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Money Management, Recession Style | 18 Christ-centered Higher Education Isn’t Only for Traditional On-Campus Students | 30 As Goes the Church, So Goes the CCCU? | 34

Minding the Gaps: Calculating the Future

inadvance COVER: Money Management, Recession Style Tuition, Financial Aid Increase at CCCU Member Universities


By Joy Pullmann

Survey Says: Give Me a Live Person When Crunching Numbers!


Reaction and Response to the Department of Education’s Net Price Calculator By Heidi Raass Spencer

Christ-Centered Higher Education Isn’t Only for Traditional On-Campus Students


Finding New Models for Keeping ‘Christ-Centered’ in Education for Students Who Spend Little Time on Campus By Luke Reiter

As Goes the Church, So Goes the CCCU?


Exploring the Implications of People’s Changing Relationship with Churches By Rebecca Rine

Reorganizing Campus Departments Can Be Another Tool in the Enrollment Toolbox


Adjusting for the Market Might Mean Revamping Institutional Organizational Structure By Jessica Shumaker

From the President . . . . . . . 1

R&D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

By Paul R. Corts

By Ashley Walters

Around the Council. . . . . . . 3 The news of the CCCU offices

From Capitol Hill . . . . . . . . 10 By Shapri D. LoMaglio

Distribution CCCU Advance is published each year in the fall and spring and is mailed to members, affiliates, and friends of the CCCU. It is also available online at Direct questions and letters to the editor to Advertising CCCU Advance is now accepting advertising from organizations that serve the students, faculty, or administration of our campuses. For more information and/or to receive a CCCU Media Kit, please email People Paul R. Corts President Shapri D. LoMaglio Executive Editor Director of Government Relations & Executive Programs Kami L. Rice Editor Kevin Zwirble Graphic Designer

Ashley Walters Copy Editor

Throughout Advance you will see the web extras icon. This indicates exclusive resources located online for our readers. Visit to access these extras.

By Kami L. Rice

The mission of the CCCU is to advance the cause of Christ-centered higher education and to help transform the lives of students by faithfully relating scholarship and service to biblical truth.

Jason Hohertz Web Manager

Web Extras

Editor’s Note. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

The Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU) is an international higher education association of intentionally Christian colleges and universities. Founded in 1976 with 38 members, the Council has grown to 113 members in North America and 72 affiliates in 25 countries. The CCCU is a tax-exempt 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization headquartered on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C.

Stay connected with the CCCU on twitter, facebook, LinkedIn, vimeo, & Issuu. Visit

Faith & Learning. . . . . . . . . 12 Going Global. . . . . . . . . . . . 28 On the Shelf . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 The Last Word. . . . . . . . . . . 48 Q&A with Father Michael Scanlan

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From the president

Alive and Well – Minding the Gaps by Paul R. Corts, Ph.D.


ind the gap! Anyone who has ever visited Great Britain and used the trains or Lon-

to academic excellence because we know we

don Underground knows the familiarity of that command. For those of us from the

cannot offer service to our Lord that is less than

United States, it’s another way of saying “Watch out!” or “Be careful with your next

our very best. Finally, studies show that spiri-

step!” That is probably always pretty good advice, but it seems especially so in these times of

tuality is on the rise among college students.

substantial change in cultural mores and potentially monumental changes in how higher edu-

Such growing student interest in things spiri-

cation may function in the near future.

tual and our comprehensive faith integration throughout the totality of a student’s university

The lead article in the Fall 2011 issue of the

These are, however, times of unprecedented

American Council on Education’s The Presi-

changes, and more are coming. Encouragingly,

dency magazine is entitled “Is College Still

we have a terrific track record of adapting to

Cultural, technological, pedagogical, and

Worth It?” This rather ominous title starkly

change, which I believe comes from our deep

economic changes are evolving rapidly and

posits a question many Americans, including

spiritual commitment to serve. Our growth has

coalescing in ways that foretell likely-signif-

some policymakers, are asking with seem-

enabled us to offer more in the way of programs

ing increasing fervor and frequency. Our own

and services, and we have seen major transfor-

CCCU research data, reported at the 2010 In-

mation in our schools’ offerings in the traditional

ternational Forum from the 2009 Noel-Levitz

sciences, health and medical sciences (like

commissioned study, indicates church-going

nursing and pharmacy), technology, math, and

families may be assigning decreasing value to

engineering. Yet, by broader higher education

the “Christian” in Christian higher education.

standards we are still small. This allows us to

We also face pressures from culture wars,

be quick, nimble, and responsive to new needs

and the list could go on.

and changing market forces.

Media outlets are consumed with reporting

Additionally, in the midst of financial chal-

to embrace change and develop positive

our society’s abundant negative news, and the

lenges and regulatory pressures, the type of

responses that will meet the contemporary

steady but unsensational life-shaping, charac-

liberal arts education we provide is increasing

needs of society and the church. Our institu-

ter-forming, good work of our institutions sim-

in value as rapid economic changes make an

tions are character-shaping institutions where

overly specific “training” type of education in-

the campus communities have shared values

creasingly obsolete, while our tradition of holis-

centered in Jesus Christ. This core mission,

tic education steeped in the arts and sciences

rooted in truth, only confirms my optimism.

ply does not make ink in secular publications, nor, for that matter, in many faith-based publications. But we recently captured a snapshot of good news about our CCCU schools from the general higher education news released

provides students with a foundational core well suited for adaptability to innovation.

experience gives us incredible opportunity.

icant adjustments in institutions of higher education, especially in our institutions with their commitment to maintaining a historic Christ-centered mission while trying to adapt and ensure relevance. The contemporary Christian college/university must articulate a clear mission with conviction and establish an institutional culture that is intentional about fulfilling the mission. At the same time, Christcentered institutions must have the courage

On our campuses in the United States, Canada, and around the world, our faculty and staff

by the U.S. Department of Education Office

Some of these trends have propelled areas

daily commit to be scholar-teachers, mentors,

of Federal Student Aid revealing that students

where CCCU schools were already excelling.

and spiritual advisors in an effort to shape and

graduating from CCCU institutions default on

For instance, service learning is on the rise as

mold students to live their lives following the

their Title IV student loans at less than half the

the traditional college-age cohort wants to have

example of Christ and thereby to help change

national average, marking the third straight

a positive impact on the world around them,

the world for good with the love of God and

year CCCU institutions earned this distinction.

and that’s already the heart of our historic mis-

In addition, the CCCU institutional student loan

sion. Technological changes in communication

default rate was lower than the national rate for

and the rise of social networking also fit us well

all private, four-year, nonprofit institutions, also

as our great strengths include student-faculty

for the third straight year. When I read reports

contact and vibrant campus community. The

like this, I am reminded of how many ways our

increased public demand for quality and ac-

institutions have been blessed and are being a

countability is a call our schools can respond

blessing to so many.

to with confidence, knowing that we are driven

through the enabling power of the Holy Spirit. In these days of enormous tension for higher education at large, our institutions continue to perform in ways that bring honor to our Christ, whose name we bear.

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


Editor’s note

Don’t Let an Expired Recession Get You Down by Kami L. Rice


hough that ugly “recession” word has seemed indelibly inked in daily headlines since 2008, news reports and economists tell us the United States has been post-recession for two years now. But, and it’s a big but, median income has fallen more in the past two years than it did during the actual recession, according to recent analysis of U.S. Census Bureau and Bureau of Labor Statistics data. That means CCCU institutions are still feeling the crunch because, as Bethel University’s Vice President for Admissions, Financial Aid, and Retention Daniel Nelson notes in our cover story, “Colleges cannot


pull out of the recession before their families do.”

politan Corporation” by Pankaj Ghemawat, that

Thus, our fall issue is packed with feature stories considering various angles of the enrollment, funding, and sustainability challenges you are navigating. Listen in and learn from each other. Perhaps you will pick up an idea or two, ingest an appropriate word of caution, or find reason to release a relieved sigh over the opportunities of the future. Read all the way to the end where, in the new Q&A format for The Last Word column, Franciscan University of Steubenville’s retired president Father Michael Scanlan speaks from experience with uncertain times. This issue is also packed with articles highlighting the scholarship taking place on our campuses, something we hope to highlight better with every issue. For the first time, we have included a listing of the CCCU’s current Fulbright awardees, and just as we headed to press came the exciting news of Eastern Mennonite University’s Nobel Peace Prize winning alumna, Leymah Gbowee. We have also added a Faith & Learning section where academics like you (even exactly like you—let us know if you would like to contribute to this section) share insights into the neverending, never-boring journey of faith, living, and learning. That’s a journey no recession—new, old, lingering, or imagined—can dampen. Kami Rice (, a 1997 Asbury University and BestSemester American Studies Program alumna, is a Nashville-based freelance writer and editor.


CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

I was heartened to read about diversity research in the Spring 2011 CCCU Advance. As an administrator who has worked in diversity for nearly 10 years, the information and statistics bear out daily in my work place. As much as I appreciate the growing commitment to diversity, it continues to be framed as more international than domestic. Robert Reyes’ comment about students needing to interact with people from other parts of the world belies statements in a May 2011 Harvard Business Review article, “The Cosmo90 percent of people in the world will live out their entire lives in their home country. It is simply not enough that students encounter international students for their intercultural growth. Students need to understand who they are as cultural beings as well as their racial, ethnic, or gender privilege and power in the United States, where a majority of them will be living in cities or suburbs, working jobs, and worshiping in churches. Over the years students of color have told me what would mean the most to them are white students (and I would add faculty, staff, and administrators) who “get it,” i.e. get that white students also have a culture, get that they have privilege, and get that we live in a racialized society for which race is still salient as a feature in our society and on our campuses. Elena Yee Director of Intercultural Programs Westmont College

As a CCCU member institution graduate (Taylor University, 1984) working as a faculty member at a secular university, I enjoyed the Spring 2011 CCCU Advance issue featuring articles on Christian campus engagement in politics and govern-

non-Christian institutions, and policymakers from all branches of government. I particularly encourage more CCCU institutions to have their libraries become involved in the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP): This U.S. Government Printing Office program consists of over 1,200 member libraries nationally that provide Americans with free access to U.S. government information. CCCU universities wishing to join this program should recruit and retain librarians and other university faculty with a passion for promoting government information to their students and incorporating the qualitative and quantitative contents of government information into all of their instructional activities and their own research. For instance, when talking about the Obama Administration’s controversial health care legislation, students and faculty should actually read this legislation, relevant legislative history such as committee reports and congressional debates, congressionally-mandated reports from agencies such as the Department of Health & Human Services, comments on proposed regulations seeking to implement this legislation (, adopted regulations seeking to implement this law, and court cases challenging its constitutionality. The vast majority of recent U.S. federal, state, and local government resources, along with many foreign national and international government organization resources, are Internet accessible. CCCU faculty and students need to integrate these resources into their curriculum, instruction, and research in order to become more informed citizens and be effective and intellectually credible witnesses for promoting Christian perspectives on these issues within the political arena.

Christian colleges be familiar with the mechan-

Bert Chapman Government Information, Political Science, & Economics Librarian

ics of government policymaking and be able

Purdue University Libraries

ment. It is imperative that students and faculty at

to converse intelligently about it with members of their constituencies, students, colleagues at

Around the Council

The News of the CCCU Offices President’s Office CCCU Submits Comments to Department of Health and Human Services New government regulations, 45 CFR Part 147 RIN 0938-AQ07, mandate that all health plans cover preventative care for women that includes contraceptives and emergency contraceptives, some of which are abortifacients.

Two New Members Accepted at CCCU Board Meeting At its July board meeting, the CCCU Board of Directors approved two new member institutions. Anderson University and the University of Mobile join 113 other CCCU members and 72 affiliate campuses from

The CCCU submitted comments to the

from the mandate, expressing concern that

Department of Health and Human Services

even if the religious exemption is expanded, if

requesting that HHS eliminate the mandate or

it applies only to employers, then student plans

Anderson University is affiliated with the South

dramatically expand the religious exemption,

will remain subject to the mandate.

Carolina Baptist Convention. The university

since requiring CCCU institutions to cover

To counteract these regulations, the Respect

these preventative services will force them

for Rights of Conscience Act of 2011 has been

to act against their Christian convictions. The

introduced in the House and Senate. The

religious exemption in the new regulations is

CCCU has encouraged presidents of CCCU

extremely narrow, and it is uncertain whether

institutions to contact their congressional

any CCCU institutions will meet requirements

representatives on this matter. In addition

for exemption. The CCCU views the mandate

to joining an inter-faith letter opposing

Founded in 1961 as Mobile College, the

as unconstitutional and a violation of the

these regulations, the CCCU submitted its


Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993.

comments to the Internal Revenue Service

education with a Christian worldview. The

around the world.

seeks to provide “a Christ-centered, peoplefocused, student-oriented, quality-driven, and future-directed” academic community with approximately 50 areas of study. Anderson College opened its doors in 1912, becoming Anderson University in 2006.





and the Department of Labor’s Employee

In its comments to HHS, the CCCU also

university’s mission is reflected in the

Benefits Security Administration, which co-

requested that student health plans be exempt

phrase “changing lives to change the world.”

promulgated the regulations with HHS.

Approximately 1,650 students attend the university, which is affiliated with the Alabama Baptist State Convention.

Fall 2011 Members 113

New Presidents and Governance Institutes Convene in Breckenridge

Affiliates 72 Totals 185

This summer the CCCU offered two important institutes for college presidents. First, eight new presidents joined eight mentor presidents July 9-12 for the New Presidents Institute in Breckenridge, Colo. Designed for CCCU


presidents in their first or second year of presidency, NPI encourages new appointees to come

and revitalize team efforts to strengthen

together to learn best practices and consider the personal and spiritual aspects of the presidency. In the year following NPI, each new president will work with an experienced president in a mentoring relationship and further explore the themes of the conference.




institutions, and receive updates on new legal and regulatory issues and other hot topics within higher education. This year’s Institute was shortened from the usual four

Immediately following NPI, eight other CCCU presidents and their board leaders converged on

days to three to provide time for a one-day

Breckenridge for the annual Governance Institute, July 13-16. The Institute teaches institutions’

pre-conference that focused on the Board

leaders how to strengthen their board, enhance the board-president relationship and clarify

Standing Policies Manual.

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


Around the council

CCCU Publications

Mathematics Through the Eyes of Faith

CCCU Releases Two New Monograph Publications

On Eyes

The CCCU recently released The




series published

two new titles in its Monograph Series.


the Through the

its latest volume,


Mathematics Through the Eyes of Faith by

Series features two formats:

James Bradley and Russell Howell, which

a narrative series and a

discusses how Christian professors explore

research series. The second Monograph research publication, Nature and Consequences of Weak Financial Markets in Reconstructing Postwar Economies: The Liberian Case by former CCCU professors John Gorlorwulu and Jonathan Warner, was released in October. This latest publication in the research series explores financial issues and potential economic solutions in postwar Liberia.

mathematics from a Christian worldview. Bradley, Howell, and other scholars examine secular scholarship and theology as they explore issues such as the relationship between chance and divine providence

The first Monograph narrative publication, Caring for the President by CCCU President Paul R. Corts, was released in July. It presents a compelling approach for how to practically care for the president of a Christ-centered institution. The second title in the Monograph narrative series, Leadership Sabbaticals also by Corts, will be released later this year. All narrative series titles are designed for easy reading, quick reference, and practical counsel and rely on personal experience and real-life stories.

and whether or not mathematic concepts point to a higher reality. Recognizing that the study of numbers can raise spiritual questions, Mathematics Through the Eyes of Faith demonstrates that math contributes to a Christian understanding of an ordered world.

Digital editions of Monograph publications are available for purchase through the CCCU’s Amazon storefront:

For a review of this book, see page 37.

AKA | Institutional Name Changes

Communications Pam Jones joins CCCU as Interim Vice President for Communications Pamela K. Jones comes to the CCCU as the

among Arab people in the Middle East and

interim vice president for communications

London, England, as a cross-cultural mission

with 18 years of experience as an administrator

worker with Mission to the World. In 1996,

at Belhaven University in Jackson, Miss.

Jones returned to Belhaven as the vice

Jones holds a Bachelor of Science degree in

president for student learning, where she

communications from Mississippi University

served until 2007 and worked to unify student

for Women and earned a Master of Science

learning experiences inside and outside the

degree in higher education and student

classroom. Jones was appointed to the CCCU

personnel from Florida State University. She

Commission for Senior Student Development

also holds a doctorate in higher education

Officers during this time, serving from 2001-

and student personnel from the University of

2007. She has since worked as an operations



Jones served as the dean of students at Belhaven from 1983-1989 before working


CCCU Advance | Fall 2011





developer, performing research and analysis for businesses.

Atlanta Christian College (GA) is now Point University. Atlantic Baptist University (New Brunswick) is now Crandall University. Cornerstone Christian College (South Africa) is now Cornerstone Institute. Hannibal-LaGrange College (MO) is now Hannibal-LaGrange University. Johnson Bible College (TN) is now Johnson University. Nairobi Evangelical Graduate School of Theology (Kenya) is now Africa International University.

Around the council

Professional Development & Research Mahurin and E. Bussema Fill Interim Professional Development & Research Roles

P. Jesse Rine Joins CCCU Staff

Ron Mahurin and Evelyn Bussema began serving September 1 in interim roles in the professional

The CCCU welcomes P. Jesse Rine as its

development & research department of the CCCU. Mahurin rejoins the CCCU as the interim vice

director of research and grants initiatives. For

president for professional development and research, and Bussema fills the role of interim director

more on Rine’s background and new role, see

of conference services.

this issue’s R&D column on page 11.

Mahurin received a bachelor’s degree in

Bussema received a Bachelor of Science

political science from Gordon College and

degree from Northwestern College and

holds a master’s degree and doctorate from

a master’s degree in education from

Miami University of Ohio. Mahurin held

Northwestern Arizona University. She also

positions on the political science faculty of

holds a certificate of advanced graduate

The 2009 Noel-Levitz market research

Westmont College and Gordon College, served

studies from Boston University and is a

project showed the CCCU to be a group of

as a Malone Fellow with the National Council

licensed master social worker and certified

schools facing new challenges, such as

on U.S.-Arab Relations, and worked as director



matriculants’ shift from emphasizing uniquely

of corporate and foundation relations at Gordon

Bussema has worked as an elementary

Christian college choice factors, as well

College before transitioning to the role of vice

teacher, a family and protection services

as great opportunities, such as improved

president for professional development and

specialist, a psychiatric rehabilitation program

understanding of student expectations and

academic endeavors for the CCCU. He served

manager, and an adjunct faculty member at

the potential of untapped student markets.

in this role 1999-2008. Mahurin most recently

Dordt College. She most recently served as

A recent survey of chief enrollment officers,

served as academic vice president and dean

education and training director at the United

presidents, and public relations/marketing

for Houghton College.

States Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association.



