The Project Issue Spring 2013 FROM THE CHAIR CDAE continues to be a leader at UVM in graduating students with the tools in their toolbox, combined with a strong liberal arts education to hit the ground running after they graduate. This edition of the CDAE Compass highlights several of our classes that provide students with the “real world experience” in a critical thinking environment. From community partners within the UVM community to non-profits and entrepreneurial enterprises across the state, CDAE faculty and students are working together to help communities build a vibrant economic landscape while preserving the environment, cultivating new leaders and fostering social justice. Jane Kolodinsky, PhD Chair
CDAE Class leaves lasting impact on Campus Water Bottle Ban A campus-wide water bottle ban was implemented January 1, 2013, making UVM a pioneer university of environmental, social and health efforts. However, there is still much work to be done to optimize the effect of this policy. The ban has been a working conception of UVM’s Office of Sustainability, led by Director Gioia Thompson, who partnered with the CDAE 250 Research Methods class in fall 2012 as part of a servicelearning experience. Students in the class, led by Professor David Conner, conducted qualitative and quantitative research that gauged more than 900 UVM students’ beverage preferences through field research, literature reviews, interviews and surveys. “The class made a significant
New water bottle refill stations are being installed around campus
contribution through their research by showing that UVM students overwhelmingly opposed not including (the brand) smartwater in the ban,” explained Thompson. “In the original framework of the ban, smartwater would be able to continue sales because the beverage didn’t meet the
PHOTO COURTESY OF Jon Reidel
By Sean Wilcox Strategic Communications Intern
definition of ‘unflavored and unfiltered water,’ as it contained added electrolytes.” “Smartwater being excluded from the ban was something that a majority of the University, including our class, wasn’t even aware of,” explained Justin King, a senior CDAE student. “Through the
The Community Development and Applied Economics Department of the University of Vermont uvm.edu/cdae 802.656.2001 email@example.com
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interviews and surveys we carried out to gauge student beverage preferences, we were able to see that students significantly opposed this after finding out about the loophole. “This change in the policy now makes the ban much more accurate, as it actually entirely bans all (unflavored) water.” The Office of Sustainability has been able to utilize the class’s research findings in several ways since their final collaborative report. “We have been continuing to install new water bottle refill stations around campus where students stressed the most need for,” Thompson said. “We have also been retrofitting many existing refill stations where students voiced problems with temperature or taste. In order to get the community to implement re-usable water bottles, their use must be easy and practical. “Residence halls have also become a major focus for adding refill stations. The class illustrated the importance of reaching firstyears and sophomores to shape their consumption preferences
PHOTO COURTESY OF Sally MacCay
Water Bottle Ban Continued
Students pass through an arch made entirely of plastic water bottles at the Water Bottle Retirement Party.
early in college. We now have 215 refill stations all over campus, and that number is going to continue to grow.” Student Ajla Afizi praised the collaborative nature of the effort. “This service-learning exper -ience was truly beneficial for both entities,” she said. “It was very rewarding to see how our hard group work actually made an
impact on amending school wide sustainability policy.” Connor added: “With this being a topic that students had a personal stake in, they were genuinely very interested in the research. This led to students actually owning the project, and I think that was clearly shown through their overall findings.”
CDAE by the Numbers CDAE Majors 2013:
CDAE Graduate Journal Articles Student Theses 2012-2013: 2012-2013:
Student Sh ow c a s e
Students show their love of entrepreneurship On February 14th, students not only spent the day dedicating their love to those closest to them but also to budding entrepreneurs. “Love an Entrepreneur Day,” held in the Grand Maple Ballroom, showcased 11 ‘Dollar Enterprises’: the name created by CDAE Professor Kathleen Liang for the groups of student entrepreneurs enrolled in CDAE 166: Intro to Community Entrepreneurship. Each “Dollar Enterprise” acts as a small business with students taking what they learn in class and applying it to a real-world experience. Every team has to go through the stages of entrepreneurship from developing entrepreneurial and communication skills, designing a product concept, managing finances, marketing and finally to selling their products. The teams began offering their products to students in March, each hoping to be the most successful on campus. Besides showcasing the classes’ work so far, the ‘Love an Entrepreneur Day’ event also featured local entrepreneurs, including City Market, Stacks Sandwiches, LaunchVT and Music Store Live. Many entrepreneurs who attended shared their own startup experiences and provided miniworkshops covering a range of topics including planning, funding, resources, and other aspects of start-ups. According to Liang, the event was designed to be a showcase and product development experiment for each enterprise team. Visitors to the event were asked to fill out a comment form where they shared feedback with each team on product concepts, sales, and presentation and professionalism. “This is a really fun thing to do as an interactive evaluation between student venture teams and potential customers,” Liang said. “Students can learn directly from visitors whether they are UVM faculty, staff or students,
PHOTO BY Sean Wilcox
By Danielle Bilotta Strategic Communications Intern
One of the CDAE 166 Enterprise Teams, Off the Record, displays their products. They are planning to sell bowls made out of vinyl records and more.
