Page 1


Pwoje Espwa: Planning for Progress in Southern Haiti

Location: Les Cayes, Haiti Christine Costa cc000082304 Advanced Design Studio August 2010 - July 2011 Professor Art Smith College of Architecture and Design, Lawrence Technological University Southfield, Michigan


2

1 INTRODUCTION WHAT IS PWOJE ESPWA? GLOBAL LOCATION ABOUT HAITI LES CAYES REGION

4 6 8 9 10

SITE ISSUES SITE ANALYSIS SITE DATE SITE FLOODING EXISTING BUILDINGS

8

7 APPLICATION OF SYSTEM DEVELOPING THE PLAN FINAL MASTERPLAN DRAINAGE WATER TOWERS SOLAR SECURITY

78 80 83 84 86 88 90

12 14 15 16 18

PHASING DIAGRAMS PHASE 1 PHASE 2 PHASE 3

96 96 98 100

3 WHAT IS NEEDED PROGRAM

26 28

9 DINING HALL/KITCHEN BOYS HOUSING PAVILION

104 108 112


ORGANZING THE PROPERTY MASTERPLAN BOUNDARY APPLYING THE PROGRAM SPATIAL STUDIES CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT MID-YEAR CRITIQUE

32 34 36 38 44 46

10 FINAL CRITIQUE REVIEW AT PWOJE ESPWA

6

5

4

120 122

BUILDING IN HAITI MATERIAL STUDY CHOSEN MATERIAL

50 52 58

11 STRUCTURAL STUDY CONSTRUCTION MANUAL

126 128

CREATING A SYSTEM VENTILATION STUDY MODULE DEVELOPMENT FRAMING WALLS DRAINAGE WALKWAYS COLUMNS

60 62 64 64 66 73 74 76

12 BIBLIOGRAPHY IMAGE CREDITS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

150 151 153


INTRODUCTION This book is the documentation of a year-long study intended to create a realistic plan for the future development of Pwoje Espwa, an inspiring organization in southern Haiti that I had the honor of visiting in March 2010. I was then able to visit again in May 2011 to present this work. This study aims to support the goals of Pwoje Espwa through the tools available to a designer of space - planning, organization, form, and constructability. The site is real, the organization is real, the children are real, and the needs are real. It is the nature of architecture to desire a heavy hand in the design of everything from the plans of cities to the detail of a door knob. A heavy hand by outsiders in Haiti is a large part of what has gone wrong in the troubled country. This plan has attempted to follow the lead that Pwoje Espwa has set: To provide a framework and organization to the chaos, and give the Haitian people room to develop themselves and their country as Haitians. The plan that has been developed is meant to inform, to provide suggestions, and to spur conversations about Pwoje Espwa’s future as it pertains to the built environment. In reality, it is unlikely that the project as a whole will be realized. It is my intention and my hope that individual elements and ideas can be extracted from this study for use in future building plans, in the pursuit of a more productive and fruitful environment for the self-development of the children who may eventually become the future leaders of Haiti.

4


1

INTRODUCTION WHAT IS PWOJE ESPWA GLOBAL LOCATION ABOUT HAITI LES CAYES REGION

5


WHAT IS PWOJE ESPWA? Pwoje Espwa is a non-denominational non-governmental organization (NGO) founded in 1998 by Father Marc Boisvert, a former U.S. Navy Chaplain. It was started as an orphanage within the city of Les Cayes caring for 60 children. In 2004, with over 200 children in their care, the organization moved out of the city to 130 acres of fertile farmland that became Vilaj Espwa. Today it is nothing less than an oasis for vulnerable children, where they are housed, fed, educated, and freed from the cycle of poverty that has crippled the country for so many generations. THE SITE: 130 ACRES OUTSIDE LES CAYES, HAITI HOME TO NEARLY 800 CHILDREN AGES 2-18 (95% BOYS) PROVIDES EDUCATION FOR OVER 1400 CHILDREN IN AND AROUND PWOJE ESPWA EMPLOYS OVER 250 HAITIANS, MAKING PWOJE ESPWA THE LARGEST EMPLOYER IN SOUTHERN HAITI THE CLINIC ON SITE IS MADE AVAILABLE TO THE SURROUNDING POPULATION AS WELL AS THE EMPLOYEES AND RESIDENTS THE KITCHEN PREPARES 4,000+ HOT MEALS PER DAY VOCATIONAL TRAINING PROGRAM INCLUDES A WOOD SHOP, METAL SHOP, TAILOR SHOP, AGRICULTURE PROGRAM, AND SERVICE INDUSTRY TRAINING . WEEKLY CHURCH SERVICES ARE ATTENDED VOLUNTARILY BY THE CHILDREN AND THE SURROUNDING POPULATION. A GUEST HOUSE ON THE PROPERTY PROVIDES ACCOMMODATIONS TO VOLUNTEERS WITH SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE TO SHARE WITH THE RESIDENTS AND STAFF.

6


Pwoje Espwa has achieved the unthinkable in their 13 years in southern Haiti, housing over 700 children, feeding and educating over 1400 kids every day, and establishing a vocational training program. Their rapid growth since 1998 has created a group of buildings on their 140 acre property that is, unfortunately, lacking in organization, overall design, and hierarchy. Given the success that they have had in providing comparatively comfortable, structured lives for these children and young adults, the organization and development of the campus is a clear next step for their progress in creating responsible, proud citizens of Haiti that can lead the country into a better future.

7


GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION

PWOJE ESPWA

8


ABOUT HAITI The Republic of Haiti makes up the western third of the island of Hispaniola that it shares with the Dominican Republic The population of the island, as of 2011 is 9.7 million with almost 2.2 million living in the capital city of Port-au-Prince. 66% of the population works in the agricultural sector, which consists mostly of subsistence farming. The official languages of Haiti are Haitian Creole, spoken by everyone, and French, spoken by upper class Haitians. As a French colony, Haiti had been one of the wealthiest islands in the Caribbean, at one time called The Pearl of the Caribbean. This wealth was dependent on the heavy importation of African slaves to work the sugar plantations after the indigenous Taino Indians had been wiped out. After the revolt of almost half million slaves in the late 1700s, Haiti became the world’s first black republic and declared independence from France in 1804. The island has since been plagued by corruption, abject poverty, severe deforestation, dictatorships, international sanctions, and foreign occupations all resulting in, for better and worse, the highest per-capita concentration of NGO’s (nongovernmental organizations) in the world. Haiti is, monetarily, the poorest country in the western hemisphere with the wealthiest 1% of the population owning half of all the country’s wealth. Despite (or because of) the country’s troubled history, Haiti has a rich culture with strong roots in West Africa, as well as influences from French, Native Taino, and Spanish cultures. Music and Art play a huge part in the lives of the Haitian people. With 52% literacy rates and 80% of the population living below the poverty line, artistic expression allows the strong spirit of the Haitian people to flourish.

9


10


PORT SALUT

LES CAYES

SURROUNDING REGION The Pwoje Espwa campus is a 10 minute drive by truck or motorcycle from the center of Les Cayes. Les Cayes is one of Haiti’s major port cities with a population estimated at 70,000. There is an airport about 20 minutes from Pwoje Espwa which services regional flights around the Caribbean, creating the potential to become a successful tourist hub for the beautiful southern coastal areas. One area in particular is the town of Port Salut, 45 minutes drive from Pwoje Espwa, a quaint beach town that already serves as a vacation destination for Haitians and the few visitors of the region. The potential of this area to have a relatively successful economy based in tourism is evident. The education and training that the children of Pwoje Espwa receive will give them the chance to be a part of a future economy, rather than watch from the sidelines.

11


SITE ISSUES • ORGANIZATION • WATER MANAGMENT (FLOODING, IRRIGATION, DRAINAGE ETC.) • CULTURAL AWARENESS AND ASSIMILATION • BALANCING CHIDREN’S SAFETY AND FREEDOM • ACCOMODATION OF FLUCTUATING BUILDING USES, NEEDS, AND POPULATION OF ORPHANAGE • QUALITY OF ENVIRONMENT • SUPPORT AND DEVELOPMENT OF EXISTING PROGRAMS • INCORPORATION/INTEGRATION OF PLANNED PROJECTS

12


2 SITE ISSUES SITE ANALYSIS SITE DATA SITE FLOODING EXISTING BUILDINGS

13


SITE ANALYSIS To further understand the climate data of Les Cayes, Haiti (for someone who has spent their life in southeastern Michigan) a side by side comparison was made with the same data for Detroit. Comparing the two helps a Midwesterner grasp the true value of 6 sun hours per day (similar to Phoenix, AZ) and 52 inches of rain per year, as well as comparing the sun path diagram for both. The sun sitting much higher in the sky throughout the year will have an effect on any shading techniques used in the buildings.

GLOBAL PREVAILING WINDS

SUN PATH DIAGRAM

14


LES CAYES D A T A

DETROIT D A T A

Latitude 18.203°N Longitude 73.794°W

Latitude 42.331°N Longitude 83.045°W

Wet and Dry Tropical Climate

Humid Continental Climate

Average Annual Rainfall: 52”

Average Annual Rainfall: 33” (+ snowfall 41”)

Average Temperatures: January - 80°F July - 86°F

Average Temperatures: January - 26°F July - 75°F

Average Annual Wind Speed: 11.0 mph

Average Annual Wind Speed: 10.4 mph

Solar Potential: 6 sun-hours per day

Solar Potential: 4.2 sun-hours per day

Vulnerable to: hurricanes flooding earthquakes drought

Vulnerable to: winter storms tornados

(a helpful comparison)

15


16

The deforestation and erosion of soils in Haiti has created a high risk of dangerous flooding in many areas. The ample farm land that Pwoje Espwa calls home does not see the worst of the country’s flooding, yet other issues plague the property. The area surrounding the property is very flat which makes for decent farming, but when the rains start, the drainage becomes a problem. The high water table, combined with the measly 1/4%-3/4% grade slope creates large areas of sitting water throughout the property during the rainy season, the lowest area being the boys housing. When the rain finally stops and the sun comes out, the water could still take days to filter into the ground. It would be nearly impossible for the entire site to be graded to an acceptable slope for adequate drainage, so another more creative solution is needed.


