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READING RUINS A TRANSTEXTUAL APPROACH TO THE HANNA ROUNDHOUSE

BY CHARLES CHRISTOPHER MOORHOUSE


READING RUINS A TRANSTEXTUAL APPROACH TO THE HANNA ROUNDHOUSE

BY CHARLES CHRISTOPHER MOORHOUSE

Entry for the Azrieli Scholarship Competition 2014 Carleton Unviersty Thesis Advisor - Federica Goffi


PART I - TRANSTEXTUALITY & ARCHITECTURE INTRODUCTION 2 RUINS AS RECORDS 3 TRANSTEXTUALITY 4 INTERTEXT 6 PARATEXT 8 METATEXT 12 HYPERTEXT 14 ARCHITEXT 17 FROM READER TO AUTHOR 20


PART II - DESIGNING FOR THE HANNA ROUNDHOUSE HANNA, ALBERTA 23 HANNA’S RAILWAY HISTORY 25 TIMELINE & MORPHOLOGY 29 PROJECT SITE 31 CHARACTERISTIC COLLAGE 33 ADAPTIVE REUSE PROGRAM 36 THE ROUNDHOUSE’S EXISTING CONDITION 36 A TRANSTEXTUAL APPROACH TO DESIGN APPENDIX ENDNOTES IMAGE SOURCES BIBLIOGRAPHY

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PART I TRANSTE XTUALITY & ARCHITECTURE


“I see materials as letters we use to write our poetic thoughts . . . We work with letters, an alphabet, we write a story”1 -Sverre Fehn

INTRODUCTION Architectural ruins and adaptive reuse projects are sites of composite architectural history, some of which may not be visible at first glance. Through ageing and changes in use, architecture becomes a physical, tangible record of time. If we allow ourselves to look close enough, we can read these architectural records transtextually, or in other words, in relation to each other. French literary theorist Gérard Genette coined the term transtextuality.2 This neoism is loosely based on Julia Kristeva’s definition of intertextuality. For Genette there are five categories of transtextuality and each will be investigated here. While Genette explores transtextuality in regards to literary texts, it is argued here that it can also be applied in the reading of architectural ruins. Through redefining these terms architecturally, I will present a new paradigm for the analysis and reading of ruins. I will also identify margins of errors with the projection of literary analysis onto architecture, and propose alternative definitions when necessary. After abducting into architecture and redefining the literary terms I will shift from reading architecture transtextually to utilizing this paradigm as an experimental design approach with the hopes of illustrating how a transtextual approach to the adaptive reuse of an industrial ruin can redefine the relationships between the old, new and forgotten elements in built form. The second half of the thesis will involve the application of the transtextual design paradigm to the adaptive reuse of an abandoned CNR Roundhouse in Hanna, Alberta. The Roundhouse and turntable is all that remains of the old Canadian Northern Railway yards. Originally built in 1913, the roundhouse is now in its centennial year. The Roundhouse is an ideal industrial site because it contains layers of historical information that highlights its multiple physical and programmatic transformations. Currently in a state of decay, it is in need of being adapted to allow for future use. The physical building has gone through many transformations including an addition (which was demolished in 2012), the raising of the roof for larger locomotives, and various modifications related to programmatic changes after the rail line closed in the 1960’s. As of September 2013 the Roundhouse has been

Image: Kolumba Museum, Cologne, Germany by Peter Zumthor

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under the ownership of the Hanna Roundhouse Society, a not-for profit community organization. Sandra Beaudoin, the president of the society, hopes to reuse it for a railways museum and performance space for which the community is lacking. By analyzing the record of time within the roundhouse, my new design will both enhance the community’s reading of the site as well as intricately stitch the new program and function within the existing fabric. My design will look at a site master plan as well as specifically the roundhouse. RUINS AS RECORDS The desire to identify manifestations of time in ruins is similar to that of archaeology. The ruin is an artifact, which according to archaeologist and author Laurent Olivier is “the place where life’s work is inscribed and becomes legible, taking the imprint of what we call time”.3 Architecture is a product of humanity and since humanity is ever changing, architecture has to adapt as well, otherwise it risks being demolished or falling into disrepair and eventually ruin. As a result, historical architecture and ruins exist as collages of adaptability. The original authenticity of the structure becomes a host to physical changes through both natural and manmade interventions. This is because ruins are not static objects. Instead, they appear to us as a moment within a larger scale of ruination. Olivier writes, “there lies recorded within the sequence of physical transformations superimposed upon an object’s initial state-through disfigurement, transformation, and deterioration - the memory of a succession of states, each of which had a particular identity and served a particular purpose”.4 Here Olivier equates architectural changes through time to a process of recording. If architectural ruins (and other historical buildings) act as records, how does one dissect and interpret the embedded information? This will be explored at varying scales, from the whole to the smallest of details. These historical layers will be identified and framed in relation to each other and in time.

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TRANSTEXTUALITY The transtextual methodology I propose for interpreting embedded architectural relationships originates in literary theory. Gérard Genette (b. 1930) is a French literary theorist who initially proposed transtextuality as a framework for analyzing literature. His transtextual contribution to the subject of poetics is a form of structuralism in which he “focuses on relations between texts, the way they reread and rewrite one another”.5 Literary theorists have benefitted from his approach of looking beyond a single text and acknowledging external influences and relationships within any given text.6 He defines transtextuality as “all that sets the text in a relationship, whether obvious or concealed, with other texts”.7 For Genette, transtextuality has five categories: intertext, paratext, metatext, hypertext, and architext. While most of the transtextual paradigm can be traced to Genette, intertext was originally coined by literary critic and psychoanalyst Julia Kristeva (b. 1941). Kristeva’s definition of intertext, however, is more closely related to Genette’s definition of transtextuality than his definition of intertext. Through Genette’s five definitions, this paradigm creates a categorization or mapping system for textual relations, which allows us to analyze and understand these connections. While Genette explores transtextuality in regards to literary texts, I believe a similar approach can be applied in the reading of architectural ruins and adaptive reuse projects. Through redefining the five terms architecturally, I will present a new paradigm for the analysis and reading of ruins and adaptive reuse projects. Since transtextuality is the analysis between two texts, I must begin by defining what is an autonomous literary and architectural text for comparison and reference. A literary text is a single body of written work, distinct from other works and supporting notes, headings, illustrations, etc. What is important to note is that it is in and of itself a single creation. An architectural text is more abstract as it varies according to scale, and therefore can be a whole structure or a singular element within it - both of which having a distinct identity or ethos. This broader definition of an architectural text can be applied to transtextuality in two ways. The first way would be to examine a whole and complete structure with both outside and contextual influences (through form, style, etc.). The second way, which is primarily important for the sake of reading architectural ruins and cases of adaptive reuse, would be to examine internal relationships related to coexisting or previous texts that have influenced the current state of the building. This differs from the literary relationships between two distinct texts, and creates the largest obstacle when projecting onto architecture, as architecture is more additive and prone to physical evolution than a literary text. 4


