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Stocking the City: 2011-12 John K. Branner Fellowship Application


Cover image: Mercat de Santa Caterina Competition entry, EMBT















Stocking the City: 2011-12 John K. Branner Fellowship Application


image: Rebar and David Fletcher Studio, Global Tacoshed


STATEMENT OF INTENT CONTEXT Infrastructure has reemerged in recent design discourse as a means for reading and diagramming the contemporary city.1 Of the essential infrastructural systems that support cities, (including water, air, energy, communication, transportation, and waste services) food systems not only combine many elements of the other systems, but also connect to the particularities of culture. Pierre Belanger describes systems of food production and agriculture as “the fundamental infrastructures that hold cultures together and sustain (or cease) the longevity of regions. These are spatial, they provide sustenance and form an ecology that generates exchanges, markets, and economies.”2 While the production and distribution of food (like other infrastructure) occurs largely outside public consciousness, growing consumer demand for local food has influenced the increasing scrutiny of global industrial agriculture and the space of retail markets.3 Public urban markets, which served as strategic food distribution centers in many American cities until WWII (often doubling as civic or transportation hubs and urban gathering places) were increasingly abandoned as refrigeration technologies, highway infrastructure and modernist planning principles paved the way for supermarkets to usurp the ‘traditional’ role of public markets in everyday life. Carolyn Steele has argued that surviving public markets “bring a quality of urban life that is all too rare in the West: a sense of belonging, engagement, character. They connect us to an ancient sort of public life.”4 While some have dismissed this sensibility as “sentimental”5 , I will argue that the existing global system of industrial food production and distribution is no longer viable given the relationship between this system and greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel shortages, obesity, urban sprawl and population influxes, and limited accessibility to food of nutritional value (all of which are produced by global capitalism).6

Stocking the City: 2011-12 John K. Branner Fellowship Application


PROPOSAL The intention for this proposal was driven by a few basic questions: What are the potential alternatives to the current food retail system in the Bay Area, and how can these alternatives promote comprehensive social, environmental, economic and educational benefits that are currently neglected by profit-driven supermarkets? What are the urban and architectural opportunities for such an alternative system, and what form might these take at the scale of a retail market? Where do precedents of an alternative typology exist, and how could lessons learned from them complement a thesis proposal for a public market in the Bay Area? The full complexity of issues related to global food systems are beyond the scope of this proposal, but through an investigation of public urban markets as an urban typology, I will demonstrate the contemporary relevance and systemic potential of a typically nostalgic (and commercially appropriated) building type. Considering the contemporary interest among designers in productive urban agricultural systems7, there is a contradiction in the perception of markets as an outmoded historical typology. In cities with active public markets, these structures have the potential to perform as social, economic and cultural catalysts, operating as nodes in systems that support direct exchange between independent producers and urban consumers. Barcelona, for example, where many historic markets have been (or will soon be) renovated by contemporary design practices, “relies on public markets for a high percentage of its food distribution: 81% of its residents report that they regularly shop at the city’s 41 neighborhood markets [in 1995].”8 In many other cities however, the physical structure of markets have been contrived as “Festival Marketplaces”, which often appropriate Jane Jacob’s infamous model for urbanism, but tend to rely on national retail chains rather than independent vendors to attract customers.9 Public markets in many cities around the world participate in food distribution systems at a scale that farmers markets in the United States currently do not, while contributing to public benefits that supermarkets entirely neglect. My proposal for the 2011-12 John K. Branner Fellowship is to study these markets as spatial, tectonic, social and economic structures that facilitate public activity, independent local and regional economies, and democratic access to local food. This analysis will yield a case study, site strategy and programming reference document that will inform my forthcoming thesis proposal.