EXISTING SITE SLOPE: 1/4%-3/4% RECOMMENDED SITE SLOPE FOR DRAINAGE: 2%+

17


As shown in the region diagram, the property of Pwoje Espwa is about a 10 minute drive from the city of Les Cayes. Rural subsistence farming and small villages make up the surrounding area. The long road to Pwoje Espwa (photo below), which turns off of the main paved road that continues down the peninsula, is made of round river rocks that never quite settle into place. The top speed that an SUV or motorcycle can safely navigate this road is 15 miles per hour. So the hazard of a speeding vehicle in or around the property is minimal. The large majority of traffic coming down the road is from the direction of Les Cayes, making the east corner of the property the most active area. Running through the center of the property is a small river which helps to irrigate the surrounding crops, while creating a boundary at the back of the main campus area. This creates an ideal situation for transitioning the function of buildings from public (near the road) to private (near the river and farmland) within the property.

EXISTING BUILDING ANALYSIS 18


The numbers on this site plan correspond with the existing building analysis on the following pages.

The 130 acre property has many existing structures of various age, construction, condition, and usefulness. It was therefore imperative to document these buildings and their current state to determine which buildings are still functioning well enough to be reused in the future master plan, and which ones should be demolished.

19


1. Hope Village

built: 2005

construction: concrete block walls, 2x4 wood roof framing, corrugated metal roof

20 housing units (675 SF & 12 kids each) 2 toilet houses (540 SF) 1 shower house (1000 SF) 1 small pavilion (800 SF) Block wall surrounding village with one gate

status: SALVAGE due to low elevation of village. sitting water hazardous to children’s health.

2. Quonset Hut

construction: corrugated metal arch building on reinforced concrete foundation and slab

(children’s housing)

(gathering space)

built: 2006

(6,000 SF) built for: storage used for: dining, church, gatherings, factory, storage etc.

status: SALVAGE due to the inappropriate service type use in central location. Lack of light and ventilation for human occupation in tropical climate. potential to relocate.

3. Clinic

construction: concrete block walls, 2x4 wood roof framing, corrugate metal roof

built: Unknown - On property when purchased in 2004 (small additions in 2006 and 2010) (950 SF)

4. Kitchen built: 2005 (1,600 SF)

20

status: SALVAGE not sufficient square footage to continue to be used as a clinic. Too small to be used for anything else in this central location. Building is old and in fair condition.

construction: concrete block walls, 2x4 wood roof framing, corrugate metal roof, blue tarps, orange plastic netting status: SALVAGE due to lack of space, ventilation, equipment and prime central location. Not adjacent to a sufficient dining area.


5. Warehouse/Metal Shop built: 2007-2010

(6,000 SF) originally intended to be a dental clinic container structure

6. Tailor Shop built: 2008

(1,500 SF) originally built to be a technical training school

7. Food Storage built: 2009 (3,600 SF)

8. Wood Shop built: 2006 (2,100 SF)

construction: reused steel shipping containers, concrete block foundation support status: SALVAGE -good road access at front of property,but cobbled together pieces are not secure or structurally sound for use other than storage

construction: concrete block with reinforced concrete floor, roof, and columns status: KEEP -building is in excellent shape. good road access. isolation from other buildings plays a factor in its potential use.

construction: concrete block with reinforced concrete floor, roof, and columns status: KEEP -building is in excellent shape and is a solid, secure place for storage. good road access.

construction: concrete block walls, reinforced concrete foundation, slab and columns, steel truss roof framing and corrugated roof with plastic corrugation to let light in. status: KEEP -building is well built and natural light through the roof is an asset. prime location near road for potential use in vocational school.

21


9. Elementary & Secondary Schools (2 buildings)

built: 2004 & 2005

construction: concrete block walls, plaster, welded steel roof framing, corrugate metal roof

(4,000 SF each) built for: chidren’s housing used for: secondary school/ vocational classrooms

status: KEEP -buildings are in good shape with classrooms surrounding open courtyards. Both could use an updated roof

10. Preschool

construction: concrete block walls, plaster, reiforced concrete columns and roof

built: 2010 (4,800 SF)

11. Primary School built: 2005 (9,800 SF) Also used as hurricane shelter for children

12. Girls Housing built: 2011

status: KEEP -building is in excellent shape with classrooms surrounding a secure open courtyard

construction: concrete block walls, plaster, reinforced poured concrete floor, roof, and columns. status: KEEP -building is in good shape with 2 levels of classrooms surrounding open courtyard

construction: steel stud prefabricated structure with reflective insulation under stucco material

(900 SF each)

22

status: KEEP -buildings are new with plumbing and electricity to each. strong in hurricane and earthquake situations


13. Mill and Drying Slab built: 2005

(900 SF building 5,000 SF drying surface)

14. Sitwon Village built: 2005

15 housing units (675 SF each)

15. Guest House built: 2005 (6,800 SF)

16. Matante’s House built: 2005 (400 SF)

construction: concrete block, wood roof framing, corrugated metal roof status: KEEP -building is in acceptable shape. drying surface is used by both the campus and the community to dry grains.

construction: concrete block and plaster, wood roof framing, corrugated roof status: KEEP -buildings are acceptable. location at opposite end of property is desireable for families and employees

construction: earth brick and reinforced concrete columns, floors, and roof status: KEEP -building is in very good shape. full plumbing and electricity. courtyard with two levels of rooms, kitchen and restrooms

construction: earth brick and reinforced concrete columns wood roof framing and corrugated roof status: KEEP -building is in good shape and located in central location.

23


17. Security House 1 built: Unknown

construction: concrete block walls, plaster, 2x4 wood roof framing, corrugated metal roof

(450 SF ) status: KEEP -located close to entrance, has unique Haitian quality, decent condition

18. Security House 2 built: Unknown

construction: concrete block walls, plaster, 2x4 wood roof framing, corrugated metal roof

(450 SF) status: KEEP -located close to entrance, has unique Haitian quality, decent condition

19. Village Store built: Unknown

construction: concrete block walls, plaster, 2x4 wood roof framing, corrugated metal roof

(300 SF) status: KEEP -located close to entrance, has unique Haitian quality, decent condition

20. Toilet House built: 2009

construction: concrete block walls, plaster, 2x4 wood roof framing, corrugated metal roof

(1000 SF) status: KEEP -newly built and in good condition. located close to fields and schools

24


21. Primary School Toilet built: 2007

construction: concrete block walls, plaster, 2x4 wood roof framing, corrugated metal roof

(630 SF ) status: KEEP -good condition but needs cleaning. located near the primary school and workshops.

22. Sitwon Village Toilet & Shower built: 2009 (500 SF )

construction: concrete block walls, plaster, 2x4 wood roof framing, corrugated metal roof status: KEEP -newly built and in good condition. serves the sitwan village residents

25


WHAT IS NEEDED? Studies have shown that the environment of a child growing up will have a lasting effect on the way they conduct their lives in the future. Pwoje Espwa recognized this need when they moved their organization from a building in the city of Les Cayes to their current acreage in 2004. Pwoje Espwa houses, feeds, and educates orphans and vulnerable children with an impressive program, however, the organization falls victim to haphazard placement of buildings, constantly changing uses and needs of these buildings, and lack of a plan for extensive growth for the future.

• Masterplan for future growth • new children’s housing on higher, dryer ground • NEW dining hall and kitchen to serve meals • a home for a progressive vocational training college • community OUTREACH food distribution center • gathering space for community events and religious services • office space for relocation of administrative offices From city • larger clinic facility • energy plan • water collection, drainage and management plan

26


3 WHAT IS NEEDED PROGRAM

27


PROGRAMMING Through a combination of first-hand experience of the campus as well as information about the needs and future plans of Pwoje Espwa from Father Marc Boisvert and others working with the organization, a program was developed that was meant to include any and all future plans, whether affordable for the organization or not, to create an all inclusive master plan concept. The program started out as a very specific table, broken down into individual spaces for each function. This was a logical (and required) place to start, but due to the nature of the project and the evolution of the goals of the master plan, the program was instead generalized into square footage goals, based on the original program table, for each function. This decision to generalize the program was supported by the fact that this campus has always been able to evolve to its needs, and will continue to evolve in the future, so to design buildings around very specific functions is unrealistic as well as inappropriate. To give Pwoje Espwa flexible spaces that work for a number of different uses is more conducive to not only the way the organization functions, but also the culture of Haiti itself. The organziation, and the Haitians working along side them must be able to freely and easily evolve on their own.

PRELIMINARY PROGRAM

square footage

# of spaces

kids bedrooms (6/room) house mothers room(10 kids) toilet house (10 toilets) shower house (10 showers) Shared living space/18 kids Matan's House Councelor offices Circulation

40sf/child 90sf 600sf 400sf 200sf 400sf 100sf

900 90 9 9 50 1 2

36000 8100 5400 3600 10000 400 200 15000 78700

Total PAVILLION 1500 person gathering space back of house/storage

VOCATIONAL SCHOOL welding/metal shop carpenter shop tailor shop cosmetology medical/clinic Med Training rooms Clinic waiting storage training restaurant kitchen/storage 40% dining 60% toilets Circulation faculty and admin offices storage classrooms back of house

DINING FACILITY Dining Area for 1500 Kitchen Food Storage circulation

GUEST HOUSING Guest Rooms/double occupancy Restrooms/showers Kitchen and dining area outdoor secure gathering space Guest Office supply/storage room Guest Manager Appartment Office Living Room Kitchenette/dining room Bedroom Bathroom circulation Circulation

10sf/person

1500

CLINIC Waiting Exam rooms Triage Pharmacy and Storage Circulation

15000 3000 18000

7000 2000 1500 1500 3000 1000 1000 500 500 1280 15sf/person 20

50 4

90sf

20

800

5

10sf/person

450 750 80 4000 1800 500 4000 300sf

Total

26580

1500

15000 2000 1000 3600

Total 350

21600 5250 1000 800 1000 200 1000 640

0.2

15

100 150 150 150 40 50 Total

4000 13890

1500 6

3000 2000 1000 2000

Total

8000

Total

1000 250 300 250 1800

Total

9000 250 1000 250 10000

ADMINISTRATION OFFICES Office Space Storage Circulation Waiting

28

sub-total

HOUSING 900 boys

S2H FACTORY Work/Training Area Toilets administration offices break area


EXISTING program areas

ADDED program areas

REMOVED program areas 29


30


ORGANIZING THE PROPERTY MASTERPLAN BOUNDARY APPLYING THE PROGRAM SPATIAL STUDIES CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT MID-YEAR CRITIQUE

4

31


ORGANIZING the property To start the process of master planning 130 acres, bubble diagrams were used to designate ideal areas for uses throughout the property. The main area of the property transitioned from public functions towards the east corner where the road from Les Cayes meets Pwoje Espwa, to private functions towards the west end near the river and farm land.