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This will be clarified as I architecturally define the five terms of transtextuality. Not only will I define the terms architecturally, but I will also identify issues and solutions that arise in my abduction.8 Much like their literary counterparts, it is important to note that these five terms should not be considered as individual and finite categories since there is often reciprocal contact or overlapping.9 INTERTEXT Intertextuality is not only the first term of transtextuality, but it is also the origin of the terminological paradigm used by Genette. Genette’s paradigm is influenced by Kristeva’s definition of intertextuality in her book Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art. Kristeva defines intertext as “the transposition of one or more systems of signs into another, accompanied by a new articulation of the enunciative and denotive position.”10 Clearly Kristeva’s intertextual definition relates more to Genette’s over-arching transtextual definition as opposed to his intertextual one. Genette’s definition of intertextuality, which I will use in my projection onto architecture, is “eidetically and typically as the actual presence of one text within another”.11 In literature, this takes the form of quoting, plagiarizing and paraphrasing among others. Architecturally, it is easy to transcribe the intertextual theory of textual co-presence. In adaptive reuse, for example, intertextuality is inherent in all cases since adaptive reuse is the physical combination of a new and old system. This universality of the co-presence of two texts has the potential to undermine the definition, as it is entirely inclusive. For example, Peter Zumthor’s Kolumba Museum in Cologne, Germany, is a visually obvious expression of two co-existing texts. The ruins of the destroyed late-gothic cathedral contrast against the lightness of Zumthor’s custom bricks which house the new museum program. While the material construction is in fact intertextual, the overall design goes beyond by transforming the ruins into something completely different. The Kolumba Museum will be explored in more depth later on, however, this example demonstrates the overlapping of relationships since this example describes an intertext with a transformative relationship, and therefore a hypertextual relationship. For the case of this study, I shall reserve the use of intertext for examples of coexistence without transformation. Images: 1 - John Soane Museum, London, 1824 2 - Westminister Hall, pre 1834

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There are also cases that are inherently intertextual such as spolia, where one architectural element is reused in a new way and in a new structure. The isolated element is read in the context of the new whole structure, yet knowledge of its origins can be read specifically through the spoiled element. In this way, the new architectural text is explicitly “quoting” another. The spoiled element in most cases predates the new compounded text to which it now belongs. As a result, the intertextual element belongs to a new present text while it specifically looks backwards, having been borrowed from a previous architectural text. A clear example of intertext and spolia is British architect John Soane’s home and museum, Lincoln’s Inn Fields 13 in London. The façade contains four capitals, which seem to be purposefully misaligned within the geometry of the façade. This misalignment draws attention to the fact that they are a different element within the whole. What makes these capitals intertextual is that they were spoiled from Westminister Hall in London. Soane worked on the restoration of Westminister Hall and appropriated the capitals in 1818.12 Both the fragmentation and misalignment of the capitals seem to evoke an architectural quoting of Westminister Hall within the newer text of Lincoln’s Inn Fields 13.

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PARATEXT Genette dedicates his third book on transtextuality to the exploration of paratext entitled Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation. In it he defines paratexts as secondary signals that influence the understanding of the primary text.13 These secondary signals include “liminal devices and conventions, both within the book (peritext) and outside it (epitext), that mediate the book to the reader: titles and subtitles, pseudonyms, forewords, dedications”14 as well as illustrations and covers. According to Philippe Lejeune in Le pacte autobiographique, whom Genette quotes in Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation, a paratext is “a fringe of the printed text which in reality controls one’s whole reading of the text”.15 There are two approaches to projecting paratextuality onto architecture: the first is a more literal correlation, while the second is more abstract. The first includes elements such as titles, authorship (the architect’s name attached to the project) and promotional images, among other things, all of which exist within architecture and influence the public’s understanding of a project. Take a famous architect, for example Norman Foster or Zaha Hadid. Their names alone conjure images and preconceived notions of their work. For the sake of my study, I will be focusing on the second approach, which analyzes physical architectural elements both within and outside of the main building. This second and more abstract approach involves thresholds of understanding. Genette uses the word “threshold”, which is interesting as this word has a very particular definition in architecture involving an entrance or point of crossing between spaces. Genette, however, describes it as “more than a boundary or a sealed border, the paratext is, rather, a threshold, […] that offers the world at large the possibility of either stepping inside or turning back. It is an “undefined zone””.16 While this can take the literal form of a threshold in architecture, it is much broader to include particular elements that frame one’s experience of the architectural text, or as Genette refers to it, a threshold of understanding.

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An example of an architectural paratext is the Roosevelt Park Master Plan in Detroit by Urban Detail LLC and Tadd Heidgerken. The park is sited in front of the abandoned Michigan Central Station. The station was originally built in 1913 by the architectural firm Reed and Stem in association with Warren and Wetmore, the same two firms that designed Grand Central Station in New York City. Michigan Central Station, however, has been abandoned and left to decay since closing in 1988. The station has become a local landmark and an icon of the expansively abandoned city. Started as a community grass roots project, the Roosevelt Park Master Plan leaves the abandoned station alone as a backdrop, but develops the surrounding land into a useable leisure and skate park. The aim of the park is to draw attention to the station in hopes of saving it. The park represents the community of Detroit’s willingness and desire to reclaim what Detroit has lost. It fundamentally changes the context in which the station exists from an abandoned landscape of decline to one of community renewal and organization. Another example of paratextuality is Richard Meier’s Ara Pacis Museum in Rome. Completed in 2006, this modern museum is located within the historic centre of Rome and houses the Ara Pacis Augustae, a sacrificial altar dating back from 9 B.C. The altar is an existing text, which has been relocated (in 1938) from its original location to the Piazza Augusto Imperatore. When it was relocated it was housed in a new pavilion, which due to decay was replaced by Meier’s new museum.17 Both Meier’s and the previous enclosure act as a threshold, which decontextualizes the altar. The altar is no longer read as a space within the city, but as a museum artifact. This reframing of the Ara Pacis Augustae by Meier’s museum is paratextual.