Survey Results Highlight Value of Noel-Levitz Market Research Project





demonstrates that the findings of this market study are being incorporated into strategic

CCCU Hosts Multi-Ethnic Leadership Development Institute and Women’s Advanced Leadership Institute

planning at CCCU colleges and universities. The anonymous survey inquired into the

This summer the CCCU added a new institute to its line-up of leadership development

perceived value of the 2009 project and

opportunities. The Multi-Ethnic Leadership Development Institute, held June 20-24 at Cedar

revealed that 68 percent of administrators

Springs Christian Retreat Center in Sumas, Wash., supports the goal of identifying and equipping

at institutions that participated in the market

people of diverse ethnic backgrounds who have been gifted and called by God to serve as

research project reported they had met with

leaders in Christian higher education.

campus leadership to discuss the research and its relevance to their institution. Sixty-four

Multi-Ethnic LDI participants are part of a

The CCCU’s second Women’s Advanced

year-long leadership development program

Leadership Institute was held June 12-16

that begins with the June institute. During

also at Cedar Springs. WALI is targeted

the program they will have an individually-

toward women from CCCU’s campuses

tailored shadowing experience with a mentor


on another CCCU campus, introduction

presidential leadership. Organized to be a

to cutting-edge leadership literature and

highly personal and relational professional

The survey investigating the perceived

research, a one-on-one meeting with a

development experience in a seminar-style

value of the market research project was

resource team member to outline a year-

format, WALI offered participants a focused,

requested by the CCCU president and board

long professional development plan, and

practical, Holy Spirit-led opportunity to

of directors to assist them in planning future

the opportunity to learn from case studies

consider their giftedness and discern God’s

CCCU-wide research efforts.

and best practices within and beyond

leading, both professionally and personally.





percent of administrators from participating institutions reported that they had evaluated and/or made specific changes in their areas of responsibility in response to key findings of the market research.

Christian higher education.

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


Around the council

International Faculty Development Seminar in China Brings Together Chinese and American Academics

2011-2012 Fulbright Awardees

The CCCU partnered with the Nagel Institute for the Study of World Christianity at Calvin College to sponsor its third immersive interdisciplinary



development seminar June 2-16 in Shanghai and Beijing. North American professors and Chinese academics considered together how China can achieve legal reform for the sake of religious freedom, how Westerners can understand China’s legal and religious context, and what Chinese and North American scholars can learn from dialoguing together about religion and the rule of law. Over the coming year, CCCU scholars who attended the seminar will be collaborating with several of the Chinese participants for a publication on the themes of the seminar. To read descriptions of some of the research projects developing out of this trip, please see the Going Global section on page 28.

C.R.A.L. Data Update: CCCU Colleges Have an Impact on Adult Learners The CCCU Center for Research in Adult

Bluffton University (OH): Perry Bush, professor of history, to teach American studies in Ukraine

North Park University (IL): Michael Nelson, 2011 graduate in history, English Teaching Assistantship in Poland

Calvin College (MI): Corwin Smidt, professor of political science, in The Netherlands writing a book about theological and political leanings of American clergy

Northwestern College (IA): Jennifer Feenstra, associate professor of psychology, to research the effectiveness of youth development work by New Horizons Foundation in Romania

Calvin College (MI): Johnathan Bascom, professor of geology, geography, and environmental studies, in Ethiopia creating a digital geography of Ethiopia

Northwestern College (MN): Charity Straszheim, 2010 graduate in Visual Arts Education, English Teaching Assistantship in the Czech Republic

Franciscan University of Steubenville (OH): Bernadette Recznik, 2011 graduate in English, English Teaching Assistantship in Germany

Trinity Christian College (IL): Patti Power, professor of education, to assist with development of a deaf education program at a college in Jamaica

Messiah College (PA): Edward Davis, distinguished professor of the history of science, a Fulbright Specialist award to serve as a short-term guest lecturer in New Zealand Messiah College (PA): Michael Cosby, distinguished professor of New Testament and Greek, in Cyprus to conduct research on Joseph Barnabas, an important but neglected saint North Park University (IL): Aaron Nilson, 2010 graduate in Spanish and global studies, English Teaching Assistantship in Brazil

Wheaton College (IL): Marjorie Brumm, 2011 graduate in anthropology and communication, English Teaching Assistantship in Indonesia Wheaton College (IL): Eileen Sleesman, 2011 graduate in anthropology, English Teaching Assistantship in Germany Wheaton College (IL): Kristine Solo, 2010 graduate in German and Spanish and a current M.A. in Teaching student, English Teaching Assistantship in Germany

Learning at Indiana Wesleyan University has been collecting data through entrance


and exit surveys for over 10 years. Recently,

all circumstances. Nearly three-quarters of

the Center compared data from nearly 640

the students (71.3 percent) reported their

students in the 2009 entering cohort at two

knowledge about Christianity increased and

Christian college adult programs to 690 2011

over half (54.1 percent) reported their attitude

graduates to see how their spiritual lives and

toward Christianity is more positive as a result

attitudes compare.

of their Christian college experience.

The results of the analysis show strong

The survey also reveals that there is no

evidence that Christian colleges are having a

significant difference in graduation rates by

significant impact on adult students’ spiritual

race when comparing African Americans to

lives. Statistical analysis of questions regarding

Caucasians. Contrary to what is happening

students’ spiritual development indicates a

across the nation in secular schools, African-

significant increase in Christian behaviors

American adult students in Christian colleges

such as prayer, church attendance, forgiving

are just as likely to graduate as are Caucasian

others, volunteering, and thankfulness in

adult students.

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

by the numbers

Institutional Default Rates by Institutional Type and Year 2009 Entire sector 8.82% Private not-for-profit 4yrs+ 4.54% CCCU institutions 4.22%

Around the council

Nobel Peace Prize Winner Is CCCU Member Alumna

AKA | Presidential Changes

Leymah Gbowee, one of three women jointly awarded the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize, earned

Harrisonburg, Va. Only 12 other women have

The following institutions have experienced presidential transitions in the last year. The new presidents are listed with their start dates for each campus.

won the Nobel Peace Prize in its 110-year history.

Alderson-Broaddus College (WV): Rick Creehan, June 2011

The Nobel Committee selected the 2011 awardees for their non-violent

Gordon College (MA): D. Michael Lindsay, July 2011

a master’s degree in conflict transformation in 2007 from Eastern Mennonite University in

struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work, stating Gbowee “mobilized and organized women

Milligan College (TN): Bill Greer, July 2011

across ethnic and religious dividing lines to bring an end to the long war

Shorter University (GA): Donald Dowless, June 2011

in Liberia, and to ensure women’s participation in elections.” Gbowee has since “worked to enhance the influence of women in West Africa during

Southern Wesleyan University (SC): Todd Voss, July 2011

and after war.” She is a central figure in the documentary “Pray the Devil Back to Hell,” which is airing on PBS stations this fall.

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


Around the council

Student Programs

The India Studies Program Welcomes First Students

Faculty Visit CCCU’s BestSemester Programs Faculty members who visit a BestSemester student program gain an unrivaled perspective

BestSemester’s India Studies Program began its inaugural semester September 7. India’s

of what their students experience and leave with a fresh understanding of the importance of

diverse culture provides a rich and engaging

programs outside the traditional classroom.

setting for equipping students to be servant-

BestSemester’s Contemporary Music Center

tour will begin in Costa Rica and end in Cuba.

hosted an official faculty visit at its new

“Our hope is that this trip will be a kind of

Nashville facility May 23-27. During the visit,

‘Mini-LASP,’ where participants will not so

a dozen faculty members became better

much observe from a distance what LASP

acquainted with the CMC experience their

semester participants experience, but rather

students encounter and participated in a

that faculty might have their own meaning-






helped participants build, develop, or expand on the contemporary music curriculum at their universities. The CMC plans to hold another faculty tour in May 2012. BestSemester’s Latin American Studies Program





Anthony Chamberlain, LASP director. For more information about opportunities for campus faculty and staff to visit Be st S eme ster programs, ple ase visit

will host a faculty tour May 18-28, 2012. The

leaders in a world of pluralistic beliefs, cultures, and needs. ISP will challenge students to discover for themselves a variety of ways to address the needs of the poor and disenfranchised, acting as agents of salt and light in a broken world. ISP is structured to provide students with immersion in a local community as well as broad exposure to a variety of peoples, places, and customs in India, including an extensive two-week travel portion that will afford students a close-up look at India’s diversity. Students are participating in two core courses that offer a broad overview of India’s historical, religious, geographical, and economic landscape and


Academic Officer Changes

Conferences & Events

are also taking courses in their major areas with Indian students and professors.

Upcoming CCCU Events On December 1, the CCCU will kick off the 2011-2012 peer conference season with

Columbia International University (SC): James Lanpher, June 2011 Franciscan University of Steubenville (OH): Daniel Kempton, July 2011 LeTourneau University (TX): Philip Coyle, July 2011 Mid-American Christian University (OK): Kathaleen Reid-Martinez, August 2010 Northwest Nazarene University (ID): Burton Webb, July 2010 Prairie Bible College (Alberta): Kevin Peters, May 2010 Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary (NC): Kenneth Keathley, Fall 2011 William Jessup University (CA): Dennis Jameson, August 2011

the Financial Aid Administrators Conference. The Council has put together a variety of conferences and events that inform, encourage, challenge, and inspire members. Upcoming events include: 2011 Free Market Forum - Oct. 27, 2011 CCCU Research Roundtable - Nov. 3, 2011 • 2011 Financial Aid Administrators Conference - Dec. 1-3, 2011 • 2012 PR/Communications Officers Conference - Jan. 4-6, 2012 • 2012 Chief Enrollment Officers Conference - Jan. 4-6, 2012 • 36th Annual Presidents Conference - Jan. 31- Feb 3, 2012 • 2012 Campus Ministry Directors Conference - Feb. 16-18, 2012 • 2012 Chief Institutional Advancement Officers Conference - Feb. 22-24, 2012 • 2012 Chief Student Development Officers Conference - March 7-9, 2012 • 2012 Chief Academic Officers Conference - March 21-23, 2012 • 2012 Commission on Technology Conference - May 29-31, 2012 • 2012 Chief Financial Officers Conference - June 6-8, 2012 • 2012 New Presidents Institute - July 7-10, 2012 • •

2012 Governance Institute - July 12-14, 2012

For more information on the CCCU Conferences & Events schedule, visit


CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

Around the council

find your next vendor CCCUVendor DirectorY:

product & service providers to christ-centered higher education To start your search, please visit

