the 1940’s in the present. The layout shows people that his music made interesting ideas, which influenced their design for posters, albums, advertisements etc. The quote on the 4th page increases the proof that he had a philosophical side, but also, a humorous side, which can be seen in some words used. Finally the picture on the 4th page, which shows a social side of Frank Sinatra, a side that isn’t afraid to speak up on his opinions and ideas.

“I think every American would have to smile and say he really did do it his way.” -President Clinton

B., David. “Frank Sinatra’s 1963 Playboy Magazine Interview.” Sinatra Family Forum. Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd. SEO by vBSEO, Crawlability, Inc. The Sinatra Family; All rights reserved., 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. <http://sinatrafamily. com/forum/frank-sinatra-8/frank-sinatras-1963-playboy-magazine-interview-29275/>. Cattaneo, Hank. “Backstage with Ol’ Blue Eyes.” N.p., 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. <http://www.sinatra. com/legacy/backstage-with-ol-blue-eyes>. “FRANK SINATRA QUOTES.” Notable Quotes. N.p., 2010. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. < sinatra_frank.html>. “Onstage in Las Vegas, mid-1960s.” FSE Inc., 2010. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. <>. Sinatra. “Frank Sinatra: An American Legend.” Frank Sinatra Biography. N.p., 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. <http://>.



ruce Lee, a highly influential figure during the 1970s who helped shape the modern world. Actor, dancer, cultural icon, writer, philosopher, and a skilled martial artist, his belief that success flows from dedication and self-knowledge propelled him to become the first Asian superstar. A strong identity is something advertisers have also been keen on, creating a wave of Bruce Lee inspired commercials, comics, and video games around the world. Also, at a time of action and excitement in his life, Bruce maintained to educate people through films. He brought martial arts to the West and around the world. This broke the stereotypes and changed how Asians are portrayed on screens, which he was the first nonwhite hero on screen. Bruce Lee also introduced mixed martial arts and adapted it with the philosophical divide between the Eastern and Western (Lessons Learned From Bruce Lee, 2009). Even after 30 years, no human has been able to match or surpass Bruce’s performances, so producers are turning into technology to do the job. Bruce was also a philosopher. His quote of “be water my friend” can fully explain the martial philosophy of him (Lee, 1971). The meaning behind his quote explains that water is always changing because it is just like our brain, such flexible mind to see the whole world that makes one to learn more things from different situations. Keeping on this learning attitude, like water, one can easily reach their goal (The Pierre Breton Interview, 1971). This is how we realize how big of an inspiration he is to the world. Bruce Lee also had contributed to the world of sport athletes. Boxing champion Sugar Ray Leonard commented that he likes Bruce Lee because he influenced him to go beyond the limits of his career. Furthermore, as a rapper and actor, LL Cool Jay believes that Bruce Lee is his hero because he influenced singers, musicians, and actors from different places in the world (How Bruce Lee Changed the World, 2009). For instance, his biggest film, Enter The Dragon was not just a financial success, also became a cultural phenomenon. This movie gave many people a first glimpse of this man because it left profound and lasting impressions of him. After Enter The Dragon, people wanted to be Bruce Lee and martial arts studios opening up almost on every street corner (Thomas). With his unique styles and personalities, Bruce Lee did not only resonate the Asians, but also influencing and inspiring people around the world before and after his death. If he had lived, he would have made other films, without restricting himself to kung fu films. Ashmir. Bruce Lee Wallpapers 1. 2011. Celebrity and Movie Pictures, Photos. WordPress, 17 July 2011. Web Bruce, Lee. Walk On. N.d. Official Bruce Lee Site. Bruce Lee Enterprises, 2010.

龍 小 李 “

I am not teaching you anything. I just help you to explore yourself.