image: Andreas Gursky, 99 cent

image: Andrea Branzi, Agronica

image: Barcelona Public Markets Map, from

NOTES 1 This is seen in publications including The Landscape Urbanism Reader, The Landscape of Contemporary Infrastructure, Ecological Urbanism, Points and Lines, etc. The rhetoric of this discourse reinforces the concept of infrastructure as a dynamic “service matrix” for urban development, as described by Richard Weller. The systems within this matrix are calibrated to scales that maximize economies of service, spreading and concentrating resources from fluctuating regions of production, and therefore discount considerations for human occupation and interaction. There are moments within these systems, however, that provide opportunities for the design of places that affect both the experience of the city and the logistics of its operations. 2 Pierre Belanger. Interview with Jennifer Leonard. 3 The ‘growing consumer demand for local food’ is evident in the growth of farmers markets and CSAs, both nationally and in the Bay Area. According to a 2010 USDA report, the number of farmers markets in the United States increased from 1,755 in 1994 to 6,132 in 2007. Martinez, Steve, et al. Local Food Systems: Concepts, Impacts, and Issues, ERR 97, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, May 2010 The Berkeley-based sustainable agriculture non-profit, SAGE, reported in 2008 that “direct-to-consumer sales in the region [defined by a 100-mile radius from San Francisco] increased 45% from 1997 to 2002… Nevertheless, the sale of food directly by producers to consumers represents only about 0.75% of overall agricultural production value within the study area.” Kraus, Sibella, Harper, Alethea Marie and Thompson, Edward, “Think Globally-Eat Locally: San Francisco Foodshed Assessment”, American Farmland Trust, 2008. P.9 Although farmers markets are among the fastest growing food retail models in the United States, the percentage of sales remain marginal relative to supermarkets and fast food chains. It is my argument that the ability for farmers markets to more effectively compete as significant retail centers in food distribution systems is typically undermined by their lack of physical infrastructure, boutique scale, and impermanence, which contributes to limited accessibility and higher prices. 4 Steel, Carolyn, Hungry City: How Food Shapes Our Lives, Vintage Books, 2009 5 People like Steven Blank, for example, author of what Michael Pollan has described as “a book rather bloodlessly titled The End of Agriculture in the American Portfolio”, in Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma. Penguin, 2007. 6 This argument is supported by a wide range of scientific and cultural analysis, including (but not limited to) work by Timothy Beatley, Michael Hough, Bill McKibben and David Harvey. 7 This trend is represented by the following projects and publications: Andraos, Amale and Wood, Dan, eds. Above the Pavement the Farm!: Architecture and Agriculture at P.F.1. Princeton Architectural Press, 2010. Atelier SOA. “La Tour Vivante, Eco-tower”. Ecological Urbanism. Mohsen Mostafavi, ed. Lars Muller Publishers, 2010. Lim, CJ & Liu, Ed. Smartcities and Eco-warriors. Routledge, 2010. Despommier, Dickson. The Vertical Farm. St. Martin’s Press, 2010. Viljoen, Andrew. Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes. Architectural Press, 2005. Waldheim, Charles. “Notes Toward a History of Agrarian Urbanism” From, 11.04.2010 8 Spitzer, Theodore and Baum, Hilary, Public Markets and Community Revitalization, Urban Land Institute and Project for Public Spaces, 1995 9 McMorrough, John. “Good Intentions”, in Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping. Taschen, 2002

Stocking the City: 2011-12 John K. Branner Fellowship Application


CRITERIA FOR SITE SELECTIONS My criteria for site selection was based on a critique of the existing industrial food production and distribution system in the United States, especially considering the limitations of this system for supporting local economies and public space. By focusing on the point of retail sale as an element in the vast infrastructural food system, my proposal attempts to isolate an instance within the system that is understandable at the scale of architecture, but also affects broad urban design, social and economic issues. This set of criteria was developed following consultation with Steve Davies, Vice President and Director of Public Markets at the Project for Public Spaces (PPS) in New York, as well as published articles from PPS, the Urban Land Institue, The Harvard Project on the City, and the Public Markets agency for the city of Barcelona. Each of the primary sites have one or several public markets that: 1 Create active public space in a dense urban area 2 Promote the sale of locally produced food that links urban and rural economies 3 Facilitate economic opportunity for independent producers and vendors of various scales and retail types 4 Attract a wide demographic range of consumers, from lower-income local residents to tourists 5 Operate daily, with flexible configurations for expanding or contracting demand, seasons, and public events 6 Have a covered roof or market hall structure, providing a physical framework for a more informal and varied internal vendor arrangement 7 Are accessible to people by various modes of transportation, including public transit and local pedestrian networks 8 Are connected to infrastructure for efficient distribution from local and regional producers 9 Promote a resilient regional economy, food security and public health The secondary sites were selected because they have relevant public market conditions, but may not meet all of the above criteria.