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


from capitol hill

Defending Secular as Sacred By Shapri D. LoMaglio, J.D.


n October 5, the U. S. Supreme Court

many of its schools, the brief affirms the principle

strain on the ability of parachurch organiza-

heard oral arguments for a crucial re-

firmly held within the CCCU that all truth is God’s

tions to defend the religious nature of the social,

ligious freedom case, Hosanna-Tabor

truth and, thus, all learning can be infused with

medical, educational, and other such work their

Evangelical Lutheran Church and School v.

such Truth. Pointing to writings, studies, and

employees do. Establishing a secular-sacred

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

scholarship on faith and learning, the CCCU brief

distinction at the Supreme Court would open

and Cheryl Perich. This case will determine

emphasized the sincere, legitimate, holistic inte-

wide the doors for intrusive state inquiry into

whether the Supreme Court will uphold the min-

gration of faith into all learning and all aspects of

what activity is religious enough to be protected

isterial exception, a First Amendment doctrine

campus life. Disavowed is any accusation that

and, consequently, into the overall religious le-

widely applied by circuit courts that dismisses

religious principles are merely subterfuge for em-

gitimacy of parachurch organizations.

without trial most employment-related lawsuits

ployment discrimination in this case.

against religious organizations brought by em-

The stakes of this important religious freedom

tections to religious organizations than to church-

case were raised when the Department of Justice

es appears in the recent Health and Human

While the circuit courts agree that the ministe-

intervened on behalf of the EEOC and rejected a

Services regulations that mandate contraceptive

rial exception applies to positions such as priest,

general ministerial exception altogether in favor of

rabbi, and pastor, they are divided regarding the

case-by-case application only to employees who

extent to which this exception can be applied to

perform “exclusively religious functions.” This

other employees. In this case, the plaintiff, Cheryl

rejection prompted Chief Justice John Roberts

Perich was a “called teacher,” a commissioned

to point out that even the Pope, who performs

minister in the Lutheran Church—Missouri Syn-

important secular functions as the chief executive

od, in a school that seeks to provide a “Christ-

of Vatican City, would not meet their test.

ployees performing religious functions.

centered education.” In her suit, Perich accused


Another example of attempts to grant lesser pro-

coverage, including some emergency contraceptives considered to be abortifacients, for all group health care plans. Creating a religious employer exemption that would essentially exempt only churches, these regulations disregard the sincerely held beliefs and religious conscience rights of other, non-church organizations and would give government agencies the role of determin-

the church of violating the Americans with Dis-

The importance of the ministerial exception can-

ing which organizations are religious enough to

abilities Act when it fired her after a disability-

not be overstated. This exception prevents courts

be granted an exemption. (For additional details

related leave of absence. The church, however,

from unconstitutionally entangling themselves in

on these regulations see page 3).

maintains it fired her because she threatened

matters of religion by having to hear testimony

to sue the church, violating a central teaching of

from theological experts arguing whether hiring

Lutheran doctrine requiring church members to

only male priests is a legitimate interpretation of

prosecute internal disputes before the denomina-

Catholic teachings, or whether requiring church

tion’s governing body rather than in civil courts.

members to resolve disputes in church tribunals

While the district court agreed with the church’s

is a true holding of Lutheran doctrine. While the

argument that allowing Perich to sue would vio-

Court’s adoption of the test proposed by the

late its First Amendment right to choose religious

Obama administration would most certainly un-

employees who uphold the religious mission of

dermine this important exception, it would also

the school, the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals re-

suggest that different legal protections be af-

jected the application of the ministerial exception

forded to churches than to other religious orga-

to Perich because “her religious activities [only]

nizations, an outcome that would be especially

consumed 45 minutes out of a seven-hour day.”

troubling to CCCU institutions.

Such quantitative analysis is very troubling, as it

As highlighted by Chief Justice Roberts’ point

requires all activities or subjects of study to be

about the Pope, defending secular as sacred

designated as either secular or sacred. In its am-

would be hard enough in the context of a

icus brief filed in support of the Lutheran school,

church, so establishing the precept that only

the CCCU strongly rejects such distinction. Stat-

those performing exclusively religious functions

ing the mission of the CCCU, as well as that of

can be considered ministerial would put added

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

The courts have long recognized the perils of placing themselves as the arbiter of determining which groups of people are religious enough or interpreting church doctrine as it relates to employment decisions, and we are hopeful that the decision in this case will uphold this proper separation of church and state. Since the court of public opinion also impacts such matters, we, along with our allies in these issues, must continue to make the case that CCCU institutions, religious charities, and other religious organizations do not perform religious functions as a part of their larger “secular” purpose, but rather that their “secular” functions exist only because of their religious mission. Shapri D. LoMaglio is the Government Relations and Executive Programs Director at the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities. A native of Tucson, Ariz., Shapri is a graduate of Gordon College and of the University of Arizona’s James E. Rogers College of Law.


CCCU Hires New Research Staff to Further Research Agenda by Ashley Walters


s of August 15, P. Jesse Rine is serving as the CCCU’s director of research and

unteers to chart out and then implement a

grants initiatives. In this newly-created position, Rine provides leadership and acts

comprehensive research agenda for Christ-

as a liaison for CCCU member and affiliate campus-based researchers to encour-

centered higher education,” says Rine.

age their participation in research projects in support of Christ-centered higher education. In particular, Rine will coordinate the Council’s annual data collection efforts, issue peri-

odic topic-driven research reports on behalf of the Council, and convene teams of CCCU faculty to take on large-scale research projects.

In early 2012, Rine expects to issue a research report on behalf of the Council to provide an overview of the current state of Christian higher education in the United

Rine holds a bachelor’s degree in Christian

today’s college students,” Rine says of his

States. “This study will serve as the first in

thought from Grove City College in Pennsyl-

most recent research. “This national dataset

a series of Council research reports and will

vania, a Master of Arts in Teaching in Latin

allows researchers to examine how institu-

present a snapshot of our institutions and

from Washington University in St. Louis,

tional factors shape student faith develop-

their characteristics,” he explains. Future

Mo., and a doctorate in higher education

ment over time, a phenomenon at the core

reports will detail studies conducted by the

from the University of Virginia. Prior to join-

of the mission of Christian higher education.”

Council to further the research agenda and

ing the CCCU, Rine served as a research associate at the Center for Advanced Study of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (CASTL-HE) at the University of Virginia.

to accomplish, in part, the Council’s straHe says that in his research using the CSBV

tegic commitment to strengthen research,

dataset, he has found that students attend-

data collection, analysis, and use.

ing CCCU member institutions experience spiritual growth during the college years

In 2009, Rine received a grant from the

when they have professors who model

Higher Education Research Institute (HERI)

Christian faith. This finding is especially

at the University of California Los Angeles

relevant because CCCU member institu-

to analyze a longitudinal dataset created as

tions are required to hire only professing

part of its Project on Spirituality in Higher

Christians as faculty members. Rine adds,

Education, a multi-year research initiative

“Though students can experience spiritual

funded by the John Templeton Founda-

growth in a number of diverse institutional

tion. Rine’s chapter, “Christian College Per-

environments, we now have quantitative

sistence in the Postmodern Turn,” details

evidence that the CCCU hiring requirement

those analyses and is set to appear in the

actually helps to establish the conditions

forthcoming volume, Spirituality Enacted in

demonstrated to predict for increases in

Higher Education: Translating Research into

student faith commitment.”

Practice, edited by Alyssa N. Bryant Rockenbach and Matthew Mayhew. In addition, his study “Committed to Faith yet Open to Difference: Validating a Model for Fallibilist Christian Spirituality among College Students” is scheduled to appear in the Journal of College Student Development in 2012.

Ashley Walters is the former managing editor of Equip to Disciple magazine of the Presbyterian Church in America. A graduate of Furman University and The George Washington University, she resides in Washington, D.C.

This November, Rine will lead the CCCU Research Roundtable convened by President Paul Corts and hosted by Azusa Pacific University. A number of higher education researchers from CCCU member and affiliate campuses have been invited to help construct and prioritize a national research

“The longitudinal data collected by Alexan-

agenda for Christian higher education. “We

der Astin, Helen Astin, and Jennifer Lind-

have assembled a talented and experienced

holm via the College Student Beliefs and

group of researchers representing the geo-

Values provides a remarkable resource for

graphic reach and rich denominational heri-

college impact scholars seeking to under-

tage of the CCCU. I am delighted to have the

stand the role of spirituality in the lives of

opportunity to partner with our faculty vol-

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


Faith & Learning

Grappling with Scholarship and Biblical Truth


n 1975, Professor Arthur Holmes published The Idea of the Christian College, where he helped frame a series of questions about the relationship between human inquiry and the Christian faith. In the past 35 years, countless books, articles, essays, and, more recently blogs have engaged in the deep discussion and robust debate regarding what has been referred to as faith integration, or in more recent times, as faith, living, and learning.