Bruce Lee: - other films used every possible combination of ‘Fist’, ‘Fury’, ‘Game’, ‘Dragon’ and involved clones of BL - BL set modern screen fighting standards with his many innovations, technical mastery, inventive choreography, dramatic innovations, successfully spawned a further form of martial art. - BL’s skills extended to places even he was not aware of -> June 1982 interview for Playboy, boxing champion Sugar Ray Leonard said: One of the guys who influenced me wasn’t a boxer. I started watching his movies before he became really popular in Enter the Dragon and I patterned myself a lot of his ways. Lee was an artist and like him. I try to go beyond the fundamentals of my sport. How Bruce Lee Changed the World: Transcript of Interview - Ben Saunders: UFC fighter 00:33:20>> I’ve been watching his movies, studying his martial art and philosophy since I was, like, eight to ten years old. 00:33:26And it completely changed my entire aspect on fighting. Transcript of Interview - Rapper & actor - LL cool J - Bruce Lee inspired me because he made me want to make more movies - He changed the world, resonated not only Asians, even the black community and the white community - He is not just a fighter, he is also a thinker, rules he created in his book is transferable to anything in life The Pierre Breton Interview: But martial art has had a very, very deep meaning as far as my life is concerned because, as an actor, as a martial artist, as a human being, all these I have learned from martial art. It is..I mean to them the idea is “running water never grows stale”. So you’ve got to just “keep on flowing”. Bruce Lee Philosophy (Be Water My Friend) “Empty your mind, be formless, shapeless - like water. Now you put water into a cup, it becomes the cup, you put water into a bottle, it becomes the bottle, you put it in a teapot, it becomes the teapot. Now water can flow or it can crash. Be water, my friend.” Lessons Learned From Bruce Lee “I am not teaching you anything. I just help you to explore yourself.” - Bruce Lee MLA Citations:

Ashmir. Bruce Lee Wallpapers 1. 2011. Celebrity and Movie Pictures, Photos. WordPress, 17 July 2011. Web Lee, Bruce. “The Pierre Breton Interview.” Interview by Pierre Breton. YouTube. YouTube, 2 Oct. 2011. Web. 7 Nov. 2011. Lee, Bruce. Walk On!. Official Bruce Lee Site. Bruce Lee Enterprises, 2010. Meiner, J.D. “Lessons Learned from Bruce Lee.” Sources of Insight. WordPress, 3 July 2009. Web. 7 Nov. 2011. Titusmedia. “Bruce Lee Philosophy (Be Water My Friend) .” YouTube. YouTube, 30 Mar. 2011. Web. 7 Nov. 2011.

龍 小 李

Jesse OWens “He once was the fasTest runner in the world.” Steve Ember Who was Jesse Owens? He is an African-Ameri-

can track and field athlete of the 1930’s. He was born in Oakville, Alabama on September 12th 1913. He was born as James Cleveland Owens. Then he moved to Cleveland, Ohio with his family. His career started off when he was very young, in the 1920’s. In 1933 he broke 3 records on high jump and long jump, and ended up in Ohio State University. In 1936, one of the most significant things happened in his life. The Berlin Olympics, where he proved the Nazi Germans wrong when he earned 4 gold medals. The Nazi’s always thought that the white german athletes were the best and no one could have beaten them. He died in Pheonix, Arizona in 1980. (Encyclopedia Britannica)

“I guess that I would be one of those Juvenile delinquents that you read on the paper, if it hadn't been for Jesse Owens” John Hickman Jesse Owens has influenced a lot of people throughout his career and also outside of his career. For example the quote above was said by John Hickman, a boy who met Jesse Owens in a South Side Boys club, there Jesse Owens gave him a job and taught him all about good sportsmanship and also fair play. Throughout his career Jesse Owens has accepted a lot of boys into his teachings of good sportsmanship, most of them grown up to becoming great leaders. Throughout his life, he has been through a lot of career lines other than just atheletic wise. He has been bankrupt before, right after he has been in show business with swing dancers. Unfortunatly he lost all his money due to a dry cleaning business. After, he decided to spend his time helping boys get back onto their feet. Also he went to the Indian Atheletic department to help young atheletes. Out of his genre, he helped a lot of boys whom really could have been starting off on the wrong foot, but he made them into useful citizens, such as executive positions in companies (This is Your Life, Youtube video) “Owens, Jesse.” Primary Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. “Owens, Jesse.” Britannica Student Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. This Is Your Life - Jesse Owens Interview - Part 2 (1960) . N.p., 7 Nov. 2010. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. “Jesse Owens Gallery.” Web. 05 Dec. 2011. <>. Reichssportverlag, Berlin. “BERLIN OLYMPICS 1936 : Venues : Olympics Postcards : Sportspages. com.” Sporting Memorabilia: Sport Memorabilia & Sports Books from Sportspages : Sportspages. com. Web. 05 Dec. 2011. < olympics_1936_14752?search>.

