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DRAFT INTEGRATED HERITAGE IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN TERMS OF SECTION 38(8) OF THE NATIONAL HERITAGE RESOURCES ACT, 1999 (ACT 25 OF

1999) ESKOM SUBSTATION CONSTRUCTED ON A PORTION OF PORTLAND 187/36 (RHEENENDAL), KNYSNA DISTRICT

ON BEHALF OF: Landscape Dynamics Environmental Consultants MAY 2014 STÉFAN DE KOCK PERCEPTION Planning PO Box 9995 GEORGE 6530 Tel: 082 568 4719 Fax: 086 510 8357 E-mail: perceptionenvplg@gmail.com

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PORTLAND 187/36, KNYSNA DISTRICT

CONTENTS: 1.

INTRODUCTION

2.

INDEPENDENCE OF ASSESSOR

3.

DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA

4.

STATUS QUO

5.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 5.1 Original Portland farm 5.2 Original Leeuwenbosch farm 5.3 Thomas Bain, early road construction 5.4 Forestry theme 5.4.1 Knysna Forest Conservancy, Millwood Forest

5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9

5.4.2 Zuurvlakte Woodcutters location 5.4.3 Rheenendal sawmill Agricultural history The Outspan Millwood Goldfields Forced Removals, Rheenendal, Keurhoek and Leeuwenbosch Synthesis

6.

HERITAGE RESOURCES & ISSUES 6.1 Built environment 6.2 Landscape setting 6.2.1 Rural landscape context 6.2.2 Cultural landscape context 6.3 Visual – Spatial Issues

7.

HERITAGE INFORMANTS AND INDICATORS 7.1 Built environment 7.2 Cultural landscape issues 7.3 Visual-spatial issues

8.

PUBLIC PARTICIPATION

9.

RECOMMENDATIONS

ANNEXURES: 1. 2. 3.

Photographs Early “Woodcutter Regulations” Draft 2 Visual Impact Assessment, April 2014

FIGURES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Locality - Regional Locality - Land use context Extract 1880-1890 Mapping Extract Thomas Bain map of area Sketch of Millwood, W Newdigate Collage 1942 aerial photography

REFERENCES and ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: 1. 2.

Cape Town Archives George Museum Archives

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PORTLAND 187/36, KNYSNA DISTRICT

Kathleen Schulz, Southern Cape Historian

ABBREVIATIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

CDSM – Chief Directorate Surveys & Mapping DEA – Department of Environmental Affairs (National) DEADP – Department of Environmental Affairs & Development Planning HIA – Heritage Impact Assessment HWC – Heritage Western Cape NHRA - National Heritage Resources Act, 1999 (Act 25 of 1999) NID – Notice of Intent to Develop PHRA – Provincial Heritage Resources Agency PHS – Provincial Heritage Site

COVER: Extract from Aerial survey 6 of 1942, Flight strip 35, Image 11273 (Source: CDSM)

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PORTLAND 187/36, KNYSNA DISTRICT

INTRODUCTION PERCEPTION Planning was appointed by Landscape Dynamics Environmental Consultants (on behalf of Eskom) to compile a retrospective Integrated Heritage Impact Assessment (HIA) with relation to the construction of an Eskom Substation on the subject property, as required in th paragraph 4.16.2 of the Environmental Authorisation dated 14 November 2013, issued by the Department of Environmental Affairs, which reads as follows: “Eskom is required to conduct and submit a visual impact assessment and heritage impact assessment for the existing 132kV Leeuwenbosch substation, as well as to recommend appropriate and practical mitigation measures to the Chief Directorate: Integrated Environmental Authorisations for consideration and approval within six months of the date of this decision.” This report serves as an Integrated Heritage Impact Assessment (HIA) and includes inputs from the following specialist reports sanctioned as part of the HIA: • Historical background research; • Visual Impact Assessment; • Cultural landscape analysis.

2.

