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Juvenile Justice Key Facts ..................................................................................................................................................... J-2 Youth at Risk ................................................................................................................................................ J-3 Juvenile Arrested Rates, by Race, 1980-2008 (graph) ................................................................................ J-4 Juvenile Arrested Rates, by Race, 1980-2008 ............................................................................................. J-4 Juvenile Arrest Rates for Violent Offense, by Race, 1980-2008 (graph)......................................................... J-5 Juvenile Arrest Rates for Violent Offense, by Race, 1980-2008 ..................................................................... J-5 Juveniles in Residential Placement, by Race, 2006..................................................................................... J-6 Offense Profile of Juveniles in Residential Placements, 2006 ..................................................................... J-8 Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons, 2009......................................................................................................... J-9 Treating Children Like Adults in the Justice System................................................................................... J-10 More Girls Enter the Juvenile Justice System Unnecessarily .................................................................... J-11


Juvenile Justice

T

he juvenile justice system is often the end of the line for youth facing multiple risks. Children born poor, with unmet health and mental health needs, and/or who have been victims of violence and spend time in foster care are at increased risk of ending up in the criminal justice system. Racial and ethnic disparities are rampant. Every night, approximately 87,000 youth are housed in juvenile residential placements, ranging from non-secure community-based group homes to long-term confinement in youth prisons located far away from their homes. An additional 10,000 youth are in adult jails and prisons awaiting trial or serving sentences. As youth return to their communities from confinement, challenges continue. They may need support to stay in school, find a job, and manage substance abuse and mental illness. Too often they end up reentering the system or moving on in the prison pipeline. • Minority youth make up approximately two-thirds of the youth in the juvenile justice system. • Total juvenile arrest rates peaked in 1996 at 9,443 per 100,000 youth ages 10 to 17 and fell by one-third in 2008 (to 6,318 per 100,000). In 2008 juvenile arrest rates fell below 1980 levels for all racial groups (White, Asian, and American Indian), except for Black youth. • The number of girls arrested has grown by 50 percent since 1980; American Indian girls are four times and Black girls three times more likely to be incarcerated than White girls. • Black juveniles are over three times more likely than all other groups to be arrested for a violent offense. • Black youth are more than four times as likely and Hispanic youth two times as likely as White youth to be in residential placement. • Black youth represent only 17 percent of the overall youth population; however, they make up 62 percent of youth prosecuted in adult court.

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Children’s Defense Fund


Young people face multiple risk factors that can lead them off course from a path toward successful adulthood to prison or death.

Youth at Risk Averaged freshman completion rate2

Percent of youth (ages 10-20+) in foster care

Juvenile arrests3

(2009)

(2007-08)

(2009)

(2009)

(2007)

19,382 2,551 27,017 11,145 112,937 20,124 9,100 2,928 2,841 67,497 44,884 4,775 6,125 44,137 26,772 8,965 8,305 16,986 20,456 2,943 15,609 15,991 34,067 10,959 14,079 24,139 5,096 5,389 15,663 2,072 15,805 10,984 61,388 38,766 1,956 32,753 17,488 12,199 37,346 4,320 17,681 2,840 17,932 105,456 8,449 1,737 16,794 22,519 8,539 12,869 2,479

7.2 5.5 7.5 7.0 5.2 7.5 4.4 5.8 7.4 7.1 7.5 7.4 6.2 5.9 7.3 5.1 5.1 7.0 7.8 3.9 4.7 4.2 5.7 3.7 7.4 7.2 8.6 5.2 11.0 2.6 3.4 9.1 5.5 7.3 4.7 5.0 8.3 5.9 5.1 6.7 6.6 5.5 5.1 7.3 4.8 4.5 3.6 6.1 8.8 3.9 7.8