Jesse Owens The man who ran right into history

The battles that count aren’t the ones for gold medals. The struggles within yourself — the invisible, inevitable battles inside all of us — that’s where it’s at.

Timeline: 1913 - James Cleveland Owens was born. 1922 - Moved to Cleveland, and started calling himself Jesse Owens. 1928 - Sets high school records in the long jump and high jump. 1932 - Marries Minnie Ruth Solomon. 1935 - Sets 3 new world records at the Big Ten Finals. 1936 - Sets or ties 4 world records in the Olympics, and comes home with 4 gold medals. 1939 - Files for personal bankrupcy. 1949 - Set up a public relations firm. 1955 & 1971 - Jesse traveled all over the world promoting american economic and political freedom. 1974 - Jesse is inducted into the US track and field hall of fame. 1976 - Jesse is awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. 1980 - Jesse Owens died.

Jesse Owens is one of the most renowned African-American athletes in the USA. Even now, 31 years after his death his name is still known all over the globe. He was born James Cleveland Owens on September 12, 1913 to Henry and Emma Owens. When he was nine his family moved to Cleveland, which was where a mistake by his new teacher led to him being called Jesse. His athletic career took flight in his high school years. During which he set high school records in the high jump, the broad jump (the long jump of Jesse Owens time), the 100-yard dash, and the 220-yard dash; he also set a world record in the broad jump. After that, Jesse could have gone to any of a dozen colleges. Interestingly, Jesse chose Ohio State University even though it didn’t

have a track scholarship, which forced him to work multiple jobs to support him and his wife. Perhaps Jesse’s greatest and most well known triumphs was when he discredited Adolf Hitler and his theory of Aryan superiority in the Olympic games of 1936, where he won four gold medals. After the Olympics he spent much of his time helping underprivileged youth, fighting segregation, and acting as a public relations advisor. He was also highly sought after as a public speaker. At the end of his life he carried a lot of influence in the African-American community, the American government, and the olympic commitee. Jesse Owen’s whole life is a symbol of the struggle against racism and poverty. He is a classic example of how you can accomplish almost anything if you put your mind to it.

Bibliography: “One Long Jump for a Man, One Giant Leap for Mankind - Sport -” Sydney Morning Herald - Business & World News Australia | Web. 06 Dec. 2011. < one-long-jump-for-a-man-7fph-one-giant-leap-for-mankind/2009/08/06/1249350638737.html>. Name, Last. “Jesse Owens Jesse Owens Breaks the 100 Metre Record Other at” - Posters, Art Prints, Framed Art, and Wall Art Collections. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <>. “Jesse Owens.” Wikiquote. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <http://>.

Gary Kasparov Moss, Stephen. “The Monday Interview - The Endgame.” The Guardian 14 Mar. 2005: n. pag. The Guardian. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

ChessBase. “The Garry Kasparov ChessBase Interview Part 1.” ChessBase. ChessBase, 20 Mar. 2005. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

By Cheuk To Tsui

Gary Kasparov is a chess grandmaster and former World Chess Champion from Russia. After playing chess at the highest caliber for more than 20 years, he has decided to move on to something else: Russian politics. Gary Kasparov has influenced society greatly in chess. Since he was a small child, he won numerous tournaments, defeating notable chess players such as Anatoly Karpov, the World Champion until 1985, when Kasparov defeated him. He continued to retain it until