INDEPENDENCE OF ASSESSOR With relation to the author’s appointment to compile an Integrated Heritage Impact Assessment in terms of Section 38(8) of the National Heritage Resources Act, 1999 (Act 25 of 1999), it is hereby declared that: • This consultancy (including the author) is not a subsidiary, legally or financially, of the proponents; • Remuneration for professional services by the proponent in relation to this proposal is not linked to approval by any decision-making authority responsible for permitting this proposal; • Nor this consultancy, nor the author has any interests in secondary or downstream activities as a result of the authorisation of this project. It is further hereby certified that the author has 17 years professional experience as urban planner (3 years of which were abroad) and 8 years professional experience as heritage practitioner. The author holds the following qualifications: • Urban and Regional Planning (B-Tech, CPUT, 1997) • Environmental Impact Assessment Management – Heritage, Environmental (Dipl, Dublin University, 2002) • Architectural & Urban Conservation (CDP, UCT, 2007) • Urban Design (CPD, UCT, 2009) The author is professionally registered as follows: • Professional Heritage Practitioner (Association for Professional Heritage Practitioners) • Professional Planner (South African Council for Planners)

3.

DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA Situated within the Rheenendal rural area approximately 11,5km (directly) northeast of Knysna town centre (20km via road) and 3,2km east of Rheenendal settlement, the subject property, Portland 187/36, was subdivided in 2010 and measures 1.953ha. The development site encompasses much of the cadastral land unit, and bounds onto the MR355 (“Rheenendal Road”) as illustrated through Figures 1 and 2 below. The site is located within a natural depression, which give rise to waterlogged conditions. During field it was noted that a number of trees planted along the roadside boundary - presumably for visual screening - have died off or are showing signs of stress due to these conditions. 4 PERCEPTION Planning

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Figure 1: Location of site in relation to Knysna, N2 National Road and Rheenendal settlement (Source: Google Earth)

Figure 2: Illustrating site location within existing landscape context (Source: Google Earth)

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Set within a rural landscape, existing land use within the direct proximity of the site includes agriculture, forestry, rural occupation, various tourism-related uses, urban area (Rheenendal settlement) and the Garden Route National Park. Photographs of the site and its environs are attached as Annexure 1. 4.

STATUS QUO 1

The status quo is described in the Draft Visual Impact Assessment as follows, “The existing substation is an intrusive manmade structure in an otherwise pastoral landscape. The existing substation is situated on an exposed plateau and is visually stark. Th site is already degraded by the existing transmission lines. The existing tree screening along the road is showing signs of stress and many of the trees have died due to waterlogging. Without mitigation and the location on a plateau with high exposure to sensitive tourist related receptors, there is medium to high visual impact.” 5.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND This section provides insight into broad heritage themes relevant to prominent early farms within the study area, based on preliminary archival research, available primary research sources as well as existing research. Note that it is easier to research colonial ownership of farms with anecdotal information than to uncover information of indigenous people in the archives.

5.1

Original Portland Farm The well known early Knysna resident George Rex applied for land in 1807, the year he moved to Knysna. He was granted land along the western edge of the Knysna River (i.e. farm 2 Portland) in 1818, In the same year Eastford was granted . The original farm Portland 3 4 measured 1,038.5 morgen (±890ha) and that it was surveyed in 1818 by Sgt AE Petersen on behalf of George Rex Esq. Records indicate that in 1869 John Rex, George Rex’s grandson was living on the adjoining farm Eastford, when “the great fire” destroyed the remaining large 5 indigenous trees, buildings and gardens on the property . The original boundaries of the farm Portland, shown in relation to adjoining early farms, are shown in Figure 3.

