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CENTER CITY REPORTS

GETTING TO WORK:

TRANSIT, DENSITY & OPPORTUNITY

JUNE 2016

CENTER CITY DISTRICT, CENTRAL PHILADELPHIA DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION & CENTRAL PHILADELPHIA TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION FIND MORE REPORTS AT:

CENTERCITYPHILA.ORG Peter Tobia

Center City Philadelphia, located at the center of the region’s transit network, holds the largest concentration of employment anywhere in the metro area, with 295,000 jobs.¹ More than 1 million residents of surrounding suburban counties live within one mile of a rail station, connecting them directly to downtown’s employers, retail shops, restaurants, educational, medical, arts and cultural institutions. Fifty percent (50%) of city residents can commute by transit to Center City in 30 minutes or less; 61% of those who live in Greater Center City can get to City Hall (the geographic center of downtown) in 15 minutes or less. Center City's transit connectivity is particularly important to the substantial number of lower-income Philadelphia residents who do not own cars.

JOB DENSITY AND TRANSIT Transit is not just a convenience; it is essential to the density that enables Center City to provide 42% of all jobs in Philadelphia.² If downtown workers relied on cars to the same degree as commuters across the region, then 295,000 workers would arrive each day in 227,150 cars.³ At 330 square feet per parking space, we would

need a giant, surface parking lot of 2.6 square miles – larger than William Penn’s original plan for the city (2.2 square miles river to river, Vine to South) – leaving little room for the office buildings, hotels, hospitals, universities, residences, cultural institutions, historic destinations, restaurants, retail shops and parks that define the diversity and create employment opportunities downtown. Instead, SEPTA rail, subway, trolley and bus lines converge with PATCO and NJ Transit from New Jersey to deliver 290,000 workers, students, visitors, shoppers and patients each weekday into Center City. Center City employers benefit not just from a multi-modal transit system, but also from the rapidly growing, live-work neighborhoods that are expanding around the downtown core. While just 10% of downtown jobs are held by Greater Center City residents, the percentage of downtown residents with a BA degree or higher is 58%, nearly twice the regional rate of 34%. This critical mass of talent is positively impacting business-location decisions. Another 41% of downtown jobs are held by residents of city neighborhoods, north of Girard Avenue, south of Tasker Street and west of the Schuylkill River; 39% are held by residents of the suburban counties surrounding Philadelphia.

1: Greater Center City, from Girard Avenue to Tasker Street, river to river, holds 286,427 salaried jobs; another 8,500 individuals are compensated either as partners or work freelance. 2: Transit-accessible University City holds another 11% of the city’s jobs. JUNE 2016 3: 81% of the region’s commuters use a car, truck or van to get to work, 90% driving alone. Accounting for the 10% of those who carpool, there are approximately 0.77 vehicles involved in commuting for each worker in the region.

CENTER CITY DISTRICT & CENTRAL PHILADELPHIA DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION WWW.CENTERCITYPHILA.ORG