2000, when he lost to Vladimir Kramnik. He was the most successful player of his time, and was one of the best players in all of chess history. His games inspired other chess players and spectators, as no one had achieved what Kasparov had. The quality of his chess games attracted many viewers, and popularized chess as a sport (kasparovagent) In an interview with the Internet Chess Club in 1998, Kasparov talked about his world championship, as well as his games against the chess computer IBM Deep Blue. (Internet chess club) Him holding the title

for 20 successive years, as well as his famous games versus Deep Blue, is his legacy. It will set the bar for future generations of chess players. Other from the genre of chess, Gary Kasparov has influenced the society in terms of politics. The retirement of Kasparov from chess in 2005 to work in the political field meant that chess had lost a very dominant and important figure. In the Gary Kasparov ChessBase Interview, when asked about why he decided to retire, he said: “It’s about my nature, making a difference. I’ve done enough, more than I could have imagined, in the world of chess. Now I want to do other things. I want to have a target, to do things that excite me.” It was and will still be a great challenge for him to engage in Russian politics. As he said himself in the ChessBase Interview,

KasparovAgent. “Gary Kasparov - Biography.” KasparovAgent. KasparovAgent, 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

“I wouldn’t say that I’m entering Russian politics, because politics doesn’t exist in Russia in the terms you use here,”. This statement captures exactly what was happening in Russia. Kasparov was planning to run for the presidential election in 2008, but Vladimir Putin, the Prime Minister of Russia, was abandoning democracy and elections, and favored an appointed parliament that would appoint the president. His plans to run for president failed, and he ended up forming an anti-Putin group, the United Civil Front, as part of The Other Russia, the opposition coalition. Through all this action, he is influencing the Russian citizens by going against Putin and trying to get the citizens to join his coalition. (aslanyan) Gary Kasparov is still alive and trying to make a difference in Russian politics. It will be a long road ahead of him, because unlike chess, the rules of politics are changed every week. Nevertheless, he might be able to overthrow Putin and turn Russia into a democratic country.

Aslanyan, Anna. “Can Kasparov Checkmate Putin?” Standpoint Oct. 2010: n. pag. Print.

nternet Chess Club. “ICC Kasparov Interview.” Internet Chess Club. Internet Chess Club, 22 Nov. 1998. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.


eing the world chess champion for fifteen consecutive years, Garry Kasparov was, and still is, the best of the best. His undying determination inspired many, but it is the passion that counts. Even today, after retiring from chess for many years, Kasparov is still actively contributing to Russian politics, giving the most he can back to the society.

G A r r Kasparov y

Kasparov started playing chess when he was 5. When he was 12, he was already the soviet junior champion. Throughout his competitive chess career, he played against multiple strong opponents, the most notable one being his rivalry with Anatoly Karpov. Kasparov also achieved other milestones, such as winning Linares, a chess super tournament, also known as “Wimbledon of Chess” for 9 times. In the late part of his career, he was challenged by artificial computers, either winning or having a draw, with the exception of one defeat to the computer “Deep Blue”. He announced his retirement after he won the 2005 Linares chess tournament.

After Kasparov announced his retirement, he left behind a huge legacy for others to follow. He DӽHFWHGRWKHU·VYLHZSRLQW on chess, as well as raising awareness for the game. Currently, he is actively participating in Russian politics, as well as a regular contributor to the wall street journal (Kasparov Agent).

Kasparov, 7, already showing his interest in chess playing at a very young age.

Works Cited “Childhood.” Chess. Pointercom. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <>. “Garry Kasparov - Biography.” Garry Kasparov - The Greatest Chess Player of All-Time. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. < php>. Kasparov, Garry. “Interview: Garry Kasparov Talks About Putin’s Endgame.”Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. < Kasparov_Talks_About_Putins_Endgame/1974958.html>.