Images: 3 - Roosevelt Park Master Plan, Detroit, by Urban Detail & Tadd Heidgerken 4 - Michigan Central Station ruin in Detroit 5 - Ara Pacis, Rome 6 - Ara Pacis Museum, Rome by Richard Meier

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METATEXT Metatextuality is more abstract than the previous two definitions. In literature Genette equates this to commentary, however it is a commentary without explicit citations. Explicit citations would be better defined as an intertext. A metatext is not an additive commentary in a republished later edition by other authors, as these would act as secondary signals and thresholds of understanding of the main text, and therefore would be paratexts. Metatext is therefore a distinct text that comments upon another without explicitly citing it. The relationship is only seen if the reader has knowledge of the text for which the metatext is commenting upon. Genette also describes this act of commentary as “silently evok[ing]”18 or referencing another text. As a result, Genette says “all literary critics, for centuries, have been producing metatext without knowing it”.19 Due to this rather large range, Genette does not discuss metatext in the detail of which he describes the other terms. To me, there are two ways of approaching metatextual relationships both in architecture and in literature. The first are deliberate metatexts and the second are unintentional, the latter of which Genette refers to when authors create metatext without their conscious awareness. These relationships occur because new creations are often not unique; they are manifestations of compounded knowledge and experience. Deliberate metatextuality on the other hand, is the conscious commentary of another text, either existing or lost. Precedent studies often lead to direct and indirect influences on new projects resulting in metatextual references. The Archbishopric Museum by Sverre Fehn in Hamar, Norway, is a project rich in transtextual relationships, including metatextuality. The museum is built upon the ruins of a farm structure and medieval fortress. The defining element of the design is a bridge, which animates and narrates the space. It is important to note that Sverre Fehn admired the work of Carlo Scarpa, and Fehn’s museum notably evokes Carlo Scarpa’s Castelvecchio Museum in Verona.20 The relationships between the Archbishopric Museum and the Castelvecchio Museum are direct and unambiguous as the two architects often conversed about their shared ideas.21 The two museums were constructed 15 years apart: Castelvecchio between 1956-1964 and the Archbishopric Museum between 1967-1979. In Fehn’s museum the most obvious resemblance and metatext is the bridge. Both works contain bridges that weave throughout the existing ruins and provide visitors with an elevated view of the ruins. The bridges of the Archbishopric

Images: 7 - Archbishopric Museum in Hamar, Norway by Sverre Fehn 8 - Castelvecchio, Verona, Italy by Carlo Scarpa 9 - 9/11 Memorial & Museum, New York City, by Michael Arad 10 - Tribute in Light, New York City

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Museum also show how there can be overlap between the transtextual relationships because not only are they metatextual in relation to Scarpa’s work, but they are paratextual in relation to the existing ruins. This paratextual relationship is evident in the way the bridges display the ruins as if they are the museum artifacts themselves. The whole of Fehn’s project, by transforming a barn and medieval fortress into a museum is hypertextual, which will be defined in more detail later. Metatextual relationships can also reference the loss of a previous architectural text. Memorials and commemorative monuments comment upon past events and therefore can contain metatextual relationships. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 were a significantly important moment in Western history. This event is inherently linked with the images of the twin towers of the World Trade Centre in New York City. Today, the 9/11 Memorial references not just that horrific and traumatic event, but also the twin towers, which were a previously existing text. There are specific relationships between the architecture of the memorial and the architecture of the World Trade Centre that can be considered metatextual. The memorial consists of two black granite-reflecting pools with waterfalls, both positioned within the footprints of the destroyed towers. These reflecting pools act as voids in the city, marking the territory of what was lost and preventing new development. While the memorial marks the location of the twin towers, the art installation, “Tribute in Light”, metatextually references the lost towers in the skyline of New York. The installation is a series of spotlights at ground zero that is reproduced annually to commemorate the attack. While not specifically architectural, the two columns of lights replace the iconic twin towers in the skyline at night.

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HYPERTEXT Genette’s second book on transtextuality, Palimpsests: Literature in the Second Degree, explores hypertextuality. A hypertextual relationship, simply put, is a relationship between a text (hypertext) with a previous text from which it is derived (hypotext). The hypertext is therefore a modification, transformation, elaboration, sequel, superimposition or extension of the hypotext. Genette describes the hypertext as a text that “can be read both for itself and in relation to its hypotext”.22 Genette highlights the power of hypertextuality’s transformative relationship by saying, ““making new things out of old” has the merit, at least, of generating more complex and more savory objects than those that are “made on purpose”; a new function is superimposed upon and interwoven with an older structure, and the dissonance between these two concurrent elements imparts its flavor to the resulting whole”.23 Architecturally speaking, it is important for understanding hypertextuality that the word “text” is defined since hypertextuality deals with a transformation between texts. When does one architectural text become another? This is a difficult question to answer as it often relates to a specific case. Generally a new text is created when the identity or ethos of the previous text is transformed into something new. An alteration of the text is inherent in the architectural projection of hypertextuality. The hypertext creates a new identity or ethos for the building, through which the hypotext can be read, even though the identity and ethos of the hypotext may no longer exist. This relationship, at its best, is similar to that of palimpsest. The term palimpsest originates in the middle ages. According to Olivier, “in the Middle Ages, a paucity of parchment often led monks to scratch off what was inscribed on manuscripts so they could write something new in its place. We call these superimposed layers of writing palimpsests.”24 While the original text shows through, the act of erasure plays an important role in palimpsest as it suggests a hierarchy of importance between texts, which the previous is worth sacrificing for the creation of the new. Genette explains, “[the] duplicity of the object, in the sphere of textual relations, can be represented by the old analogy of the palimpsest: on the same parchment, one text can become superimposed upon another, which it does not quite conceal but allows to show through”.25 14