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Trappe

Skippack

Warminster

Hatboro

Upper Gwynedd

Worcester

Lower Gwynedd

Collegeville

Northampton

Langhorne Langhorne Manor

Horsham

Middletown

Upper Southampton East Norriton

Lower Providence

MONTGOMERY

West Norriton

Upper Providence

Norristown

Lower Southampton

Ambler

Whitpain

Penndel Hulmeville

Upper Moreland Bryn Athyn

Upper Dublin

BUCKS Far Northeast

Abington Springfield

Upper Merion Bridgeport

Bristol Jenkintown

Whitemarsh

Schuylkill

Rockledge

Cheltenham Conshohocken

Tredyffrin

West Conshohocken

Burlington

Beverly

PHILADELPHIA

Olney/Oak Lane

Roxborough/ Manayunk

CHESTER

Edgewater Park

Burlington

Delanco Willingboro

Riverside

Lower Merion Near Northeast

Germantown/ Chestnut Hill

Radnor

Easttown

Bristol

Bensalem

Lower Moreland

Plymouth

Westampton

Delran

Riverton

Narberth

Palmyra Cinnaminson

Haverford

Newtown

Willistown

North Philadelphia

Edgmont

Clifton Heights

Springfield

Morton

Ridley

Aldan Darby

Darby

Rutledge Swarthmore Nether Providence Prospect Park

Rose Valley

Woodlynne

Collingswood Haddon

Colwyn Sharon Hill

Glenolden Darby Folcroft

South Philadelphia

Chester Chester

Paulsboro

Audubon Evesham

Haddon Heights Tavistock Barrington Lawnside

CAMDEN

Magnolia

Voorhees Gibbsboro

West Deptford Hi-Nella Woodbury

Deptford

Stratford

Laurel Springs

Woodbury Heights

Logan

Cherry Hill

Somerdale

GLOUCESTER

Trainer Marcus Hook

Haddonfield

Greenwich

Upper Chichester

Brandywine

Westville

Haddon

Runnemede Eddystone

Lower Chichester

Bellmawr

National Park Tinicum

Upland Bethel

Mount Ephraim Brooklawn

Norwood

Parkside

Brookhaven

Oaklyn Gloucester City Audubon Park Haddon

Southwest Philadelphia

Ridley Park

Concord

Mount Laurel

Yeadon

Collingdale

Middletown

Lumberton

Camden

Lansdowne

Media

Chester Heights

Greater Center City

Gloucester

Lindenwold

Pine Valley Wenonah

Pine Hill

Mantua

Berlin

Clementon

East Greenwich

NEW CASTLE

Pine Hill

Berlin

Washington

FIGURE 1: REGIONAL JOBS AND TRANSIT LINES BY PHILADEPHIA AREA AND SUBURBAN MUNICIPALITY JOBS: 100,000

SEPTA: Total jobs by municipality in surrounding counties Total jobs by area within Philadelphia

PATCO: Broad Street Line Market-Frankford Line Norristown Highspeed Line

Regional Rail Lines

PATCO

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Local Employment-Household Dynamics, 2014

AT THE CENTER OF THE REGION’S TRANSIT NETWORK, CENTER CITY IS ALSO THE METRO AREA'S LARGEST EMPLOYMENT NODE, WITH 295,000 JOBS. 2

Hainesport

Maple Shade

Merchantville

East Lansdowne

Thornbury

BURLINGTON

University City

Upper Darby

Upper Providence

Moorestown Pennsauken

West Philadelphia

DELAWARE

Marple

Aston

Bridesburg/Kensington /Richmond

CENTER CITY DISTRICT & CENTRAL PHILADELPHIA DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION WWW.CENTERCITYPHILA.ORG

Medford


VINE ST

RACE-VINE 2,290 BROAD ST

CHINATOWN 164

SUBURBAN STATION 25,049

JEFFERSON 15TH ST STATION 13TH ST STATION STATION 15,028 39,086 14,369

8TH ST STATION 13,160

MARKET ST

5TH ST STATION 3,306

City Hall

22ND ST STATION 1,741

19TH ST STATION 2,533

11TH ST STATION 9,090

CITY HALL 31,995

2ND ST STATION 3,307

8TH & MARKET 5,578

WALNUT-LOCUST 6,460

15TH/16TH & LOCUST 12TH/13TH & LOCUST 1,661 6,669

9TH/10TH & LOCUST 1,608

PINE ST

LOMBARD-SOUTH 2,644

FIGURE 2: 2015 AVERAGE WEEKDAY RIDERSHIP IN CENTER CITY SEPTA: Subway Lines: 116,590; Bus Lines: 91,813; Regional Rail Lines: 39,418; Trolley Lines: 23,244 MARKET-FRANKFORD LINE

BROAD STREET LINE

REGIONAL RAIL

TROLLEY

PATCO: 15,516

NJ TRANSIT: 4,084

PATCO

Note: Ridership counts for 13th and 15th Street Stations include both Market-Frankford Line and Trolley riders.

GETTING TO WORK, GREATER CENTER CITY Residents of Greater Center City enjoy the most commuting alternatives and rely the least on cars (Figure 6). Because 40% work in Center City (the highest live/work ratio in the city and region) and another 12% work in University City, 60% get to work without a car. By contrast, 60% of the residents of the balance of Philadelphia and 80% of the residents of surrounding counties depend on cars for their daily commute. In Greater Center City, the closer one lives to the core, within the pre-automobile street-grid established in the 17th and 18th centuries, the lower the dependency on a car for commuting (Figure 5). In the neighborhoods of Rittenhouse Square, Chinatown, Washington Square, and Logan Square, more people walk to work than drive (Figure 4). In almost all of Greater Center City, the majority of commuters get to work by means other than a car; the only exceptions are neighborhoods at the periphery, along I-76 and I-95, like Grays Ferry, Pennsport, the Waterfront and Northern Liberties. Overall, Center City has the lowest reverse-commute rate to the suburbs (24%) of any portion of Philadelphia.