or from local community organizations, high schools, small business service providers or other local entrepreneurs.” Each group was able to change or improve their products based on the feedback given before they started selling their products on campus. This is the first time students in CDAE 166 had to prepare and present in a showcase event like this. Each team needed to design and produce actual products as free samples for others to evaluate. Students in the class were excited about the competition and eager to show off their products. Dressed professionally and speaking with visitors about their products, students dove into their new entrepreneurship role. Danielle Mishkit, a sophomore Public Communication major, was part of a team that created headbands, scarves, and jewelry from recycled materials including old t-shirts, shoelaces or old fabrics. “This is the first showing and pitching of our ideas, so we don’t really know a lot at this point,” she said. “There is one other booth that is selling headbands so they are definitely our competition since the others are food.” Mishkit decided to take CDAE 166 because she thought it would be fun and was intrigued by it’s unique teaching style. “Hands-on learning is what I really
enjoy,” Mishkit said. “It’s a creative way of learning for me.” Another student, Lauren Perry, took the class as part of a major requirement but is also interested in entrepreneurship after college. Her group, Cookie Monsters, sold different types of cookies, including gluten-free and vegan options. “We’re basically trying to come up with a combination of cookies that everyone will enjoy,” she said. “We’re just trying to get some feedback on what types of food [the students] want.” Sophomore CDAE major Sophia Rull is part of group selling custom mason jars, Cozies and magnets. Like most students, she said that the handson teaching style drew her to the class. “I’ve never started anything,” she said. “You really start with nothing and you have to come up with a product and make money off it. Finding a product that you can market to students, I think it’s a cool experience.” Rull’s group was already getting feedback over price concerns, something that her group was surprised about. “They said $3 for custom mason jars is a little expensive, which I find really interesting,” she said. When asked if she would recommend the class for upcoming students, Rull answered: “Yeah, definitely.”
CDAE Faculty tackle sugar-sweetened beverages By Danielle Bilotta Strategic Communications Intern
For the last two years, UVM faculty have been working on research to support a possible excise tax on sugarsweetened beverages in Vermont. CDAE faculty members Richard Watts, Jane Kolodinsky, and Sarah Heiss have been researching various issues related to the potential penny-per-ounce excise tax. Thanks to a few grants, surveys, and a lot of hard work, the team has been able to provide evidence, help make the policy process more transparent to the public, and encourage opponents to change their views. CDAE department chair and professor Jane Kolodinsky became involved in this research in 2011 because of her interest in food choice, obesity and her work as an applied economist and survey Jane Kolodinsky researcher. After being contacted by Peter Sterling, the founding Executive Director of the Vermont Campaign for Health Care Security Education Fund, the two collaborated to receive a Robert Wood Johnson Grant to collect the data they needed. Opponents of the bill—Kolodinsky refers to them as “naysayers”—claim that adding a tax to sugar-sweetened beverages would put Vermont stores out of business, especially near the New Hampshire border. The problem with this claim is that there is no published data to support it, Kolodinsky said. To address these concerns nonetheless, cross-border questions were included in their survey analysis. Ultimately, their research showed there would be no negative impacts on border businesses, nor would Vermonters cross the NH/VT border to avoid the tax. “If you think about it logically, I go to the gas station, fill up my car, and I want a single serving of something…
How much Sugar is in your Drink? 25 20 15 10 5 0 Vitamin Water 20 oz.
Gatorade 20 oz.
Snapple Lemon 16 oz.
Monster Energy 16 oz.