METHODS OF EVALUATION My methods for analysis of the selected sites have been derived from the given set of criteria:

1 MAPPING internal data a. number of vendors, types and distribution (permanent vs. flexible/temporary, fresh/prepared/ processed food or non-food items, wholesale or retail sale, etc.) b.internal circulation (distribution/loading/wholesalers/retailers/customers, pedestrian/bicycle/ train/boat, movement/gathering space) urban data a. urban morphology diagrams (how do the spaces within the market connect to adjacent public spaces and circulation corridors?) b. food systems diagrams (how does the market relate to the system of distribution and retail in the city, especially vs. other markets of various types?) c. population (housing) densities /land use around markets regional data a. mapping the local foodshed (how far do the independent farmers commute?) b. local foods vs. imported foods (or non-food items) that are available, and maps that determine farming locations and distances to the market c. population (housing) densities around markets d. urban morphology diagrams e. diagrams that determine various types of retailers within the market area, internal pedestrian circulation, loading and external connectivity, preparation spaces, and public gathering spaces – how do these typological patterns shift throughout the day and year

2 INTERVIEWS I will schedule meetings with local experts at each primary site and conduct surveys from vendors/ farmers/consumers in order to produce maps and further inform my understanding of the social and economic context.

3 MEASURED DRAWINGS AND DIAGRAMS I will produce 2D and 3D drawings of each primary site that describe organizational relationships between overlapping social, functional and structural systems.

4 DESCRIPTIVE FIELD RECORDINGS I will keep an online blog that includes field reports, photography, voice/sound recordings, and film, as well as data collected from mapping, interviews, drawings and diagrams .

5 CONFERENCE RECORDINGS I will attend relevant conferences as part of my travel itinerary, with the intention of presenting my research if possible during the travel period.

Stocking the City: 2011-12 John K. Branner Fellowship Application




VANCOUVER 03/28 - 04/09 SEATTLE 04/09-04/18




BERKELEY 04/18-04/30 10/10-10/17


CLEVELAND 10/03-10/10 WASHINGTON, DC 12/20-01/04, 2013

PHILADELPHIA 09/27-10/03


MEXICO CITY 01/04-01/25 JUCHITAN 01/25-01/30




SAO PAULO 03/02-03/28

03/02 SANTIAGO 01/31-02/22

MONTEVIDEO 02/22-03/02
























RIGA 08/08-08/22


LONDON 08/01-08/08 PARIS 07/23-08/01

VENICE 09/05-09/10

GRANADA 05/16-05/21

11/23 23

RABAT 05/09-05/16


ABU DHABI 11/16-11/23


0 05/09




















BANGKOK 11/09-11/16



10/25 TOKYO 10/18-10/25



BEIJING 10/25-11/09

ISTANBUL 11/23-12/07


BARCELONA 05/24-07/11 12/07-12/21

FLORENCE 09/10-09/26


AVIGNON 07/11-07/23 VALENCIA 05/21-05/24

BUDAPEST 08/22-09/05

Stocking the City: 2011-12 John K. Branner Fellowship Application





01/04 - 01/25

01/25 - 01/31




CLEVELAND 10/03 - 10/10

05/24-07/11 12/07-12/21


10/18 - 10/25


01/31 - 02/22




10/25 - 11/09

MONTEVIDEO 02/22-03/02


07/23 - 08/01


11/09 - 11/16

Sテグ PAULO 03/02 - 03/28


08/01 - 08/08


11/16 - 11/23

VANCOUVER 03/28 - 04/09


08/08 - 08/22




08/22 - 09/06

KOUDOUGOU 05/01-05/09


09/10 - 09/26







09/10 - 09/26

09/27 - 10/03

POPULATION = 5,000,000 DENSITY > 40,000/SQ MI 30,000 - 40,000 SQ/MI 20,000 - 30,000 SQ/MI 10,000 - 20,000 SQ/MI ISTANBUL

11/23 - 12/07

WASHINGTON, DC 12/20 - 01/04


THESIS, 2013

5,000 - 10,000 SQ/MI < 5,000 SQ/MI Source:


MEXICO CITY 01/04 - 01/25

La Merced Mercado Rosario and Gral Ananya, Centro, Ciudad de México, Mexico Mercado de San Juan Xochimilco, Ciudad de México Mercado de Jamaica Guillermo Prieto, Jamaica, Ciudad de México CONTACTS Jim Johnston, UVA Architecture Alumni, resident and author of Mexico City: An Opinionated Guide for the Curious Traveler.

La Merced is the largest retail food market in Mexico City, located a short walk from the Zócalo, the central public square that serves civic, recreational and government functions. The New York Times has described La Merced as a “vast fiesta of a central market ... contained in several huge buildings.” The market is hardly contained, however, as it spills out into adjacent streets, creating an informal market district all the way from the central buildings to the Zócalo. La Merced creates a network of economies, activities and gathering spaces within an adaptive physical and organizational framework. Unlike the iconic buildings that house many of the American or European markets, the structure of La Merced is not highly visible, but it conducts the dynamic social life of Mexico City within and around it. The market has evolved as an accretive structure, which I will explain through a series of diagrams that describe its relationship to the public life and food distribution system in Mexico City.

La Merced Mercado

Stocking the City. 2011-12 John K. Branner Fellowship Application

SANTIAGO 01/31 - 02/22

Mercado Central San Pablo, 967 Santiago, Chile La Vega Mercado Calle Antonia Lopez de Bello, 770 Santiago, Chile CONTACTS Alfredo Jaar, local artist

Like many market structures, Santiago’s Mercado Central evolved from a less formal public market, which operated at the Plaza de Armas until 1817. Bernardo O’Higgins, the Chilean independence leader, ordered the transfer of the market to a purposely built structure at the present-day site.1 The project was designed by the Chilean architects Manuel Aldunate and Fermin Vivaceta. The construction of the market hall was initiated in 1864, and included modular roof trusses that were manufactured in London and delivered to Chile for the completion of the project in 1872. According to Frommer’s, “A large share of Chile’s economy depends on the exportation of natural products such as fruits, vegetables, and seafood, and the market here displays everything the country has to offer.”2 Santiago is one of many cities that have several markets serving various neighborhoods, many of which will be included in the survey. 1 2

Mercado Central


SÃO PAULO 03/02 - 03/28

Mercado Municipal Paulistano Rua da Cantareira, 306 São Paulo, Brazil CONTACTS School of Architecture and Urbanism, Sao Paulo

As described by the New York Times, “This gorgeous market hall with its skylights and stained-glass windows is a fabulous setting for one of the city’s largest produce and food markets. Open Monday to Saturday from 5am to 4pm, the hall is packed with vendors selling vegetables, fresh fish, meats, fruits, and herbs.”1 The continuous operation of the market promotes daily use, activity and consistent economic return, which would otherwise be lost to supermarkets. The market structure was designed by the architect Francisco Ramos de Azevedo in 1926 and construction was completed in 1933. The market website advertises that operation of the market “employs more than 1,500 people, which together handle about 450 tons of food per day.”2 In (an indirect) comparison, the Safeway in North Berkeley only ever employs 2 cashiers at any given time.