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The term has since become applicable to a broader range of transcription including architecture. Rodolfo Machado in his article “Old Building as Palimpsest” writes that a remodeled architectural work “can be seen as a text of a special kind that is characterized by the juxtaposition and co-presence of other texts. If an original building is considered as a first discourse that conditions future formal discourses to be inscribed upon it, then remodeling can be conceived of as rewriting.”26 As previously mentioned, Zumthor’s Kolumba Museum in Cologne, Germany is a good hypertextual example. This art museum of the Cologne Archdiocese (hypertext) transforms the ruins of the late-gothic Saint Kolumba Church (hypotext), which was destroyed in the Second World War. In maintaining the original plans and by building the new walls out of the old, the newly transformed building becomes part of the architectural continuum.27 The museum is read as a modern, yet respectful new text. The ruins, which appear frozen in the new façade, allow the reader to identify moments of the previous text. The ground floor remains as an open archaeological site that is navigated by a bridge (perhaps Zumthor is metatextually referencing Scarpa and Fehn). Inside the grounds is a peaceful courtyard, which replaces a lost medieval cemetery.28 The High Line in New York City is not just a clear example of hypertext, but it is specifically an example of palimpsest due to the superimposition of a modern park onto an industrial infrastructure. What is clear about this example is the juxtaposition between the hypotext (infrastructure of hard industry) and the hypertext (soft natural park-scape). The construction process of the project presents the most literal representation of palimpsest. The first step of the construction process was removal, which involved “everything on the structure, including steel rails, gravel ballast, soil, debris and a layer of concrete,”29 as well as built up dirt, vegetation and debris. Prior to the removal of the rails, each rail was identified, labeled, and mapped in order for reuse in the final design. The complete removal of the top level of the High Line was necessary to verify the remaining steel structure as well as install proper drainage and waterproofing. This removal is the first step of palimpsest, as much of (but not all) the original layers are removed in order to accept a new layer - in this case the hypertext. In the winning proposal by landscape architect James Corner, architecture firm Diller + Scofidio & Renfo and garden designer Piet Oudolf, they state, “the team retools this industrial conveyance into a post-industrial instrument of leisure, life, and growth.”30 As illustrated by the architects’ goals, you have the palimpsestic changing of an industrial artifact into

Images: 11 - The High Line, New York City by James Corner, Diller Scofidio + Renfro & Piet Oudolf 12 - Original elevated railway, New York City 13 - St. Columba Church, pre bombing, Cologne, Germany 14 - Kolumba Museum, Cologne, Germany by Peter Zumthor

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a modern park, but in addition you also have embedded in the project the time of natural growth and seasons. In the book, Why We Build, British architecture critic Rowan Moore describes the High Line as “a work of different kinds of time. There is the historic time of the old railway, its rise, abandonment, and re-use, its part in the industrial history of New York. There are the lifecycles of the plants and their seasonal changes.”31 These multiple rhythms of time are expressed simultaneously as one walks through the park. The design qualifies as a hypertext and palimpsest due to the fact that it is transforming the original structure into something completely new, while allowing elements from the initial state to show through and remind viewers of the previous life of the building. Moore describes one of the palimpsestuous elements as the rails. He writes, “relics of rails and sleepers are halfburied in the planting and paving. You don’t forget what this thing was, but you also know that it is something different.”32 The rail lines were removed and consciously put back in order to summon or evoke the previous life of the High Line. The detailing of the concrete decking also reinforces this as it dematerializes into the wildness of the planting which contains the rails. It is almost as if the planting beds are fragmented memories of the abandoned railway that materialize and dematerializes as one “remembers” as they move through the park. ARCHITEXT Genette’s final term, architextuality, is the designation of a text to its genre both in typology (novel, poem, etc.) and style (romance, tragedy, detective, etc.). It is the “most abstract and implicit of the transcendent categories, the relationship of inclusion linking each text to the various kinds of discourse of which it is a representative.”33 The architext is therefore the element that the reader uses in their categorization of the text. This definition projects similarly onto architecture through typology (cathedral, hospital, residential etc.) and style (baroque, neoclassical, modern, etc.).

Images: 15 - Interior, of Notre Dame, Paris 16 - Le Stryge gargoyle, Notre Dame,

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Notre-Dame de Paris is a host to several architextual elements. One of the strongest characteristics of the gothic style is the pointed arch. This architextual cue between the pointed arch and the gothic style signals the users as to the categorization of Notre-Dame as gothic. While there are many other examples within Notre-Dame that signify its categorization as a gothic cathedral, perhaps the most interesting are the elements introduced by Viollet-le-Duc during his restoration of the cathedral between 1843-1864.34 Research and recording was an important part of ViolletLe-Duc’s restorative methodology. His research on the gothic style resulted in an idealized concept of the gothic style, which was composed of numerous architexts. This led Viollet-le-Duc to add architexts to Notre-Dame that belonged to his idealized concept, even if they were foreign to Notre-Dame itself and it’s history.35 This reinforcement of the gothic style through the addition of previously nonexistent architexts includes the gargoyles and work on the central spire.

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FROM READER TO AUTHOR The design project in Part II will shift transtextuality from relationships that are read in completed texts to using transtextuality as a design process. This role reversal from reader to author will illuminate additional relationships that may not otherwise be legible when reading architectural texts without the explicit knowledge of the architect (author). The design intent of the architect often creates a hierarchy amongst the five-transtextual terms and this will play out through the adaptive reuse of the Hanna Roundhouse.

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PART II DESIGNING FOR THE HANNA ROUNDHOUSE

Hanna Roundhouse, Unknown Date (1919-1943)


NORTHWEST TERRITORIES

HANNA, ALBERTA

SASKATCHEWAN

BRITISH COLUMBIA

Hanna is a small town located in EastCentral Alberta; about a 2-hour drive (215 km) North-East of Calgary. The main access to Hanna is via Highway 9, which runs just South of the town. According to the 2011 Canadian Census, Hanna’s population is 2,673 people.1

N

ALBERTA

Hanna is the main service town in East Central Alberta for neighbouring rural farmers and ranchers seeking banking, professional, medical and shopping services.2 Hanna began as a railway divisional point in the beginning of the 20th century. By the 1950’s however, the railroad’s influence on the town was beginning to diminish leading to the railway’s closure in 1961. After the railway left, other service initiatives were implemented to reduce the depopulation. Since the beginning of the Alberta oil boom, Hanna has hosted a representative group of oilfield production and service personnel.3 Hanna’s largest tourist attraction is the annual Indoor Pro Rodeo held at the end of September. Other tourist activities include golfing, camping, hunting, fishing and it’s Pioneer Village, which consists of a collection of historic buildings and local archive.