Muhammad Ali Speaking in a Press Conference 1970

“Float like a Butterfly, sting like a bee” Muhammad Ali vs George Foreman 1974


Muhammad Ali The Greatest

by Zarif Ahmed Saabab

uhammad Ali is a retired American boxer from 1960 to 1981. He had won the World Heavyweight Championship on three different occasions. He was born on January 17th 1942, in Louisville, Kentucky as Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr., which he later changed to Muhammad Ali. Muhammad Ali is still known as one of the greatest boxers in history, having 56 wins out of a total of 61 fights in his professional career. His professional career started when he won a gold medal for boxing in the 1960 Olympics held in Rome. He was 18 years old at that time and turned professional soon after. Ali liked to brag before he had a match, this way he would always get a lot of attention and many people wanted to see his matches just so they could watch him lose. But

Ali backed up his claim with his skills in the boxing ring and would win. This made Sonny Liston a heavyweight champion boxer to challenge Muhammad Ali, in which he won and got the world heavyweight title for himself. Soon after he changed his religious beliefs to those of Islam. Muhammad Ali influenced many athletes around the world to try harder to reach their goal. Soon after Ali refused to be drafted into the army due to his religious beliefs, for which he had gotten his world heavyweight title stripped and was banned from boxing. Ali did not regret this decision as he would rather follow his beliefs and be banned from boxing than abandon his beliefs. But Ali did come back three and a half years later to and regained the world heavyweight title in 1975.

Ali influenced many people more than just boxers and athletes. During his golden years he had become a great symbol of black pride in America. While Ali was banned from boxing for draft evasion he spend his time lecturing and spreading his knowledge around the country. In an interview he expresses his ideas and philosophy and how he felt of society and racism during that time. He played a very important figure in human rights and equality in America and explained why he chose Islam as his religion. After he retired Muhammad Ali developed Parkinson’s syndrome so he has been bringing awareness to Parkinson’s disease and has made great contributions in future research in that field. Now he travels the world using his name to support hunger and poverty relief and education efforts. He has even won a Presidential Medal of Freedom for his efforts to humanitarianism around the world.

- Ali was born Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr., which he changed to Muhammad Ali because of his religion - Muhammad Ali was only 18 when he won the 1960 Olympics held in Rome - Near the end of his Golden Years he was paid around $1 million per match - Even today Muhammad Ali is looked at as a legend in boxing history Work Cited

Fussman, Cal. “Muhammad Ali Interview - Heavyweight Boxer - Quotes on Parkinsons and Racial Segregation - Esquire.” Esquire. Hearst Communications, Inc, 31 Dec. 2003. Web. 09 Nov. 2011. <>. “Muhammad Ali , Tells The Truth - 1971 - YouTube.” YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. YouTube. Web. 09 Nov. 2011. <>. “The Legend - The Official Muhammad Ali Website.” The Official Muhammad Ali Website - Muhammad Ali Enterprises LLCA. Muhammad Ali. Web. 09 Nov. 2011. <>. “Photos – The Official Muhammad Ali Website.” The Official Muhammad Ali Website - Muham mad Ali Enterprises LLCA. Web. 08 Dec. 2011. <>.

Image Source

MUHAMMAD ALI Despite the fact that Muhammad Ali was not the most humble of men, he was extremely sensible while influencing and inspiring many even if they didn’t like his sport, boxing. Muhammad Ali is known world wide as the greatest boxer ever in the world. Ali feels strongly against racism. He has given blacks pride and confidence. He believes that racism is bad on both sides, not just for the whites. In Boxing, he changed the way people viewed the sport, as well as the way people fought and practiced. Muhammad Ali inspired many to do boxing, but he also gave people a better self esteem. Ali always believed he himself was the greatest and he made others believe he was. Muhammad Ali set the tone for professional boxers. Not only for black boxers but for all boxers. He also had a lot of heart which took his boxing career to Hollywood and throughout the world. He was a very charismatic black boxer. The only boxer that could articulate very well, a first of this kind. Back in the old days, boxers where known to be “not smart” while in fights. And alone came Ali, he was witty, smart, well spoken and good looks. Ali’s original name was Cassius Marcellus Clay. When he was 18 years old he fought in the light-heavyweight competition at the summer olympics and won the gold medal. After returning to his home, he finds he is not safe from racism that is so common in the US after a waiter refuses service at a whites only restaurant. He then throws his medal into the Ohio River. In 1964, he fights for his first heavyweight title. Being the underdog, he beats Sonny Liston in the championship after 6 rounds. Before the fight Clay predicted victory... He then addresses Liston as an Ugly Old Bear. After the fight, Clay announces he has become a Black Muslim so he changes his name to Muhammad Ali. In 1967 he refuses to go to the Vietnam war with the US army due to his religious convictions, he was stripped of his WBA title and sentenced to five years in jail. After coming out of jail to lose to Joe Frazier in Madison Square Garden for the Heavyweight title, in 1974 he beats George Foreman to regain the title. And in the Phillipines the year after he retains his title after beating Frazier again. In 1984 Ali is diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease. Ali carries the Olympic torch in 1996 and ignites the cauldron to signal the beginning of the Summer Olympics. He is also given a second gold medal to replace the one he tossed in the river. Muhammad Ali inspired outside of boxing, with racism, with never giving up, staying proud, fighting sicknesses and more. His influence and inspiration carries forward today.