CENTER CITY DISTRICT & CENTRAL PHILADELPHIA DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION WWW.CENTERCITYPHILA.ORG

Source: SEPTA, NJ Transit, PATCO

FIGURE 3: WHERE DOWNTOWN WORKERS LIVE

10% 10% GREATER ALL OTHER

CENTER CITY

41%

ELSEWHERE IN PHILADELPHIA

39%

METRO AREA OUTSIDE PHILADELPHIA

Source: US Census Bureau, Local Employment - Household Dynamics, 2014

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FIGURE 4: COMMUTING MODE BY NEIGHBORHOOD CAR RITTENHOUSE

25%

16%

TRANSIT

WALK

BIKE

HOME

CHINATOWN

28%

17%

WASHINGTON SQUARE

28%

22%

LOGAN SQUARE

33%

OLD CITY

35%

BELLA VISTA

36%

22%

POINT BREEZE

37%

40%

GRADUATE HOSPITAL

37%

21%

PASSYUNK SQUARE

38%

32%

QUEEN VILLAGE

40%

21%

LOFT DISTRICT

40%

24%

SOCIETY HILL

44%

FAIRMOUNT

47%

GRAYS FERRY

48%

NORTHERN LIBERTIES

56%

26%

PENNSPORT

56%

23%

WATERFRONT

63%

50% 5%

39% 42%

17%

6% 10%

29% 14%

1%

0%

8%

3%

2%

3%

2%

6%

2% 2%

7%

1%

3% 9%

3% 0%

6%

6% 8%

2%

2% 6%

8%

10%

2%

1% 8%

10%

16%

2%

5%

6%

16%

37%

60%

2% 5%

10%

22%

0%

8%

11%

22%

25%

1%

4%

7%

6%

21%

40%

1%

3% 4%

21% 27%

21%

20%

2% 2% 5% 4%

37%

0%

2%

9%

5%

42%

OTHER

80%

2% 1%

100%

Source: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2014 5-Year Estimates

FIGURE 5: COMMUTING WITHOUT A CAR, GREATER CENTER CITY 81%–100% FAIRMOUNT/SPRING GARDEN

CALLOWHILL/POPLAR

NORTHERN LIBERTIES

61%–80% 41%–60% 21%–40% 0%–20%

VINE ST

NO DATA

CORE CENTER CITY

LOGAN SQUARE CHINATOWN

Source: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2014 5-Year Estimates

OLD CITY

UNIVERSITY CITY

CAMDEN WATERFRONT RITTENHOUSE

WASHINGTON SQARE WEST

SOCIETY HILL

SOUTH ST

GREATER CENTER CITY BELLA VISTA

GRADUATE HOSPITAL

GRAYS FERRY TASKER ST

4

POINT BREEZE

PASSYUNK SQUARE

QUEEN VILLAGE

PENNSPORT


Peter Tobia

GETTING TO WORK, CITY AND REGION Beyond the downtown core, auto-free commuting is possible along subway and trolley lines that were extended in the early 20th century into Lower North, West, South, and Southwest Philadelphia (Figure 7).⁴ In those areas, more than half of workers reach their job without using a car. The Regional Rail lines, particularly in Northwest Philadelphia, provide good connectivity as well to Center City and University City. Outside of Philadelphia, most of the carfree commuters are also living along regional rail lines – particularly the Paoli/Thorndale and Media/Elwyn Lines, the Norristown High Speed Line, and PATCO. In the balance of the neighborhoods of Philadelphia outside Greater Center City, an average of 25% of workers commute to jobs in Center City; another 6% work in University City. In all these neighborhoods, more people work downtown than they do in the area in which they live (the citywide average live/work ratio is 12%, Figure 9). But 39% of city residents who live outside Greater Center City commute to jobs outside the city and are highly dependent on cars.

AN AVERAGE OF 25% OF THE WORKING RESIDENTS OF NEIGHBORHOODS OUTSIDE THE DOWNTOWN COMMUTE TO JOBS IN CENTER CITY; ANOTHER 6% WORK IN UNIVERSITY CITY. IN ALL THESE NEIGH­BORHOODS, MORE PEOPLE WORK DOWNTOWN THAN IN THE AREA IN WHICH THEY LIVE.

4: Defined by Philadelphia City Planning Commission districts.

CENTER CITY DISTRICT & CENTRAL PHILADELPHIA DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION WWW.CENTERCITYPHILA.ORG

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FIGURE 6: MODE OF COMMUTING TO WORK – GREATER CENTER CITY, PHILADELPHIA AND PHILADELPHIA METRO AREA

GREATER CENTER CITY 39% 24% 25% 6% 5% 2%

PHILADELPHIA 6%

CAR TRANSIT WALK

39%

25%

BIKE HOME OTHER

24%

59% 26% 8% 2% 3% 1%

PHILADELPHIA METRO AREA 8%

CAR TRANSIT WALK BIKE HOME OTHER

59%

26%

80% 11% 6% 0% 2% 1%

6% 11%

CAR TRANSIT WALK BIKE HOME

80%

OTHER

Source: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2014 5-Year Estimates

