1.Waste cycle, appropriate disposal and recycling of end-of-life products: the 4Rs

Page 1

Waste Cycle

Appropriate disposal and recycling of end-of-line products

The 4 Rs

SE MI LASCI NON VALE

Ministero del Lavoro e delle Politiche Sociali Direzione Generale del Terzo Settore e della responsabilità sociale delle imprese


THE PROJECT”SE MI LASCI NON VALE” (IT’S NOT FAIR IF YOU LEAVE ME) AND THE FOUR DOSSIERS This booklet was produced by the Social Promotion Association “Centro di Documentazione sui Conflitti Ambientali – CDCA Abruzzo” (Environmental Conflict Documentation Centre CDCA Abruzzo) within the project “Se mi lasci...non vale! - Conoscere e prevenire” (it’s not fair if you leave me – Awareness and prevention) financed by Abruzzo Region - Department for Health and Welfare - Social Planning Service - dpf014 under the tender procedure “Financing of initiatives and projects of regional relevance promoted by voluntary organisations and social promotion associations for the implementation of activities of general interest”. The general objective of the project is to raise awareness of waste management, waste prevention, sustainable development, climate change and circular economy through a set of activities aimed at reaching different population groups and public and private bodies, including the dossiers’ translation into the seven foreign languages most widely spoken in Abruzzo region. In particular, said four dossiers are available in the following foreign languages, in order to involve and facilitate communication and understanding of the necessary cultural change that our time imposes: Romanian, Albanian, Arabic, Chinese, Russian, English, French. These four dossiers are:

NO. 1 – “Waste cycle, appropriate disposal and recycling of end-of-life products: the 4Rs”.


NO. 2 – “Damage caused by dumping waste in the natural environment and the social, environmental and economic benefits of adopting responsible and sustainable behaviours”. NO. 3 – “Alternative uses of food - avoid food waste and much more” NO. 4 – “Sustainable Development, Climate Change and Circular Economy - Responsible Behaviours to Adopt”. Anyone can distribute and print the dossiers, retaining their graphic and content features. “...We will be known by the tracks we leave behind...” Dakota Proverb

August 2021


SE MI LASCI NON VALE


In nature, waste does not exist because nature does not produce waste. Nature has its own economy that is based on natural capital – the matter - and on freely available energy like solar energy. Our planet is a closed, but not isolated system, therefore it exchanges energy with the external environment, but not the matter, which remains on the planet. To put it simply, in natural processes, during chemical reactions, no waste is produced and even if waste were produced, it would eventually find its way within a natural cycle. It is this recyclability in the presence of solar energy that has enabled life over millions of years.


Humans, on the other hand, seem to be the real nemesis of this principle, becoming a great 'creator' of waste. In fact, most human production processes since the industrial revolution have been: based on the use of fossil and exhaustible energy (oil, coal, uranium, and gas) through combustion. resulting in a commercial product that “necessarily” must be short-lived to increase consumption. creating a large amount of polluting and non-recyclable waste, causing high concentrations of particles in the atmosphere (such as nitrogen oxides and CO2) which, not being able to be absorbed by natural recycling cycles, increase the greenhouse effect.


Waste cycle management is understood as the set of measures aimed at managing the entire process of products, from their production to their final disposal. The goal of waste management is to eliminate or at least contain environmental and health impacts, while also reducing the production of the waste itself and being able to recover resources from it. Waste management is carried out in accordance with the principles of precaution, prevention, proportionality, accountability and cooperation of all parties involved in compliance with the principles of national and Community law, with particular reference to the Community’s ‘polluter pays’ principle. The Legislative Decree 22/97 is the first decree in Italy that has attempted to put order to this complex issue. Article 6(1) defines waste as “any substance or object [...] which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard”. It forms the basis of the current waste management system and introduces a reform with the aim of emphasising the benefits of waste recycling.