5.2

Original Leeuwenbosch Farm The farm Leewenbosch has exceptional heritage significance, which can be described as further described in the Sections below. In 1784 a grazing license was issued to Stephanus Janse Weyers allowing him to graze his cattle on the farm named Leeuwenbosch situated at Knysna, described in Dutch as “de Nysna agter het Oute Niquas Land”. The license was renewed for two consecutive years and then fell away. It appears that Stephanus Janse Weyers moved to the farm Zwartrivier west of Leeuwenbosch as this is where he was granted land in 1818. It is unclear when the first owner of Leeuwenbosch, Arnoldus Vosloo took occupation. The farm was assessed by the Department of Lands in 1816 and his name appears as the loan holder at that time. It was reported that Arnoldus did not own slaves, had four horses, thirty five breeding cattle and forty oxen. The grazing was described as sour and the common arable land was listed as 29 morgen. A spring was reported to be on the farm that supplied sufficient water for his needs. Arnoldus Vosloo was also reported to be sharing the farm with Solomon Terblanch. th

On May 15 1818 Arnoldus was granted his quitrent title deed for Leeuwenbosch, with no mention of S. Terblanch as co-owner. A servitude was written into the deed of grant, stating 1 Compiled by VRM Africa, December 2013 Geo Quits No 1/38 folio 39. Copy of diagram not available electronically. 3 SG Diagram 428/1818 4 AE Petersen was also responsible for the early layout of the town of George 5 Publication : The Forests of George Knysna and Zitzikama. A brief history of their management 1778-1939; John Phillips. Pg 91. 2

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“The grantee shall be obliged to allow an outspan place at the forest and that all the timber 6 shall be reserved as usual” . Presumably referring to timber felled from the crown forests. Arnoldus Vosloo is reported to have died on his property at Zuur Vlakte – Leeuwenbosch on th 9 December 1856. According to his death certificate he was born at Doukamma in the 7 Plettenberg Bay district in 1777 . The exact location of the dwelling in Zuur Vlakte could not be established.

Figure 3: Extract from 1880-1890 mapping for Rheenendal area highlighting approximate location of Site in relation to original Portland boundaries. Note proximity to Leeuwenbosch farm, subdivision morphology prevalent at this time (Source: CDSM)

5.3

Thomas Bain, early road construction Fortuitously road builder Thomas Bain drew a sketch map in 1860 of the road he planned to 8 build between George and Knysna . The Homtini section of the sketch (refer to Figure 4) describes the landscape and buildings of Leewenbosch and surrounds, providing us with a snapshot at that time of existing structures and features. The sketch also describes the road he proposed to build in red dotted lines and the existing roads as red solid lines. The road from Zuur Vlakte to Knysna is drawn as a solid line indicating that this road was in existence before 1860. Six woodcutter homes are marked situated north of the existing road to Knysna. No other evidence of the existence of these homesteads was found in the archival documentation examined or marked on current day maps and surveyor general diagrams. The large red dot depicting Main Station Homtini on the Bain’s map appears to be situated near or on the 9 Outspan allotment, re-numbered in 1922 as portion 4, Leeuwenbosch , alongside which the

6

Cape Town Deeds Office; George Quitrent 2.31. CTA; CSC 2/6/1/372 f.66 married to 2nd wife Anna Margaretha Carolina Bernardo at time of death. 8 Cape Town Archives (CTA); Maps M5/119 9 Surveyor General diagram number 2259/1922, Knysna farms. 7

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Rheenendal Coloured Township was erected in 1970 . The Main Station would have provided housing for the one hundred and fifty convicts employed for one year to complete the Karatara to Homtini section of the road as stated on the key of the sketch map. Work stations are also marked on the map in approximately the area of Bibbey’s Hoek or the Zuurvlakte woodcutters location. Presumably the work stations were forestry related.

Figure 4: 1860 sketch map of Zuur Vlakte and proposed Homtini section of road drawn by Thomas Bains (drawn on silk). (Source: Cape Town Archives M5/119)

5.4 5.4.1

10 11

Forestry Theme Knysna Forest Conservancy, Millwood Forest In 1881 Count de Vasselot de Régné, a forest from France was appointed to manage the forests of Cape. He divided the colony into four forest conservancies namely, Western, Midland, Eastern and Transkeian. Knysna fell within the Midland conservancy. The Midland conservancy had its headquarters in Knysna and controlled the forests of George, Tsitsikamma and Knysna. By 1921 approximately seven hundred woodcutters were registered in the Knysna 11 conservancy. . Each woodcutter was allocated approximately five trees to fell within the forest