69.0 69.1 70.7 76.4 71.2 75.4 82.2 72.1 56.0 66.9 65.4 76.0 80.1 80.4 74.1 86.4 79.1 74.4 63.5 79.1 80.4 81.5 76.3 86.4 63.9 82.4 82.0 83.8 51.3 83.4 84.6 66.8 70.8 72.8 83.8 79.0 78.0 76.7 82.7 76.4 n/a 84.4 74.9 73.1 74.3 89.3 77.0 71.9 77.3 89.6 76.0

52.9 37.7 41.9 41.2 54.1 62.0 59.1 56.3 65.3 37.6 44.7 42.0 39.0 45.6 40.4 53.9 49.0 52.9 37.9 40.6 56.6 55.8 49.1 59.5 45.7 52.2 39.7 57.4 33.8 53.1 40.8 33.8 56.2 45.5 57.7 50.5 31.7 44.0 54.5 62.6 46.2 39.2 59.3 37.9 60.8 66.4 59.4 38.8 50.7 48.4 58.2

11,035 3,780 50,921 11,745 203,345 37,890 18,665 6,647 768 105,805 42,572 11,341 13,735 29,961 35,390 18,341 9,585 7,946 18,674 6,899 41,400 16,079 35,771 42,324 11,715 43,005 6,948 14,591 23,988 7,417 48,407 9,666 41,671 36,830 6,170 40,191 20,280 24,411 87,747 5,184 21,129 6,091 34,792 170,190 26,491 1,531 33,789 26,080 2,244 84,143 6,071

1,650 321 1,485 810 14,034 1,752 426 369 288 5,733 2,736 129 528 2,565 2,727 954 1,146 1,116 1,350 204 930 969 2,748 1,317 450 1,227 210 708 996 156 1,677 378 3,612 1,035 213 4,332 864 1,299 4,554 312 1,200 456 1,263 7,035 867 45 2,124 1,527 570 1,422 249

63 14 78 31 424 32 14 7 25 169 102 0 14 146 50 14 35 40 106 5 83 30 113 28 48 78 7 15 37 1 53 34 107 86 3 99 41 15 123 0 56 6 59 235 15 2 73 30 9 52 6

1,053,234

6.0

74.9

49.0

1,621,391

86,814

2,913

Dropouts1 Number Percent (2009)

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming United States 1 Youths

Juveniles in Firearm residential-deaths, placement ages 10–19 4 (2007)

ages 16–19 not enrolled who have not graduated from high school or received an alternate credential.

2 Percent

of ninth graders graduating within four years with a regular diploma.

3 Data

reporting incomplete for District of Columbia, Florida, Illinois, New York and Minnesota.

4 Total

firearm deaths and homicide firearm deaths exclude firearm deaths by legal (police or corrections) intervention.

Sources: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2009 American Community Survey, Table B14005; U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Public School Graduates and Dropouts From the Common Core of Data: School Year 2007–08 (October 2010), Table 2 and 3; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Children's Bureau, Child Welfare Outcomes Report Data, Age of Children in Foster Care (%): In Foster Care on 9/30, at http://cwoutcomes.acf.hhs.gov/data/; U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States, 2009 (September 2010), Table 69; and U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Juveniles in Residential Placement, 1997–2008 (February 2010), p. 2; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, WISQARS, data accessed February 2008, April 2009, and June 2010. Calculations by Children’s Defense Fund.

State of America’s Children® 2011

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Black children and teens 10–17 are more likely to be arrested than any other race.