It implements 3 important European Directives: 91/156/EEC (waste); 91/689/EEC (hazardous waste) and 94/62/EC (packaging and packaging waste). Also known as “Ronchi Decree”, it significantly changed and regulated waste recovery and disposal models, transforming the concept of waste from a problem into a resource. Legislative Decree no. 152/2006, which is still in force, recalled it and consolidated it, regulating waste management based on the assumption that waste constitutes a problem because of its permanence in the environment, its gradually increasing quantity, the heterogeneity of the materials it is composed of and, finally, the possible presence of hazardous substances. Also known as Testo Unico Ambientale (TUA), (Consolidated Environmental Law), it also contains a whole range of paragraphs dedicated to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) necessary for the start-up of many activities. It also assimilates the Waste Management Hierarchy of Actions (order of priority in their adoption) set out in EU legislation at the basis of the 4Rs’ strategy.


Waste is classified, according to its origin, into municipal waste and special waste and, depending on its hazardous characteristics, into hazardous waste (Art. 183) and non-hazardous waste, using the European Waste Catalogue (EWC) that leads to the identification of the correct EWC code (which is the discarded goods ID) and defines whether they are hazardous or not. In addition, each waste must be characterised, i.e., its characteristics must be determined through the collection of all information necessary for its safe final disposal. Municipal waste is managed by municipalities (Art. 198 of Legislative Decree 152/2006 as amended) and concerns most of the waste produced by households or by non-household users for the municipal waste component only. The management of urban waste foresees a system organised among state, regional, provincial, and municipal competencies: the State has the responsibility to define the general criteria for waste management (Legislative decree 152/2006 Art.195).


The regions are responsible for planning (Legislative Decree 152/2006 Art.196) and they adopt, in agreement with municipalities and provinces, the regional waste management plans (Legislative Decree 152/2006 Art.199) which also define the organization of waste selective collection and the management of waste disposal and recovery plants. The municipalities hold operational functions (Legislative Decree 152/2006 art.198) such as establishing the collection and transport service procedures and the hygiene and health protection measures to be followed during the various phases of waste management. They are also responsible for remedying in case of dumping waste. Art. 188 also describes the responsibilities of individuals and private companies that benefit from waste selective collection and thus produce municipal waste. Special waste is managed according to the type of business activity carried out, being public or private (Art. 188 of Legislative Decree 152/2006 as amended) and includes all waste that comes from industries and businesses, including hospitals, farms, waste from industrial processingor from commercial activities, obsolete vehicles, batteries from smartphones and other electronic devices, expired medicines, printer toner, dead batteries, frying oil and old household appliances. The proper collection and disposal of this type of waste are managed by a system of authorised private companies,spread throughout the country. Each municipality and each managing body and


collection points for the correct disposal of these discarded goods. Several further amendments have recently been made to Legislative Decree 152/2006, while maintaining its assumptions and principles: – Legislative Decree of 3 September 2020, no. 116, effective as of 1 January 2021, implemented the new European directives on waste and packaging (851/2018 and 2018/852). 1. it introduced changes relating to the classification of waste eliminating the category of special waste assimilated with urban waste. The following are explicitly excluded from the category of municipal waste: “wastes from production, agriculture, forestry, fishing, septic tanks, sewage systems and wastewater treatment plants, including sewage sludge, end-of-life vehicles or construction and demolition waste”. It also gave the responsibility to classify the waste to the producer, who must assign to the waste produced the appropriate EWC Code before the waste is removed from the place of production. 2. it revised and expanded the regulations on extended producer responsibility (or 'EPR', concerning the financial and organizational obligations and responsibilities the producer of a good has when the latter reaches with its life cycle the state of