CTA; KUS 843 CTA; 1/KNY 8/3

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reserves. It was estimated that one yellow wood tree would wield forty to fifty sleepers. In the same year eleven men living on Leeuwenbosch were granted licenses to fell trees and two were registered from Balmoral (Zuur Vlakte). The names did not correlate to the owners of Leeuwenbosch, and therefore may have been tenants or employees of the owners. 5.4.2 Zuur Vlakte Woodcutters location As part of Count de Vasselot de Régné forest reform policy all randomly positioned woodcutter homesteads situated on crown land were forced to abandon their dwellings and move to formalized Woodcutter “Locations” (so called on the deeds of grant). This law was enforced from east of Plettenberg Bay to Kraaibosch near Karatara from the year 1881. The Woodcutter Locations made provision for twenty to forty allotments each, depending on the availability of land. Zuur Vlakte was one such location that formed part of the significant resocialization of woodcutter families. The occupation of woodcutters held no racial barrier and different cultural groups lived side by side in the newly established locations. Homes were built by the occupants and cattle were either grazed on a piece of designated commonage or by an arrangement with private owners of neighbouring land. Diagrams for the formalization of land rights for Zuur Vlakte were only compiled in 1891. The reason for the delay has not been established. An aligned group of twenty eight erven measuring roughly between one and two morgen appear to have been leased to woodcutters. Diagrams issued at the time do not bear the grantee’s name or title deed number, indicating that some tenancy arrangement existed between the forestry department and occupants. A valuation conducted in 1905 of the Zuur Vlakte properties indicates that all twenty eight erven were occupied buildings. Of interest is the average value attached to each property was £40, and that of Mr. E. Bibbey was valued at £200, indicating that he was considerably more wealthy than the other occupants. The area is currently known as Bibbey’s Hoek, presumably named after this particular person or his descendants. Another name given to Zuur Vlakte was Balmoral. P.J. van Reenen is recorded as operating a 12 saw mill at Balmoral in 1923 . No information regarding the later namings of Zuur Vlakte was found. 5.4.3 Rheenendal Sawmill No documentation regarding the establishment of the Rheenendal saw mill was found in the Cape Town archives. Several law suits are recorded but the information did not prove insightful to the current investigation. The family documentation of ‘The van Reenens in Knysna 1912 1987’, an account written by Vintcent van Reenen states that the saw mill operation started during the 1920’s by his father Pieter van Reenen. The saw mill was situated on the farm Leeuwenbosch, portion 3 Rheenendal, By 1970 fifty farm workers homes were present on the property. A reference was found to the effect that P.J. van Reenen was operating a saw mill at 13 Zuur Vlakte in 1923 . This must have been while he was cutting his teeth in the timber industry. 5.5

Agricultural History When the Cape of Good Hope farms were loaned in the 1700’s the key note was to develop agricultural activity for local supply and exports on behalf of the Dutch East India Company. The British occupation finally reigning in 1805 spent sixteen years developing a land ownership system that accommodated farmers within the Colonies borders. The early farms situated within the proximity of the site all had ownership paper work concluded in 1818 in the form of quitrent grants. All identified farm owners survived with mixed farming activities and some with 14 forest interests . There was no time to investigate the intricacies of farming activities on the farms histories. All farming activities involved labour and the numbers of coloured farm labour living in the area in 1970 is therefore pertinent to this heritage theme.

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CTA; 1/KNY 8/3 CTA;1/KNY 8/3 14 Personal database 13