PRIVATE

PUBLIC

The unanswered question at this stage is where to place the new children’s housing. There is an abundance of land to the west of the existing group of buildings that is also on higher ground from its existing location. This became an issue that had to be worked through in the later stages of the master plan design in order to consider specific program adjacencies. There was also an intention to include in the master plan a development that is in the works to be built in the near future. The dome village meant for families of employees and vulnerable women is planned to be placed somewhere on the 130 acre property, so it made sense at this stage to include its placement in the master plan. It is later removed from the final program.

32

MAIN CAMPUS ORGANZATION


CHILDREN’S HOUSING

MAIN CAMPUS

HOUSING LOCATION option 1

DOME VILLAGE

CHILDREN’S HOUSING

MAIN CAMPUS

HOUSING LOCATION option 2 DOME VILLAGE

DOME VILLAGE CHILDREN’S

MAIN CAMPUS

HOUSING

HOUSING LOCATION option 3

33


As the site analysis and program development progressed into the beginnings of a master plan concept, it was clear that overtaking any of the existing farmland for building would be contradictory to the intentions and goals of Pwoje Espwa. There is currently a thriving agriculture program that not only functions as a vocational training program, but also provides a large amount of food, helping to feed the children and add needed nutrients to their diet. Haiti’s climate allows for two harvesting seasons and currently on the Pwoje Espwa property alone they are able to produce, mangos, guavas, papaya, breadfruit, corn, onions, tomatoes, beans, egg plant, potatoes, carrots, okra, and cucumber. These observations led to the development of the master plan boundary, which focuses all of the future development on a smaller portion of the property, saving the farmland for much needed food production as well as educational and employment opportunities to Haitians.

34


35


DEFINING EXISTING BUILDING EDGES AND EXTENDING THESE EDGE LINES TO DISCOVER HIDDEN CONNECTIONS AND ORGANIZATION

FINDING AND HIGHLIGHTING THE HIDDEN CONNECTIONS WITHIN THE MASS OF EDGE LINES

ESTABLISHING THE MAIN CONNECTION ROUTES FROM BUILDING TO BUILDING

CONCEPT 1 This was the first attempt at finding an organization within the chaos of the existing buildings, and then using that hidden organization to infill the new program. The spaces are defined by building edges and outdoor space is created with new circulation connections and building edges. The boys housing is not established at this point but is designated towards higher ground. The new program areas represent only square footages and not building shapes and forms. INFILLING THE NEW PROGRAM AROUND EXISTING BUILDINGS AND NEWLY DEFINED ROAD ORGANIZATIONS

APPLYING THE PROGRAM 36


CONCEPT 2 This is another attempt at organizing the space but focused more on existing circulation conditions and moving the hub of the campus towards the back of the property, right outside the pavilion. This creates a public hub where the road to Sitwon village meets the road through the mass of buildings and another connecting road directly from the main road. This is a variation on the public to private model but still creates the boundary because outsiders will bypass the main campus area to get to the pavilion and employee housing.

CONCEPT 3 In this concept, the buildings are organized by a unifying walkway that is superimposed onto the site. Rather than trying to build a master plan around existing buildings, this concept tries to build it around newfound defined outdoor spaces. This allows more emphasis to be placed on the human experience, rather than the existing buildings having the most importance. Courtyards are defined and the new program is “plugged-in� to this layout around the new walkways. This allows for the flexibility of more future growth after this master plan program has been realized, with new buildings able to be added to the connecting covered walkway without the need for a whole revision of the master plan.

PRELIMINARY CONCEPTS - SELF-CRTIQUE Preliminary development for a master plan concept helped to analyze the program adjacencies but more importantly, highlighted a key component that was being ignored in these initial developments. The realities of scale in open space, and how that can make a person feel, was overlooked in favor of attempts to create an organization within existing structures. The importance of how spaces feel, in a place where vulnerable children are growing up and developing into adults, cannot be taken lightly. Children who feel comfortable and unthreatened in a space will be more receptive to friendships, learning, and productive socializing. So, in order to further support the goals of Pwoje Espwa through the built environment, it was imperative to understand how to create these comfortable spaces.

37


CURRENT GATHERING SPACES The first step to grasping an understanding of the desired comfortable spaces was to analyze where the children currently congregate informally on the campus as a way to understand what spaces make them feel comfortable in groups, and as individuals. These areas are scaled down by the structures or trees that define the spaces, creating a feeling of shelter and safety that the children are naturally drawn to.

38


UNDERSTANDING THE SPATIAL NEEDS OF CHILDREN The children living at Pwoje Espwa range from 4 to 18 years old. The spatial needs of children differ greatly as they progress through these stages of life into adulthood. Therefore, The Pwoje Espwa master plan must attempt to accommodate all of their needs with various techniques. As Christopher Day explains in his book Environment and Children, the children in the higher age groups will need more open space for high energy play and social gathering to congregate, to see, and be seen. This space also needs to be balanced with smaller, more private areas that feel protected for talking, thinking, studying, etc. sketches from ENVIRONMENT AND CHILDREN by Christopher Day

The smaller children, above all else, need to feel safe so that their minds can be free to grow and learn openly from their surroundings. They require smaller places to play where they can easily comprehend the size and quality of the space. The sketch illustrates an undesirable versus a desirable space for smaller children to play. They, like the older children, will also need a more private place to withdraw to but for different reasons. The smaller children live in their imaginations and these smaller variations on space can become part of an imagined story, or just a safe resting place to feel protected. With the wide range of ages living at Pwoje Espwa, it is imperative that the master plan incorporate many different spatial scenarios that the children can seek out and make their own. This will entail leaving large open spaces for formal soccer matches, smaller social gathering spaces, variable landscapes that make the small children more comfortable, and maybe most importantly on a campus filled with children, the protective spaces for thought and imagination.

39


UNDERSTANDING SPACE Using my own personal experiences as a guide, the next step was to analyze spaces that I had personally visited as an outsider, in order to connect physical dimensions of a space with the feeling of a space. The concept of 400 feet as opposed to 150 feet is much easier to grasp when associated with a real-life physical open space. Many of these spaces are defined by a continuous line of buildings that reach up to 5 stories, which does have the ability alter the perception of a person’s experience within it. The real value of this study lies in the understanding of an area’s dimensions and then applying that knowledge to create truly comfortable environments within the master plan. As the master plan developed, and outdoor spaces were being formed, it became valuable reference to be reminded of how spaces feel at a human level standing within them, not just how they look from above.

PIAZZA DEL DUOMO MILAN 190,000 sq. ft. W:D ratio 1:1.3 average building facade - 5 stories

PIAZZA NAVONA ROME 141,100 sq. ft. W:D ratio 1:4.8 average building facade - 5 stories

40


PIAZZA DELLA SIGNORIA FLORENCE 52,000 sq. ft. W:D ratio 1:1.3 average building facade - 5 stories

LTU QUAD SOUTHFIELD, MI 176,250 sq. ft. W:D ratio 1:1.25 average building facade - 3 stories

CITY BLOCK LES CAYES, HAITI 75,600 sq. ft. W:D ratio 1:1 average building facade - 2 stories

41


PIAZZA DEL CAMPIDOGLIO ROME 37,500 sq. ft. W:D ratio 1:1.6 average building facade - 3 stories

CAMPO DE’ FIORI ROME 42,000 sq. ft. W:D ratio 1:2.69 average building facade - 5 stories

PIAZZA SANTO SPIRITO FLORENCE 41,400 sq. ft. W:D ratio 1:2.17 average building facade - 5 stories

42


PIAZZA DI SANTA MARIA TRASTEVERE, ROME 29,250 sq. ft. W:D ratio 1:1.3 average building facade - 4 stories

CLOISTERS AT MONT SAINT-MICHEL NORMANDY 2,400 sq. ft. W:D ratio 1:1.5 average building facade - 1 story

The spaces for this study were chosen for their impression they left on me, as well as their characteristics of being a defined outdoor space that has the ability to create a feeling of security, safety and comfort. Some of the larger spaces – if experienced as an outsider (or child in an unfamiliar place) – could be intimidating and uncomfortable, while the smaller spaces, such as Campo di Fiori and Piazza di Santa Maria, where very comfortable and inviting for me as an outsider. Even more so in Piazza Santo Spirito, where trees and fountains created variations in the ground plain. This gave the inhabitants of the space shelter and brought the space down to human scale. The cloisters at Mont Saint-Michel helped in the understanding of a space that feels more enclosed and private rather than public and inviting.

43


CONCEPT 4 With the knowledge of spaces now understood through the previous studies, two new concepts were developed with a new focus on the creation of space for people, rather than the organization of existing buildings from above. Concept 4 was an attempt at creating the outdoor spaces with just the placement of buildings. Using the programming adjacencies that had been developed in the previous concepts, the idea was to create three distinct areas that could transition from public areas near the road to more private areas away from the road. The spaces would get progressively more private creating a level of security. The issues became evident when the program square footage was not enough to separate these three spaces from each other – making one large intimidating space in the middle of the campus.

44


CONCEPT 5 Concept 5 took the lessons learned from concept 4, while also taking ideas from the earlier concept 3 to incorporate covered walkways as space shapers that can unify the existing buildings with new developments, as well as provide shade and protection from the elements as one crosses the campus. This concept seemed to create the perfect balance between building organization and comfortable space creation for people. The shapes that make up the proposed new buildings on this master plan are square footage representations meant to be further developed in the next phase of this project.

45


DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPT 5 The courtyards created by the walkways were limited to dimensions earlier determined as comfortable spaces. The first courtyard that connects the pavilion, administration offices and vocational school is more public with limited tree shade and a more formal atmosphere. The second courtyard surrounds a group of large existing mango trees and creates a shady safe retreat for the shy younger children and new arrivals. This also would connect the more child-focused functions like the kitchen and dining area as well as the schools. The third courtyard becomes the playground to support the school buildings surrounding it with an open space for playing and socializing. This master plan concept completed the first semester of work.

On December 10th , 2010, the progress of this study was presented in an end of semester critique which included students from 5 studios as well as professors and their guest critics. The following are comments that helped to continue progress into the next semester: Critics commented that they didn’t fully understand the connection between the space studies and the project since most of the spaces shown were in dense European cities and the enclosed spaces became relief from the surrounding city. In the case of Pwoje Espwa, the defined areas are supposed to break up the endless space. I believe this is a secondary concern to the original intention of the study, which is to understand dimensions as it relates to feelings of space and distances. It was a valuable tool for me to keep the space dimensions in check and reminded me to place myself on the ground as the master plan developed. Another concern from the jury was that the housing had just become another form of barracks rather than an improvement on what they have now. While the rest of the master plan responded to the existing conditions, the housing was stiff and orderly. The original intention for the placement of the housing was to utilize the existing line of trees and shrubs to break up the courtyard areas within the housing clusters. This line of trees happened to be in a straight line adjacent to the small road. I agree that the housing could use more thought and consideration. The critics inquired about the placement of the pavilion since it had changed from the preliminary concepts where it was placed further back on the property. The semester presentation in December did not address the intended concept of placing more public buildings towards the more public end of the property. This came about during the end of the semester and was not clearly shown at the time. By placing the pavilion and clinic closer to the road it prevents visitors from penetrating too far into the campus interior – creating a safer and more controlled area without having to build walls and fences.