Nantucket Nectars Cranberry 17.5 oz.
Mountain Dew 20 oz.
A proposed penny-per-ounce tax on sugar-sweetened beverages has reached the state Type of Drink legislature. CDAE Faculty have been researching the issue behind the tax for the last two years. Graph data provided by the Alliance for a Healthier Vermont.
I’m going to get in my car and drive to New Hampshire? No,” she said. “I’ll probably use at least 50 cents in gas just to save 13 cents. It just doesn’t make sense.” In order to prove consistency with these results, questions about the sugar-sweetened beverage tax have added to this year’s Vermonter Poll, conducted by UVM’s Center for Rural Studies, which examines changes in public opinion regarding Vermontspecific issues. The results were the same as the 2011 study. Kolodinsky believes looking at larger health policy decisions and the issue of health policy is both important and salient for many CDAE students. “If you’re a PCom major, it shows you know how to communicate to the public,” Kolodinsky said. “For entrepreneurship majors, they have to make their business stocking decisions in their stores, so how does it affect their store and what are they going to sell? And for community and international development majors, it’s looking at societal issues of which obesity is not only a U.S. issue anymore: It’s around the world.” With an interest in studying important public policy, Richard Richard Watts Watts’ began his
research on this issue in Spring 2011. “I’m interested in how public policy emerges through the legislative process,” Watts said. “In this case, the public policy issue has to do with soda, which has been implicated in our obesity crisis.” Opposition comes from three primary groups, Watts said: the Grocers Association, the Vermont Retail Association and beverage industry lobbyists. He hopes to show that all three oppose the bill because they fear losing profit if it becomes law. “I’m collecting media articles, he said, “trying to see who shows up in the media articles and what those debates are about.” Watts said. “Part of what I’m interested in trying to do is to open up a process and make it more transparent, so people can see how they’re being manipulated by the industry to drink these things that are very bad for them,” he said. Watt’s research compares the fight to previous debates about taxing tobacco for health reasons, but he said it’s harder to make a direct correlation between sugar-sweetened beverages and obesity. “The thing about tobacco is that we had 30 years of evidence, and it took that long to show those causal relationships in such a compelling way,” he said. Watts will continue to work on
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Connecting People with Place: Strategic Writing students seek to better community By Sean Wilcox Strategic Communications Intern
Students in the Strategic Writing, CDAE 120, spring semester course have taken on an innovative project to better the community of Burlington for both students and non-student residents. The class, led by professor Joyce Hendley, is a service learning experience where student groups partner with local businesses and organizations and apply writing and media skills in a “real-world” setting. One community partner, UVM’s Office of Student and Community Relations (OSCR), has undertaken the difficult task of bridging the gap between UVM students and nonstudent residents in Burlington, to make the city a better place for both. The group has been working with non-student residents such as families, retirees, kids, young professionals and neighborhood activists all over Burlington that share what they see as pros and cons of sharing a small city with college students. “A large majority of UVM students are responsible and respectful young
Sweetened Beverages Continued this research by following Vermont legislative decisions and, if they are successful, write about why efforts are succeeding here and not elsewhere in the country. CDAE professor Sarah Heiss, who wrote her Ohio University PhD dissertation on how sweeteners and their risks are presented to the public, was recruited by Watts to take part in the sugar-sweetened beverage research two years ago, shortly after interviewing for a position in CDAE. Watts and Heiss approached the policy issue from several directions thanks to a Food Systems Grant. Part of their research examined how sugarsweetened beverage policies are
adults,” explained Peggy O’Neill, a 12year resident of Brookes Avenue. “It’s just a few outliers that don’t realize that their behavior can negatively impact the residents of Burlington that have to get up early for work and have families.” Students in the group have been exploring different neighborhoods in Burlington, covering community projects such as neighborhood gardening and also meeting with a diverse selection of residents, including students, families, professors and other neighborhood activists. The group uses these meetings and projects to produce media through various UVM media outlets. Their work includes newsletters to students that live off-campus, radio segments on WRUV-FM, video clips on UVMtv as well as news and press releases. The most innovative aspect of this partnership is using all of these different forms of media to create interactive map of Burlington, known as GeoStories, which allows viewers to click on a street and get an accurate sense of the neighborhood. “UVM students have a common
misconception that it is only college students that live in Burlington,” explained Gail Shampnois, director of OSCR. “This project shows the diversity and richness of the community we share.” Assisting with the project is John Mejia, Assistant Director for OSCR, who has been working with student groups to teach technical skills needed to create the GeoStories map, edit video and perform other aspects of media production. “Multi-media writing has become heavily integrated into marketing (of ) such a majority of businesses and organizations today,” said Hendley. “It is extremely constructive for students’ skill sets to be able to learn and apply these forms of writing within this project.” The GeoStories map is a class project that will be implemented this semester by Strategic Writing students but can continue to be expanded upon for years. “There really are endless resources in Burlington to further the connection between people and place,” Shampnois said. “I look forward to seeing this grow.”