FIGURE 7: COMMUTING WITHOUT A CAR, CITY AND REGION 81%–100% 61%–80% 41%–60% 21%–40% 0%–20% NO DATA

RAIL LINES Source: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2014 5-Year Estimates

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CENTER CITY DISTRICT & CENTRAL PHILADELPHIA DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION WWW.CENTERCITYPHILA.ORG


FIGURE 8: WHERE PHILADELPHIANS WORK

VOLUME OF WORKERS LIVING IN AREA

FAR NORTHEAST 18% 2% 14%

ROXBOROUGH/ MANAYUNK

GERMANTOWN/ CHESTNUT HILL

23% 6% 46% 7% 18%

6% 8%

27%

40%

24% 4% 9%

3%

UNIVERSITY CITY

42%

GREATER CENTER CITY

11%

BRIDESBURG/ KENSINGTON/ RICHMOND

UNIVERSITY CITY

25%

SAME AREA

22% 35%

REST OF PHILADELPHIA

38%

3% 11%

28%

20%

PERCENT OF WORKERS EMPLOYED IN

19%

28%

22%

38%

NEAR NORTHEAST

22%

NORTH PHILADELPHIA

WEST PHILADELPHIA

8% 7%

40%

25,000

20%

OLNEY/OAK LANE

4% 6%

24%

46%

OUTSIDE PHILADELPHIA 26%

GREATER CENTER CITY

PERCENT WORKING IN GREATER CENTER CITY AND UNIVERSITY CITY

21%

42% 16% 21%

32%

40%

13%

10% 7%

25.1% TO 35%

16%

35.1% TO 45%

SOUTH PHILADELPHIA

SOUTHWEST PHILADELPHIA 26%

25% OR LESS

MORE THAN 45% 33%

38%

35%

5% 13% 14%

19%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Local Employment-Household Dynamics, 2014

FIGURE 9: LIVE/WORK PERCENTAGE BY AREA OF PHILADELPHIA GREATER CENTER CITY

40%

UNIVERSITY CITY

16%

FAR NORTHEAST

14%

SOUTH PHILADELPHIA

12%

NEAR NORTHEAST

11%

NORTH PHILADELPHIA

11%

BRIDESBURG/KENSINGTON

9%

GERMANTOWN/CHESTNUT HILL

8%

SOUTHWEST PHILADELPHIA

7%

WEST PHILADELPHIA

7%

ROXBOROUGH/MANAYUNK

7%

OLNEY/OAK LANE

6%

0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

40%

Source: US Census Bureau, Local Employment - Household Dynamics, 2014

CENTER CITY DISTRICT & CENTRAL PHILADELPHIA DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION WWW.CENTERCITYPHILA.ORG

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Peter Tobia

REVERSE COMMUTING For Philadelphia residents who commute to work outside the city, the most frequent destinations are in adjacent Pennsylvania counties: Montgomery County is the locale for 13% (73,391 jobs) held by Philadelphia residents; Delaware and Bucks Counties, each account for 5% (33,462 jobs and 31,661 jobs, respectively). Despite proximity, Camden County holds only 2% of the jobs taken by Philadelphia residents. Figure 10 shows the top 10 reverse-commuting destination municipalities for Philadelphians, ranked by number of jobs. Six out of 10 are in Montgomery County; Delaware and Bucks Counties are home to two each. The top two, Lower Merion, with 10,247 jobs held by Philadelphia residents, and Bensalem, with 9,333 held by city residents, directly border Philadelphia. Upper Merion, which contains the King of Prussia mall and office parks, is in the third position, with 8,402 of its total 57,960 jobs held by Philadelphia residents, despite its distance from the city.

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The high position of Bensalem and Abington in the rankings is due largely to commuters coming from nearby Northeast Philadelphia. The home neighborhoods for Philadelphians working in Lower Merion and Upper Merion are much more geographically diverse, with these townships ranking as the first or second top reverse-commuting destination for every other part of the City of Philadelphia. Despite having less than one-fifth of the population of Greater Center City, Upper Merion (home of the King of Prussia Mall) has almost three-quarters as many retail jobs – a sector which pays an average wage of $25,000 per year. To fill those positions, Upper Merion needs to import labor from outside its borders, including many workers from Philadelphia. Fully 95% of Upper Merion’s work force commutes in from outside the municipality, with almost 15% of its jobs staffed by Philadelphia residents. There is nothing unusual about commuting between counties within a region. In fact, the designation of a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) by the Office of Management and Budget is based on economic interconnectivity – employee commuting and business-to-business patterns - within a cluster of counties. The

CENTER CITY DISTRICT & CENTRAL PHILADELPHIA DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION WWW.CENTERCITYPHILA.ORG


Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington MSA includes Philadelphia and the four suburban Pennsylvania counties, four suburban counties in New Jersey, and one county each, in Delaware and Maryland. The Pennsylvania and New Jersey suburbs have the strongest connections with Philadelphia. In those eight counties, 13% of workers commute to Philadelphia, with the highest percentages of workers coming from Delaware County (23%) and Montgomery County (17%). But Philadelphia’s reverse-commuting rate is more than twice the rate of New York City’s and this poses significant challenges for many lower-income residents. The educational levels required for suburban jobs are not signifi­ cantly different from the educational levels required for downtown jobs. A slightly higher percentage of downtown jobs require a BA degree. But across the city and region about a third of all jobs re­ quire no more than a high school diploma; another 30% require an associate degree (Figure 11).