46


47


MATERIALS ALREADY? Traditionally, material studies do not follow a generalized conceptual master plan. In the case of this master plan, it must. The severe limitations with regards to access to building materials, skilled labor, and funding in general had to be taken into consideration before the development of the building designs. Deciding on a material to use early on also allows the building to be designed as efficiently as possible because the material properties and construction process of that material will be a consideration from the very beginning.

48


5 BUILDING IN HAITI MATERIAL STUDY CHOSEN MATERIAL

49


BUILDING IN HAITI The most prevalent building system in Haiti today is the use of concrete masonry with vertically reinforced concrete or block columns and poured concrete slabs. In most cases there is no horizontal reinforcing between block courses. This building technique was adequate to withstand the annual hurricane season, but as January 2010 has proven – without the horizontal reinforcing the buildings were not at all adequate to withstand the lateral forces of earthquakes. Steel reinforcing is an expensive addition to a building that, at the time, didn’t seem necessary. Many of the buildings at Pwoje Espwa are built with concrete block and, fortunately, the epicenter of the earthquake was far enough away that the buildings held up with only minor cracking. Other popular building techniques in Haiti include mud or woven walls with thatch roofs for rural peasant housing and some wood frame structures with various infill materials such as fabric, plastic tarps, and corrugated metal which are more prevalent in the poor urban areas.

50


51


POTENTIAL BUILDING SYSTEMS ANALYSIS Lack of regulated building codes in Haiti, as well as a consistent flow of eager American volunteers and organizations has made Pwoje Espwa home to a small but impressive collection of non-traditional building projects, some successful, some not so much. The invaluable lessons that can be learned from previous building experimentation at Pwoje Espwa will not be overlooked.

Concrete block is the traditional building technique used in Haiti, which makes it easy to critique and find its flaws. In reality, there is a reason it is used so profusely in the country, mainly for its performance against hurricanes, its relative affordability, and the availability of the materials. With the way that it is currently constructed, its main downfall is its poor performance in resistance to earthquake movements, and only adding to the issue, the weight of it makes it deadly when it falls. It is possible to alter the techniques of the Haitian masons to include continuous horizontal reinforcing, but in this case, a habit can be harder to break than learning a new technique altogether. Also, the blocks made locally are not completely reliable and their strength is compromised by factors such as inadequate dry time, inconsistent mixtures, and substandard materials. It also lacks the thermal performance of a similarly constructed mass building, like earth bricks.

52

CONCRETE BLOCK

The following building systems used on the campus have been included as potential building systems for the master plan. Also added to the list for consideration is the bamboo structural system that has garnered attention in the last year as a potential system for Haiti’s rebuilding. This analysis is followed by a table comparing each of these suggested building systems and techniques. Each material is given a score across 10 categories in order to help find and define the most qualified material to be used in this environment and climate.


Another technique that is widely used on the campus of Espwa is mud brick infill in between a reinforced, poured concrete structure. This system attempts to make up for a few of the concrete block system downfalls. The thermal performance is greatly increased when using earth bricks because of the mass, making the interior of these structures more comfortable day and night. Pwoje Espwa has a mold that allows them to make their own bricks, although at the moment it is a slow process. By using the bricks as infill, the weight is put on the poured concrete structure, yet during an earthquake, these bricks could still fall just as easy as concrete block. Another downfall is the fact that the bricks require more attentive maintenance than a standard concrete block. They must be completely coated with oil-based paint in order to protect the brick from disintegration from the driving rains and winds. The guest house on the property is built in this way and the erosion of the brick is visible under the layers of paint.

EARTH BRICK

EARTH BAG

There is an earth bag house on the property of Pwoje Eswpwa which again, is beneficial to this study since first hand feedback from the users and builders are available. Earth bag construction has superior thermal performance which is also highly dependent on the roofing material used. When built, the house on the property was fashioned with a metal roof. So when the sun beats on the roof during the day it heats up the interior like an oven and the earth bags hold that heat in all day and night. Pwoje Espwa is currently in the process of finding another roofing material. The construction time and effort is also a concern. The simple 400 square foot house took almost 3 months to build, for various reasons. Realistically, it is a slow process that is not completely conducive to a large scale project. Also, the bags of earth are held in place by rows of barbed wire which may not be substantial enough to resist lateral forces of an earthquake.

53


Shipping container modification is a popular system in disaster relief efforts and design competitions. There was even a plan to have a shipping container dental clinic built on site at Pwoje Espwa in 2007. Containers are readily available in Haiti, and can be secured easily. After the earthquake, when many relatives and survivors were moving down to Les Cayes to avoid the chaos in Port-au-Prince, one would find shipping containers lined up along the street as temporary shelters for the influx of people.

54

SHIPPING CONTAINERS

The largest issue with shipping container structures to house humans is, in essence, the terrible thermal characteristics of a large metal box in a tropical climate. There are ways to insulate and ventilate the box to create a more comfortable environment inside, but insulation isn’t prevalent or affordable in Haiti. During the day, even in the shade, the interior of a shipping container is stifling. In that way, it will always be more comfortable to be outdoors, which is how the proposed dental clinic eventually became a storage warehouse. The visiting dentists preferred to hold clinics outside under a shade tree or within a courtyard.


Paris-based architect Laurent Saint-Val proposes housing for Port-au-Prince, Haiti

This light gauge steel and structural stucco system achieves many of the needs of building in Haiti with the added benefit of my direct experience working with the system. Once constructed, this system has the ability to blend in with the stucco coated vernacular architecture of the area, while providing safe, stable and comfortable buildings that will last. Since this campus is located in Haiti, flexibility is also a main concern This system avoids depleting any additional natural resources that Haiti has left, but unfortunately, relies on the importation of the rolls of steel stock to be extruded into steel studs. In the end, this is outweighed by the numerous benefits of the system. The reflective foil that wraps the exterior of the building beneath the stucco allows for a more comfortable interior environment. Adding to that the system’s ability to handle large window openings for ventilation, and the interior becomes quite pleasant in Haiti’s tropical climate.

STEEL AND STUCCO

BAMBOO

Bamboo construction is included because it is an example of a suggested building system that has been getting attention as a potential solution to rebuild Haiti. Although it has a strong base of research and logical potential for future use, bamboo has not been established in large enough quantities to be harvested locally on the island for building. Consequently, it would have to be imported. If Haiti decides to take advantage of this potential resource in the future however, it could help in the reforestation and mitigation of the severe erosion issues that plague the nation. This would be far into the future, while this study aims to provide a solution that could be built tomorrow. It is not a good fit for an immediate solution for Pwoje Espwa.

55


MATERIAL ANALYSIS TABLE

THERMAL PERFORMANCE

CONCRETE BLOCK/ REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURE

EARTH BAG/STUCCO

EARTH BRICK/ REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURE

SHIPPING CONTAINER MODIFICATION

BAMBOO

LIGHT-GAUGE STEEL/STRUCTURAL STUCCO

56

FIRE RESISTANCE

HURRICANE RESISTANCE


EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE

ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY

TERMITE RESISTANCE

MAINTENANCE

CONSTRUCTION SPEED

UNSKILLED LABOR USE

CULTURAL ACCEPTANCE

LOCAL MATERIALS

57


light-gauge steel framing panels

reflective thermal barrier metal lath

structural stucco base coat structural stucco finish coat and paint

reinforced concrete slab - encasing framing panel

reinforced concrete foundation

58


THE CHOSEN SYSTEM

LIGHT-GAUGE STEEL & STRUCTURAL STUCCO SYSTEM

59


CREATING A SYSTEM

In order to achieve a system of construction that will be built by unskilled labor, be flexible for future modifications and additions, and have the ability to be constructed quickly and easily, it seemed a logical step to create a modular system designed specifically for the Pwoje Espwa campus. This modular system, created from the light gage metal stud and structural stucco building system, can then be applied to the established master plan for further development.

60


6 CREATING A SYSTEM VENTILATION STUDY MODULE DEVELOPMENT FRAMING WALLS DRAINAGE WALKWAYS COLUMNS

61


THE MODULE'S FORM AND NATURAL VENTILATION The roof of a building anywhere in the world is important. In Haiti, it is probably the MOST important part of a building, which is why the design of the module starts with a study of the roof plane. It provides shelter from the rains, shade from the sun, and can potentially aid in natural ventilation techniques. The form of a roof in a tropical climate plays a major role in the movement of air through a space. When windows and doors can be open all year round, it provides the perfect opportunity to take advantage of the winds in order to make interior spaces more comfortable to inhabit. With a simple shed roof, at first it seemed obvious that the direction to slope the roof would be to place the largest opening towards the windward direction, and to also have the largest windows on the windward side to catch the breezes within the structure. I was proven wrong in this immediate thought as I came across insight given by Hassan Fathy in his 1973 book Architecture for the Poor: An Experiment in Rural Egypt. Although his subject involves the hot desert climate of Egypt, the logic of his explanation of interior positive and negative pressure can apply to any structure that is subjected to any wind at all. One just has to know the direction on the prevailing winds. This idea was supported and elaborated on by techniques found in Commonsense Architecture by John S. Taylor, and Barefoot Architect by Johan van Lengen. The next question a very observant person might ask is; if the wind and sun are coming from opposite directions, and the roof opens towards the direction of the sun, wouldn’t this technique let more sun under the shade of the roof and heat up the entire interior of the building? Essentially, it becomes a balance between ventilation techniques, shading techniques, and individual site conditions to get the most comfortable environment within the buildings. The object of this ventilation technique is to get the interior of the building (anything under the roof) to have a negative pressure. This will cause the air to be continuously moving, which will never give the air the chance to heat up. On the other hand, if the roof shades an entire area but the air within the building builds up and never gets pushed through the space (positive pressure), the heat will collect from the sun beating on the roof, from people within the structure and whatever else is going on under the roof, even if it’s shady. Referring back to the site analysis on page 14, with the roof in the optimum position for negative pressure, it will be slanted up towards the sun, allowing late afternoon sun to enter deeper within the structure than would happen if the roof slanted the other way. In reality, the roof could slant either way or not slant at all and the ventilation technique will still apply with strategic placement of walls and openings. The optimum slope allows the heat to rise and easily be swept out of the structure by the passing breeze, above and away from the inhabitants within. There are a few things that can be done to mitigate the sun issue: First, The existing trees in many of the locations can provide shade areas where the roof would open to the afternoon sun. Second, when there are walls on the leeward side of the structure, there can be large louvered openings to allow the flow of air but still shade the interior. Ultimately, the ventilation and shading techniques are only tools to use in designing a space, but for the buildings to really work, one must analyze the particular site and all is components together as a whole.