In this new section of the Advance, we are providing space for faculty, administrators, and other scholars who work across multiple disciplines

and different denominational and church traditions, to engage in reflection on what we take to be an essential core of our work as Christian educators. Namely, how does our Christian faith inform the way in which we think and study within our respective disciplines, and just as importantly, how do our disciplines help shape our understanding of our Christian faith? In each Advance issue, we will invite you, our readers, to respond to a prompting question which we hope will draw out the richness, beauty, and complexity of approaches to faith, living, and learning. With over 20,000 faculty members across the CCCU representing the best in liberal arts and sciences, professional studies, and the new areas of inquiry emerging each year, there are virtually limitless possibilities for this work. Our hope is that this column will provide space for reflection and robust discussion on the nature of our task in Christian higher education. We hope you will be encouraged to think deeply about your own calling as a leader in this great work, and be inspired and challenged by what you read in this space. Ronald P. Mahurin CCCU Interim Vice President for Professional Development & Research

What is the biggest challenge to integrating faith into your discipline, and how do you overcome this challenge?

recting itself. Other students see themselves

creation’s age often depends on the confi-

as intellectually superior because they em-

dence they place on the methods of natural

brace the “facts” of science rather than the

science and the confidence they place on

“opinions” of theologians.

the methods of biblical interpretation. I do

My goal is to help students see that both Steve Badger Professor of Chemistry Evangel University Several issues in biology are readily informed by both biblical faith and natural science (e.g., creation care, evolution, and the differences between humans and other animals),

science and biblical faith are the result of human interpretation: one of natural phenomena, the other (primarily) of sacred ancient texts. Thus, neither can claim complete objectivity; both are subjective, at least

not try to persuade students to embrace a young or an ancient creation, but I try to help them properly evaluate evidences in order to understand the issues and each position’s strengths and weaknesses. I find integration less obvious in my chemistry

in part, and therefore fallible. Consequently,

classes. I keep asking myself, “How are my

the conclusion a person reaches regarding

chemistry courses at a Christian university dif-

making integration easy, if not necessary. My biggest challenge in biology has two sides: avoiding condescension while presenting scientific evidences for an ancient creation and avoiding condescension while presenting a variety of theological interpretations of Genesis as it relates to the age of creation. Some students consider themselves spiritually superior because they view Scripture as unchanging and science as constantly cor-


CCCU Advance | Fall 2011





Faith & learning

ferent from those I taught at a public commu-

While all of their suggestions are not of equal

I relay this story because I feel most a part

nity college? How can my Christian faith inform

value, I use these to encourage students to

of the mission of George Fox University when

my understanding of chemistry?”

continue looking for evidences of the Creator’s

I am engaged in relationships with students,

nature and power in all of their science courses

faculty, and donors. We use the phrase “be

and work. I hope they leave university aware

known” to describe our vision. God has given

that faith and science should inform each other.

each person a unique story, and we want to

Romans 1:18-20 claims that God’s creation reveals certain things about God, because His “… invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen…from what has been made…” (NIV). My classes usually have little trouble naming a few divine qualities

know that story and empower that student or

Robin Baker President George Fox University

donor to fulfill God’s call. When I take the time to walk alongside those engaged at George Fox, as the runner Eric Liddle once said, “I

and how chemistry reveals these. Typically, or-

On the first day of orientation this fall I met

der is named early in the discussion. We might

John, a student who had just flown in from

discuss the orderliness of atomic structure and

Massachusetts. His parents couldn’t make it

Holding firm to my passion of engaging in re-

the properties of the elements.

for orientation, so he had to go through the

lationships can be challenging. As president,

orientation process alone. He was thousands

there are many obstacles along the way that

of miles from home, in a different culture with

test my faith. The frustrations of students,

new people. At the time, I didn’t really think a

faculty, and staff bubble up to my office. An-

great deal about it.

gry parents sometimes call. We never have

Students frequently name a love of beauty as another aspect of God’s nature. Beautiful chemistry is more than just 4th of July fireworks. I tell them of hearing my biochemistry

feel the pleasure of God.”

enough money to do what we would really like

professor describe Watson and Crick’s double

After George Fox’s orientation ended, my wife

helical model of DNA as beautiful and the

and I took our daughter away to college and

Meselson-Stahl experiment, which demon-

found out how difficult the transition can be.

strated the semi-conservative nature of DNA

As a result of my own experience, I returned

replication, as elegant. Students sometimes

to campus and had the admissions staff pro-

find chemical analogies to God’s consistency

vide me with a list of students who had come

(2 Cor. 1:18-20) or compare isotopes of a

alone and were far from home. I wrote a note

Things seem to conspire to consume my time,

single isotope to the triune Godhead.

to each of them and invited them into a con-

disrupting my day and my rhythm. I start to think,

versation. Several of them took me up on the

“Lord, why am I here?” Then, all of a sudden, a

offer of conversation over coffee.

student drops by and pops her head in the door.

If I ask the class to calculate God’s power, they usually claim we cannot, since his power is infinite. Using E=mc2, a mass (m) estimat-

I so much enjoyed sitting with John and hear-

ed at between 6x1052 to 4x1079 kg and a

ing about his dreams, what he believed God

speed of light in a vacuum (c=almost 3x108

was calling him to be, and what he believed he

m/s) squared, we calculate an enormous

needed to do to achieve that dream. I learned

value for energy, giving them an indication

about his family and his friends back home. I

of the energy our Creator expended to create

felt his homesickness and shared just a bit in

our universe.

his life story. I was glad God called him to be a part of our institution.

to do. Two employees are mad at each other and need a referee. Five people need an answer now. Some say we’re too conservative, others say we’re too liberal. There is little time to read, think, and pray.

“Pres B, you got a few minutes?” It’s then I remember: I am here for students. I’m here to help George Fox become a place where students are known for serving the world in the name of Jesus. Jack Ballard, Jr. Associate Professor of Music Malone University In my field of music production and industry, there are numerous dichotomies: balancing an academic focus within the liberal arts with a focus on lived vocation; balancing an equally paradoxical







between the sacred

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


Faith & learning

and the secular, as they have been known to be

becoming a hypocrite on one side or the other,

called; and balancing pragmatism at the risk of

or discovering the elusive position that there

artistic prostitution compared against the pure

is after all no conflict and the solution lies in

but starving artist.

embracing both sides of the performance di-

Yet, the solution is the same in all of these di-

chotomy under grace.

chotomies. The gospel’s paradoxical nature

Overt lecturing on the gospel in music often

makes possible such marriages. To discount

elicits no response from students focused

one aspect or the other—whether academy or

more on signing a record deal, but teaching

industry, faith or learning—does a disservice

from experience develops empathy with them.

to both and disregards the example of human

It is interesting to be in the middle of discuss-

marriage in which the unity itself fulfills rather

ing the intricacies of music production and

than negates the individual. It is not the effort to

suddenly find myself describing how to do our

of possibilities for thinking about our work has

bring both aspects together that is difficult. It is

best in honor of and ultimately as a sweet sac-

shifted. I sometimes describe current state-

the realization that—and this is a severe para-

rifice to God. The work we do and the gospel

ments as focusing on person, practice, and

digm shift for artists—the solution envelops the

are not mutually exclusive.

proposition. Faculty examine how disciplinary

concept of both/and rather than either/or, or the even more unfortunate compromise between.

As a friend of mine in the recording industry once said regarding his secular writing, “If

Practically, the most visible contention sur-

you are living by the Spirit, then there is noth-

rounding music probably relates to music

ing you can create that does not eventually

played in the church. Opinions often seem to be

reflect Christ.” I have found this to be true, not

polarized on the most inane subjects, as people

only in the industry but also in the classroom.

blur the lines between personal preferences and doctrines. Performance is an example.

knowing arises from our unique identities as Christian persons; they reflect on the thoughtful incorporation of formative patterns and actions into teaching and scholarship; and they examine and construct worldview assertions or propositions that can lead to further insight into both their academics and their faith. All of these approaches are needed in Christian

Claudia Beversluis Provost Calvin College

colleges today.

Our CCCU colleges exist because we believe

inherently interdisciplinary work. Many of the

However, while we see Herod stricken by death

that doing significant academic work from the

academic questions that most need Christian

after accepting adorers’ adulation in Acts 12:22-

perspective of faith is our calling. That doesn’t

reflection and practice are at the exciting inter-

make it easy. From my perspective as an aca-

sections of traditional disciplines—questions

demic administrator, below are some of the

about good communities, healthy cities, the role

more significant challenges to the kind of faith

for the arts and humanities, food policy, health

and learning integration we hope to nurture

care, biological interventions, identity, sexual-

and practice at our colleges.

ity, and so on. We need theology and biblical

Complainants state their conviction that performance should never be a part of leading worship, lest focus be taken off worship’s Purpose.

24, we also see the Lord admonishing Israel in Malachi 1:6-8 for offering diseased animals on His altar. My students have struggled with this performance dichotomy. For some, the response is the somewhat hypocritical dual lifestyle of displaying a demeanor of overt humility

Bringing faith and academic work together is

knowledge that go beyond what many of us The sheer breadth of possibilities for faith-

have studied. We need multiple perspectives,

shaped teaching and scholarship is both a bar-

from theorists and practitioners in many areas.

rier and invitation. New faculty, full of faith and

Creating learning communities that can tackle

educated in their disciplines but immersed in

these big questions is an administrator’s dream

university culture for the past few years, find

but is hard to do in practice. At Calvin College,

the task of bringing faith to bear in a deep

one source of particularly timely and generative

way to be challenging. They frequently ask

thinking has come from our practice of faculty

for a rubric or model for the faith and learn-

book groups. For relatively modest funding from

In the classroom, having experience with such

ing statements they are asked to write at hire,

a variety of sources across campus, 10-12 fac-

dichotomies aids teaching, for no Christian

reappointment, and tenure. But the models

ulty members define an area for learning, buy

musician who succeeds as a full-time profes-

are changing: as we have come to know more

and read multiple books together, and, often,

sional can face these contradictions without

about the construction of knowledge, the range

produce a monograph, conference, event, or

in worship band on Sunday then performing in a working band or orchestra during the week. In reality, there is no more conflict for musicians than for the church’s Sunday treasurer who works at a secular accounting firm the rest of the week. It is all done to and for God’s glory, fulfilling the whole person.


“The work we do and the gospel are not mutually exclusive.”