1 2

Mercado Municipal Paulistano

Stocking the City. 2011-12 John K. Branner Fellowship Application

VANCOUVER 03/28 - 04/09

Granville Island Public Market 1689 Johnston Street Vancouver, BC, Canada CONTACTS University of British Columbia, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture

In contrast to the older South American markets, which evolved over centuries and occupy grandiose structures in urban centers, the Granville market was built in the early 1970s as part of a formerly industrial rezoning development initiated by the Vancouver planning agency. “Granville island was reborn as a mixed recreational, cultural, commercial, retail, arts and industrial center. The market is housed in 40,000 SF of renovated warehouses, with space for nearly 50 merchants of both fresh and prepared food. The federal government, through the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, provided an initial grant for construction.”1 The market is strictly managed to control its “authenticity”, which seems somewhat contrived, but prevents large retailers from infiltrating the market. Granville island will provide a case study with regards to its contemporary planning and construction issues, as well as for understanding how its management creates a sense of controlled public space. 1 Spitzer, Theodore and Baum, Hilary, Public Markets and Community Revitalization, Urban Land Institute and Project for Public Spaces, 1995 p.11

Granville Island Public Market


SEATTLE 04/09 - 04/18

Pike Place Market Pike Place and 1st Ave Seattle, WA, USA

CONTACTS Kathy Fraser, friend and local chef University of Washington School of Architecture

Pike Place may be the most recognizable public market in the United States, and is frequently studied as a model for public market development. The Project for Public Spaces considers Pike Place a “Market District”, which they describe as “the most highly evolved form of market.” Public markets tend to evolve through stages of complexity before they become urban districts. These stages include street market (most farmers markets), covered (shed roof) markets, market halls, and finally market districts. In the case of Pike Place, “Farmers initially sold products from their carts in the open air on Pike Street (following an initial investment from the Seattle City Council in 1907). Over the years, private entrepreneurs constructed buildings around the market to house fishmongers, butchers, bakers, and other retail businesses. The result was the creation of a distinct food district in the center of Seattle, an excellent example of how a low-cost initiative by a city can lead to significant private sector investment in the vicinity of open-air market activity.”1 1

Spitzer and Baum. p.20

Pike Place Market

Stocking the City. 2011-12 John K. Branner Fellowship Application

KOUDOUGOU 05/01 - 05/09

Koudougou Central Market Rte de Dedougou and Rte de Ouagadougou, Koudougou, Burkina Faso


Koudougou is significant despite its geographical inconsistency with the other case studies because of its social agenda and recognition (as a winner of the 2007 Aga Khan Architecture Award). The inclusion of this project will be relevant both as a sort of “post-occupancy analysis” as well as for considering differences in tectonic potential relative to markets in more developed areas. The impact of Koudougou’s Central Market is twofold: at the urban scale, it reinforces and enhances the fabric of a mid-sized town, providing a monumental civic space for commercial and social exchange. On the level of construction, it introduces simple and easily assimilated improvements to a traditional material - stabilised earth - which allow it to achieve its full aesthetic and environmental potential.”1 The market was designed and developed under the direction of the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) in cooperation with the Programme de Développement des Villes Moyennes of the Burkina Faso government. 1

Koudougou Central Market


BARCELONA 05/24 - 07/11; 12/07 - 12/21

Mercat de Sant Josep (La Boqueria) Carrer La Rambla, 91 Mercat de Santa Caterina Carrer d’En Giralt El Pellisser, 2 Mercat Barceloneta Pl Font, s/n, Barcelona, Barcelona Mercat del Ninot Carrer de Mallorca, 135, Barcelona CONTACTS Pere Xavier Sirvent i Mir, Director of Market Projects,

Barcelona has the most comprehensive system of public markets of any city in the world. The 39 public food markets serve more than 80% of the city’s 1.6 million residents, making shopping for local food a social aspect of Catalan daily life. As illustrated by the map below, these markets are distributed throughout the city to serve each neighborhood. Rather than conceiving of the markets as a ‘traditional’ (and therefore historically preserved) building typology, the Barcelona municipal government has funded the renovation of 15 markets in the past 16 years, several more are in design phases and two have been newly constructed. The most architecturally significant of these is the Mercat de Santa Caterina, which was renovated in 2005 by Eniric Miralles and Benedetta Tagliabue. According to Carolyn Steele, ““The Catalan capital proves that cities don’t have to be folksy or old-fashioned to sustain authentic neighborhood life. … Tough government legislation prevented supermarkets from gaining a foothold in Spain the way they did in Britain [and the United States]; and although there are plenty in Barcelona, they are prohibited by law from selling fresh food at street level, so cannot compete with the city’s food markets.”1 1