62


EFFECTS OF ROOF SLOPE DIRECTION ON A NATURALLY VENTILATED SPACE

A roof that slopes up towards the windward side of the building can create warm areas near the back. The warmer air collected at the ceiling must be pushed down into the occupied space before it exits the structure.

A roof that slopes away from the windward side of the building utilizes stack effect to draw warm air up and out of the structure and suck cooler air through

EFFECTS OF WALLS AND OPENINGS ON A NATURALLY VENTILATED SPACE

Placing a wall on the leeward side of a structure with only small openings can quickly fill up a space with warm air leaving no room for cooler air to circulate. This will happen even when the windward side is completely open.

A small opening on the windward side, with much larger openings on the leeward side, creates low air pressure within the structure causing cool, fresh air to be drawn inside.

63


64


FRAMING SYSTEM & CONNECTIONS A grid had to be established in order to create the module’s dimensions, which would then help determine the structure needed to hold it all up. As a starting point, the existing structures on the property of Pwoje Espwa were measured, and it was found that no interior space, whether surrounding a courtyard or not, was more than 24 ft. deep. Because of the prevalence of this dimensional depth on the property, it was used as a starting point to create the module for the new steel and stucco system. The framing system designed for the module took the simple shed roof that had been determined to be the ideal form for natural ventilation, and added simple v-shaped columns at 24 ft. O.C. that used nested steel studs to gain strength while creating 8 attachment point to the roof, rather than 4, in order to resist uplift from strong winds. The base of each column is mechanically fastened to the concrete footing before the slab is poured – protecting the connection as well as adding strength to the system. This becomes the base for the module while allowing for variations to occur around the framing system.

65


STEEL AND STUCCO WALL INFILL To build upon the base framing system, the first variation is a secure, steel stud and stucco wall that can include lockable doors and windows. The infill wall between columns provides stability and security to the interior making this type of module ideal for offices, the clinic, and housing. Openings between the roof and top of wall, as well as the larger openings on the leeward side sustain the negative pressure needed for optimum natural ventilation. The roof overhang creates a porch or walkway that can happen on either side of the building. This allows for flexibility when laying the module into the masterplan.

66


block and stucco

steel and stucco

The stucco finish also has a similar look to the traditional style of the widely used block wall with a stucco coating, helping to integrate the buildings with existing buildings in the area and around the campus.

67


GABION WALL INFILL The second wall variation to be applied to the base framing system is the gabion wall. At this time, there are gabions being used in Haiti, mostly for erosion control. In this system, gabions will be used only as a barrier between two open spaces. The system will not extend to the roof and will not allow for secure windows and doors to be placed in it. A door opening will simply be made by the stopping and starting of the wall, and window openings can be formed by creating a rigid steel frame that can hold gabion baskets above it. Open public spaces like the pavilion, dining area and some classroom areas can utilize the wall for casual separations and to define spaces that feel more comfortable to the inhabitants of the campus. The height of the wall can also play a role in its use, with a one-gabion-high wall creating seating and places to climb, and two- or three-gabion-high walls creating places to climb even higher!

68


Gabions used at the Riviere Torcelle in Cazale, Haiti. Just north of Port-au-Prince.

69


RESPECTING THE CULTURE In Haiti NOTHING is wasted. It has been ingrained into a culture of incessant poverty to be creative and use ingenuity to find solutions to needs and wants. From children making their own toys with whatever they can find, to figuring out how to move a big piece of furniture, to be resourceful in Haiti is not a choice, it’s a necessity.

This must be taken into account in this master plan for Pwoje Espwa. In the process of updating and planning for the future, some of the buildings will be taken down. This will lead to a large amount of broken up concrete block, impossible to use again in that same form. By breaking this concrete block into somewhat uniform sizes the material can be reused as the infill of the gabion walls. This will not only offset the cost of purchasing stones to fill the gabions, but also outwardly demonstrate an understanding of the values of the Haitian culture and show respect for their dwindling resources.

70


STUD AND STUCCO ROOF

There is also the option to use a number of different fills on the top or non-load bearing gabion baskets. This could range from glass to let light through to small tubes to create little windows, or whatever hard material happens to be available at the time of construction.

COMPOSITE STUD COLUMNS BEYOND

GABION WIRE BASKETS WITH CONCRETE RUBBLE FILL

COMPOSITE STUD COLUMN EMBEDED IN CONCRETE FOOTING

REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB

71


REMEMBER THIS ISSUE?

72


ANOTHER USE FOR CRUSHED BLOCKS While researching drainage techniques that could be utilized at Pwoje Espwa, another way to reuse the broken block presented itself. Basically a ditch filled with rocks, french drains could be installed around the campus to aid in the absorptions of the surface water after heavy rains. In the dry season they can also double as walking paths by using the rough, larger pieces of broken block at the bottom, to make more room for water to drain below grade, and covering them with fine gravel that won’t hurt bare feet. This simple and affordable technique can mitigate the water issue without having to re-grade the entire site.

73


THE WALKWAYS 6’

2’

The covered walkways are important elements of the master plan, which uses them to create courtyards and define outdoor spaces. They are also used as a way to make getting around in the heavy rain or hot sun a little more comfortable. Incorporating them into the adjacent buildings is important in order to create a complete system and be able to work with the building modules, whether the walkways comes off of the lower roof or upper roof.

74


the walkways provide protection from the sun...

the rain...

and the standing water caused by heavy rains and an extreamly high water table.

75


The final element of this comprehensive module system is the columns. The columns became an opportunity to allow the Haitians to make this system their own, and to give them a blank canvas to express themselves. The people of Haiti have endured endless hardships, and the bittersweet result has been the amazing artistic culture that infiltrates life on a daily basis. They may be the poorest nation in the western hemisphere, but what they are lacking in monetary wealth, they make up for in the wealth of their history and culture.

wayfinding

THE COLUMNS

Bold blocks of different colors applied to the columns can help children identify areas on campus in an instant, which will aid in their overall comfort and way finding ability.

plantings

The creativity, talent, ingenuity, and beauty that emanates from this island nation should be encouraged and showcased. Giving over the columns to the creative hands and minds of the children and young adults at Pwoje Espwa is a way to do that. These six column conditions are examples of what is potentially possible.

76

With a thriving agriculture program and an ideal climate for a large variety of climbing plants, an area of columns made into a trellis can beautify the campus and add to the pride that the inhabitants feel for their home.


expression

display

Painters of Haiti are world renowned for their abstract scenes of everyday life and the vibrant colors that create these scenes can liven up even the darkest, dreariest days during the rainy season.

signage

vernacular

The columns will be a perfect place to display artwork done by the older students who participate in the arts program. This could be concentrated around the public area and guest house for visitors to view and purchase.

Signage can be applied to the face of the columns to aid in way finding in the more public areas of the campus where older children and visitors will be able to read them.

Many structures in the rural areas use woven palms to create walls. This material could then be wrapped around the columns for a textural effect to define an area.

77


APPLYING THE SYSTEM Now that the module building system and all of its parts has been defined, it is time to return to the master plan from the first semester. The master plan, so far, has developed a program, program adjacencies, square footages, and general overall concept. Now that the pieces of the system have been created, it can be applied to develop the master plan into a buildable campus.

78


7 APPLICATION OF SYSTEM DEVELOPING THE PLAN FINAL MASTERPLAN DRAINAGE WATER TOWERS SOLAR SECURITY

79


DEVELOPING THE PLAN As a starting point, a 24 ft. x24 ft. grid was overlaid onto the general campus layout to conform to the module dimension. In order to avoid deep structures that would be harder to ventilate naturally, the program square footages were stretched out into longer buildings connected by the 6’ walkways integrated into the roof planes. The adjacencies had been developed early on in the preliminary master plan but were further refined at this stage. The direction of the wind was taken into account to maximize natural ventilation potential and comfort for inhabitants of the buildings. Not every building was able to be aligned in the most optimal direction, but the technique became just one of many factors to consider and balance in the organization. Other factors included the formation of outdoor space, the existing building direction and connection with the new system, and the existing trees on campus that were not disturbed in any way.

80


81


82


THE FINAL MASTERPLAN The dimensions of the resulting outdoor spaces created by the walkways, buildings, existing trees, and other edge definers was constantly compared back to the study of space dimensions earlier on in the project in order to maximize comfort, security and freedom for inhabitants. It became clear as the plan developed that not all courtyard areas must be completely closed in order to define a space. Trees could define areas just as well as buildings. The in-between spaces became spaces all on their own, and variations in the sizes of outdoor spaces developed naturally as the program fell into place within the existing conditions. The larger spaces happened naturally on the outside of the developed campus so that there would be no limit to the rambunctious play and pick-up soccer games. Protected spaces are plentiful without creating impenetrable walls and closing in the campus. The security is implied and therefore more effective at creating a comfortable, relaxed, environment. A more compact inner campus with progressively fewer public areas will also be easier to secure with less personnel. Last but not least, the existing abundance of mature shade trees were used to the plan’s advantage without moving, disturbing, or removing any greenery that is so precious in the country. The roofs and buildings avoid existing trees while one courtyard surrounds a clusterof them, making it one of the most comfortable, cool, and secure spots on campus. This will be a favorite gathering place for the younger children and the house mothers caring for them.

11

13

10 2

12

7

1

8

3

9 4

5

6

1. BOYS HOUSING 2. KITCHEN 3. DINING HALL 4. GIRLS HOUSING 5. K-8 CLASSROOMS 6. GUEST HOUSING 7. ADMINISTRATION OFFICES 8. PAVILION 9. CHAPEL 10. VOCATIONAL SCHOOL 11. CLINIC 12. DISTRIBUTION CENTER 13. PANEL ASSEMBLY HQ

83


DRAINING THE SITE Draining this site became an issue because of the lack of natural slope to the entire property as discussed in the site analysis. It ranges from a 1/4% slope to 3/4% slope. Compare that to the recommended 2% slope and alternative options become necessary. The path plan was laid out with consideration for the existing paths already on site by using existing paths (see page 38) and adding new paths to the circulation. The paths will now double as a drainage solution by turning them into french drains. They will be dug up in intervals (to make the undertaking more manageable) and made into deep and narrow ditches. They will then be lined and filled with coarse rubble from the demolition of the concrete buildings on site. On top of that a layer of smaller gravel will be laid to allow the water to filter down instead of creating large areas of standing water. These French drains can be completed without any heavy machinery or skilled labor. The next level of drainage to add to the system could be the addition of large buried dry wells at strategic locations on site that see the most flooding.