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

Faith & learning

some other product that moves the conversa-

the product per se but the faithful intent of

this requested minute would transform the way

tions forward.

the scholarship that may impact the conse-

I teach business law, or any other course for

Sometimes the faith and learning work we

quence of such research.

that matter. The student proceeded to say, “I transferred here from a state school because I

most need on our campuses is avoided be-

So rather than create a playbook by which to

cause we are afraid. Some new learning

judge what constitutes Christian scholarship,

comes with controversy. If one reads even the

I stress to our new faculty to think about the

short list above, one sees the potential for dis-

questions that interest them as they grapple

agreements—about the meaning of the Bibli-

with making sense of both their faith and field.

cal text, or implications of the tradition, or the

While much of integrative scholarship has

needs of the church, or the relevance of disci-

tended to focus on theoretical work such as

plinary knowledge. It is hard to remain true to

questioning underlying presuppositions, cri-

Stung, I walked back to my office disappointed

our calling. But the beauty of our campuses is

tiquing epistemologies, and putting forward

in myself because I had failed to make my class

that we are not called to act as lone scholars,

new paradigms, Christianity can also inform

“distinctively faith-informed.” As a member of

but to be in covenant with each other and with

empirical work.

the Christian academy, it was (and is) my re-

the churches that have supported us. The covenant keeps us humble and gives us courage. Margaret Diddams Director of the Center for Scholarship and Faculty Development Seattle Pacific University Integrating Christian faith into scholarship is difficult work to undertake. There are the obvious challenges: faculty at Christian institutions do not always have adequate theological training nor were they likely to be intentionally exposed to such scholarship during their graduate work. Then there is the limited availability of academic venues in which Christian faculty can present and publish such integrated scholarship. Finally, institutions’ standards for judging productivity may preclude scholarship published in journals that do accept integrative work but do not measure up in their impact score. Regardless of these truly significant issues, the biggest challenge in working with faculty to consider integrating a faith perspective into their scholarship is the very nebulous

In my field of psychology, Christians are engaged in examining questions that are both implicitly and explicitly an outgrowth of their

attempt to prove the tenets of faith through the lens of one’s academic field, there is no

three weeks into your business law class, and you have yet to incorporate a Christian’s approach to the legal system. Is there anything different about your course than the one offered at [the state school]?”

sponsibility to take a legal topic like contract law and make a space for the students to discuss inherent conflicts between legal teachings and Kingdom teachings. So, I pulled out my syllabus

Christian faith. Some examples of this implicit

and laid it alongside my Bible. I began creating

scholarship include research on character vir-

a new matrix for the course that included col-

tues such as forgiveness, gratitude, and humil-

umns for not only the legal topic to be covered,

ity and their effect on human flourishing; the

but also for the faith lesson to be shared and

differences between guilt and shame; authen-

pondered by the students.

tic leadership; intrinsic motivation; self-control; moral self-identity; other-orientation; subjective well-being and life satisfaction; redeeming aspects of suffering and grief; social support, coping, and resiliency; and the impact of worldviews on ethical sensitivity. More explicit research includes one’s sense of calling and vocation, correlates of religiosity, pastoral burn-out, God-images, and the similarities between spirituality and religiosity. Getting faculty to think generatively this way frees them to think more creatively of what it means to do Christian scholarship and to focus more importantly on how their research could have lasting consequences for the kingdom.

nature of this scholarship itself. While Christian scholarship should not be seen as an

was looking for a Christian education. We are

Charla Long Dean of the College of Professional Studies Lipscomb University

agreement that Christian scholarship is even

I was exiting my classroom after finishing a

a category separate from other scholarly en-

business law session on the elements of a valid

deavors. To this end, philosopher Nicholas

contract when I heard a student say, “Dr. Long,

Wolterstorff has made the point that it is not

do you have a minute?” Little did I know that

At the next class session, I went before my students and publicly thanked the bold individual who challenged me as a teacher to be more deliberate about sharing lessons of faith when teaching statutes, regulations, and case law. After I humbly apologized for my shortcomings, we spent the class period wrestling with I Corinthians 6:1-8, Matthew 18:15-20, and Romans 13:1-7. It was one of the best class sessions of my academic career. Since then, my students and I often discuss issues such as: •

Why do we need laws in the first place?

• Can a Christian sue someone else? Does the answer change if the person is a fellow believer? Should we convene tribunals for believers? • Does a Christian have a right to defend herself in a court of law? • Can a business be a “Christian” business? What does this mean? Are there legal ramifications?

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


Faith & learning

• Why isn’t a handshake enough? Why must we have contracts? • If we are supposed to turn the other cheek, why do we have all of these tort provisions? •

Should a Christian ever file for bankruptcy?

Is it okay for a Christian to own insurance?

You see, when I taught business like I did in the University of Wisconsin system—just delivering pure academic content—it was safe for me. Teaching law from a faith-informed perspective

In concrete, disciplinary terms, this means that

cause faith and art are naturally at odds with

Christ converts philosophy.

each other. It is because all too often the evan-

An Alvin Plantinga point is now most applicable: are Christian philosophers courageous enough

What makes faith integration in contemporary

that grace restores philosophy? Thus, Christian

evangelical cinema untrue? After eight years of

philosophers, Plantinga says, need “courage,

working with over 500 cinema students from

or boldness, or strength, or perhaps Christian

CCCU institutions all across the country, I can

self-confidence” to act on this in their vocations

say with some authority that the vast major-

(Alvin Plantinga, “Advice to Christian Philoso-

ity of our students despise recent “Christian”

phers,” Faith & Philosophy 1 (1984), p. 254).

films, including Facing the Giants, Fireproof,

So come to think of it, maybe the lack of and

and for me. I am convinced that raising the dif-

need for courage, boldness, strength, and

ficult faith questions related to my academic

Christian self-confidence is really the greatest

discipline and not always having the answers to

obstacle and the greatest challenge in integrat-

my students’ questions is God’s design for my

ing faith and learning or faith and philosophy,

classroom—even when it makes me uncom-

whatever the discipline may be.

that I am not the all-knowing, He is.

The question, of course, is how to do it? How

and the like. I have pushed students to describe why they loathe these films, given that they are produced by and distributed to people of their own faith tradition. The reasons vary, but all stem from a sense that these films provide easy answers to complicated situations. As another CCCU educator, Craig Detweiler, has insightfully noted, Christian films are often

may we gain and impart courage, boldness,

about making nice people nicer.

strength, and Christian self-confidence to stu-

What’s the problem with that? Well, “nice” nei-

David Naugle Professor of Philosophy and Distinguished University Professor Dallas Baptist University

dents in philosophy (or any discipline). Here’s

ther resonates with the truth we know from our

my answer: by example.

experience nor with the truth of Scripture, the

One of the biggest challenges to integrating faith

all, every one of us—young and old alike—

and philosophy arises from a failure to grasp the

natural born imitators. Understudies will learn

revolutionary nature of the relationship of nature

cowardice or courage, timidity or boldness,

and grace in the context of the Christian story

weakness or strength, insecurity or Christian

or narrative.

self-confidence from their mentors.

Nature, here, signifies a reference to all of life

I am certainly a candidate to be impressed

palette, the resulting work will be false. Fur-

and culture. Grace, of course, is indicative of

positively or negatively by my seniors, peers,

thermore, if we find it essential to censor such

God’s work of redemption in Jesus Christ. How,

and juniors. You probably are too. St. Paul gets

aspects of human experience in a screenplay,

then, does grace relate to nature, so under-

it just right when he says in 1 Timothy 1:7 that

then the Bible needs a rewrite. Read Judges

stood? In other words, what is the relationship

“God gave us a spirit not of fear but of power

19:22-29. A biblical character gives his sex

of Christ or Christianity and culture?

and love and self-control.” Let us live this out for

slave to a mob that rapes her to death, then

the sakes of those above, below, and equal to

takes her dead body and hacks her to pieces,

us. May others live this out for our sake.

then ships those pieces to all corners of the land

If we embrace an inherent theological unity in the overall biblical narrative such that creation and

It may sound simplistic, but it is true. We are

recognize that Christ’s gracious redemption restores all things: grace restores nature, even if, on occasion, grace opposes, learns from, and stands

ultimate measure of truth in evangelical tradition. “Nice” is often equated with films that have no “bad” language, perhaps mild violence, and certainly nothing approaching an honest depiction of the human form and human sexuality. The problem is, if we remove significant aspects of human experience from the cinematic artist’s

just to make a point (a scene that would make

new creation are inter-connected, then we should


superficial, simplistic, and ultimately untrue.

to act on the idea that grace restores nature,

is so much more challenging for my students

fortable as a teacher. Each day He reminds me

gelical “faith” being integrated into the art is

Michael C. Smith Associate Professor of Cinematic Arts Azusa Pacific University

even Tony Soprano blush). God’s word does not shy away from graphic, honest depictions of our fallen nature. Neither should God’s artists.

in tension with nature as well. (For a helpful dis-

Christian film students face a common ob-

The central events of the gospel are emblematic

cussion of nature and grace, see Jan Veenhof’s

stacle: forcibly integrating faith in a cinematic

of this kind of faith integration. Easter has deep

Nature and Grace in Herman Bavinck, translated

story has all the grace and beauty of jamming

meaning to us because it is preceded by the

by Albert Wolters, Dordt College Press, 2006).

a square peg in a round hole. This is not be-

graphic obscenity of Good Friday, not despite

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

Faith & learning

those awful events. Good cinematic storytellers know this to be true. Sadly, the people most likely to condemn truthful, blood-and-guts rep-

John Visser Professor of Business Administration Dordt College

resentations of God’s world in art are we evan-

Corporate finance is a challenging area for in-

gelicals. The greatest obstacle to faith integra-

tegrating Christian perspective for a variety of

tion in the cinematic arts is us.

reasons. Financial theory and practices, as well

In practice, I have tried to find a way to help our students overcome the lack of an exemplary cinematic aesthetic in the evangelical tradition. I don’t give students a list of what they can or cannot show on screen. Rather,

as spreadsheet and financial calculator skills, must all be mastered, leaving limited time for the development of Christian perspective. In addition, financial models encompass a complex of goals, values, methodologies, and economic and accounting assumptions, constructed over

as all truth is God’s truth, I tell them I don’t

several decades by people who assumed that

care about content as much as I care about

religious beliefs are not relevant to corporate

truth. With that simple guide, they are left to


tell whatever story they choose depicted in whatever manner they choose. In my experience overseeing 750 films, students do not abuse the freedom. Rather, they carry the burden of the responsibility well.