Juvenile Arrest Rates, by Race, 1980–2008 Arrests per 100,000 persons ages 10–17

Arrests per 100,000 ages 10–17 18,000 16,000 14,000

12,160.7

Black

12,000 10,000 All races

8,000

6,317.7

White 6,000

5,562.0 5,549.9

American Indian

4,000

Asian

2,120.2

2,000 0

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

All Races

White

Black

American Indian

Asian

7,414.3 7,384.8 7,345.0 6,750.8 6,765.8 7,245.2 7,505.0 7,527.5 7,599.9 7,730.9 8,031.3 8,376.6 8,230.0 8,422.8 9,252.8 9,286.2 9,443.4 9,404.2 8,528.1 7,888.2 7,288.6 6,882.9 6,751.7 6,565.9 6,512.8 6,342.5 6,630.6 6,567.8 6,317.7

6,905.8 6,751.3 6,583.5 6,159.4 6,235.4 6,781.4 6,985.7 6,928.6 6,946.5 6,962.0 7,225.8 7,448.3 7,173.9 7,213.4 8,022.2 7,958.4 8,331.2 8,156.0 7,621.3 7,145.1 6,753.4 6,312.4 6,259.2 6,018.1 5,890.8 5,535.0 5,783.1 5,698.2 5,549.9

11,599.9 12,765.7 13,299.5 11,953.3 11,760.0 12,154.8 12,845.1 13,189.8 13,574.9 14,698.0 14,062.5 15,177.1 15,638.6 16,231.8 17,131.7 17,495.8 16,647.0 15,504.8 13,966.0 12,371.0 11,525.3 11,379.8 10,752.3 10,709.5 10,874.3 11,443.9 12,190.1 12,282.3 12,160.7

7,456.2 6,216.9 6,055.2 5,356.3 5,520.3 6,435.0 6,252.0 6,434.3 6,751.1 6,965.1 7,254.6 6,969.2 6,878.4 7,413.3 8,000.1 8,218.2 8,791.4 8,547.8 6,928.3 7,129.9 6,193.7 5,781.9 5,978.0 5,934.1 5,711.5 5,885.8 5,480.2 5,940.2 5,562.0

3,417.0 3,138.1 3,191.4 2,743.4 2,676.1 3,022.3 2,965.2 3,269.3 3,549.4 2,234.1 3,417.5 3,784.4 3,804.9 3,965.4 4,261.3 4,136.9 4,382.7 3,926.3 3,213.7 3,155.1 2,921.5 2,491.3 2,562.6 2,467.2 2,179.1 1,903.9 2,143.2 1,412.8 2,120.2

2008

Note: Person of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Arrests of Hispanics are not reported separately. Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Juvenile Arrest Rates by Offense, Sex, and Race (1980–2008).

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Children’s Defense Fund


Juvenile arrest rates for violent offenses peaked in 1994, and steadily declined for almost a decade. The rate for Black youth increased in 2005, and is currently more than five times the rate for White youth.

Juvenile Arrest Rates for Violent Offenses,* by Race, 1980–2008

Arrests per 100,000 persons ages 10–17

Arrests per 100,000 persons ages 10–17 1,800 1,600 1,400 Black

1,200

926.2

1,000 800 600 400

All races

American Indian

288.1 177.6 153.0 70.7

White

200

Asian

0

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2008

*Includes murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Juvenile Arrest Rates by Offense, Sex, and Race (1980-2008), at <http://ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/ojstatbb/crime/excel/jar_2008.xls>.

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

All Races

White

Black

American Indian

Asian

334.1 322.6 314.5 296.0 297.5 303.0 316.7 310.6 326.5 381.6 428.4 460.8 481.6 503.6 525.4 516.3 458.6 440.7 367.9 337.4 307.8 295.8 276.4 272.4 269.4 282.4 302.0 292.5 288.1

189.4 178.9 174.6 162.0 163.2 172.3 178.8 172.6 184.7 218.2 253.5 282.9 291.8 298.6 315.1 308.2 292.4 271.2 255.3 241.5 219.7 211.4 196.1 186.4 182.4 176.4 184.6 180.3 177.6

1,190.4 1,193.1 1,146.7 1,102.7 1,110.4 1,096.3 1,150.0 1,142.4 1,160.6 1,360.9 1,433.8 1,503.8 1,579.4 1,664.0 1,697.4 1,668.2 1,398.9 1,138.0 983.9 856.3 818.6 787.7 735.6 751.9 746.0 850.8 935.0 902.7 926.2