portrayed in Vermont media. In fall 2011, Heiss proposed a grant to collect similar data from other states. Because most states have not been successful in proposing a sugarsweetened beverage tax, she decided to focus on New York in order to make a two-state comparison. “What we’re finding is both Vermont media and advocates, and New York media and advocates, really don’t have a solid grasp over the last ten years of what the problem was,” she said. Heiss and Watts want to encourage bill advocates to make changes in their tactics to ensure success. “The advocates should organize, have one voice in solidarity, and have
a clear problem and solution that they can articulate,” Heiss said. Heiss’ interest in the organizational and communicative practices that give rise to successful Sarah Heiss policy is what drives her to continue this research, she said. “What I’m about promoting is critical consumption,” Heiss said. “I see this project on sugar-sweetened beverage tax as informing critical consumption, because I’m helping the public see what’s going on so that they can make an informed decision about what to consume.”
CDAE Class takes on Event Planning & Marketing By Sean Wilcox Strategic Communications Intern
CDAE’s Event Planning for Athletics class offers students a hands-on approach to event marketing and planning through a strategic partnership with UVM’s Athletic Department. The class, led by UVM Assistant Athletic Director Krista Balogh, originally started as a winter session course in 2008 and has gained much popularity since. It’s now offered as a full semester course. Balogh integrates student participation activities at UVM athletic events, readings from different sources of the event planning field, and a variety of guest speakers, ranging from UVM Athletics administrators to local business owners and community members. “It creates for a tailored experience for students to learn and apply skills involved in the event planning process,” she said. Erica Hunt, Athletic Marketing & Promotions Coordinator, works with the class to integrate students into the promotions, sponsorships and marketing of UVM Athletic events by having them shadow her at games.
PHOTO COURTESY OF Krista Balogh
Students in the spring semester Event Planning for Athletics course
These responsibilities include running halftime and intermission promotions, finding contestants in the stands to participate, helping with giveaways, and working with UVM’s mascot, Rally Cat. “Our classroom practicum has been very relevant and applicable to many areas of event planning,” student Justy Daley said. “Participating on the marketing and promotions team at the UVM Women’s Basketball game offered unique hands-on exposure interacting with the fans.” Fellow student Zachary Taylor said, “During the peak of the hockey season we were given a chance to work with the promotions staff during one of the games. We quickly realized how fast paced and meticulous the process is, almost like coordinated chaos. “I even got a chance to help out on the ice in front of the entire crowd. I couldn’t have been more excited.” One unique aspect to the spring 2013 Event Planning course is that students are working to plan and produce an event entirely on their own. “They were responsible for planning and executing our Fan Appreciation Day, one of our key annual promotions,” Balogh said. Hunt, the promotions coordinator, added: “The skills the students are learning this semester will carry over into any marketing or event planning job, not just in an athletic setting. They will understand the timing of planning and event and the back end planning — that decisions about making donations,
Event Planning students dressed as local business’ mascots for Rally’s birthday party.
securing vendors and prizing do not happen overnight. “This is similar to what they will experience in any professional field. Having the responsibility to put this on their resume will not only help build it but serve as a talking point in an interview. The field is competitive for jobs, and any way they can set themselves apart will be helpful.” Daley agreed that the experience has helped to prepare her for life after graduation. “The skills learned through this experience extend far beyond just event planning; teamwork, communication, problem solving, and negotiation are important skills I can utilize in the future to succeed in my professional and personal life,” she said. The Event Planning course has also proved to be a mutually beneficial process for both students and the athletic department at UVM. “Balogh has a vast ‘inside’ knowledge of the many topics we cover in class,” Daley said. “She encourages student input and perspective, which allows our voices to be heard in UVM Athletics.” Balogh will be leading Event Planning for Athletics as a summer course in June 2013.