The suburbs simply have more jobs and in the last 25 years, surrounding counties have steadily added opportunity, while Philadelphia, despite success in Center City and University City, has 9.4% (72,803) fewer jobs than in 1990 (Figure 12). The challenge comes into even sharper focus when Philadelphia is viewed in a longer time-frame and placed alongside East Coast peers. Boston, New York and Washington, D.C. have all surpassed the job levels they had in 1970 (Figure 13). But Philadelphia is still 28% below the employment number it had in 1970; this represents a loss of 274,449 jobs, which in 2016 terms is the equivalent of losing nearly every job in Greater Center City.

WITH LESS THAN ONE FIFTH OF THE POPULATION OF GREATER CENTER CITY, UPPER MERION HAS ALMOST THREE QUARTERS AS MANY RETAIL JOBS, HELPING TO DRAW 8,400 WORKERS FROM PHILADELPHIA IN SPITE OF THE LONG COMMUTE.

FIGURE 10: TOP REVERSE-COMMUTING MUNICIPALITIES FOR COMMUTERS FROM PHILADELPHIA MONTGOMERY COUNTY

BUCKS COUNTY

DELAWARE COUNTY

12,000 10,000

8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0

10,247

9,333

8,402

7,917

4,925

4,728

4,280

LOWER MERION

BENSALEM

UPPER MERION

ABINGTON

TINICUM

HORSHAM

CHELTENHAM

4,266 PLYMOUTH

4,139

3,743

UPPER DARBY

MIDDLETOWN

Source: US Census Bureau, Local Employment - Household Dynamics, 2014

CENTER CITY DISTRICT & CENTRAL PHILADELPHIA DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION WWW.CENTERCITYPHILA.ORG

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FIGURE 11: PERCENT OF JOBS BY LEVEL OF EDUCATION REQUIRED, WORKERS 30 AND OLDER GREATER CENTER CITY 32.0%

HIGH SCHOOL OR LESS

29.6%

SOME COLLEGE/ ASSOCIATE

38.4%

BACHELOR’S DEGREE OR MORE

PHILADELPHIA

32.0%

38.4%

29.6%

34.7%

HIGH SCHOOL OR LESS

30.3%

SOME COLLEGE/ ASSOCIATE

35.0%

BACHELOR’S DEGREE OR MORE

PHILADELPHIA METRO AREA

35.0%

34.7%

30.3%

34.7%

HIGH SCHOOL OR LESS

30.9%

SOME COLLEGE/ ASSOCIATE

34.5%

BACHELOR’S DEGREE OR MORE

34.5%

34.7%

30.9%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Local Employment-Household Dynamics, 2014

JOBS IN THE SUBURBS REQUIRE SIMILAR EDUCATION LEVELS AS THOSE IN THE CITY. BUT 39% OF PHILADELPHIANS REVERSE COMMUTE TO WHERE THE MOST JOB GROWTH HAS OCCURRED. MORE JOB GROWTH DOWNTOWN CAN BE PARTICULARLY BENEFICIAL TO LOWER-INCOME CITY RESIDENTS WHO DON’T OWN CARS.

FIGURE 12: TOTAL WAGE & SALARY JOBS, 1990 VS. 2014, PHILADELPHIA AND ADJACENT COUNTIES 1990 2014

JOBS (THOUSANDS)

800

600

PERCENT CHANGE

107,374

210,153

215,212

219,537

172,971

514,089

440,714

238,693

218,894

264,796

175,140

271,591

224,259

705,085

0

777,888

200

76,8366

400

PHILADELPHIA, PA

BUCKS, PA

CHESTER, PA

DELAWARE, PA

MONTGOMERY, PA

BURLINGTON, NJ

CAMDEN, NJ

GLOUCESTER, NJ

-9.4%

+21.1%

+51.2%

+9.0%

+16.6%

+26.9%

-2.4%

+39.7%

Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Total Full and Part-Time Employment

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CENTER CITY DISTRICT & CENTRAL PHILADELPHIA DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION WWW.CENTERCITYPHILA.ORG


FIGURE 13: MAJOR CITIES TOTAL WAGE & SALARY EMPLOYMENT, 1970-2014

WASHINGTON, D.C.