211.8 169.1 200.5 161.1 153.9 183.3 175.7 181.8 205.3 204.1 217.4 225.6 243.9 274.9 315.6 312.3 282.9 249.2 247.2 235.4 198.5 185.2 201.2 173.4 174.2 181.5 174.2 182.8 153.0

134.0 106.7 118.0 98.2 90.2 86.5 86.8 91.9 113.7 109.1 133.9 157.0 157.9 172.0 193.1 189.3 201.1 152.2 132.3 127.3 116.3 99.5 96.1 87.8 77.9 71.0 78.8 56.8 70.7

* Includes murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Juvenile Arrest Rates by Offense, Sex, and Race (1980–2008).

State of America’s Children® 2011

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The national rate of residential placement 1 in the United States is 295 per 100,000. Black youth have the highest rate of residential placement at 767 per 100,000. The rate for Black youth is four times, for American Indian youth three times, and Hispanic youth two times that of White youth.

Juveniles in Residential Placement, by Race, 2007 Percent of total Total, all races

White, non-Hispanic

Black, non-Hispanic

Hispanic

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

1,650 321 1,485 810 14,034 1,752 426 369 288 5,733 2,736 129 528 2,565 2,727 954 1,146 1,116 1,350 204 930 969 2,748 1,317 450 1,227 210 708 996 156 1,677 378 3,612 1,035 213 4,332 864 1,299 4,554 312 1,200 456 1,263 7,035 867 45 2,124 1,527 570 1,422 249

39% 38 38 46 15 41 27 24 1 41 20 12 71 33 62 66 51 62 24 69 23 33 39 42 25 49 51 44 35 75 13 19 29 31 52 43 43 68 29 46 37 39 44 21 62 93 28 52 74 44 64

59% 11 15 41 27 26 42 67 97 53 71 0 5 44 30 19 28 33 74 18 71 33 53 34 64 44 17 33 33 10 66 11 46 58 8 51 37 9 59 33 47 15 49 36 10 0 62 17 16 43 13

2% 1 38 10 54 30 27 7 2 5 6 7 18 18 6 8 16 2 1 7 4 29 3 7 7 3 9 17 27 13 19 62 20 6 6 3 9 16 10 17 14 7 4 42 22 0 7 20 5 5 14

United States

85,068

42

36

14

American Indian

Asian American

0% 37 7 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 7 2 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 12 1 0 19 5 2 2 0 6 1 1 32 0 9 4 0 0 1 37 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 3 6

0% 5 0 1 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 67 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 3 0 3 1 1 0 0 2 2 1 0 1 1 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 3 1 3 0

4

2

Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and National Center for Juvenile Justice, Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement Databook, Race/Ethnicity by State, 2007, available at <http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezacjrp/>.

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Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Defense Fund


Juveniles in Residential Placement, by Race, 2007 Rate per 100,000 juveniles Total, all races

White, non-Hispanic

Black, non-Hispanic

Hispanic

American Indian/ Alaska Native

Asian American/ Pacific Islander

323 386 208 259 331 341 149 400 583 313 286 101 298 205 381 295 371 246 314 150 148 166 275 231 131 217 205 360 348 125 177 171 236 145 324 339 219 331 342 282 291 514 191 288 259 70 260 218 320 269 443

200 241 166 170 143 212 57 156 47 240 108 53 258 116 294 222 246 179 136 110 63 73 148 119 65 135 125 196 250 101 38 103 124 73 197 183 142 297 129 180 181 250 117 151 198 69 114 157 256 149 336

590 801 653 518 1,164 1,575 519 1,026 743 780 578 0 998 471 953 1,323 1,274 815 600 1,293 310 681 767 1,167 186 621 2,612 1,868 1,121 610 725 616 597 315 1,690 1,093 753 974 1,413 1,263 391 3,956 426 788 1,527 0 669 668 1,048 1,236 3,170