Steel, Carolyn, Hungry City: How Food Shapes Our Lives

Mercat del Ninot

Mercat de Santa Caterina

La Boqueria

Mercat Barceloneta

Mercat Sant Antoni

Stocking the City. 2011-12 John K. Branner Fellowship Application

AVIGNON 07/11 - 07/23

Avignon Les Halles Place Pie, Avignon, France CONTACTS TBD

Avignon is the smallest European city on my itinerary, with a population of around 100,000 people. The city has evolved from an ancient settlement on the banks of the Rhone River, and was an important trading center in the Roman Empire.1 Les Halles occupies a significant site in the center of the town, and has recently been renovated to include a (now somewhat ubiquitous) vertical garden by Patrick Blanc. It remains an active public space and food distribution center however, retaining much of the civic role that the name “Les Halles” signifies for every French town. The Paris Les Halles, it should be noted, fell into disrepair like many of the American public markets in the 1970s, and was replaced with a “modern” shopping mall. I will be especially interested in diagramming and documenting the relationship between the covered public markets and street markets in France. I expect that the larger markets form network hubs, which contrasts with the more even hierarchy of the Barcelona system. 1

Avignon Les Halles


RIGA 08/08 - 08/22

Produce has been sold at the site of the Riga Central Market, on the banks of Daugava River, since 1571.1 Selected in an international competition in the 1920s, the current market was designed by architect Pavils Dreijmanis, who proposed that the entire structure be recycled from zepellin aircraft hangers originally built by the Germans in WWI. The four vaults of the market are in fact repurposed from the roof trusses of those original hangers, but the vertical walls were constructed on site from stone and reinforced concrete. The building itself is the largest market in Europe and recently selected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This project is a reminder of how structurally advanced many of these markets were at the time of their construction. I am particularly interested in the structural typology of the long span shed roof that many of these markets employ, and the potential for this typology given contemporary design and construction technology (as seen, for example, in the folded roof structure of the Yokohama Terminal, which I hope to visit while in Japan).

Riga Central Market Negu iela 7 Riga, Latvia CONTACTS TBD


Riga Central Market

Stocking the City. 2011-12 John K. Branner Fellowship Application

BUDAPEST 08/22 - 09/05

Budapest Central Market Hall 093 Budapest, Vámház körút, Hungary CONTACTS Nicole Ihasz, Hungarian friend in NYC

Budapest has a network of public markets halls which replaced the city’s open-air markets in the late 19th century, “during the era when so many markets were organized and brought under roofs in Europe.”1 As the name would suggest, the Central Market Hall is the largest and most significant of these structures. Designed by the Hungarian architect Samu Pecz, the Budapest Central Market opened in 1896 on the banks of the Danube river. Like many other market halls built at the time, the structure utilizes thin steel trusses and columns to support an expansive shed roof that maximizes interior volume and daylight. The structure was renovated in the early 1990s in a traditional Hungarian style. The markets in Budapest apparently serve a significant portion of local demand, but as in many other European cities, are also a tourist attraction that cater to symbolic representations of the past. This tension between innovation and nostalgia will be a consistent thread in my public markets research. 1

Budapest Central Market Hall


FLORENCE 09/10 - 09/26

Mercato Centrale Via dell’Ariento, 87-r, 50123 Firenze, Italy CONTACTS Christian Piccolo, friend currently residing in Bologna