Grande Prairie

High Prairie

Fort McMurray

Slave Lake

EDMONTON

Red Deer

Hanna CALGARY

Medecine Hat Lethbridge

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MONTANA

50 m 50 km


HANNA’S RAILWAY HISTORY Hanna’s origins are intrinsically linked with Canada’s railway history. The Canadian Northern Railway (CNoR) was established in 1899 by William Mackenzie and Donald Mann in response to the monopoly of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR). At the time, the Canadian Government was propagating settlement in the West and the railway industry was the means to achieve this. The CNoR provided a more affordable solution than the CPR, thus giving the CNoR the nickname of the “settler’s railroad.”4 From 1901 to 1916, the CNoR expanded to include more than 9,000 miles of track. As the railroad expanded, new towns needed to be developed along the track in order to service the trains (which were steam locomotives at the time). These service towns were known as divisional points. At the time, the designation of a town as a divisional point “virtually ensured a community’s economic future.”5 This of course is completely reliant upon the railroad and its success.

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By 1911, the CNoR had completed surveying the land in order to connect Saskatoon with Calgary. This rail line would be called the Goose Lake Line and would bring settlers and supplies to areas not yet serviced by the railway. David Blythe Hanna was the executive of CNoR at the time, and it is his name that was given to one of the most important divisional points along the line: the town of Hanna. With the promise of a railroad, many people moved to Hanna in order to find work (with the CNoR) and to be close to a service line. By the end of 1912, CNoR had laid tracks into the town and construction on a 10-stall roundhouse, 70’ diameter turntable and a 60,000-gallon water tower began on June 8, 1913. A roundhouse is used to service locomotives and is typically accompanied by a turntable, which aligns trains with their designated stalls. When the roundhouse was completed, it became clear that Hanna was going to be a major service point, “everything around the yards [in Hanna] point to this being one of the main divisional points of the CNoR in this province. The best of everything has been installed.”6 By 1917 the Canadian Government took over the CNoR, as well as other smaller rail lines. Two years later they would be amalgamated into the Canadian National Railway (CNR). Under the CNR in 1919, five additional stalls were added to the roundhouse in Hanna. These stalls were taller and longer than the original 10 and made out of brick instead of reinforced concrete (this would result in its collapse almost 100 years later). Due to larger locomotives, ventilation needed to be improved and as a result the roof of the original 10 stalls was raised in 1943. This created a clerestory row of windows and brick bands atop the concrete walls. Trouble for roundhouses everywhere began around the 1950’s when diesel engines began to replace the steam locomotives. Finally in 1961, the roundhouse and CNR rail yards closed. Since its closure, the roundhouse has been used as a machinery centre as well as a cattle auction. For the past several years, however, the roundhouse has been abandoned, attracting photographers and railway enthusiasts. As of September 2013 the Hanna Roundhouse Society, a local not-for profit organization, purchased the roundhouse in hopes of restoring and reusing it for tourism and community activities.

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Hanna Roundhouse by C. Moorhouse, 2011


THE HANNA ROUNDHOUSE TIMELINE & MORPHOLOGY THE HANNA ROUNDHOUSE TIMELINE & MORPHOLOGY Over 100 years, the Hanna Roundhouse has had multiple functions, all of which have left their mark on the building. History: 1913 - 10 Stall roundhouse with 70’ diameter turntable and machine shop is built. 1919 - 5 additional stalls built at south end. 1942 - Turntable replaced with larger 86’-6” diameter turntable. 1943 - Roof raised on original 10 stalls to allow for ventilation. 1913 CNoR/CNR Operated Machinery Centre Cattle Auction Abandoned HRS Owned

1919

1961 - CNR ceases operation. Chimneys/smoke stacks removed. Water car collides with back wall of stall 4, opening is turned into a sliding door by Hanna Manufacturing Ltd., the new owners after CNR.

1974 - Converted into a cattle auction by Twin 4 Auction. This involved creating a show arena with bleachers, an animal scale that utilized one of the original pits, and large non-reinforced openings in the original concrete walls. Many animal pens were set up. The machine shop was converted into a cafeteria and office space. 2000’s - While abandoned, the front of the 5 stall addition begin to collapse due to the faulty construction. 2012 - The town of Hanna demolishes the 5 stall addition as it is unsafe. 1943


* Cattle pens. Photos from Hanna Historical Roundhouse and Village Feasibility Study and Concept Design

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Photo by C. Hutton, 2009 1961 1974

2012

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THE HANNA ROUNDHOUSE PROJECT SITE

CONNECTS TO

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CN RESERVOIR

100m RAILWAY TRACKS

CN RESERVOIR

MAIN ROAD GRAVEL ROAD DIRT ROAD 100m

FOUNDATIONS

RAILWAY TRACKS MAIN ROAD GRAVEL ROAD DIRT ROAD FOUNDATIONS

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THE HANNA ROUNDHOUSE CHARACTERISTIC COLLAGE


STALL 1

STALL 2

STALL 3 MACHINE SHOP OFFICES

STALL 4

TURNTABLE

STALL 5

CATTLE AUCTION ARENA

STALL 8

STALL 9

STALL 10

DEMOLISHED STALLS 11-15

A ROUNDHOUSE PLAN

BY CHRIS MOORHOUSE - DEC 26 2013

existing plan

e in progress and are not to be used for construction purposes. to be used without author’s consent.