“… maybe the lack of and need for courage, boldness, strength, and Christian selfconfidence is really the greatest obstacle…”

I incorporate Christian perspective in this subject by addressing the subject matter as a whole rather than the individual components. I start out by noting how what students do in the classroom in a corporate finance course

ers can do for their companies and the world can be easily demonstrated. Also, by breaking down the stock price valuation formulas into their math-

Last year our students made a film about a

is quite close to what professionals need to

teenage girl suffering all manner of abuse

do in the real world. I then help them identify

from her broken, working-class family with a

such things as their strengths, weaknesses,

penchant for “bad” words. The film ultimately

attitudes, habits, and fears in order to con-

affirms love as God’s means for redemption

vince them of the need to use the challenging

in our lives, but it does not shy away from

nature of the course to develop themselves

depicting evil truthfully, nor does it offer easy

and to help others in needed, God-glorifying

This groundwork opens the door to demonstrat-

answers (the girl ultimately runs away from

ways. As such, I try to keep the focus as

ing how misguided goals or ends-justifies-means

home). This film went on to earn acceptance

much or more on character and life skills as

thinking can lead to the destruction of value and

at five nationally competitive festivals in just

corporate finance skills.

much human suffering (à la Enron), and how

a few months—more than any other undergraduate film I have overseen. I believe this kind of faith integration will lead this generation of evangelical filmmakers to be the first to

I also try to help them understand how corporate finance, like other bodies of knowledge, reflects the religious orientation of its primary architects. Textbook authors will emphasize

ematical components (e.g., cash flows, growth rates, interest rates, and measures of risk), it can be demonstrated how people’s worldviews and ethics will directly or indirectly affect these components and, therefore, value creation.

Christians, like the late Kenneth Lay (former Enron CEO), can become ensnared in corporate wrongdoing when they do not see God’s call extending well beyond religiosity, morality, and ethics. It also permits discussions of how, for

make a notable impact on the world through

profits or net present value in place of broader,

mainstream art and entertainment.

example, a secular, materialistic culture tends

religiously-informed goals like human flourish-

to develop accounting/financial and decision-

ing, service, stewardship, or shalom. Over time,

making conventions that reflect only material

then, secular goals like stock price maximiza-

assets, liabilities, revenues, and expenses. And

tion and technologically-oriented methods of

although Christians cannot change these con-

reaching those goals become imbedded in the

ventions overnight, their ability to recognize the


significance of things that do not show up on

We should not create and promote ugly for ugly’s sake. We should examine the stories we tell and hold them to a much less superficial standard such as cutting out all the “bad” words, sex, and violence, or mimicking some PG-13 standard. Rather,

However, by connecting the dots between terms

our much higher, faith-integrated standard

like stock price maximization and things that

should be: is it true? Any other standard is

might seem more important to Christians, like

beneath those who follow the way, the truth,

value creation or stewardship, the immense

and the life.

amount of good that corporate financial manag-

the balance sheet or income statement—such as employee values and attitudes, a well-designed piece of software, or positive customer relations—has the potential to make them better stewards of God’s gifts to the company.

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


Money Management, Recession Style Tuition, Financial Aid Increase at CCCU Member Universities By Joy Pullmann


hile navigating recession-era financial gaps and tremors, CCCU schools have increased average tuition and financial aid slightly more than other private colleges and universities. For the 2011-2012 academic year, tuition at CCCU institutions rose by an average of 5.23 percent and student aid rose by an average of 10.87 percent, according to a survey by the National Association of 18

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

money management

Independent Colleges and Universities. The same survey noted that average tuition rose 4.6 percent and financial aid rose 7 percent at NAICU private colleges. To allow for increasing financial aid twice as much as average tuition, CCCU colleges and universities are squeezing other areas, such as staff, less-popular majors, and physical plant expenditures, to support their main revenue source and mission: students. Particularly in 2008, the year the recession hit, colleges saw a spike in need among current and incoming students, but student need has remained unusually high since then as the economy has struggled to recover. The recession also hit college endowments and charitable giving, dampening all of colleges’ main

“Colleges cannot pull out of the recession before their families do. We are in it with our families, and we need to continue to be as frugal as we can in our operations and be entrepreneurial to provide the education students are demanding.” Daniel Nelson Vice President for Admissions, Financial Aid, and Retention Bethel University

income streams at once. “Colleges and universities will have to be continually frugal,” says Daniel Nelson, vice president for admissions, financial aid, and retention at Bethel University in St. Paul, Minn. “Colleges cannot pull out of the recession before their families do. We are in it with our families, and we need to continue to be

“We always look at each other when setting

colleges use, like building upkeep and edu-

fees. Schools will draw their competitor or

cational software, also tend to be expensive.

aspiration lists together and want to target

Economic measures like Commonfund In-

themselves appropriately for that group.”

as frugal as we can in our operations and be

Averaging $21,667, tuition at CCCU schools

entrepreneurial to provide the education stu-

in 2010-2011 is about 80 percent of the to-

dents are demanding.”

tal average tuition for all private colleges and universities, though it is nearly three times the

Stanley Clark, provost of Simpson University

average cost for public higher education this

in Redding, Calif., notes a “stewardship ethic”

fall. Consistently keeping tuition lower than

stitute’s annually-issued Higher Education Price Index, a higher education specific measure—similar to the Consumer Price Index—created by measuring average prices of certain goods and services colleges regularly use, show rapid price doubling since 1990.

among CCCU members, which means “rec-

other privates has kept CCCU members “very

Industry analysts have also started to note

ognizing we have to respect the status of a

competitive in the college world,” Clark says.

the expansion of university administrators

lot of our students who don’t have that much

as another central reason for rising costs.

money and try to price ourselves fairly reasonably in the overall market. We’re trying to emphasize our mission.”

Spiking College Costs Even Without a Recession

“Between 1993 and 2007, the number of full-time administrators per 100 students at America’s leading universities grew by 39 percent, while the number of employees en-

It is well known that the cost of college has

gaged in teaching, research or service only

soared since the 1980s. According to Clark,

grew by 18 percent,” notes a 2010 study

CCCU schools in the late ‘80s charged just

from the Goldwater Institute, a think tank in

Despite economic fluctuations, the rate of

$4,000 to $5,000 for annual tuition. Part of

Arizona. Between 1999 and 2009, CCCU

tuition increases among CCCU member col-

the reason for the steep tuition climb is the

members more than doubled their spending

leges and universities has been remarkably

steep increase in colleges’ expenses.

on administrative services, for an average in-

Long Pattern of Consistent Tuition Increases

stable at about 4 percent each year over the past 26 years, says Clark. Each year, he com-

Since schools offer labor-intensive services,

crease of 105 percent.

the rapid increase in health insurance and

“I have never met a Christian college pro-

labor costs in recent decades have pushed

fessor that didn’t want to educate his or her

prices, even without other economic pres-

students,” says John Mark Reynolds, direc-

“I can’t overemphasize how predictable we

sures at play, Bethel University’s Nelson

tor of the Torrey Honors Institute at Biola

are as a group over the decades,” he says.

says. He notes that the types of hard goods

University in La Mirada, Calif. “But they can’t

piles the CCCU tuition and financial aid report using Chronicle of Higher Education data.

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


money management

educate in giant classes where students use

student aid. The university is also adding

clickers to participate. The largest building

programs in demand like graduate classes

on campus is full of administrators that do

and low-cost Internet courses over the next

not deal with students each day.”

10 years to “diversify revenue,” says Janice Supplee, Cedarville’s vice president for enrollment, management, and marketing. Accord-

Responding to the Present Reality Some CCCU schools have found ways to

stay where we are,” Supplee says. Supplee attributes the university’s continued increase in enrollment, up 70 students this fall and 111 students in 2010, to its new financial aid strategy. Starting in 2010, Cedarville con-

ing to its website, the university has increased

solidated its myriad grants and scholarships

its financial aid commitment more than 145

into two streams and allowed prospective

percent in the past five years.

parents and students to calculate online how much of a tuition discount they are likely to re-

respond to these factors and come out in

Cedarville made these changes after trustees

the black. Cedarville University in Ohio, for

and the financial aid staff worked with con-

example, is one of many schools trimming

sultants to review their programs and budget.

programs, such as smaller courses of study,

“We’re in a good financial position but realize

Azusa Pacific University in Azusa, Calif., in-

and supplemental support staff to focus on

the financial world is changing, and we can’t

creased its financial aid budget by $7 million

ceive, making the financial aid process easier and more transparent.