a good has when the latter reaches with its life cycle the state of waste), by rewriting article 178-bis and inserting the new article 178-ter; 3. Articles 179, 180, and 181 regarding the hierarchy in waste management, particularly with respect to waste disposal, were amended, and to a large extent rewritten. This amendment includes: • Legislative Decree of 3 September 2020, no. 118 implementing Directive (EU) 2018/849 (on batteries and accumulators, waste of batteries and accumulators, and waste of electrical and electronic equipment). In force since 27 September 2020, it implements two of the EU Directives forming part of the so-called 'circular economy package' and provides new provisions and rules on reporting and management of WEEE from PV. • Legislative Decree of 3 September 2020, no. 119 implementing Directive (EU) 2018/849 (on end-of-life vehicles) within the Circular Economy Package, and effective since 27 September 2020, makes changes for car dealers and auto wreckers. • Legislative Decree of 3 September 2020, no. 121 a part of the Circular Economy Package and implementing Directive 2018/850 (waste landfills), makes changes to Art. 1 of Legislative Decree 13 January 2003, no. 36. Effective since 29 September 2020, it is based on a better implementation of the waste hierarchy through the progressive reduction of landfills and the enhancement of upstream waste prevention, recycling, and recovery operations. It provides for “a progressive reduction in the land-filling of waste, in particular waste suitable for recycling or recovery of other kind, to support the


transition to a circular economy [...] Landfilling of all waste suitable for recycling or recovery, in particular municipal waste, shall be prohibited from 2030'. The phases of the waste cycle can be summarised as follows: Collection and transport: These are the operations that keep living and working environments healthy. Treatment: Art. 2 of Directive 1999/31/EC defines waste treatment as “all physical, thermal, chemical, or biological processes, including sorting, that change the characteristics of waste in order to reduce its volume or hazardous nature and to facilitate its transport or enhance recovery”. Depending on the type of collection carried out, there may be different types of waste treatment. For example, in terms of waste selective collection we can have: recycling: collection, reprocessing, trade and use of material previously considered waste; organic fraction recovery or composting: biological technology used to treat the organic fraction of waste collected selectively, using a bio-oxidation process and transforming it into a quality agricultural soil improver to be used as a natural fertiliser. Unsorted collected waste is more difficult to process and is often treated so that energy can be recovered. Some examples are:


1. cold treatments: separation and partial recovery of materials, biostabilisation and landfill disposal; 2. hot (or thermal) treatments: incineration for the recovery of electricity; district heating using unsorted waste or RDF (refuse-derived fuel); pyrolysis and gasification of waste involving the transformation of organic matter by heating at varying temperatures, respectively in conditions of absence of oxygen or in the presence of a limited quantity of this element. Disposal: the main systems used so far are landfills and incinerators. The economic value of waste management: ISPRA data on the costs of waste management in the Abruzzo Region (Ispra data: ISPRA: National Institute for Enviromental Protection: Na-tional Waste Inventory (isprambiente.it) ). We chose to use 2019 data, both because at the time of writing it was the only data available, but also because 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, was an unusual year. Obviously, the fact that pandemics such as this one might recur should also make us think and act in such a way that we do not deviatefrom any rules and responsibilities regarding waste production and management.


Table 01 Composition of the sample municipalities and summary of their average total management costs per capita and per kg of waste, regions Italy - Year 2019 Region Abruzzo

Sample municipalities (n)

204

Tot. Sample Sample Total Sample municipa- population population municipa- population lities(n) (residents) (residents) lities(%) (%)

305

1 051 848 1 305 770

66,9

80,6

Per capita Cost per Cost per Urban kg of Urban capita(EUR/ Waste (kg/ Waste(Eurocent/ resident*year) resident*year) kg*year)

473,6

176,18

35,3

The management of the municipal waste cycle is the responsibility of the municipalities and the calculation of the cost per municipality may vary according to: the type of service activated (no. of weekly collection vehicles, sweeping, green management, etc.), the peculiarities of the geographical territory and the location of the users (urban, mountainous territories, etc.) the managing body (public/private) other municipal management variables Since 1997 in Italy, to promote sustainable waste management, the strategy known as “4Rs” for correct and appropriate waste management and more generally to ensure environmental sustainability has been introduced to all citizens. Consumers and entrepreneurs are called upon to implement “sustainable patterns of consumption and production” (ESG) as a strategic choice, turning problems into opportunities for growth and development because “sustainable” consumption and investment is good for entrepreneurs and workers as well as for the future of the planet.