50’


ADAPTIVE REUSE PROGRAM During the summer of 2013 I met with Sandra Beaudoin, the President of the Hanna Roundhouse Society, and communicated via email with Laurie Armstrong, Director of Business & Communications of Hanna. At the time, the Hanna Roundhouse Society had plans to purchase the roundhouse and reuse it (they subsequently purchased the roundhouse in September 2013). My communications with Beaudoin resulted in the idea of reusing the roundhouse as a museum that was to be financially supported by ancillary programs.7 My conversations with Armstrong revealed Hanna’s lack of adequate performance space and accommodations.8 The programmatic vision derived from these conversations includes the roundhouse as both a museum in remembrance of Hanna’s railway history, as well as a community gathering space and local landmark. To support the roundhouse financially, and the community as a whole, a cafeteria and performance space will be included. The cafeteria will provide food services to community events held on site, as well service highway travellers. Beaudoin would also like to take advantage of the roundhouse as a cultural icon and have it host shops that would sell locally crafted goods.9 THE ROUNDHOUSE’S EXISTING CONDITION At the request of Sandra Beaudoin, Williams Engineering conducted a structural evaluation of the Roundhouse in 2010. The original walls are concrete (Williams Engineering believe it to be unreinforced), with heavy timber columns and inner radial façade. The timber framing appears to be in good condition.10 The concrete walls and central shear wall (between stalls 5 and 6) also appear in good condition except for the openings that were created under the ownership of Twin 4 Auction in the 1970’s. These openings have created cracks and should be reinforced.11 The wood roof however is in need of repair or to be replaced entirely. Since the roof was raised in 1943, bricks atop the original concrete walls support the wood roof. The bricks appear to be in good condition with minor visible cracks. The cattle auction arena also added by Twin 4 Auction consists of wood framing and is in poor condition and should be demolished.12 Most of the windows are either in a state of partial or complete decay. According to the evaluation in 2010, Williams Engineering estimated a structural rehabilitation cost of $157,000. At the time of the evaluation, the 1919 five-stall addition was in a state of partial collapse. Since it’s demolition in 2012, it is no longer a safety concern. Many of the bricks and heavy timber from those stalls have been piled up on site for future reuse. 36


37


A TRANSTEXTUAL APPROACH TO DESIGN Before I transtextually approach the adaptive reuse of the Hanna Roundhouse, I would like to clarify how the transtextual terms align with various design intents, primarily paratextuality, metatextuality and hypertextuality. These three terms appear to achieve certain design goals, while intertext and architext perform more as a means to an end and exist primarily at the scale of a detail. Paratextuality as a threshold of understanding relies on particular design intent and then is used to execute said intent. With heritage architecture, it is often related to restoration and preservation, as the intent is to experience the building as it was. In the case of both the Roosevelt Park Master Plan and the Ara Pacis Augustae, preservation was the primary design intent. There are the two types of metatextuality, those that are influenced by precedent studies and those that reference another text without containing an intertextual relationship. The former can have overlapping with paratextual restoration, while the latter is often a new creation in memory of a no longer existing text. Hypertextuality, unlike paratextuality, is against restoration and preservation. It is a primarily transformative relationship. One of the reasons that the High Line is such a good example of hypertextuality is because it was the perfect condition for transformation to take place. The High Line was on the verge of demolition and it was largely accepted that restoring or reserving it as it was would be of little or no benefit. Its hypertextual transformation provided a second life. Designing for the adaptive reuse of the Hanna Roundhouse, I will be selecting certain architectural moments at different scales (including character defining elements, materiality, form, movement through the site, programming etc.) and exploring their potential as paratextual, metatextual and hypertextual. I will also include intertextual and architextual relationships when appropriate. By repeating the same detail or design according to the terms I will illustrate the differences and architectural position of each. While there are infinite possibilities for each, I will only propose one per category. I will begin with the simple example of the façade windows. Currently in it’s abandoned state, the roundhouse’s windows are either missing or beyond repair.

38


E1

P1

M1

H1


Image E1 is a photograph of an existing window condition along the North façade. There is no remaining glass and the wood mullions and frame has been considerably damaged. Image P1 is a paratextual design.13 This example applies a pane of glass on the exterior and interior, encapsulating the deteriorated wooden frame and yet leaving it on display to be viewed as an authentic element that has decayed. Image M1 is a metatextual design. This example references the art precedent “The River That Flows Both Ways” by Spencer Finch as part of the High Line. Finch’s art piece is a series of glass panes tinted to a colour that corresponds to a photograph of the Hudson River. This design references that concept however reinterprets it in grey scale. This grey scale on the windows also references the nature of the Roundhouse during its original operation as smoke often filled the building and created a dark environment. Image H1 is a hypertextual design. This example assumes that the wall has become an interior wall and transforms the function of the window into a display for local art. The window has been cut to the floor with a new plinth and top form which contains spotlights. Following the format I have laid out with the windows I will continue to explore other architectural moments at varying scales. Afterwards a hierarchy will be given to the transtextual terms regarding the approach most fitting for the programmatic use. Details will be chosen from the exercise and further developed. From this, a new adaptive reuse will be proposed for the Hanna Roundhouse that highlights the relationships between the new, old and forgotten elements in built form.

40


APPENDIX


The modifica elaboration, s of a site or bu and identity. discernible, si

This makes re form, design or alludes to forgotten.

An element t independantl against suppo experience of

Similar to spo decoration/el and in a new

“The transtextual relationship that links a commentary to the text it comments upon” (para) without explicitly citing it.

“liminal devices and conventions, both within the book (peritext) and outside it (epitext), that emdiate the book to the reader: titles and subtitles, pseudonyms, forewords, dedications” (para) book covers, etc.“a fringe of the printed text which in reality controls one’s whole reading of the text” (para)

Quoting, paraphrasing, plagiarism, one source within another. “eidetically and typically as the actual presence of one text within another” (pal)

“The transtextual relationship that links a commentary to the text it comments upon” (para) without explicitly citing it.

Relation between a later text (hypertext) which is also the text in question, with a previous text (hypotext). The Hypertext is a modification, transformation, elaboration, sequel, superimposition or extension of the hypotext. It is not a commentary of the hypotext. “This relationship is in the terrain of Palimpsests.” (para)

The Aeneid by Virgil and Ulysseys by James Joyce are both considered hypertexts of the Odyssey by Homer (hypotext).

Designation as part of a genre

Agatha Christie’s Murder on the Orient Express. This belongs to the detective fiction genre. Architexts that signify this include the title (the word murder) and the structure of the plot; crime scene, evidence and finally solution.

(para) Genette, Gerard. Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation (pal) Genette, Gerard. Palimpsests: Literature in the Second Degree

The Aeneid by Virgil and Ulysseys by James Joyce are both considered hypertexts of the Odyssey by Homer (hypotext).