Image Source

Created by Thomas Spence

ThE GREATEST’ “Hating people because of their color is wrong. And it doesn’t matter which color does the hating. It’s just plain wrong.”

Key moments in Ali’s life: Born as Cassius Marcellus Clay on January 17 1942

In 1964 after a fight for the heavy wieght title with Sonny Liston he announces he has become a black muslim so he changed his name to Muhammad Ali.

In 1954, when Clay was 12 bike was stolen, he said he wanted to beat up whoever stole it so he started boxing. Then he had dreams of becoming a boxing champion.

In 1981, Ali hangs up the gloves for good, retiring with an overall professional record of 56—5.

Ali had won the heavyweight title 3 times.

Citations - Click here

The Greatest


Ali Transcript for YouTube video George Foreman: Probably the best punch of the whole fight was never laid. Muhammad Ali, as I was going down, he saw me stumbling and ordinarily you finish a fighter off. I would’ve, he got ready to throw the right hand but he didn’t do it. That’s what made up, in my mind, the greatest fighter I ever fought. Narrator: The untold stories of warriors…who battled a champion…..and the fights…. that defined a legend George Chuvalo: At the first round, Ali prepared me to hit him in the body, he went to the hospital after the fight with a bleeding kidney; and me, I went dancing with my wife. Earnie Shavers:The first Ali fight gave me a chance to give my son more food, better clothes. A fight with Ali gave me a chance at life period. Joe Frazier: I think Muhammad Ali, if he had it all to do over again, he would’ve been be nice to Frazier. Muhammad Ali: He’s the other type Negro, he is the Uncle Tom George Foreman: Fraizer was prepared to die, in that ring, that night. Narrator: This is the motion picture event that will change the way you see Muhammad Ali forever. George Foreman: Boxing is a strange sport, you can over say your welcome and you can get physically hurt, your brain can only take so many shots to the head. “You can loss your life, giving the people what they want to see”


he man who defeated almost every top fighter of the golden age of boxing. The man who was a three-time World Heavyweight Champion by 1978. The man who electrified the world, who influenced the world within and beyond his genre: Muhammad Ali. Muhammad Ali influenced the world within his genre by winning countless matches. In 1967, he was found guilty for refusing enlistment into the armed forces by the US Justice Department. Therefore, Ali was banned from boxing, and by the time he could box again, many fighters were younger than him. Defying the stereotypes that younger boxers did better in a match, he won numerous fights. In 1974, when Ali was thirty-two, he prove that no matter the age, one still has a chance in winning a match. Ali proved this when he challenged the undefeated champion, George Foreman, to a fight in 1974 in Kinshasa, Zaire. Years after a fight with Ali, Foreman said Ali could’ve hit him but he didn’t, and that was when he made up his mind that Ali was the greatest fighter he ever fought (Facing Ali). In 1975, Ali defeated Joe Frazier in a fight that was described as the greatest battles in the history of boxing (Powell). Both of these events occurred after his best years as an athlete and many fighters who battled the champion has great respect for Ali. To sum it up, his ring exploits were legendary, Ali held the heavyweight championship three separate times, defeating numerous all-time greats. Even more legendary was Ali’s sportsmanship and his belief in himself which in return, made him the greatest fighter of his time.