Table 02 Regional averages of specific costs per capita and per kilogram of waste, Abruzzo region Year 2019 (data referring to the sample municipalities)

Abruzzo

Waste Selective collection (%)

63,1

Production Per capita Urban Waste kg/inhab.

473,6 22,03

12,61

Treatment and disposal costs

24,01

13,74

Other costs relating to the management of unsorted municipal waste not included in the previous items

9,33

5,34

Costs of managing the cycle of services for unsorted municipal waste

55,37

Costs of selective collection of individual materials

43,81

EUR/resident*year

Collection and transport costs

31,69

14,66

Treatment and recycling costs net of income from the sale of materials and recovered energy and CONAI contributions.

12,71

Costs of managing the waste cycle of waste selective collection

56,52

Street sweeping and washing costs

17,98

3,8

Common costs

29,83

6,3

Capital usage costs

7,48

1,58

Total cost

167,18

35,3

4,25

18,91

Eurocent/kilogram*year

Region


Forms of waste disposal such as landfill and incineration are the ultimate destination for waste that cannot be recovered in any other way, so they are not included in the 4Rs’ strategy: they are deemed to be the last, extreme solutions to be adopted for waste management. Putting the 4Rs’ strategy into practice means acting with a view to producing and using recoverable materials, i.e. avoiding creating waste. Waste Selective Collection, as a prerequisite for any disposal policy, is in fact the 'Fifth R ' and can be understood as a methodological tool for implementing the principles of the '4Rs' which have an order of priority (hierarchy) and can be summarised as follows: Reduction at source is the primary choice in waste management within sustainable production and consumption policies. Using fewer materials to generate a product is equivalent to reducing the extraction and processing of raw materials and, simultaneously, the need for disposal. The recyclability and sustainability of a product are innate in the product itself and requires major changes in design, choice of materials, production, and distribution, and for consumers, it starts by questioning the origin and production processes behind each good.


Reusing an asset without subjecting it to any transformation means increasing its value in use and avoiding the need to produce others to perform the same function. With this in mind, Reuse Centres were created, i.e. equipped spaces where people can deliver things they no longer need and which can be useful to others, thereby extending their life cycle. Many of the goods that end up in the door-to-door collection for bulky items should be taken to reuse centres and not thrown away. Recycling a good that you want to get rid of means transforming it into similar materials following special processing treatments. The fact that a material or good is recyclable should not lead us to make excessive or immoderate use of it. An example of this mistake is the daily use of compostable dishes and tableware. Recovering a good that you want to get rid of means enhancing it from an economic point of view through waste recovery activities divided into 1) material recovery activities and 2) energy recovery activities (list of Rs operations in Annex C to Part IV of Legislative Decree 152/06). The underlying principle is that whatever is superfluous or a waste in one process is instead primary or necessary for preparation within another process. METALS GLASS

PAPER

PLASTIC BATTERIES


The 15th Urban Waste Selective Collection Report of the year 2019 prepared by Abruzzo Region, concludes with this data: 'in Abruzzo, 2019 ended with one bad news and one good news: The bad news is that the desired decrease in total municipal waste production to 593,700.39 tons did not happen. The good news is the new record in waste selective collection, which for the first time reached 62.55% with an increase of 2.89% compared to 59.66% of the previous year. However, it is an achievement that is not yet in line with the minimum targets set by national legislation (65%). In relation to provincial data on waste selective collection, the Province of Chieti leads the ranking with an average of 72.40%, followed by the Province of Teramo with 64.59%. With regards to individual municipalities, it should be noted that the Municipality of Ortona (CH), with the operator ECOLAN, leads the ranking of municipalities with a population > 20,000 residents reaching 82.52% waste selective collection, followed by the Municipality of Avezzano reaching 77.90%, with the operator TEKNEKO, and the Municipality of Sulmona. with the operator COGESA reaching 77.32%.