PERCENT ABOVE/BELOW 1970 EMPLOYMENT LEVELS

BOSTON

NEW YORK CITY

PHILADELPHIA

DETROIT 19.7% 16.2%

20% 10%

6.5%

0% -10% -20%

-28.0%

-30%

-34.5% -40% 1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2014

Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Total Full and Part-Time Employment

TRAPPED IN OLD TRENDS Across the country, the top 25 most populous cities have been growing jobs faster than the overall economy. Our Northeast peers have more than replaced their lost manufacturing jobs with new post-industrial opportunities. In many cities, the old story of decline has ended. But too many portions of Philadelphia are still living the post-World War II economic narrative that undermined American cities, as residents and employers left central cities for auto-dependent suburbs. As people and jobs decentralized, the average number of vehicle miles Americans traveled each year steadily rose, increasing by 78% between 1971 and 2016 (Figure 14). Between 1970 and 2014, as Philadelphia was losing population and jobs, the city dropped from a 45% share of regional employment to just 24% of metro-area jobs (Figure 15). At the same time, the city and region experienced a significant shift from transit to driving: in 1970, the mode split in Philadelphia was 50% driving and 37% transit; by 2014, 59% were driving and transit dropped to 27%. In the region, the 1970 mode split was 69% driving and 19% transit; by 2014, 81% were driving and just 10% were taking transit. For morning commuters taking SEPTA regional rail out of the city, more than a quarter ride the Paoli-Thorndale Line, which connects Philadelphia to employment centers in Montgomery, Delaware, and Chester Counties – including the numbers one and three reverse-commuting destinations – Lower Merion and Upper Merion.⁵ The largest transit destination outside of Philadelphia for outbound commuters is Paoli Station, where riders can access three bus

routes (204, 205, and 206) that connect to suburban office parks and retail centers. For other outbound commuters, SEPTA suburban bus routes are supplemented by shuttle operators, either operated by suburban agencies, like Rushbus in Bucks County, or by the employers themselves. In the last 40 years, Center City and University City have emerged as vibrant, live-work clusters built around dense, post-industrial employment. Their success has brought Philadelphia’s declining share of regional jobs to an end. But their growth is neither strong enough, nor matched by enough other employment nodes in the city, to enable Philadelphia to regain regional market share. Thus, the farther one lives from the gravitational pull of Philadelphia’s two major, 21st century employment centers, the more likely one is to reverse commute to a suburban job. While 25% of the working residents of city neighborhoods outside downtown are commuting to Center City for work, 39% are reverse commuting to the suburbs. In the City Council Districts that border the suburbs, the rate climbs into the mid- to high-40% range (Figure 16). There is probably no better predictor of out-migration from these neighborhoods than a reverse commute to the suburbs. Unless a working spouse is required to live in the city, reverse-commuters immediately get a 3.9% pay increase if they can find a home in the same county as their job and cease paying Philadelphia’s wage tax. There is a very strong statistical correlation between the municipalities to which Philadelphians reverse commute and the municipalities to which Philadelphians move.⁶

5: SEPTA, 2013 Rider Census 6: The correlation coefficient of 0.679 between out-commuting destination municipalities and out-migration destination municipalities demonstrates the strong connection between the two. While the statistic does not prove a causal relationship, experience suggests that people choose to live as close to their job as possible.

CENTER CITY DISTRICT & CENTRAL PHILADELPHIA DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION WWW.CENTERCITYPHILA.ORG

11


OPPORTUNITY AND EQUITY

cars via mobile apps are central to the new urban experience. But for many, being car-less is not a choice but rather a significant burden and a barrier to accessing dispersed employment opportunities. While 93% of suburban households have access to a vehicle and 61% have access to more than one, 33% of Philadelphia households lack access to a vehicle (Figure 17). For city households below the median income ($37,460), 50% have no access to a car.⁷ For them, connecting to employment opportunities in auto-oriented centers can be a considerable challenge, including commute times of more than an hour, requiring several changes of mode.⁸ Even those with limited means who own cars experience a considerable financial burden. AAA estimates the annual cost of owning and operating a vehicle at $8,500,⁹ clearly a stretch on a $37,000 annual income.