Public markets in Italy account for 55% of the country’s distribution of fruits and vegetables.1 This is in part due to strict policy regulations in Italy that prevent supermarkets from monopolizing the food retail industry in urban areas. According to Carolyn Steel, an Italian law from 1971 “Required special permits for shops larger than 1,500 square meters, favoring local shopkeepers who wanted to enlarge their stores over any proposals for new development.”2 The Mercato Centrale is one of the largest indoor public markets in Europe, although it also connects to the San Lorenzo market, a large open air market is located in the streets and squares surrounding the Basilica di San Lorenzo. The structure was “designed by Giuseppe Mengoni, an Italian architect best known for his cast-iron and glass-vaulted Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, which was designed 9 years earlier. He employed the same materials for the construction of the market hall and based his design on the now demolished market halls of Les Halles in Paris.”3 1 2 3

Spitzer and Baum. p.7 Steel, p.145

Mercato Centrale

Stocking the City. 2011-12 John K. Branner Fellowship Application

PHILADELPHIA 09/27 - 10/23

Reading Terminal Market 51 North 12th Street Philadelphia, PA, USA CONTACTS Jennifer Finley, UVA Architecture Alum Taylor Medlin, UC Berkeley Arch Alum

“Reading Terminal Market was built by the Reading Railroad in 1892, and was the world’s largest indoor food market when it opened. Its development can be traced back to the late 1600’s when farmers and fishermen set up informally on the banks of the Delaware River. The market grew from an open-air facility to a shed market to a medium-sized market hall and finally into the current building at the turn of the 20th century. ... The market flourished for nearly half a century and then almost imperceptibly went into a slow decline after World War II. In the 1970s it nearly closed; the Reading Railroad, having recently emerged from bankruptcy proceedings, decided to reinvest in the market and its other adjacent properties. In 1990, the Reading Railroad sold the market to the Pennsylvania Convention Center Authority; however, it is managed by Reading Terminal Market Corporation, a nonprofit entity formed to lease and manage the market in accordance with its historic tradition.”1 1

Reading Terminal Market


CLEVELAND 10/03 - 10/10

West Side Market 1979 West 25th Street Cleveland, OH, USA CONTACTS TBD

Cleveland was recently selected to host the 8th annual International Public Markets Conference, organized by the Project for Public Spaces. The conference is tentatively scheduled for September or October, 2012, so this part of my itinerary is subject to modification based on the exact dates. The West Side Market will celebrate its 100 year anniversary in 2012, and it currently functions as much as a civic space and food retail center as it did in the early 20th century, although it is now a significant tourist attraction as well. According to the West Side Market website, “the market is home to over 100 vendors of great ethnic diversity. You can find not only fine meats and fresh vegetables, but also fresh seafood, baked goods, dairy and cheese products, and even fresh flowers.”1 The continuing function of the market is also supported by a local food movement, which has resulted in municipal “legislation to allow backyard chickens and bees, leading the country in vacant land reuse and urban agriculture.”2 1 2

West Side Market

Stocking the City. 2011-12 John K. Branner Fellowship Application

BEIJING 10/25 - 11/09

Sihuan market Sihuan Hutong, Deshengmennei, Xicheng district, Beijing, China Chongwen market Zhongshili 4th Alley, Dongcheng, Beijing, China Sanyuanli market Shunyuan Street, Chaoyang CONTACTS TBD

Sihuan Market is one of the last remaining large scale public markets in the hutong districts of Beijing. According to a Beijing tour website, “Sihuan Market with its discreet entrance covers 15,000 square meters and nourishes one-third of Xicheng district’s 878,000 residents.”1 The market structure is less formal than many of the European examples, but it functions as an active social and commercial hub for the neighborhood. Unlike some other markets, however, the markets in Beijing are less of a destination for tourists than a part of everyday ilfe for residents. There is less published information on the Beijing markets compared to the other case studies (that I have found), but my analysis will look carefully at how this typology facilitates access to local food in the city.