Table 04 Average costs per capita and per kilogram of waste of undifferentiated waste management, separate collections, and total municipal waste management, Abruzzo region The year 2019

Average cost of unsorted waste management Per Resident

55,37 €

Per Kilogram

31,69 €

Region Abruzzo Average cost of total municipal waste management Per Resident

167,18 €

Per Kilogram

35,30 €

Average cost of selective collections Per Resident

56,52 €

Per Kilogram

18,91 €


The most common recyclable materials are: Paper: to produce one ton of paper from virgin pulp about 15 trees, 440,000 litres of water and 7,600 kW of electricity are required; for the same amount of recycled paper, only 1,800 litres of water, 2,700 kW of energy and no trees are needed. Glass: the glass is recycled in dedicated glass factories, where after being cleaned, the shards are melted. Plastic: unfortunately, not all plastic on the market can be recycled, so it is necessary to ask your municipality which types of plastic are accepted and check the type indicated on the packaging. The materials are collected, washed, sorted by type, and reduced to flakes that possess chemical characteristics similar to the virgin raw material. They are stored and then sold to industries that process them for actual recycling. Some of these companies start with selected plastic and make the finished product, others transform the plastic to be recycled into small balls, to be sent to other companies. From 20 PET bottles, you can get a fleece blanket, for example. Recycled plastic is used for countless purposes, including the construction of new street furniture such as benches, fences, and playground facilities for public parks. The National Consortium for the collection, recycling, and recovery of plastic packaging (Corepla) points out that, despite the commitment of citizens, the recycling of this material is still a complex business: only 43.5% is actually transformed into new objects - often of lower quality than the original ones - while 40% ends up in waste to energy plants and 16.5% in landfills. Despite waste selective collection, plastics remain a major environmental problem. Please note that from 3 July 2021, EU Directive 2019/904


comes into force, banning certain single-use plastic products from the EU market. In Abruzzo, the Municipality of San Vito Chietino (CH), has implemented this directive already from 2019, through a participatory process shared with the territory. Aluminium and metals: aluminium is one of the most convenient materials to recycle, as only 5% of the energy needed to create virgin aluminium from bauxite is needed to make it a secondary raw material. Recycling metal cans made from tin saves 60-75% of energy compared to production from raw iron and tin. Organic Waste: commonly known as organic or wet waste, is the biodegradable part of household waste and usually accounts for about one-third of the total waste generated by a household. It is used to produce compost, a natural fertiliser that can be a substitute for topsoil or chemical fertilisers. Electronic and computer parts: These are called WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) and are recycled in a special way: they are disassembled at specialised centres, with door-to-door collection on request or through shops. Recycling these materials limits environmental damage on several levels: it avoids the release of harmful substances and the waste of valuable materials, and it reduces the energy resources needed to produce new appliances, thereby lowering CO2 emissions. When waste separation is not carried out properly at the source, a non-recoverable portion is generated and ends up in a landfill.


We also remind you that: Hazardous waste should not be disposed of with household waste but should be taken to the appropriate centres or containers. An example is used cooking oil: when used oil ends up in pipes, it clogs them and can get into groundwater and the sea, creating an oily film that does not allow the water to oxygenate. TO PROPERLY DO THE WASTE SELECTIVE COLLECTION: Avoid collecting and disposing of paper in plastic bags or containers. Avoid collecting and disposing of glass in plastic or paper bags or containers. Avoid using plastic bags for the organic waste: compostable bags should be used. Avoid disposing of non-packaging materials in plastics: hard plastic items should be disposed of in the bulky waste bins. Avoid placing furniture and objects that are still usable in the bulky waste bins: they must be taken to the reuse centres. Avoid putting food and organic residues in the unsorted waste: they should go with the organic waste or in compost bin.