Automobiles are an integral part of modern life. But there are significant disadvantages to a complete dependency on driving that go beyond the frustration of traffic jams. Tailpipe emissions are a major source of pollutants and the EPA currently designates Philadelphia as a nonattainment area for ozone and a maintenance area for carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter. There are major equity implications as well. For many, living without a car is a lifestyle choice made possible by neighborhoods with multiple transportation options that connect to nearby employment. Walking, biking, taking transit or summoning

50% OF HOUSEHOLDS IN PHILADELPHIA WHO EARN BELOW THE MEDIAN INCOME DO NOT HAVE ACCESS TO AN AUTOMOBILE. FOR THEM, BEING CARLESS IS NOT A CHOICE BUT A SIGNIFICANT BUR­D EN AND A BARRIER TO ACCESSING DISPERSED EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES. FIGURE 14: VEHICLE MILES TRAVELED PER CAPITA, 1971-2016 VMT PER CAPITA (THOUSANDS) 11

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1972

1971

5

Source: Federal Reserve Economic Data

7: Calculation from Public Use Microsample of American Community Survey 2014 5-Year Estimates 8: Two thousand residents from North Philadelphia and Olney work in the King of Prussia area. For those without a car, the commute entails a subway or bus ride to 13th and Market JUNE 2016to connect with the 124 or 125 bus to King of Prussia. Alternative routes pass through the Wissahickon Transportation Center, 69th Street, or 30th Street. All can take more than an hour. 9: http://newsroom.aaa.com/2015/04/annual-cost-operate-vehicle-falls-8698-finds-aaa-archive/

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CENTER CITY DISTRICT & CENTRAL PHILADELPHIA DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION WWW.CENTERCITYPHILA.ORG


FIGURE 15: PHILADELPHIA SHARE OF REGION’S JOBS AND WORKERS PHILADELPHIA SHARE OF METRO-AREA JOBS

PHILADELPHIA SHARE OF METRO-AREA COMMUTERS

50%

40%

36.1%

44.6% 45%

35%

40% 30%

35% 25%

30%

24.4%

23.0%

20%

25%

2014

2012

2010

2008

2006

2000 2002 2004

1996 1998

1992 1994

1990

1988

1986

1984

1982

1980

1978

1976

1974

1970

2014

2012

2010

2008

2006

2000 2002 2004

1996 1998

1992 1994

1990

1988

1986

1984

1982

1980

1978

1976

1974

1972

1970

Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Total Full and Part-Time Employment

1972

15%

25%

Source: US Census Bureau 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000 Decennial Census; ACS 2010 and 2014 1-Year Estimates

FIGURE 16: PERCENT COMMUTING TO JOBS OUTSIDE CITY OF PHILADELPHIA, BY CITY COUNCIL DISTRICT

40.4%

46.1% DISTRICT 10

38.5% DISTRICT 8 DISTRICT 9

41.3%

DISTRICT 6

40.7%

DISTRICT 7 DISTRICT 4

40.8%

DISTRICT 5

DISTRICT 3

38.1%

GREATER CENTER CITY

35.1%

RESIDENTS OUTSIDE OF CENTER CITY ARE REVERSE COMMUTING TO THE SUBURBS AT A VERY HIGH RATE. FOR THOSE WITHOUT CARS, THIS POSES A SIGNIFICANT CHALLENGE.

DISTRICT 1 DISTRICT 2

35.3% 34.2% Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Local Employment-Household Dynamics, 2014

CENTER CITY DISTRICT & CENTRAL PHILADELPHIA DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION WWW.CENTERCITYPHILA.ORG

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TRANSPORTATION

Peter Tobia

PLANNING FOR THE FUTURE Philadelphia today benefits greatly from the legacy transportation system it has inherited from the early 20th century. But continuing reinvestment is crucial to keep transit competitive as technology and the economy evolve. The rollout of the highly-anticipated, new fare system, SEPTA Key, has begun. Once completed, SEPTA Key will leapfrog many other cities’ transit payment technologies and enable riders to pay using credit or debit cards, smart phones, and SEPTA smart cards. By the end of 2019, SEPTA vehicles will also be outfitted with cellular modems to provide accurate real-time arrival information accessible by smartphone. These are just the tip of the iceberg of more than $7.3 billion in capital projects that SEPTA has in the pipeline over the next 12 years, including: increasing the number of hybrid buses to 95% of SEPTA’s total fleet, purchasing 55 double-decker regional rail cars, and completing the installation of computerized safety controls on Regional Rail lines. In addition, SEPTA is enhancing the experience of downtown transit users with significant renovations to the Center City Concourse.

SEPTA HAS MORE THAN $7.3 BILLION IN CAPITAL PROJECTS IN THE PIPELINE. CONTINUING REINVESTMENT IN THE REGION’S TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM IS CRUCIAL TO KEEP TRANSIT COMPETITIVE AS TECHNOLOGY AND THE ECONOMY EVOLVE.

PATCO recently completed $103 million in improvements to Benjamin Franklin Bridge rail tracks and plans to upgrade its 120-car fleet by 2017.