84


DRY WELL LOCATION FRENCH DRAIN PATHS

13

11 10

12 1

2 3

8

7

9 4

6

5

1. BOYS HOUSING 2. KITCHEN 3. DINING HALL 4. GIRLS HOUSING 5. K-8 CLASSROOMS 6. GUEST HOUSING 7. ADMINISTRATION OFFICES 8. PAVILION 9. CHAPEL 10. VOCATIONAL SCHOOL 11. CLINIC 12. DISTRIBUTION CENTER 13. PANEL ASSEMBLY HQ

85


SOLAR WATER TOWERS Running water and indoor plumbing are not necessary in all buildings at Pwoje Espwa. Currently, there are ground water pumps that serve a main water supply for washing clothes and dishes, a pump for showers in the children’s village, a pump for the guest house plumbing, and various pumps dedicated to irrigation of the fields. A few of the pumps currently run on solar power but some are still running on gasoline. In order to create a more consistent system and optimize the efficiency of these systems, this solar water tower will be utilized to get clean water to the new developments. The tower lifts the solar panels off the ground to protect them, as well as to avoid any shading of the array from surrounding trees or roof overhangs at any part of the day. The solar panel will sit directly above a cistern, acting as a roof to shade the plastic tanks from early wear and tear by the intense Caribbean sun. The cistern is also lifted off the ground to provide a gravity-fed water supply, avoiding the need to supply another pump with power to get water to the faucet.

86

WATER TOWERS

SOLAR WATER

The towers are located in optimal positions to service as much of the surrounding program as possible. As mentioned before, the existing pumps would stay functional, so there would be one in the guest house and one in the new central courtyard. The new pumps will be placed in the boys housing for showers, in the kitchen for cooking and cleaning, at the existing girls housing, in the clinic, and two towers servicing the vocational school area.

SOLAR ARRAY

300 GALLON WATER TANK

WATER LINE TO FIXTURE

SUBMERSIBLE PUMP


WAY FINDING AS A BONUS The towers also provide another way finding technique for the children. In Environment and Children, Day writes: “to feel safe, children need to know: ‘How did I get in here? How can I get out? What is this space connected to?’ Without visually obvious pathways from one place to another, their world can be confusing, even frightening.” Having the vertical element of the tower on campus, in addition to the walkways and decorated columns, will help children to know where they are with an easy visual key, rather than try to provide signage which many of the younger children wouldn’t be able to read. It will also be easier for them to locate the clean, running water when they need a drink or to wash.

13 11 10

12

2 1

8

7 3

9 4

6

5

1. BOYS HOUSING 2. KITCHEN 3. DINING HALL 4. GIRLS HOUSING 5. K-8 CLASSROOMS 6. GUEST HOUSING 7. ADMINISTRATION OFFICES 8. PAVILION 9. CHAPEL 10. VOCATIONAL SCHOOL 11. CLINIC 12. DISTRIBUTION CENTER 13. PANEL ASSEMBLY HQ

87


SPEAKING OF SOLAR... You may have noticed that the preliminary master plan from the first semester (page 47) had maintained the walls of the boys housing area for use as a solar panel energy field to power the campus, and maybe a few surrounding houses. The area that the wall encloses is roughly 163,000 square feet. With further analysis into the power needs of Powje Espwa and how much power a solar panel can provide, this was a ridiculously large amount of space. The decision was made to remove the wall and have the space be reverted back to farmland. The preliminary solar energy analysis using easily accessible online tools and databases showed that the amount of panels needed to run Powje Espwa would fit neatly atop the existing two story flat roof school building with room to spare. Assuming that Espwa would rely on this solar grid for the same uses they rely on the intermittent city-provided electricity (and they would continue to rely on independent solar panels and other sources of energy for water pumps and children’s meals) the following energy use estimate was calculated.

LOAD ESTIMATE Appliance Name/ Load Lights Refrigerator Laptops Toasters Microwave Coffee Pot Washing Machine Fans Battery Chargers Cell Phone Chargers TOTAL

88

Quantity

AC Watts 60 2 8 2 2 3 2 30 10 12

25 97 50 1500 1500 200 500 25 15 4

Hours on per Day 8 24 8 0.5 0.5 4 4 12 12 3

Watt-Hours/Day 12000 4656 3200 1500 1500 2400 2000 9000 1800 144 38200


Safely rounding up to 50,000 Watt-Hours/Day, (for anything loads that were forgotten) the next step was to use this number to determine how many panels are needed. There are many helpful and easily accessible online calculators to estimate the number of panels needed for a system. This is not calculating everything that is needed for a system this size, such as the battery banks and solar charger controller. This calculation is simply a way to help in the planning stages to aid in the ideal placement of the panels on the Pwoje Espwa campus.

CALCULATOR INPUTS: Watt-Hours per Day energy use – 50,000 Watt-Hours Sun-Hours per Day in Les Cayes, Haiti – 6 Hours Watts per Panel – 280 Watts (77”x 39” panel) CALCULATOR OUTPUTS: Total Wattage of Solar Panels needed – 10,833 Watts Total Panels needed – 39 Panels Solar calculator provided by www.altestore.com

89


SECURITY This is an important subject since Pwoje Espwa is responsible for almost 800 children ranging from 4-18. It is up to the organziation and its employees to keep the children safe and secure, which involves both keeping children out of trouble, and keeping trouble off the property. With growing children – especially teenagers, it is important to have a balance of security as well as a feeling of freedom. It is also of the upmost importance to avoid having the children feel trapped or suppressed. Currently the children’s housing is surrounded by a tall block wall and one large metal gate that is guarded at all times and locked every night after curfew. This keeps the children safe but the visual of the block wall enclosing the living quarters can be suffocating to the older children. The new housing integrates the exterior wall with the housing to eliminate the perimeter wall feeling. The wall mimics the walkways by providing an inward facing roof to provide shade, but also to discourage climbing to sneak out at night. The orange outline on the plan indicates the ability to securely lock an area.Secure perimeters are provided in some areas to protect the interior spaces which may have valuables inside such as the clinic, distribution center, kitchen storage, and administrative offices. Also, the vocational school will have equipment and tools that may not be easily replaced.

90


PUBLIC

PRIVATE

13

11 10

1

12

2 3

8

7

9 4

6

5

1. BOYS HOUSING 2. KITCHEN 3. DINING HALL 4. GIRLS HOUSING 5. K-8 CLASSROOMS 6. GUEST HOUSING 7. ADMINISTRATION OFFICES 8. PAVILION 9. CHAPEL 10. VOCATIONAL SCHOOL 11. CLINIC 12. DISTRIBUTION CENTER 13. PANEL ASSEMBLY HQ

91


5

6

7

8

92


1

4

2

3

10

93


CONSTRUCTABILITY AND PHASING A large part of a project like this entails figuring out how it can realistically be built. Pwoje Espwa is a functioning school, orphanage, and community support center so it can’t just shut down to rebuild. It must continue to run smoothly without the interruption of any of its functions. Therefore, a phasing plan has been created to show that the entire master plan described in this project can be realized without getting in the way of Pwoje Espwa’s day to day responsibilities to the vulnerable Haitian children it cares for.

94


8 CONSTRUCTABILITY PHASING DIAGRAMS

95


PHASE 1 96

DEMOLITION

Demolished: SHIPPING CONTAINER WAREHOUSE The clinic is a top priority and Pwoje Espwa cannot be without it at any time. The old clinic cannot be demolished until the new one is complete. Therefore the shipping container warehouse must be demolished first to make room for the new clinic in phase 1.


NEW CONSTRUCTION Built: CLINIC, KITCHEN AND DINING HALL, BOYS HOUSING All phase 1 additions to the campus are essential to the function of Pwoje Espwa. In order to demolish the old housing, clinic, and kitchen, the new structures must be complete and fully functional for a seamless transition. This also allows the boys to move to the higher and dryer location as soon as possible.

97


PHASE 2 98

DEMOLITION

Demolished: BOYS HOUSING, KITCHEN, CLINIC The new boys housing, kitchen and dining, and clinic from phase 1 now allow for the demolition of the old structures. This will now make room for phase 2 additions to the development.


NEW CONSTRUCTION Built: GRADE SCHOOLS, PAVILION, PANEL ASSEMBLY BUILDING Phase 2 makes way for the new vocational school of phase 3 by completing the new cluster of classrooms at the protected end of the property. This will allow the children to move out of the existing school buildings before they become part of the vocational school. The pavilion is partially completed to allow for the demolition of the quonset hut in phase 3. The panel assembly building is also added in this phase because in the past the construction workers have also use the quonset hut for their panel assembly work.

99


PHASE 3 100

DEMOLITION

Demolished: QUONSET HUT Now that the panel assembly is moved to its own building and the pavilion space is erected, the quonset hut can come down for repurposing as the pavilion chapel space. This also makes room for the new administration building and pavilion courtyard.


NEW CONSTRUCTION Built: PAVILION CHAPEL, VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS, ADMINISTRATION OFFICE, DISTRIBUTION CENTER Phase 3 establishes the vocational school near the road, allowing public access without sacrificing security to the rest of the campus. The administration office and walkways complete the pavilion courtyard while the pavilion chapel is constructed from the recently demolished quonset hut.

101


DEVELOPING KEY COMPONENTS The further development of three master plan program components helped to solidify the design, work out the finer details of how the system components come together, and most importantly, how the spaces will feel to an inhabitant. Do they make one feel safe? comfortable? adventurous? relaxed? Three of the most important and highly used spaces, the kitchen and dining area, the boys housing, and the pavilion and chapel are shown in the following pages with an attempt at communicating the design intention of creating an enhanced living environment that will aid the children in their healthy and fulfilling growth to adulthood.