WHERE THE GOODS WE WANT TO DISPOSE OF GO PAPER MILL

COMiECO PLATFORM

PAPER CARDBOARD

CARTA GLASS E CARTONE

TETRAPAK

Authorised sorting plant

bottles vials jars

COMIECO (National Consortium for the Recovery and Recycling of Cellulose based Packaging)

New paper and cardboard

COREVE

Glassmakers

(Glass Recovery Consortium)

(New Glassware)

PLASTIC > COREPLA (National Consortium for the Collection and Recycling of Plastic packages)

MULTI MATERIAL

CARTA ORGANIC E MATERIALS CARTONE

CARTA BATTERIES E AND CARTONE PHARMACEUTICALS

plastic packaging, metals, tetrapak

Authorised sorting plant

METAL >CIAL/ RICREA (National Consortium for the recycling of aluminium and steel packaging)

Composting plants

New Metal Objects

compost

(Soil conditioner)

Stacks

Authorised plants (cobat)

Recovery

Drugs

Authorised plants

Disposal


BULKY WASTE

BULKY WASTE

WEEE

Free door-to-door collection by telephone reservation 800-02-02-29

Free door-to-door collection by telephone reservation 800-02-02-29

UNSORTED UNSORTED

SWEEPING

SWEEPING

Free door-to-door collection by telephone reservation 800-02-02-29

MOWING AND PRUNING MOWING AND PRUNING

Free door-to-door collection by telephone reservation 800-02-02-29

Recoverable materials

pre-selection at authorised plants

PLASTIC > Building materials and street IRON furniture WOOD

Nonrecoverable material

Landfill

Recovery copper, iron, plastic reusable in the industry

WEEE Coordination Centre

Recovery of copper, iron, plastic reusable in the industry

WEEE Waste of electrical and electronic equipment

TUB

Plants authorised for biostabilisation treatment

Landfill (about 30% in the form of dry fraction) recovery through the production of CBR or CFS (about 70% is used for energy recovery)

Authorised recovery facilities

Composting plants

compost

(Soil conditioner)


SPECIAL AND URBAN MATERIALS CYCLE

PRODUCT

USAGE/CONSUMPTION

PRODUCTION CYCLE

RAW MATERIALS

SPECIAL WASTE

RECOVERED MATERIALS

ENERGY RECOVERY IN PRODUCTION PLANTS

TREATMENT

INCENERINATION WITH ENERGY RECOVERY DISPOSAL


RAW MATERIALS

PRODUCT

USAGE/CONSUMPTION CLEANING / MAINTENANCE OF URBAN AREAS (sweeping, gardens and parks maintenance)

PREPARATION REUSE RECYCLING MATERIALS RECOVERY

URBAN WASTE

SELECTION (e.g. separation of the various components of multi material)

RECYCLING COLLECTION

ENERGY RECOVERY IN PRODUCTION PLANTS

TREATMENT (e.g. mechanical biological)

INCENERINATION WITH ENERGY RECOVERY

DISPOSAL

UNSORTED COLLECTION


THE BEST WAY TO REDUCE WASTE IS NOT TO PRODUCE IT!


To the 4Rs’ strategy, and to the Waste Selective Collection, we can add a 'Sixth R', which means Respect and Responsibility. It is essential to be increasingly aware of how much our daily choices can affect the territory and the world around us, both as producers and consumers, and as administrative and political bodies. AVOID DISPOSABLE ITEMS BUY GOODS THAT HAVE A LONG LIFE AND ARE REPAIRABLE CHOOSE GOODS MADE FROM RECOVERABLE MATERIALS TO GIVE AWAY WORKING GOODS THAT WE DON'T NEED OR TO BRING THEM TO THE REUSE CENTRES RATHER THAN TO THROW THEM AWAY. BUY ONLY WHAT YOU NEED


SOME DATA TO REFLECT – the more waste we produce the more resources it takes to manage it, or even worse to dispose of it. Table 05 Regional and Provincial summary data of municipal waste production and selective collection (ISTAT 2021, 2019 data)

Region

Abruzzo

Province

L’Aquila

Teramo

Pescara

Chieti

Population

296.491

307.412

318.678

383.189

Separate collection (t)

79.635,311

94.508,608

78.622,345

123.341,729

130.392,394

146.309,569

153.417,975

170.158,029

61,07%

64,59%

51,25%

72,49%

Separate Collection Per capita (kg/resident*year)