J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter series. There are numerous examples, including the film adaptation, and the varying book covers for children or adults. Another includes the author’s name. It was abreviated to hide the fact that she is a woman in order to better appeal to a male audience.

J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter series. There are numerous examples, including the film adaptation, and the varying book covers for children or adults. Another includes the author’s name. It was abreviated to hide the fact that she is a woman in order to better appeal to a male audience.

An example would include a quote in quotation marks, or paraphrasing with citation.

“liminal devices and conventions, both within the book (peritext) and outside it (epitext), that emdiate the book to the reader: titles and subtitles, pseudonyms, forewords, dedications” (para) book covers, etc.“a fringe of the printed text which in reality controls one’s whole reading of the text” (para)

An element th independantly against suppo experience of

This makes re form, design e or alludes to a forgotten.

Relation between a later text (hypertext) which is also the text in question, with a previous text (hypotext). The Hypertext is a modification, transformation, elaboration, sequel, superimposition or extension of the hypotext. It is not a commentary

ARCHITECT

EXAMPLE ANALYSIS INTERTEXTUALITY PARATEXTUALITY METATEXTUALITY

LITERARY DEFINITION HYPERTEXTUALITY

Similar to spo decoration/ele and in a new

An example would include a quote in quotation marks, or paraphrasing with citation.

INTERTEXTUALITY

ARCHITEXTUALITY

ARCHITECTU

Quoting, paraphrasing, plagiarism, one source within another. “eidetically and typically as the actual presence of one text within another” (pal)

PARATEXTUALITY

COMPARITVELY DEFINED BETWEEN LITERATURE AND ARCHITECTURE

EXAMPLE ANALYSIS

METATEXTUALITY

TRANSTEXTUALITY

LITERARY DEFINITION

The modificat elaboration, s of a site or bu and identity. Th discernible, si

Designation a school, reside (modernism, etc.). The Arc reason for its

EXTUALITY

TRANSTEXTUALITY

COMPARITVELY DEFINED BETWEEN LITERATURE AND ARCHITECTURE


ARCHITECTURAL DEFINITION

EXAMPLE IMAGE

EXAMPLE ANALYSIS

uote rasing

Similar to spolia where a building material/ decoration/element is reused in a new way and in a new building.

Sir John Soane’s Home and Museum. Soane incorporated capitals from Westminister Hall into the facade of his home. The misalignmnet draws further attention to the fact that they are a diffferent text.

es.

An element that is created/added independantly of the main building, yet in or against support of it. It alters or frames the experience of the primary building.

Roosevelt Park Master Plan in Detroit. This project leaves the abandoned Michigan Central station alone as a backdrop, but develops the surrounding land into a skate and leisure park. The aim of the park is to highlight the station in hopes of saving it. This would be considered an epitext.

This makes reference to another text through form, design etc. It either comments, evokes or alludes to another text either existing or forgotten.

The Tribute of Light in New York references the lost form of the World Trade Centre Towers in the New York Skyline.

eys dered Homer

The modification, transformation, elaboration, superimposition or extension of a site or building, giving it a new function and identity. The old identity is still however discernible, similar to palimpsest.

The High Line in New York City. This abandoned rail line has been adaptively reused to become an urban park. This industrial structure has been transformed by the superimposition of nature (by the means of man). One does not forget what that it was a railway (hypotext) but it is also obvious that it is now something different as a park (hypertext).

he o the exts le (the re of e and

Designation as part of a typology (church, school, residence etc) or architectural style (modernism, post-modernism, classical etc.). The Architext is the element that is the reason for its classification.

Notre Dame de Paris. Categorized as a Gothic Cathedral, it gets this categorization from its architexts. The pointed arches for example, makes this of the Gothic style. Viollet-Le-Duc’s restoration of Notre Dame involved the reinforcement of the Gothic style through the addition of architext’s such as the gargoyles and central spire.

nd the n or thor’s the fact better


PART I - ENDNOTES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Hill, Jonathan. Weather architecture. London: Routledge, 2012: 272. Genette, Gérard. Palimpsests: literature in the second degree. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997. Olivier, Laurent. The dark abyss of time: archaeology and memory. Lanham, Md.: AltaMira Press, 2011: 180. Ibid: 131. Genette, Gérard. Palimpsests: literature in the second degree. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997: ix. Entry on Gérard Genette. The Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism, 2nd ed. Ed. Michael Groden, Martin Kreiswirth, and Imre Szeman. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2004. 430-33. Ibid: 1. Charles sanders piers. Frascari. Ibid: 7. Kristeva, Julia. Desire in language: a semiotic approach to literature and art. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980: 15. Genette, Gérard. Palimpsests: literature in the second degree. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997: 2. Goffi, Federica. Time matters: Invention and (Re)Imagination in Conservation: invention and (re)imagination in conservation : the unfinished drawing and building of St. Peters, the Vatican. Farnham: Ashgate, 2013. Ibid: 3. Genette, Gérard. Paratexts: thresholds of interpretation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997: xviii. Ibid: 2. Ibid: 1. “Ara Pacis Museum.” Richard Meier & Partners Architects LLP. http://www.richardmeier.com/www/#/projects/architecture/ location/europe-a-m/italy/1/277/0/ (accessed December 30, 2013). Genette, Gérard. Palimpsests: literature in the second degree. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997: 4. Genette, Gérard. Paratexts: thresholds of interpretation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997: xix. Hill, Jonathan. Weather architecture. London: Routledge, 2012: 277. Schulz, Christian, and Gennaro Postiglione. Sverre Fehn: works, projects, writings, 1949-1996. New York: Monacelli Press, 1997: 15. Genette, Gérard. Palimpsests: literature in the second degree. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997: 397. Ibid: 398. Olivier, Laurent. The dark abyss of time: archaeology and memory. Lanham, Md.: AltaMira Press, 2011: 129. Ibid: 398. Machado, Rodolfo. Old Buildings as Palimpsest, in “Progressive Architecture”, November, 1976: 46. “Building.” KOLUMBA. http://www.kolumba.de/?language=eng&cat_select=1&category=14&artikle=61&preview= (accessed January 5, 2014). Ibid. “Construction.” The High Line. http://www.thehighl­ine.org/construction (accessed November 4, 2013). “James Corner Field Operations and Diller Scofidio + Renfro.” The High Line. http://www.thehighline.org/design/design- team-selection/field-operations-diller-scofidio-renfro (accessed November 4, 2013). Moore, Rowan. Why we build. London: Picador, 2012: 294. Ibid: 291. Genette, Gérard. Paratexts: thresholds of interpretation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997: xix. Camille, Michael. The gargoyles of Notre-Dame: medievalism and the monsters of modernity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009. Print. Ibid.