102


9 DINING HALL/KITCHEN BOYS HOUSING PAVILION

103


This area functions as the heart of the campus, just as the kitchen is the heart of a home. It is centrally located and adjoins 4 distinct outdoor spaces. The lower courtyard which connects the dining area to the schools and guesthouse, is meant to become the most comfortable and protected area on campus. The walkways surround a cluster of old growth mango trees which provide much needed shade at all times of the day. The upper courtyard is more exposed visually and becomes more suitable for children in their adventurous stage. Climbing domes in three sizes can be constructed by the metal shop at Pwoje Espwa and will provide play areas safe for climbing but are also hard for the older kids to break. This courtyard is an extension of the shaded dining hall which uses gabion walls of various heights to break up the space to allow groups of children to gather and have quiet conversations. The gabions laid one basket high with a wooden seat also allow for more comfortable congregating space and safe climbing opportunities. The open space between the boys housing and the girls housing is perfect for more rambunctious play or a small pick-up game of soccer when waiting for dinner to be served. Lastly the small area enclosed by the end of the dining hall, the administrative offices, and the guesthouse can be a safe place for children to go if they feel troubled or threatened in any way. There will be a larger concentration of adults in this area working and visiting at the guesthouse, so will be viewed as an area of protection and authority by the children.

104

KITCHEN AND DINING HALL


VOCATIONAL SCHOOL

VOCATIONAL SCHOOL

PAVILION COURTYARD BOYS HOUSING

DOME CLIMBERS

KITCHEN

ADMIN. OFFICES

DINING HALL

DINING HALL

GIRLS HOUSING

The center courtyard is ideal for the younger children, which is why it can be the ideal place for recycled tires to transform into whatever the children can imagine. Unlike a tire swing which can only be used by one or two kids at a time, a larger group of children can play on a line of upright half buried tires without having to take turns. This becomes very important in an environment of hundreds of children.

TIRE PLAYGROUND

GUEST HOUSE

PRESCHOOL

105


106


107


The boys housing has a secure perimeter and main gate that can be locked at night – just as the current existing one does. The difference is that the wall surrounding this living area is less visible – giving the space a more comfortable, less suppressing environment. The outside walls are incorporated into the house walls while the roof plane continues across the top of the wall for shade and to prevent children from climbing over. Each house is distinguished from its neighbors by variations in bright colors to help with wayfinding and to create a less-sterile environment. Roofs extend over the open courtyard to provide shade for quiet conversations and relaxation from the day’s activities around the campus. Louvered windows and high ventilation openings near the roof provide a naturally cool interior space while plenty of open area is left in the center courtyard for more high energy play. The showers and toilets are located at the lower corner and are downwind from the houses so the breeze will carry away any unpleasant odors. The line of existing trees and shrubs are utilized for variation in the landscape and another opportunity for shade.

108

BOYS HOUSING


MILL

VOCATIONAL SCHOOL

MAIN GATE BOYS HOUSING MAIN COURTYARD

SHOWERS

KITCHEN

GIRLS HOUSING

TOILETS

109


110


111


The Pavilion is located at the entrance of the property, and is meant to serve as a gathering space for Pwoje Espwa residents, employees, visitors, and the surrounding community. It does not conform to the module but instead is meant to be a landmark to the area; a beacon of shelter and a place to gather. The entrance from the road is a low roof which utilizes gabion walls to allow entry either into the chapel or into the main courtyard. Once inside, the large shed roof opens to the sky beyond and is constructed with the light gauge and stucco system, supported by wrapped light gauge trusses. The pavilion roof is tilted away from the prevailing winds to allow maximum air flow underneath the roof plane. The new chapel is a re-use of the quonset hut shell, split down the center and tilted up to create a space for more intimate services and celebrations. The shell also extends to shade a portion of the pavilion space. The peak does not meet but instead is separated 3’ to allow the hot air to rise easily out of the space.

112

PAVILION AND CHAPEL


CLINIC

VOCATIONAL SCHOOL

SECURITY HQ

COURTYARD ENTRY PAVILION COURTYARD

PAVILION ENTRY DISTRIBUTION CENTER

ADMIN. OFFICES PAVILION GATHERING SPACE

DINING HALL

CHAPEL GUEST HOUSE

113


114


115


116


117


118


10 FINAL CRITIQUE REVIEW AT PWOJE ESPWA

119


FINAL CRITIQUE SUMMARY Chapter 9 concludes what had been presented at the final critique on April 15th, 2011. This involved a similar group of professors, guest jury members, and peers as the first critique. The following are some excerpts of the feedback received: The main critique that was voiced by the jury was their concern about the structural integrity of the columns designed into the system. Because of the realistic nature of the project and detailed nature of the design solution, they suggested that it would be worthwhile to delve into a true structural study of the systems resistance to hurricane winds and earthquake lateral forces as it pertains to the form of the columns. While developing the design for the columns I was able to consult with an architect and structural engineer working with the light gauge system in Haiti, but these conversations were brief and general in nature. In the following chapter, I will address more closely the issues of the structural integrity of the system to withstand the strong uplift and lateral forces. In keeping with the comments on realistic constructability, some jury members also wished to see a depiction of how the modules would be built, possibly in a step-by-step illustrated narrative. They understood that there are limited resources for construction material and heavy equipment and so, wanted to see an explanation of how the workers will be able to construct these structures. This will also be addressed in the following chapter in the form of a construction manual. They appreciated the attention and thoughtfulness that went into how the children would feel in a space knowing how space affect them physically and psychologically, the respect and consideration shown to the culture with the reuse of demolished structures and the thoroughness of the investigation and solutions to the many issues facing this particular project.

120


121


PRESENTATION AT PWOJE ESPWA (TRIP #2) On May 22, 2011, one month after the final critique at Lawrence Technological University, I had the opportunity to return to Haiti with my final presentation material printed out, and presented this project to Father Marc Boisvert, the founder of Pwoje Espwa. It was an almost surreal experience, talking about the master plan while sitting in the courtyard of the Pwoje Espwa guesthouse. I had been there before, but having spent an entire year completely immersed in every aspect of the property, the people, and planning for its future development, it truly felt like the most important presentation I have given in my entire school career. The feedback was minimal compared to an academic critique, but the few things Father Marc had to say made a big impression. He was intrigued by the roof ventilation study as well as the idea for the french drains doubling as pathways through the campus. Storage was a concern for him, but that is the beauty of the module system; bays can be added or subtracted without having to redesign the entire campus. He also appreciated the idea of integrating the wall and the housing units of the boys living area. He is acutely aware of the importance of a content child that doesn’t feel oppressed or trapped by their surroundings. Overall it was a very rewarding experience and I know that I have achieved what I had originally intended, to plant new ideas in the hopes that they will someday make the environment that much more pleasant and nurturing for the children and young adults fortunate to call Pwoje Espwa home.

122


123


THE STRUCTURE As noted in the final critique review, there were concerns with the structural stability of the column and roof design when there are no exterior walls to provide additional support and resistance to uplift and twisting. This situation occurs mainly at the dining hall, vocational school and walkways. The following modification in this chapter attempts to mitigate structural issues at these areas, and also addresses the constructability of the system from an assembly point of view in the construction manual.

124


11 STRUCTURAL STUDY CONSTRUCTION MANUAL

125


DEVELOPMENT OF THE STRUCTURE The modifications to the original structural system came after a meeting with structural engineer, James Corsiglia, who donated his valuable time to give advice and guidance on how to give the system more resistance to uplift and lateral forces, while still maintaining the light-gauge system as designed. The original system, although strong enough to stand, would have issues in dealing with lateral forces because when there are no walls between the columns, there is no bracing element to keep the system from folding on itself. The column itself would also need bracing inside the V-shape to give it strength against bending forces along its length, even with a nested stud design. Also, there was a weak point at the base where the column members come together unprotected from the elements and at a single connection point. The single column design also presented a problem with constructability. Each column is meant to support two roof panels on either side. With a single column it makes it difficult to reliably secure both panels to a single point, especially in a situation with limited construction equipment and expertise.

126


After considering all of these issues, a more robust column construction was designed that not only aids in the strength of the structure, but also allow for a more practical construction assembly process. The columns were doubled up at each location to allow for a smoother and more reliable construction process as well as a significant increase in strength and load capacity. Internal bracing was added to each column and in between the two columns to mitigate bending stresses in the column members.

This, unfortunately, removes the ability of the column to be an open V-shape, but that is a small compromise for strength and stability. A concrete curb was added to the base of each column to protect the connection and add strength to the lower section. To address the lateral forces issue, bracing was added between each column wherever walls will not be constructed. This gives strength to the span and significantly lowers any lateral stresses on the system.

127


128


CONSTRUCTION HANDBOOK FOR PWOJE ESPWA CAMPUS EXPANSION MODULAR FRAMING SYSTEM


prepared ground

STEP 1: PREPARE GROUND Lay out 24’x 24’ grid with posts and string to mark footing and column locations. Check for square by matching corner to corner measurements. Build-up ground to allow for drainage slope on both sides of structure. Pack and level ground to accept future floor slab. Dig a 3’x 3’ hole centered on grid lines to a depth of 3’ from top of packed ground.


prepared ground hole for column footing


column brackets concrete footing

STEP 2: COLUMN FOOTING Place pre-made 1’6”’x 1’6” foundation formwork into each hole, ensuring that the center of formwork aligns with center of crossed string location. Place rebar and pour column footing so that top of footing is 6” above prepared ground. When concrete is dry, mechanically attach column brackets centered and 1’ apart on top of each footing.


While concrete is setting up, assemble pre-cut metal channel sections for each of four columns.

column brackets concrete footing


pre-assembled column framing

STEP 3: COLUMNS Place each assembled column into column brackets and mechanically fasten. Check overall building plan for direction of roof slope to ensure correct location of each column.


pre-assembled column framing


reinforced slab column curb

STEP 4: COLUMN CURB AND SLAB Place pre-made column curb formwork around each column base. Pour concrete around each column and let set. Place slab formwork 6’ outside of each column grid line. Place re-bar and pour 6” slab. Let set.


While concrete is setting up, assemble pre-cut metal channel section for roof panel and stability-framing sections and wrap with metal mesh.

reinforced slab column curb


pre-assembled roof panel

STEP 5: ROOF Lift assembled roof panel into place and mechanically fasten to top of column framing. Use scaffolding or long poles to hold upper potions of the roof in place while securing to the column. Two of the four metal stud channels at the top of each column will be left free, to be attached to the future adjacent roof panel or roof overhang panel, depending on overall plan of structure.


pre-assembled roof panel free column members for future adjacent roof panel attachment


pre-assembled stability framing

STEP 6: STABILITY-FRAMING Mechanically fasten pre-assembled stability framing to columns and roof framing. Ensure each stability-framing member aligns and attaches to each roof framing member. At this point the roof and stability framing should be wrapped in metal mesh


pre-assembled stability framing


wrapped metal mash

STEP 7: METAL MESH Wrap and mechanically fasten metal mesh onto structural elements. Continue to lay-out and assemble adjacent structural bay as labor is available. This can be done simultaneously or in staggered steps depending on the number of workers present for construction.


wrapped metal mash columns for next bay


stucco finish

STEP 8: STUCCO Apply first coat of structural stucco finish over metal mesh. Let dry and continue to assemble adjacent bay. Wait to apply final finish coat until a full run of bays are completed. This will allow for a uniform finish across all bays. When placing the adjacent roof panel, mechanically fasten panels together along thier adjacent edge as well as the column members.


stucco (first coat) roof panel of adjacent bay

wrapped metal mash


STEP 9: DUPLICATE THE SYSTEM Once the first module is complete continue to the next module and repeat steps 1-8. The second module’s columns should start 1’-0” from the first module. This will create double columns at all interior module connections which will then be braced together to form one column framing.


