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Surveillance for antimicrobial resistance in animals in South Africa: two years on?

Jackie Picard M van Vuuren Faculty of Veterinary Science Onderstepoort


AMR cycle


Antibiotics

Antibiotics have saved millions of people and animals Have increased and made more cost effective the supply of healthy food animals Have decreased zoonotic diseases


AMR in animal bacteria public health concerns?? • Zoonotic bacteria: Multi-resistant Salmonella, Campylobacter, S. aureus

• Has treatment of animals increased exposure of humans to resistant commensals? • Performance enhancers are they truly the devil? Vancomycin-resistant enterococci • Are humans being exposed to unacceptably high levels of antimicrobial residues in their food? • Can we afford not to treat animals?


Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. 100 90 80

Percentage resistance

70 60 Western Cape C. coli Western Cape C. jejuni Gauteng C. jejuni

50 40 30 20 10

Antimicrobials

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% Resistance of poultry E. coli in Gauteng: Jan-July 2008 and 2009 100 90

January March May July 2008

February April June All 2009 (n=568)

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Amoxycillin

Enrofloxacin

Fosbac

Fosbac + T

Neomycin

Norfloxacin

Potentiated Sulphas

Tetracycline

Lincospectin


2008 – 2009: 6% resistance Will remain at this level- no analogues now used


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% Resistance M. haemolytica cattle feedlot trachaeal washes

100

90

80

70

60

50

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Obstacles to the prudent use of antimicrobial drugs in animals in Africa 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Resources Veterinary services Knowledge Legislation



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