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CENTER CITY DISTRICT & CENTRAL PHILADELPHIA DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION WWW.CENTERCITYPHILA.ORG


CONCLUSION It is easier, more efficient and more economical to add jobs in a transit-oriented employment center than it is to extend rail or bus lines to auto-dependent settings. The concentration of employment in the core of downtown is already 203 jobs per acre. That density is of benefit to both employers and employees in that it enables face-to-face communication, the cross-pollination of ideas and diversifies choice. Across the suburbs, employment is dispersed at 0.6 jobs per acre. Philadelphia’s legacy transit system is a gift from the past to the present, not readily replicated at reasonable cost. Reinvesting in existing transit systems, concentrating development and facilitating job growth where it can take advantage of already built infrastructure is also the most equitable way to give lower-income workers and residents true transportation choice. Some suburban job clusters, particularly Jenkintown, Radnor, and Conshohocken are built on the rail network. So, too, are University City and Temple University’s campuses. But the highest social returns can come from development in Center City. For those low-income, inner-city residents who are piecing together multiple transit rides to reverse

Peter Tobia

FIGURE 17: HOUSEHOLD VEHICLES AVAILABLE BY AREA NO VEHICLE 59%

NORTH PHILADELPHIA

53%

GREATER CENTER CITY

41%

SOUTHWEST PHILADELPHIA

40%

WEST PHILADELPHIA

39%

BRIDESBURG/KENSINGTON

36%

PHILADELPHIA AVERAGE

33%

43%

SOUTH PHILADELPHIA

33%

46%

OLNEY/OAK LANE

31%

GERMANTOWN/CHESTNUT HILL

29%

NEAR NORTHEAST

17%

FAR NORTHEAST

12%

ROXBOROUGH/MANAYUNK

10% 7% 0%

TWO OR MORE VEHICLES

31%

UNIVERSITY CITY

SUBURBAN AVERAGE

ONE VEHICLE

10% 12%

35% 45%

14%

44%

16%

44%

17% 20%

44% 24%

21%

43%

26%

44%

27%

47%

36%

45%

44%

44%

46%

32%

61% 20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Source: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2014 5-Year Estimates

CENTER CITY DISTRICT & CENTRAL PHILADELPHIA DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION WWW.CENTERCITYPHILA.ORG

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FIGURE 18: PHILADELPHIA POVERTY AND TRANSIT ACCESS TO DOWNTOWN

TRANSIT TRAVEL TIME TO CITY HALL

PERCENT OF POVERTY

51–60

61–125

41–45

46–50

31–35

36–40

21–25

26–30

11–15

16–20

High (94.7%)

0–5

Average (26.7%)

6–10

Low (0%)

(MINUTES / 8:30AM DEPARTURE)

City Hall

Source: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2014 5-Year Estimates (left); Google travel times via Econsult Solutions, Inc (right) Note: Average Transit Commute time to City Hall by block, based on 8:30am departure

THE AREAS OF PHILADELPHIA WITH THE HIGHEST LEVELS OF POVERTY ALSO HAVE SOME OF THE BEST TRANSIT ACCESS TO CENTER CITY. GROWING JOBS DOWNTOWN CREATES OPPORTUNITIES EASILY ACCESSIBLE TO THE AREAS THAT NEED THEM MOST. commute to the suburbs, a job in Center City could reduce their commuting time by at least half, closer to average commute time for all city residents (33 minutes).10 Sixty-one percent (61%) of all Philadelphians can take transit to a downtown job in less than 30 minutes. The areas of Philadelphia that have the highest rates of poverty also have some of the best transit access to downtown with the quickest commutes for those living closest to the Market-Frankford and Broad Street Lines (Figure 18). Along these transit lines, 33.2% of those within half a mile of a subway station live in poverty. Overall, forty-three percent (43%) of Philadelphia’s population living below the poverty line are within a half mile of a subway stop. More downtown jobs and more neighborhood jobs would dramatically reduce the time and financial burden of reverse commuting to the suburbs.

The region’s transit and housing investments from the late 19th and early 20th centuries have been re-infused with value by employment, demographic and cultural trends of the early 21st century that favor dense, diverse and transit-oriented job centers. Land use and development patterns in the third quarter of the 20th century created an environment that not only required a car for the most essential trip a person regularly undertakes – the journey to work - they also disconnected many lower-income workers from easy access to employment opportunities. By reinvesting in existing infrastructure and concentrating development around transit-oriented nodes, Philadelphia can decrease congestion and air pollution, reinforce the competitiveness of our employment centers and create new opportunities for disadvantaged workers.

10: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2014 5-Year Estimates.

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CENTER CITY DISTRICT & CENTRAL PHILADELPHIA DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION WWW.CENTERCITYPHILA.ORG


Center City Reports: Getting to Work: Transit, Density & Opportunity