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5.7

PORTLAND 187/36, KNYSNA DISTRICT

The Outspan Outspan reserve regulations were written into the Leeuwenbosch quitrent grant in 1818, providing a portion of land measuring twenty morgen (Âą17.13 hectares). Each farm bordering on crown forest was obliged to provide land for an outspan for which farmers were paid a rental. Licensed woodcutters could graze a span of cattle (16) at the outspan whilst working in the forests for a period of fourteen days. Further rules relating to the use of forest outspans 15 16 were clearly laid out by Landdrost Adriaan van Kervel in 1816 , the era when quitrent land was being granted in the Southern Cape. (Refer Annexure 2). Leeuwenbosch outspan was established purely for use by woodcutters and was not a public 17 outspan . The outspan was in use from 1816 until 1922 when all outspans were deregulated in the Western Cape. Leeuwenbosch outspan measuring 17.13 hectares was transferred to the 18 Divisional Council of Knysna . Millwood Goldfields Following findings of gold reefs in the Millwood region, a proclamation was issued to Osbornes 19 Prospecting in 1887, defining the boundaries for gold prospecting at Millwood . There is so much archival material available on the small Millwood village, it would be a pity not to make mention of it in the report. Although no evidence was found in the archives of the response of neighbouring farms, it would be worthwhile investigating further. Direct links between the study area were found to be scanty in the Cape Town archives and may be more plentiful in Knysna and George Museum archives.

Figure 5: Sketch of Millwood by W. Newdigate, a Government Surveyor (1887) 15

CTA;CO 2604, 19th December, 1816 Quitrent land; a system of land tenure introduced by British officials in 1813. After 20 years rental payments the land could be redeemed and then owned by the lessee. 17 CTA; LND 1/353 f.4680. Outspan dispute, Bibbey vs Barnard, 1890. 18 CTA; LND 34. 1817 and Title Deed 6013/1922; Cape Town Deeds Office. 19 CTA; LND 1/408 f.909 16

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It can be expected that the Leeuwenbosch and Portland were directly affected during the thirty year life span of mining operations, 1887 – 1924 when the mine was de-proclaimed. th (Government Gazette number 394/1924 dated 5 December) Figure 5 (page 10) describes the mining operations of Millwood. Drawn by W.Newdigate, Government Land Surveyor. The sketch was attached to the proclamation notice advertising the opening of the gold fields in 1887. 5.8

Forced Removals, Rheenendal, Keurhoek and Leeuwenbosch An oddity in the archival record was found in that Rheenendal coloured township was built in 1970 and the group area was proclaimed in 1977. The name “Keurhoek” appears to have local origins and does not appear in official documentation. Leeuwenbosch 185/ 20 was identified as the site for developing a new coloured township in accordance with Group Areas proclamation th 206/1977 dated 9 September. The name given to the new township was Rheenendal Coloured Township. Records state that 1300 coloured people lived in the Rheenendal, Leeuwenbosch area in 1970. It was stated that approximately fifty families lived at the saw mill site belonging to PJ van Rheenen (Pty) Ltd., and that the majority of these families were going to move to the new township. The remaining unnumbered families lived in what were described as 'plakkers huise' (informal houses). By December 1970 the first one hundred township houses had been erected. It was anticipated that a total of two hundred and fifty would be built. Plans for a new school of fourteen classrooms, a wood working room, an art room, library and laboratory were designed for the new township. All children previously occupying nearby schools named Balmoral, (Bibbey’s Hoek), Highway and Keurhoek were to attend the new school and the smaller schools were to be closed. Of significance is the number of families living on Leeuwenbosch at the time forced removals were implemented. Further focussed archival and oral history research would be required should it become necessary to further articulate this historic theme.

5.9

Synthesis After examining records for early farms situated within the proximity of the site, namely Leeuwenbosch, Portland, Westford, Lawn Wood, Elands Kraal, Quarry Wood and Zuur Vlakte, also known as Sour Flats Woodcutters Location, now known as Bibbey’s Hoek, the following was concluded: Portland, Lawn Wood, Elands Kraal and Quarry Wood each have a family history of land ownership that relate to general farming activities, each with rich and personal history. Henry Barrington, the first owner of Portland and his descendents leave a huge legacy in the Knysna history book in terms of personal achievements and societal influence. The early Portland homestead, known as Portland Manor, is of high local historic, architectural and aesthetic cultural significance and is 2.3km east of the subject site (Figure 2). In contrast, heritage themes identified on Leeuwenbosch and Bibbey’s Hoek have wider social significance and are both intrinsically linked to the expansion of the local wood industry, the gold mining theme and consequent social history. A number of tangible and intangible heritage resources are present within the environs of the site. These include the Millwood gold field site to the north, the 5,000 hectare Gouna forest east of Portland, the historically significant Portland Manor mentioned above and the Thomas Bain road between George and Knysna, which traverses the Homtini River to the west. No Provincial Heritage Sites have yet been registered within the boundaries of the study area.