PHOTO COURTESY OF Chubbs Bryson
Senior Plans After Graduation
Community & International Development Major ‘13
Public Communications Major ‘13
Sales Associate at CMS Food Solutions in New York City
This June, I will be starting a full-time sales position working for CMS Food Solutions, Inc., a startup company based out of New York City, which develops environmentally friendly proprietary food safety technology utilizing a mixture of ingredients found in the natural environment. My desire to work in and improve the, for-profit business sector, integrating social welfare within new business models, all started when I took Kathleen Liang’s Introduction to Entrepreneurship class in the Fall of 2010. From that point forward my undergraduate CID education has provided me with priceless interpersonal communication skills, systems thinking knowledge, and real would project planning experience that will surely help me in any, and all future life endeavors.
Digital Analyst at IXIS Digital in Burlington
I am going to be working for a company called IXIS Digital which works with clients such as dealer. com. I will be their digital analyst, which means I’ll be doing a lot of graphic design work and web developing. In addition to this, they are also teaching me how to use different software programs.
Public Communication Capstone Class gets a new look Students are challenged to act as a nonprofit consulting firm During their tenure at UVM, Public Comminication (PCOM) students develop a variety of skills needed to develop messages that promote, sustain, and research thriving communities. All are important, but none as much as knowing how to effectively communicate with colleagues and future clients. By academic standards, the PCOM Capstone is considered an intensive service-learning experience. By all other accounts, Dr. Sarah Heiss, assistant professor of Public Communication, has designed the course to resemble a nonprofit Communication Consulting Firm. In this new classroom setup, Dr. Heiss is thought of as the executive director, and teaching assistants Kristin Smith and Kate Lukas act as project managers. This spring, PCOM seniors enrolled in the class were broken into small teams and asked to deliver professional-level communication-
consulting services to community clients. Consulting teams conducted communication audits, proposed strategic communication plans, and, after obtaining a signed contract, implemented the communication plans for the clients. While the team projects focus on producing communication materials for clients, class time focuses on effective project management skills. Dr. Heiss and her teaching assistants use in-class activities to help the teams effectively engage in small group communication and project management while teaching the professional etiquette needed for successful consultant-client relationships. By completing their consulting projects, students developed materials for their portfolio and had an authentic communication experience that prepares them for future careers. At the same time,
Capstone Community Partners: •
Youth and Adults Transforming Schools Together
Vermont Community Garden Network
Northeast Organic Farmer Association
Rutland Area Farm and Food Link
Vermont Environmental Education Program
community partners received professional-quality communication materials. As an added bonus, the organizations had the opportunity to meet the next great cohort of PCOM professionals to graduate from UVM!
CDAE Updates Publications Baker, D. (2013) Latino Dairy Workers in Vermont Communities & Banking 24: 2, 5-7. Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. Baker, D., Hamshaw, S., Hamshaw, K. (2013) Rapid Flood Exposure Assessment of Vermont Mobile Home Parks Following Tropical Storm Irene. Natural Hazards Review. Advance online publication Dec. 2012. Becot, F., Nickerson, V., Conner, D. & Kolodinsky, J. (2012). Costs of Food Safety Certification on Fresh Produce Farms in Vermont. HortTechnology, 22(5). Conner, D., Becot, F., Hoffer, D., Kahler, E., Sawyer, S., & Berlin, L. (forthcoming). Measuring current consumption of locally grown foods in Vermont: Methods for baselines and targets Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development. Farley, J. (2013) The Economics of Sustainability in U. Diwekar and H. Cabezas (ed.) Sustainability: Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives. Bentham Open E-books. Kolodinsky, J. (2012). Persistence of Health Labeling Information Asymmetry in the United States: Historical Perspectives and 21st Century Problems. Journal of Macromarketing. Advance Publication, April 26, 2012, DOI: 10.1177/0276146711434829. 32 Issue 2 June 2012 pp. 193 - 207. Liang, C. (2013). Dollar Enterprise – From Theory to Reality and an Experiential Learning, 4th Edition, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, USA. ISBN: 978-1-4652-1285-6. McMahon, E., Busia, K., Ascherio, M. (2013) “Comparing Peer Reviews: The Universal Periodic Review of the UN Human Rights Council And The African Peer Review Mechanism,” African and Asian Studies, accepted for publication, vol. 12, no.3. Spencer, P., Watts, R., Flynn, B. The Effect of Environmental Factors on Bicycle Commuters in Vermont: Influences of a Northern Climate.