162 57 204 361 390 408 265 340 145 75 225 62 378 202 372 407 514 166 62 625 90 418 181 305 400 161 423 575 284 477 198 200 248 102 659 279 195 357 505 290 964 1,010 191 283 431 0 253 330 1,112 193 656

109 688 243 347 317 570 369 0 0 195 118 0 1,268 1,468 146 1,059 698 0 217 0 157 188 312 1,715 318 0 400 1,340 508 843 0 94 454 123 1,174 275 173 869 130 0 957 1,365 0 127 752 0 253 567 0 670 785

0 310 35 156 82 103 32 0 0 59 11 110 0 71 0 222 321 0 47 0 31 107 25 139 187 104 0 84 105 136 18 0 31 39 464 16 225 108 66 90 112 741 63 35 95 0 47 90 238 280 0

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wy-oming

271

158

979

337

438

103

United States

State of Americaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ChildrenÂŽ 2011

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Approximately one-third of juveniles in residential placement are held for offenses against persons, and about two-thirds are held for property, public order, a drug offense, technical violations and status offenses.

Offense Profile of Juveniles in Residential Placements, 2007 40 36%

35 30 24%

Percent

25 20

15% 13%

15

8%

10

4%

5 0

1 2 3

Person1

Property2

Technical violation

Public order

Drug

Status offense3

Person (aggravated assault, simple assault, robbery) Property (burglary, theft, auto theft) Status offense (running away, underage drinking, incorrigibility)

Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and National Center for Juvenile Justice, Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement Databook, Detailed Offense Profile for United States, 2007, available at <http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezacjrp/>.

J-8

Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Defense Fund


The Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that approximately 2,778 youth under age 18 were held in custody in adult state prisons in 2009.1 Some states do not hold any youth in adult prisons, but the vast majority do.

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons, 2009 United States Florida Connecticut* North Carolina* New York Arizona Texas Michigan Nevada Alabama Illinois Georgia South Carolina Ohio Colorado Pennsylvania Maryland Indiana Wisconsin Missouri Mississippi Delaware* Tennessee Nebraska New Jersey** Oklahoma Arkansas Virginia Louisiana** Oregon Minnesota Iowa Massachusetts Alaska* Utah Kansas Vermont* New Mexico Washington** Hawaii* Wyoming Montana South Dakota** Rhode Island* Idaho California** West Virginia Kentucky North Dakota New Hampshire Maine

2,778 393 332 215 190 157 156 156 118 118 106 99 89 86 79 61 58 54 37 31 28 28 22 21 21 19 17 16 15 13 13 13 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

* Prisons and jails form one integrated system. Data include total jail and prison populations. ** Counts include those held in privately-operated facilities. 1 Most states unless noted reported the number of youth held in adult prisons only; the number of youth in adult jails was reported separately. The estimated number of juveniles held in adult prisons and jails is approximately 10,000. Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prison Inmates at Midyear 2009 – Statistical Tables, Table 21, available at <http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/pim09st.pdf>.

State of America’s Children® 2011

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Treating Children Like Adults in the Justice System In the “tough on crime” era of the 1980s and ’90s, many states enacted laws making it easier to prosecute children as adults. Today, approximately 250,000 children are prosecuted, sentenced or incarcerated as adults each year in the United States.1 Many researchers, advocates and practitioners agree that children in adult facilities are at greater risk of abuse, injury and death. Evidence also suggests that incarcerating children with adults is not good for public safety. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a study and found that children transferred to adult court are approximately 34 percent more likely to be rearrested for a violent offense than children retained in the juvenile system who committed similar offenses.2 In 2011, the Campaign For Youth Justice reported the following key facts about children transferred to the adult criminal justice system:3 • About 10,000 children are held in adult jails and prisons on any given night. • Two-thirds of children who are sent to adult court reside in adult facilities while they are awaiting trial. • Most of the children prosecuted in adult court are charged with non-violent offenses. • A survey of adult facilities found that 40 percent of jails offer no educational services at all; only 11 percent provide special education services; and seven percent provide vocational training. • The National Prison Rape Elimination Commission found that “more than any other group of incarcerated persons, youth incarcerated with adults are probably at the highest risk for sexual abuse.” • Florida is the state with the highest number of children in adult prisons (393). • African-American youth represent only 17 percent of the overall youth population, however, they make up 62 percent of those prosecuted in adult court. They are also nine times more likely than White youth to receive an adult prison sentence.