268,59

307,43

246,71

321,88

Municipal waste Per capita (kg/resident*year)

439,79

475,94

481,42

0,00

Urban waste (t) Separate collection rate (%)


Table 06 Detailed regional and provincial municipal waste production and selective collection data (ISTAT 2021, 2019 data)

Region

Abruzzo

Province

L’Aquila

Teramo

Pescara

Chieti

Organic Fraction (t)

31.117,805

46.987,670

30.552,774

53.651,721

Paper and cardboard (t)

15.519,795

15.631,860

17.230,273

24.917,019

Glass (t)

12.103,795

11.562,275

9.030,515

15.184,556

Wood (t)

2.124,928

2.747,530

2.250,680

2.990,877

Metal (t)

995,560

1.651,824

1.511,855

1.633,225

Plastic (t)

6.380,240

6.123,748

5.611,676

8.726,719

WEEE (t)

1.306,436

1.239,665

1.004,947

1.906,293

Textiles (t)

1.238,446

556,886

853,958

866,921

Selective (t)

153,770

212,219

168,295

204,451

C&D waste (t)

1.742,990

623,120

1.001,149

1.369,177

Street cleaning and recovery (t)

3.167,013

1.639,170

3.274,570

3.822,245

Mixed bulky waste for recovery (t)

2.523,220

2.546,760

4.235,380

5.606,480

Other (t)

1.261,360

2.985,880

1.896,270

2.462,050

Total RD (t)

79.635,311

94.508,608

78.622,345

123.341,729

Bulky waste disposal (t)

118,465

30,380

-

81,210

Unsorted (t)

50.638,617

51.770,581

74.795,630

46.735,090

Total RU (t)

50.638,617

146.309,569

153.417,975

170.158,029


Table 06 Detailed regional and provincial municipal waste production and selective collection data (ISTAT 2021, 2019 data)

Region

Abruzzo

TOTAL Organic Fraction (t)

162.309,970

Paper and cardboard (t)

73.298,946

Glass (t)

47.881,100

Wood (t)

10.114,015

Metal (t)

5.792,464

Plastic (t)

26.842,383

WEEE (t)

5.457,340

Textiles (t)

3.516,211

Selective (t)

738,734

C&D waste (t)

4.736,436

Street cleaning and recovery (t)

11.902,998

Mixed bulky waste for recovery (t)

14.911,840

Other (t)

8.605,560

Total RD (t)

376.107,993

Bulky waste disposal (t)

230,055

Unsorted (t)

223.939,918

Total RU (t)

600.277,966


Table 07 National, macro-area and Abruzzo region Special Waste production summary data (ISTA 2021, 2019 data).

Geographical area

Special Non-Hazardous Waste (t)

NORTH

81.676.686

6.970.103

0

88.646.789

CENTRE

25.708.975

1.287.263

0

26.996.238

SOUTH

36.434.016

1.897.281

0

38.331.297

ITALY

143.819.677

10.154.647

0

153.973.324

100.470

0

0

ABRUZZO

2.833.816

Special Waste Special Hazardous Waste (t) with undetermined EWC code (t)

Total (t)

Table 08 Trends in special waste generation in the Abruzzo region, years 2014 2019 (ISTAT 2021, 2019 data)

Year

Special Non-Hazardous Waste (t)

2019

2.833.816

100.470

-

2.934.286

2018

2.620.509

102.702

-

2.723.211

2017

2.349.348

91.381

-

2.440.729

2016

2.241.189

98.244

16

2.339.449

103.475

7

2.361.777

1

0

2015

2.258.295

2014

2.338.747

Special Waste Special with undetermined Hazardous Waste (t) EWC code (t)

95.351 Lorem ipsum

Total (t)



Despite the increase in the waste selective collection practice, less encouraging data are those related to the regional production of special waste, which shows an increasing trend from 2014 to 2019, although less evident in some years. The good news, though not enough to be heartening, is that most of the special waste (68.9%) ends up in material recovery cycles, contributing in part to the principles of reduction and recovery.