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6.

HERITAGE RESOURCES AND ISSUES

6.1

Built environment No structures, ruins or foundations of any kind were noted on or within the direct proximity of the proposed development site. The historic Portland Manor farmstead (c. 1865) is located ±2,3km east of the subject site. While the historic farmstead and its attentive grounds are considered to be of high local historic, architectural and aesthetic cultural significance, inter-visibility between the farmstead and the substation is very limited due to (a) established vegetation within the landscape separating the two localities as well as (b) mature vegetation within the proximity of the historic farmstead itself. Earliest available aerial imagery for the site and its direct environs does not reveal the presence of any structures.

6.2

Landscape setting

6.2.1

Rural landscape context The property forms part of an undulating rural landscape located on a higher-lying plateau along the foothills of the Outeniqua mountain range. The plateau generally consists of gentlesloping areas, most of which have been transformed through agriculture. Forestry is a strong element within the landscape. The landscape is also traversed by a series of natural valleys and ravines much of which are overgrown by indigenous vegetation though some infestation of alien vegetation was noted during fieldwork. The landscape character within the direct proximity of the subject property is mostly defined through agriculture and forestry.

6.2.2

Cultural landscape context The term “cultural landscape” refers to the imprint created on a natural landscape through human habitation and cultivation over an extended period of time. While the Cape has been inhabited for many hundreds of thousands of years (pre-colonial history) prior to Western settlement (colonial history), the nomadic lifestyles of early inhabitants are not always as evident within the landscape as the significant imprints made by humans during the last two – three hundred years and more. Unlike ancient landscapes in parts of the world where intensive cultivation over periods much longer than locally have allowed natural and cultural components of the landscape to become interwoven, landscape components along the Southern Cape have not yet developed in such a manner. The fact that natural and cultural landscape components in the region is therefore more distinguished means that the cultural landscape is likely to be very vulnerable to the cumulative impact of inappropriate large-scale development. Ultimately however, definition of a cultural landscape can be informed by the following elements, weighed through professional opinion, public values and statutory (legal) framework: • Natural Landscape • Historical Architecture • Public Memory • Palaeontology • Social History • Archaeology Analysis of early aerial photography for the study area (Flight 6 of 1942) reveals a number of traditional (i.e. Pre-Modern) cultural landscape patterns of Portland 187/36 and its direct environs as annotated below (refer Figure 6): • Subject property located right along the shared boundary between early farms Portland and Leeuwenbosch; • Agriculture and cultivation evident within the landscape – mostly along level and moderate slopes; • Remnants of indigenous vegetations occur within steeper sloping river valleys and its tributaries; • Present alignment of the “Rheenendal Road” mostly coincides with that of the historic road through this landscape; • The historic Portland Manor house is clearly legible - the importance of this precinct is emphasised by various access roads; • Intensive forms of land use evident within proximity of historic Homtini Outspan as well as Portland Manor house; • Forestry land use not evident within the landscape as presented through Figure 6; 12

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Linear planting of trees most apparent in areas highlighted through blue circles on Figure 6 - initially planted as windbreaks, these features left an impression of “landscape framing”, which contributes to the overall rural cultural landscape; The occurrence of landscape framing appears to coincide with areas of intensive cultivation, the latter of which can be distinguished through a patchwork of smaller cultivated fields.

From the analysis we note that the cultural landscape patterns identified are primarily associated with agriculture and cultivation, while forestry occurred further to the north (outside the scope of that presented through Figure 6). Intensive land use patterns occurred within the proximity of Portland Manor and Homtini Outspan but not within direct proximity of subject property, save for what appears to have been non-intensive agriculture. Prior to construction of the substation and related infrastructure the rural cultural landscape within the direct proximity of the site is considered to have been of moderate local historic and aesthetical cultural significance. By reason of the severity of the impact of the substation, post-construction grading of the same heritage resource results in it no longer being of any cultural significance.