PART II - ENDNOTES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Statistics Canada. 2011. 2011 Census Profile for Hanna, Alberta. “Town of Hanna > | Visitors > History > A History of Hardship.” Town of Hanna > | Visitors > History > A History of Hardship. http://www.hanna.ca/Visitors/History/AHistoryofHardship.aspx (accessed December 12, 2013). Ibid. Dorin, Patrick C.. The Canadian National Railways’ story. Seattle: Superior Publishing Company, 1975: 9. Canadian national in the west vol 5 ray a Matthews p9 “CNoR Strikes Water in Copious Quantities for Big Tanks”, May 28, 1914, Hanna Herald, Hanna Archives. Email communications with Sandra Beaudoin, 2013. Email communications with Laurie Armstrong, 2013. Email communications with Sandra Beaudoin, 2013. Williams Engineering, Structural Evaluation, 2010. Courtesy of Sandra Beaudoin. Ibid. Ibid. While this is a strong paratextual example, one could view a metatextual referencing of Sverre Fehn’s windows in the Archbishopric Museum at Hamar.


IMAGE SOURCES Cover: Photo by author, 2013 Part I cover: http://www.stylepark.com/en/petersen-tegl/k51?nr=6 Image 1: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b9/Soane_Museum_1.jpg Image 2: Westminster Hall and New Palace Yard by Thomas Sandby. http://www.parliament.uk/worksofart/artwork/unknown/ westminster-hall-and-new-palace-yard--about-1795-/2271 Image 3: http://photos.mlive.com/detroit/2011/08/roosevelt-park-urbandetail-01j.html Image 4: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ae/Michigan_Central_Train_Station_Exterior_2010.jpg/250pxMichigan_Central_Train_Station_Exterior_2010.jpg Image 5: http://www.apartamentosenroma.es/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/1295449501-rh1624-623.jpg Image 6: http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8296/7996418510_fc24c98f06_h.jpg Image 7: http://shakespeareintitchfield.weebly.com/uploads/1/5/3/9/15391744/7164342_orig.jpg Image 8: http://farm2.staticflickr.com/1218/880369528_f08e4daf3f_o.jpg Image 9: http://www.fodors.com/wire/New-York-City-9-11-Memorial-aerial-rendering.jpg Image 10: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Tribute_in_Light_-_11_September_2010_-_2.jpg/786pxTribute_in_Light_-_11_September_2010_-_2.jpg Image 11: Bann, Iwan. 2009 http://farm7.staticflickr.com/6124/5931297312_69af8c2649_b.jpg Image 12: View north from 17th street. http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3030/3251565572_663d9a6c0a_b.jpg Image 13: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-mvjE75J8c7c/T5OLinW-AgI/AAAAAAAARLU/zQWQl2yWEMM/s1600/st_kolumba_inside.jpg Image 14: http://www.building.co.uk/Pictures/web/a/u/p/Zumthor_Kolumba__Art_Museum.jpg Image 15: http://iliketowastemytime.com/sites/default/files/top_10_things_to_do_while_in_paris_notre_dame_de_paris6.jpg Image 16: Emil P. Albrecht, National Geographic Creative, 1910. http://www.natgeocreative.com/comp/IR18/326/1319815.jpg Part II cover: Undated photo of the Hanna Roundhouse. Courtesy of the Town of Hanna. Map: Aerials from Geodiscover Alberta, https://maps.srd.alberta.ca/geoportal/catalog/main/home.page Page 25: C.N.R. Station Hanna, Alta. Glenbow Archives, Calgary. Page27-28: Photo by Author, 2011.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Alberti, Leon Battista. Ten books on architecture. London: A. Tiranti, 1965 Beaudoin, Sandra. Railroad history, Hanna, Alberta, 2012: a collection of railroad history of Hanna and surrounding communities along the Goose Lake line. Self-published, 2012. Calvino, Italo. Invisible cities. [1st ed. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1974. Camille, Michael. The gargoyles of Notre-Dame: medievalism and the monsters of modernity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009. Print. Edensor, Tim. Industrial ruins spaces, aesthetics, and materiality. Oxford [U.K.: Berg, 2005. Fein, Zach. “The Aesthetic of Decay: Space, Time, and Perception”. Thesis. University of Cincinnati. 2010-2011. Genette, Gérard. Palimpsests: literature in the second degree. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997. Genette, Gérard. Paratexts: thresholds of interpretation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Goffi, Federica. Time matters: Invention and (Re)Imagination in Conservation: invention and (re)imagination in conservation : the unfinished drawing and building of St. Peters, the Vatican. Farnham: Ashgate, 2013. Hill, Jonathan. Weather architecture. London: Routledge, 2012. Jorgensen, Anna, and Richard Keenan. Urban wildscapes. London: Routledge, 2012. Kristeva, Julia. Desire in language: a semiotic approach to literature and art. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980. Lee, Pamela M., and Gordon Clark. Object to be destroyed the work of Gordon Matta-Clark. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2000. Machado, Rodolfo. “Old Buildings as Palimpsest”, in Progressive Architecture, November, 1976. Mah, Alice. Industrial ruination, community, and place: landscapes and legacies of urban decline. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012.


Moore, Rowan. Why we build. London: Picador, 2012. Olivier, Laurent. The dark abyss of time: archaeology and memory. Lanham, Md.: AltaMira Press, 2011. Ruskin, John. The lamp of memory. London: Penguin, 2008. Trigg, Dylan. “The psychoanalysis of ruins.” 3:AM Magazine. http://www.3ammagazine.com/3am/the-psychoanalysis-of-ruins/ (accessed September 9, 2013). Woodward, Christopher. In ruins. New York: Pantheon Books, 2001.


Reading Ruins: A Transtextual Approach to the Hanna Roundhouse  

Mini thesis submitted for the 2014 Azrieli Scholarship.

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