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1

Griffin, Patrick. National Institute of Corrections Convening, June 18, 2010.

2

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007) Effects on Violence of Laws and Policies Facilitating the Transfer of Youth from the Juvenile to the Adult Justice System: A Report on Recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventative Services. MMWR 2007; 56 (No. RR-9). Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr5609.pdf.

3

Campaign For Youth Justice. (2007) State Trends: Legislative Victories from 2005 to 2010 Removing Youth from the Adult Criminal Justice System. Available online at http://www.campaignforyouthjustice.org/documents/CFYJ_State_Trends_Report.pdf.

Children’s Defense Fund


More Girls Enter the Juvenile Justice System The caseload of girls in the juvenile justice system has greatly increased in the last 30 years. In 1980, girls made up 20 percent of all juvenile arrests.1 By 2009, girls made up 30 percent of all juvenile arrests. The rise in the number of girls in the system seems to be largely due to changes in arrest policies, rather than changes in behavior among girls. 2 Girls are disproportionately arrested for status offenses, or acts that are illegal only when a minor has committed them, such as curfew violations, under-age drinking, running away, and truancy. Most states are attempting to divert status offenders to counseling or other community-based services to prevent entry into the juvenile justice system. However, these alternatives are not available to all who need them, and there are many problems associated with incarcerating girls for status offenses. Girls are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system for status offenses • In 2007, the most recent national data on girls in residential placement showed that girls made up about 14 percent of all youth in placement. These data also showed that girls were disproportionately incarcerated for status offenses. Girls made up I 51 percent of juveniles in residential placement for running away; I 31 percent of truancy offenses; I 36 percent of underage drinking offenses; and I 40 percent of incorrigibility offenses.3 • Girls made up 55 percent of runaway arrests in 2009.4 Other characteristics about girls in the juvenile justice system • Estimates of girls in the juvenile justice system who have been abused range from 40 to 73 percent.5 • Seventy-five percent of girls in the system report being regular users of alcohol and/or drugs.6 • Girls (9%) were more likely than boys (2%) to report forced sexual activity with other youth while in confinement.7 • American Indian and Black girls are four and three times more likely to be incarcerated than White girls, respectively.8 1 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Snyder, Howard N. and Sickmund,

Melissa, Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report, at http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/nr2006/downloads/nr2006.pdf>. 2 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, OJJDP In Focus, Girls’ Delinquency,

at <http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/228414.pdf>. 3 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and National Center for Juvenile Justice, Census of Juveniles in

Residential Placement Databook, Race/Ethnicity by State, 2007, available at <http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezacjrp/>. 4 U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States 2009, Table 33, available at

<http://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/data/table_33.html>. 5 Chesney-Lind, M. & Sheldon, R.G. (1998). Girls, delinquency, and juvenile justice. Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. 6 Acoca, L. (1999). Investing in girls: A 21st century strategy. Juvenile Justice, vol 6 (1). Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 7 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Special Report, Sexual Victimization in Juvenile Facilities

Reported by Youth, 2008-2009, available at <http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/svjfry09.pdf>. 8 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and National Center for Juvenile Justice, Census of

Juveniles in Residential Placement Databook, Race/Ethnicity by State, 2007, available at <http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezacjrp/>.

State of America’s Children® 2011

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2011 State of America's Children-Juvenile Justice  

2011 State of America's Children-Juvenile Justice

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