148


12 BIBLIOGRAPHY IMAGE CREDITS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

149


BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SOURCES Boisvert, Marc. “Pwoje Espwa (posts from March 2005 to Present).” Web log post. Pwoje Espwa - Hope in Haiti. Web. 12 July 2011. <http:// pwojeespwa.blogspot.com/>. Fathy, Hassan. Architecture for the Poor: an Experiment in Rural Egypt. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1973. Print. Guo, Guang, and Kathleen M. Harris. “The Mechanisms Mediating The Effects Of Poverty On Children’s Intellectual Development*.” Demography 37.4 (2000): 431-47. Print. Haggerty, Richard A. Dominican Republic and Haiti: Country Studies. [Washington, DC]: Library of Congress, Federal Research Division, 1991. Print. Lengen, Johan Van. The Barefoot Architect: a Handbook for Green Building. Bolinas, Calif., U.S.A: Shelter Publications, 2008. Print. Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. Cambridge [Mass.: MIT, 1993. Print Moughtin, Cliff, and Miguel Mertens. Urban Design: Street and Square. Amsterdam: Architectural, 2007. Print. Nauert PHD, Rick. “Updated Maslow’s Pyramid of Needs | Psych Central News.” Psych Central - Trusted Mental Health, Depression, Bipolar, ADHD and Psychology Information. 23 Aug. 2010. Web. 12 Nov. 2010. <http://psychcentral.com/news/2010/08/23/updated-maslows-pyramidof-needs/17144.html>. Schwartz, Timothy T. Travesty in Haiti: a True Account of Christian Missions, Orphanages, Food Aid, Fraud and Drug... [S.l.]: urge, 2010. Print. Smith, Cynthia E. Design for the Other 90%. New York, NY: Smithsonian Institution, 2007. Print. Taylor, John S. Commonsense Architecture: a Cross-cultural Survey of Practical Design Principles. New York: W.W. Norton, 1983. Print. Woods, Charles A., and Florence E. Sergile. Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and Perspectives. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 2001. Print. Worringer, Wilhelm. Abstraction and Empathy: a Contribution to the Psychology of Style. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1997. Print. PRECEDENCE STUDY SOURCES Bell, Bryan. Good Deeds, Good Design: Community Service through Architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural, 2004. Print. Design like You Give a Damn: Architectural Responses to Humanitarian Crises. New York, NY: Metropolis, 2006. Print. Dean, Andrea Oppenheimer., and Timothy Hursley. Rural Studio: Samuel Mockbee and an Architecture of Decency. New York: Princeton Architec-

150


PRECEDENCE STUDY SOURCES (continued) Godoy, Julio. “Sonnenschiff: Solar City Produces 4X the Energy It Consumes Sonnenschiff.” Inhabitat. Web. Sept.-Oct. 2010. <http://inhabitat.com/sonnenschiff-solar-city-produces-4x-the-energy-it-needs/new-1-52/>. Michler, Andrew. “Modern Mexican School Keeps Cool with Sun-Shading Skin.” Inhabitat. 30 Aug. 2010. Web. 12 July 2011. <http://inhabitat.com/modernmexican-school-keeps-cool-with-solar-shading-skin/>. Michler, Andrew. “German Armory Transformed into Stunning Solar School.” Inhabitat. 27 Aug. 2010. Web. Sept.-Oct. 2010. <http://inhabitat.com/germanarmory-transformed-into-stunning-solar-school/>.

MATERIAL STUDY SOURCES Aiello, Carlo. “Bamboo Housing for Haiti / Laurent Saint-Val.” EVolo | Architecture Magazine. 29 Mar. 2011. Web. 19 July 2011. <http://www.evolo.us/architecture/bamboo-housing-for-haiti-laurent-saint-val/>. Bhatty, Ayesha. “Haiti Devastation Exposes Shoddy Construction.” BBC News. 15 Jan. 2010. Web. 19 July 2011. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8460042.stm>. Elizabeth, Lynne, and Cassandra Adams. Alternative Construction: Contemporary Natural Building Methods. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2005. Print. Johnson, Karl. “Bamboo in Haiti?” Architecture for Humanity. 17 May 2011. Web. 19 July 2011. <http://architectureforhumanity.org/updates/2011-05-17bamboo-in-haiti>. Kennedy, Joseph F. Building without Borders: Sustainable Construction for the Global Village. Gabriola, B.C.: New Society, 2004. Print. Marek, Matt. “Foundation Seguin Bamboo Advocates.” Haiti Innovation. 16 Nov. 2006. Web. 19 July 2011. <http://www.haitiinnovation.org/en/2006/11/16/ foundation-seguin-bamboo-advocates>. McAslan, John. “ Concrete Solutions.” The New York Times. 16 Jan. 2010. Web. 19 July 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/17/opinion/17mcaslan. html>. Perkins, Broderick. “Cargo Containers Could Help House Haitians.” AOL News. 20 Jan. 2010. Web. 19 July 2011. <http://www.aolnews.com/2010/01/20/cargocontainers-could-help-house-haitians/>. Stevens, Donald. Light Gauge Galvanized Steel & High-Strength Structural Stucco Building Systems & Technology. Winchester, VA: Stucc-on-Steel, 2010. Print. Stevens, Donald. Low-Cost, Environmentally Friendly Building Technology. Winchester, VA: Stucc-on-Steel, 2010. Print.

151


152


PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGE CREDITS BY PAGE 6. From top to bottom: M. Boisvert, M. Boisvert, M. Grunow, M. Boisvert 7. Clockwise from top left: M. Boisvert, C. Costa, M. Boisvert, M. Boisvert, M. Boisvert, M. Boisvert 9. haitiphotos.com 11. Clockwise from top left: C. Costa, C. Costa, C. Costa, C. Costa, M. Raymo, C. Costa, S. Mochelli, C. Costa 14. global diagrams: gaisma.com 15. sun path diagrams: gaisma.com 16. M. Boisvert 17. Clockwise from top left: M. Boisvert, M. Boisvert, M. Boisvert, C. Costa, M. Boisvert 18. C. Costa 20. All C. Costa 21. From top to bottom: M. Boisvert, C. Costa, C. Costa, M. Boisvert 22. From top to bottom: M. Boisvert, M. Boisvert, M. Boisvert, C. Costa 23. From top to bottom: M. Boisvert, C. Costa, C. Costa, M. Boisvert 24. From top to bottom: M. Boisvert, M. Boisvert, M. Boisvert, C. Costa 25. From top to bottom: M. Boisvert, C. Costa 38. M. Boisvert 39. Clockwise from top left: M. Boisvert, C. Costa, M. Boisvert, M. Boisvert 40. From top to bottom: P. da Reggio, C. Costa 41. From top to bottom: C. Tucker, LTU.edu, C. Costa 42. All C. Costa 43. All C. Costa 50. From top to bottom: M. Boisvert, M. Raymo 51. Clockwise from top left: M. Pointer, M. Boisvert, C. Costa, M. Boisvert, C. Costa, C. Costa 52. From top to bottom: M. Boisvert, M. Boisvert 53. Clockwise from top left: M. Boisvert, C. Costa, M. Boisvert, M. Boisvert 54. All M. Boisvert 55. Clockwise from top left: stock photo, M. Boisvert, M. Boisvert, Laurent Saint-Val 56. From top to bottom: M. Boisvert, M. Boisvert, C. Costa, M. Boisvert, stock photo, M. Boisvert 59. Clockwise from top left: M. Grunow, M. Boisvert, D. Boulanger, M. Boisvert, M. Boisvert, M. Boisvert, D. Boulanger, M. Grunow 64. All M. Boisvert 67. All M. Boisvert 69. L. Moise, stock photo, stock photo 70. Clockwise from top left: M. Boisvert, C. Costa, M. Boisvert, M. Boisvert, M. Boisvert 71. Clockwise from top left: unknown, stock photo, houzz.com, stones3.co.uk, stones3.co.uk 72. M. Boisvert 73. Clockwise from top left: unknown, stock photo, Scooter113 , M. Kahn 76. From top to bottom: A. Dubic, unknown 77. All M. Boisvert 82. From left to right: M. Kahn, brutscheconcrete.com 84. Clockwise from top left: solarpumps.com, ecofriend.com, unknown, M. Boisvert 86. From top to bottom: C. Costa, C. Costa, M. Boisvert 87. heliopower.com 88. All M. Boisvert 103. unknown 122. All M. Raymo 123. Clockwise from top left: M. Grunow, M. Raymo, C. Costa, C. Costa, M. Pointer, D, Boulanger, D. Boulanger

153


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First, I would like to thank my one-man, full-time support team, my husband, who has been by my side through all of my years in undergraduate and graduate school, giving me unconditional support and cheering me on the whole way. Thank you to my family for always being impressed by my work, even when I think it isn’t quite good enough. A very special thank you to Donald Stevens for giving me the opportunity to visit and be inspired by the remarkable country of Haiti. Without your determination to share your own experiences with others, this book wouldn’t exist and my life would be very different. Thank you to Father Marc Boisvert for creating the amazing environment that is Pwoje Espwa. It is truly incomprehensible the amount of good you and your organization have brought to Haiti and it will forever be an inspiration to me. Thank you to my studio professor, Art Smith, for guiding me when I needed guidance, but also allowing me the freedom to develop the project to what I knew it could be, even when we didn’t see eye to eye. It was a pleasure to work with you. Thank you to Sam Moschelli for answering all of my incessant questions all year long and just being available when I needed to talk through an issue on the project. I would also like to thank Professor Martin Schwartz, Professor Paul Wang, James Corsiglia, and Bob Ziegelman who all gave brief but invaluable critiques and suggestions and, in some way, helped me to develop the project into what it is today.


Pwoje Espwa: Planning for Progress in Southern Haiti  

Architectural Thesis for M.Arch Degree at Lawrence Technological University.

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you