Figure 6: Cadastral property boundary transposed onto collage of 1942 aerial photography of the site and its environs. Note location of historic Homtini Outspan, Portland Manor and occurrence of windbreaks (“landscape framing”) within two areas highlighted in blue. (Source: Aerial survey 6 of 1942, Flight strip 35, Images 11273&4, CDSM).

Linear planting of trees as windbreaks are evident with the landscape - mostly in areas of intensive cultivation/ intensified land use. We note that linear planting of trees as windbreaks are still evident within current landscape (Figure 2) - which relates to a continuance of this cultural landscape pattern, though not necessarily in the same location or orientation as in the above 1942 aerial imagery. The practice of planting windbreaks, whilst functional, also results in “landscape framing”, thus contributing to the overall landscape quality and sense of place. 13 PERCEPTION Planning

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Important to note is that there is a strong tendency towards use of exotic tree species (e.g. pine, bluegum, blackwood, etc.) for wind breaks and landscape framing. The substation is highly visible along a Âą2km stretch of the Rheenendal Road as well as surrounding area, thereby eroding the rural cultural landscape character within this proximity. The intrusion caused through construction of the substation and overhead lines within this landscape is not reversible and cannot be fully mitigated. 6.3

Visual – Spatial Issues The Draft Visual Impact Assessment fully interrogates the above issues and proceeds to propose and assess the implications of the following three mitigation alternatives, as summarised below. Note this Section has been transposed from, and should be read in conjunction with said report, compiled by VRM Africa (April 2014) and attached to this report as Annexure 3.

6.3.1.

Mitigation Alternative One

6.3.2

Mitigation Alternative Two

6.3.3

Mitigation Alternative Three (Preferred Alternative)

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Figure 7: Illustrating Mitigation Alternative 3 Concept Plan (Source: Figure 22, Draft 2 VIA, VRM Africa, April 2014)

7.

HERITAGE INFORMANTS AND INDICATORS According to the requirements of Section 38(3) of the NHRA it is crucial that the land use planning and EIA processes be informed by and incorporate heritage informants and indicators as done through the mapping and grading of relevant heritage resources as per Section 6 of this report. Consequently, it is normally the purpose of this Section to summarise heritage informants and indicators and the manner in which heritage resources should be incorporated 15 PERCEPTION Planning

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into the overall design of the proposed development. In this instance however, the intention of this Section is to summarise preferred mitigation measures to be implemented. 7.1

Built environment • The proposal does not have a negative impact on significant historic structures within its direct environs.

7.2

Cultural landscape issues • While little or no cultural landscape elements remain within the direct proximity of the site as a result of construction of the substation and associated infrastructure, introduction of linear planting aimed at enhancing the overall development through “landscape framing” must be considered; • In keeping with traditional landscape patterns, it is recommended that appropriate (noninvasive) exotic vegetation be used for landscape framing as meant above.

7.3

Visual spatial issues • That the various mitigation proposals, as articulated through the “Mitigation Alternative 3 Concept Plan” by VRM Africa (April 2014), be implemented.

8.

PUBLIC PARTICIPATION This report will be made available as part of the Public Participation Process (PPP) to be facilitated by Landscape Dynamics Environmental Consultants as part of the EIA Process in terms of the National Environmental Management Act, 1998 (Act 107 of 1998). Perception Planning will engage with relevant Interested and Affected Parties (I&AP’s) and provide response to possible heritage-related comments submitted during the course of the PPP.

9.

RECOMMENDATIONS Having regard to the above assessment, it is recommended: 9.1 That the report be made available to focussed public participation to solicit heritagerelated comments; 9.2 That the recommendations of this HIA and outcomes of focussed public participation be incorporated into the Final Integrated HIA, to be submitted to the Department of Environmental Affairs. PERCEPTION Planning th 5 May 2014

SE DE KOCK B-Tech(TRP) EIA Mgmt (IRL) Pr Pln PHP

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Draft integrated hia eskom leeuwenbosch 5 may 2014