Publications & Awards
Transport Geography. (revisions accepted March 6, 2013).
Mike Archer (2013) A Qualitative Analysis of Agricultural Entrepreneurship in Vermont.
Wang, Q., Sun, T., Li, M., Li, W., Zou, Y. (2013). “Effectiveness of the “Made in China” TV advertisement: Evidence from a survey at an American university.” Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies.
Florence Anne Bécot (2013) Making a living growing vegetables in Vermont : doing the math for long term profitability and sustainability
Watts, R. (2012). Public Meltdown: The Story of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant. Center for Research on Vermont/White River Press.
Jacqueline R. LeBlanc (2013) Alternative food network infrastructure : food hub development in Vermont. Minghao Li (2013) Consumer willingness to pay for credence food attributes : determinants and implications.
Zia, A., Koliba, C., Tian, Y.(2013). Governance Network Analysis: Experimental Simulations of Alternate Institutional Designs for Marta Ascherio (2012) Hispanic/Latino migrant Intergovernmental Project Prioritization dairy workers in Vermont : towards a statewide Processes. In L. Gerrits & P.K. Marks (Eds.), coalition of service providers. COMPACT I: Public Administration in Complexity. Litchfield Park: Emergent Publications. Pages Jennifer J. Colby (2012) A comprehensive 144-165. assessment of factors affecting success on Vermont grass-based livestock farms.
Aw a r d s
Dan Baker recieved the CALS Carigan Award for Undergraduate Teaching Excellence. The CALS First Year Experience Award is now named the Patterson Award after Tom Patterson.
Honors College Scholars Sam Patterson and Erika Colbertaldo
Thesis Defenses Olivia Saucier (2013) On the origin and growth of organic dairying.
Faye Christine Conte (2012) Impacts of the built food environment and consumer food choice on meal patterns and obesity in northern New England. Chelsea Lee Davidoff (2012) Diversification of dairy farms in the northeast United States and creating taste of place for Vermont. Noelle Sevoian (2012) Farm to institution in Vermont : constraints to organizing and values of supply chain actors. Abby Barrett Smith (2012) Taste of place and the regional audience : origin labels, consumer behavior, and the spatialization of quality.
John R. Woodward (2012) Financial stability Laurel Valchuis (2013) Re-Localization of Energy and state and local government fiscal behavior : towards a post-Keynesian economics of the and Food: Anaerobic Methane Digesters and subnational public sector. Alternative Food Systems in Vermont. Chloe Wieland (2013) Wicked Entrepreneurship Richard Hyun Nam (2012) Intra-household vehicle Education: A Case Study of the Growing Vermont allocation using the 2009 National Household Travel Survey. Store. Ethan Thompson (2012) Assessing market support Wen Li (2013) Potential causes for childhood overweight and obesity on traditional economy: for value-added products on Northeast dairy farms A case study middle school students in Shaanxi, : a conjoint analysis of preferences and willingness to pay for farmstead and artisan cheese. China.
About CDAE The Community Development and Applied Economics Department (CDAE) is part of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at the University of Vermont. CDAE supports sustainable local, regional, and international communities through transdisciplinary research, education, and outreach that serve the public interest. www.uvm.edu/cdae
205 Morrill Hall, Burlington, VT 05405
This CDAE Compass was written by Sean Wilcox and Danielle Bilotta and edited by Chris Evans, Sarah Heiss and Jane Kolodinsky. To suggest a story or feature for the next newsletter, send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org. Special thanks to interviewees Ajla Afizi, Krista Balogh, David Connor, Justy Daley, Joseph Gagliardo, Sarah Heiss, Joyce Hendly, Erica Hunt, Justin King, Jane Kolodinsky, Kathleen Liang, Danielle Mishkit, Peggy O’Neil, Lauren Perry, Sophia Rull, Zachary Taylor, Gioia Thompson, and Richard Watts.