Sihuan Market

Stocking the City: 2011-12 John K. Branner Fellowship Application


REFERENCES Andraos, Amale and Wood, Dan, eds. Above the Pavement the Farm!: Architecture and Agriculture at P.F.1. Princeton Architectural Press, 2010. Beatley, Timothy. “Climate Change and Peak Oil: The Double Whammy for Resource Intensive Cities”. Resilient Cities: Responding to Peak Oil and Climate Change. Timothy Beatley, Peter Newman and Heather Boyer, eds. Island Press, 2009. Bestor, Theodore. Tsukiji: The Fish Market at the Center of the World. University of California Press, 2004 Corner, James. “Landscape Urbanism”. Landscape Urbanism: A Manual for the Machinic Landscape. AA Publications, 2003 Crawford, Margaret. “Productive Urban Environments”. Ecological Urbanism. Mohsen Mostafavi, ed. Lars Muller Publishers. 2010. Cronon, William. Nature’s Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West. W.W. Norton and Company, 1992 Cronon, William. “The Trouble With Wilderness”. Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature. W.W. Norton and Company, 1996 de Certeau, Michel. The Practice of Everyday Life. University of California Press, 2002 Despommier, Dickson. The Vertical Farm. St. Martin’s Press, 2010. Frail, T.A. “The Rise of Urban Farming”. Smithsonian Magazine. August 2010 Gissen, David. Big and Green: Toward Sustainable Architecture in the 21st Century. Princeton Architectural Press, 2003. Haeg, Fritz. Edible Estates. Bellerophon Publications, 2010. Hough, Michael. Cities and Natural Process: A basis for sustainability. 2nd edition. Routledge, 2004 Imbert, Dorothee. “Aux Fermes, Citoyens!”. Ecological Urbanism. Mohsen Mostafavi, ed. Lars Muller Publishers. 2010 Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Modern Library, 1993 Knechtel, John, ed. Food. MIT Press and Alphabet City Media, Inc., 2008 Kraus, Sibella, Harper, Alethea Marie and Thompson, Edward, “Think Globally-Eat Locally: San Francisco Foodshed Assessment”, American Farmland Trust, 2008. Kraus, Sibella. “Foodsheds – A New Ruralism Bridging Smarth Growth and Sustainable Agriculture”,, May 5, 2009 Lefebvre, Henri. Critique of Everyday Life, Volume II. Verso, 2002 Lefebvre, Henri. The Production of Space. Wiley-Blackwell, 1992. Martinez, Steve, et al. Local Food Systems: Concepts, Impacts, and Issues, ERR 97, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, May 2010 McClintock, Nathan and Cooper, Jenny, “Cultivating the Commons: An Assessment of the Potential for Urban Agriculture on Oakland’s Public Lands”, Department of Geography, University of California, Berkeley, 2010

Morrish, William. “Resilient Everyday Infrastructure”, Places, v.20, no.3, Winter 2008 Nordahl, Darrin. Public Produce: The New Urban Agriculture. Island Press, 2009. Oakland Food Policy Council, “Transforming the Oakland Food System: A Plan for Action”, 2010 Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma. Penguin, 2007. O’Neil, David. Reading Terminal Market. Camino Books, 2004. Parham, Susan. “Designing the Gastronomic Quarter”, Architectural Design, Food + the City, Volume 75, Issue 3, pages 86–95, May/ June 2005 Przybylski, Maya & White, Mason, eds. On Farming: Bracket 1. Actar, 2010. San Francisco Food Systems and San Francisco Food Alliance, “2005 San Francisco Collaborative Food System Assessment”, 2010 Schmiechen, J. and Carls K. The British Market Hall: A Social and Architectural History. Yale University Press, 1999 San Francisco Mayor’s Office, “Executive Directive on Healthy and Sustainable Food 09-03 (Issued July 9, 2009 by Mayor Gavin Newsom), Summary Report, December 2010 Scott, James C. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. Yale University Press, 1999 Shannon, Kelly. The Landscape of Contemporary Infrastructure. NAi Publishers, 2010. Shannon, Kelly. “From Theory to Resistance; Landscape Urbanism in Europe”. The Landscape Urbanism Reader. Charles Waldheim, ed. Princeton Architectural Press, 2006 Sorkin, Michael, ed. Variations on a Theme Park. Hill and Wang Spitzer, Theodore and Baum, Hilary, Public Markets and Community Revitalization, Urban Land Institute and Project for Public Spaces, 1995

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Stocking the City