uhammad Ali was much more than a boxer, he even influenced the world beyond his genre. He gave hope to many black people when they felt like they were nothing. Thinking about Ali, and how he believe in himself made the black people feel like they were somebody. Ali showed up and say he was the greatest, that’s all the hope they’d need that someday, the colour of their skin won’t matter(Interview with Muhammad Ali). Futhermore, the changing of his name from Cassius Clay to Muhammad Ali, also played a large part in the Islamic movement where he promoted the Islamic cause, getting more people to Taken from the Book called, “Regarding Heroes” by Yousuf Karsh, and David Travis understand the true meaning of Islam. Many considered Ali as as the black man’s hero because of his Islamic movement (Karsh). In 1966, he went so far to stand up for his belief that he refused the draft during the vietnam war which, costed him his heavy weight title (Muhammad Ali). In 1984, Ali announced his Parkinson’s Disease diagnosis and ever since then, he has been raising awareness, by partaking in numerous TV interviews, videos.

Today, Ali remains active in civics and humanitarian enterprises and his annual Celebrity Fight Night will continue raising money for the Muhammad Ali Parkinson Center at Barrow Neurological Institute to help find a cure of this disease. Ali, once known as “the skinny kid from Louisville” showed us again and again that he can take a series of blows, in and outsides of the ring, and remain standing, undefeated: The Greatest.

Works Cited Ali, Muhammas. “Muhammad Ali.” Interview by Juan Williams. NPR. NPR, 2011. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. Ali, Muhammd. “Interview with Muhammad Ali.” Interview by Judy Richardson and Sam Pollard. Eyes on the Prize. Washington University, 16 Feb. 1989. Web. 4 Dec. 2011. Karsh, Yousuf, and David Travis. Regarding Heroes. Switzerland: David R. Godine, 2009. N. pag. Google Books. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. Powell, Jeff. “article-1363845-0D82C7BC000005DC-566_634x420.” File last modified on 8 Mar. 2011. JPG file. RichiiHaRRisoN. Facing Ali Movie Trailer 2009 *BRAND NEW* . Lionsgate, 2009. Youtube. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. The Telegraph. “Muhammad_Ali_1707136i.” File last modified on 2011. JPG file.


-Bruce L

Bruce Lee has been one of the most influential people of all time. This is because he started life off as a wimp and became a Kung Ku master through concentration and determination. He then used this skills to make movies. He has influenced many to train in the martial arts in hope that they would become like him. These were all influences he made inside his Genre. He also created movies that became legendary. His most famous, “Enter The Dragon” raised the bar for movies of his time. It is the most famous martial arts movie of alltime. This influenced people to make movies that are like this one.

Bruce Lee started his life off in Hong Kong in 1958. He was bullied and picked on as a young child. around his teenage years, he decided to start training in Wing Chun, the main style of Kung Fu. After he mastered this, he started to master other martial arts. He trained pupils of his own. He started to make movies with a goal to raise the bar. This was a success. In all his movies, special effects were not used in fight scenes. He would actually hurt his opponents and break their bones. Bruce mysteriously died in 1973. It is thought that he had an allergic reaction to pain killers



“Bruce Lee was the factor which made me learn martial arts” -Santosh “Had Lee not become a movie star, however, he would still have been a legend” -Liam Fitzpatrick, Time Magazine “I never wanted to be the next Bruce Lee. I just wanted to be the first Jackie Chan.” -Jackie Chan

“Be like water making its way through cracks. Do not be assertive, but adjust to the object, and you shall find a way round or through it. If nothing within you stays rigid, outward things will disclose themselves.” - Bruce Lee

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The product of an interdisciplinary unit with MYP Year 4 Humanities and Technology, this publication is a synthesis of research conducted by...