Innovative Loan Repayment Program Helps Reduce Student Anxiety By Sarah Trainor

In 2008, Huntington University in Huntington, Ind., signed on

school like Huntington means taking out student loans. LRAP

to an innovative program that assists low-income graduates with

was adopted as a new retention tool for the college, factoring

repaying student loans. Offered through the LRAP Association,

into whether financially struggling students will enroll or continue

the Loan Repayment Assistance Program (LRAP) reimburses


qualifying alumni for the entire amount of their quarterly loan payments when they earn $20,000 or less annually. As their salary grows, reimbursement reduces proportionally and ceases when graduates earn $40,000 per year. For Huntington students, LRAP reimburses up to $90,000 of loan repayment. Now in its third year of offering LRAP, Huntington made waves as one of the first private liberal arts colleges to adopt this program, which originally became popular with law schools. “It’s a model that’s worked on one level, and now we are trying to see if it can be adapted to a different level and setting,” says Jeff Berggren, senior vice president of enrollment management and marketing at Huntington. Huntington pays a $1,300 to $1,500 annual fee to the LRAP Association per qualifying student. Similar to insurance policies, institutions pay for students accepted into the program, but only a small portion of these students end up actually claiming the reimbursement funds. Berggren says Huntington has seen a consistent increase in tuition and recognized that, for most students, attending a CCCU


CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

In addition to reducing anxieties commonly associated with financing private higher education, LRAP also allows graduates to pursue a calling that doesn’t pay well. Berggren notes that this is one way Huntington can assure both prospective and current students that they will not have to worry about loan repayment, especially if they pursue a career path not paved in gold. Last spring, seven of Huntington’s first LRAP students graduated. Berggren says the university’s administration is excited to hear how LRAP assists these students as they begin their careers. Eight more students participating in LRAP are slated to graduate in 2012, and Berggren says the school expects numbers to increase since the past two entering classes have more LRAP recipients. Other CCCU members participating in LRAP include Greenville College in Greenville, Ill., Judson University in Elgin, Ill., Spring Arbor University in Spring Arbor, Mich., and Taylor University in Upland, Ind., as well as CCCU affiliate Central Christian College in McPherson, Kan.

money management

“We’re in a good financial position but realize the financial world is changing, and we can’t stay where we are.” Janice Supplee Vice President for Enrollment, Management, and Marketing Cedarville University

Work-Study Model Increases Job Security and Decreases Post-College Debt By Sarah Trainor

Instead of paying for the cost of education, students at College of the Ozarks in Point Lookout, Mo., work campus jobs for their college education. Upon students’ full participation in the Work Education Program, College of the Ozarks, the only CCCU school operating on this work-study model, guarantees to meet the entire cost of education through a combination of private scholarships and grants. Students commonly begin in work departments such as laundry or security but are assigned to workstations of choice after gaining seniority and demonstrating work ethic. This provides students with valuable

this year using similar cuts, resulting in similar student enrollment in-

experience before entering post-college workplaces.

creases. The university also launched an online-only degree program in

The annual cost of education at College of the Ozarks is $17,600.

June. Ninety-two percent of APU students now receive financial aid. In

Through the Work Education Program students earn $4,060 annually

2007, this figure was 90 percent.

toward that total. Kyla McCarty, financial aid director, says the rest of

Private colleges call this difference between sticker price and what students actually pay “the discount rate.” The Department of Education is requiring all colleges and universities to post a net price calculator on their websites by fall 2011 so prospective students can see and compare discount rates. Pushed by the recession, the discount rate among all colleges rose to an all-time high of 42 percent in 2010 from previous averages around 25 percent. “Our families are becoming much more price-sensitive, which I think is in the higher education market as a whole,” says Matt Sink, director of scholarships and financial aid for Calvin College in Grand Rapids, Mich. “They’re comparison shopping.” The burst housing bubble has also impacted colleges because families could previously take out a second mortgage to pay for college or use a house as a student loan guarantee, but that ability has evaporated as vast numbers of mortgages are now underwater, says Nelson.

Recovering from the Recession

the cost is largely covered by interest from the college’s endowment and from federal and state grants for which students qualify. “We don’t want to see students graduate with debt, but on occasion a few students do take private loans,” says McCarty, noting that those who take out private loans usually do so to cover the cost of living on or off campus. The college openly discourages debt and does not participate in any government student loan programs. According to an alumni survey of the 2009-2010 graduating class, 89.1 percent earned their degree without compiling any debt. The remaining 10.1 percent left with an average of just $5,389 in federal, state, or private loans. The college’s solid endowment helps it maintain its commitment to the work-study model. “We are very fortunate to have a large endowment. We’ve been very blessed with gift income throughout the recession,” says McCarty, noting that the school invests conservatively and, like the majority of its students, does not have any debt. Tim Huddleston, dean of development, says the work-study model gives students a great advantage. “We have an opportunity for students

Rigorous colleges with an extremely strong sense of mission have

to graduate without having a pile of debt to contend with when they

fared well within the recession. Wheaton College in Illinois avoided

leave,” he says.

borrowing through the recession and saw its endowment recover 18 percent in the last year after 2008 losses. It recently completed a $260 million capital campaign, though after extending it a year to account for current economic conditions.

In an economy where employers are highly selective, the college’s reputation for developing work ethic in students means its graduates find no trouble landing jobs. “Our students already know what it means to be at a certain place at a certain time,” notes Huddleston. “They

Ninety of the 113 CCCU members took endowment hits from

know what it means to work.” He says the college’s administration

2007 to 2009, for an average decrease of 18 percent. The mem-

is pleased that students find increased job security as a result of its

ber school that lost the most dropped 40 percent, while another

work-study model.

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


money management

lost $100 million, 30 percent of its endowment. By now, though, most CCCU members have begun recovering and stabilizing financially, says Jesse Rine, CCCU’s director of research grants and initiatives.

thropy at Indiana University.

year, but families are still struggling.”

However, though private colleges are not as

Recessionary conditions have pushed CCCU

dependent as publics on legislative largesse,

schools to keep financially fit and prioritize

private colleges do depend heavily on state

spending, skills necessary for Christian

and federal tuition grants like Pell Grants,

stewardship, Clark from Simpson University

“It’s starting to come back, but you can see

which were nearly cut in Congress’ August

notes. Adds Calvin College’s Sink, “We’re

it’s still not where it was,” he notes, explain-

budget ceiling deal and which face likely cuts

working harder than we have in the past and

ing that at the end of 2007-2008 CCCU

in the future. Given states’ current fiscal woes

at the same time probably more wisely.”

schools held $3.82 billion in endowments

and long-term structural imbalances—states

altogether, which dropped to $3.12 billion

currently borrow one quarter of each dollar

in 2008-2009 and is now at $3.44 billion.

they spend and have $3 trillion in unfunded pension liabilities—private colleges may soon

Cautious Financial Outlook

have bigger tuition holes to fill as states and the federal government trim higher education

CCCU member colleges remain conserva-


tive in price and spending forecasts as their

In the interim, however, Christian colleges

endowments recover and charitable giving works its way back toward pre-recession levels. After two years of declining by 13 percent, charitable giving ticked up 2 percent in 2010, says a 2011 report from the Center on Philan-

are taking a wary breath after several tough

Joy Pullmann is managing editor of School Reform News. She writes from Fort Wayne, Indiana.

CCCU affiliate Point University (formerly Atlanta Christian College) is staying competitive and accommodating growth by relocating next year from metropolitan Atlanta to West Point, a small Georgia town near the Alabama border. Visit for the story.

years. “At best I see a slow economic recovery over time,” Bethel’s Nelson says. “Our indicators of the economic condition of our families say the worst year was probably last

Reducing Tuition Pays Off for Warner Pacific By Sarah Trainor

With tuition on the rise at colleges and universities around the

this stigma. “In reality, when they complete the financial aid

nation, Warner Pacific College in Portland, Ore., decided to

process,” says Cook, “they are quite often pleasantly surprised

address the problem head-on. Its administration took a long, hard

to find that this experience is affordable for their families.”

look at the effect cost and spending have on student tuition. As a result, in 2008, the college lowered tuition 23 percent from the previous year. In 2007-2008, the average cost of tuition at four-year, private schools in Washington and Oregon was $26,249. At $16,630, Warner Pacific’s new tuition was 37 percent lower than its competitors. Such a drastic tuition restructure positioned Warner Pacific as one of the most affordable private institutions in the Pacific Northwest.

In the May 2010 strategic plan update, Warner Pacific’s administration listed tuition restructure as one of its top priorities in an effort to address economic issues and as “an initiative to increase traditional undergraduate enrollment.” Though no official data has been collected, Lani Faith, executive director of marketing and college relations, believes the tuition reduction has made a difference in enrollment numbers. “In 2005, our total enrollment was 578, and this year, 2011, it’s 1,679.” This staggering increase of 190 percent cannot all be

“What Warner Pacific College has done with the decision to

credited to the reduced cost, but it does make a strong case for

lower tuition in 2008 is really about reframing the conversations

the benefits of lower tuition.

around college attendance, cost, and financial aid and making it about accessibility, opportunity, and possibility,” says Andrea Cook, president of Warner Pacific. Cook thinks many families are initially intimidated by the sticker prices of private higher education, so she is working to remove


CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

Sarah Trainor is a 2008 graduate of Biola University, where she majored in journalism and spent a semester studying journalism and art history at Roehampton University in London. Currently, she works in marketing for CB Richard Ellis.

money management

Is a Christian College Education ‘Worth It’? Faith Development Among Christian College Students By Kaye Cook, Professor of Psychology, Gordon College

The era of emerging adulthood, roughly ages 18 to 25, is marked by distinctive tasks and challenges. College attendance is an increasingly normative experience during this time: two-thirds of emerging adults attend college and, of those, two-thirds graduate within five years. As a developmental psychologist, I have long been interested in spiritual formation at all ages, including development in relationships, identity, and faith during college. Through its initiative grant, the CCCU provided funding for my colleagues— Cynthia Kimball and Kelly Flanagan from Wheaton College, Kathleen Leonard from UMass Lowell, and Chris Boyatzis from Bucknell University—and me to collaborate on a study of spiritual development during college.

Our Research in Brief In the context of recent discussions and concern about the value of a Christian education, the desires of college students for the freedom to ask bigger questions about values and mission and to explore deeper meanings in life often go unnoticed. Christian colleges are uniquely positioned to provide students an opportunity to explore these questions and to serve as models for contexts in which values and academic disciplines are taken seriously. Our study explores the religiosity, identity, attachment, and well-being of almost 1000 recent graduates from two Christian colleges. Two religiosity measures were of particular interest: 1) religious coherence measures the degree to which values affect one’s life and is a composite measure based on intrinsic religiosity, Christian Orthodoxy, religious identity, and religious coping, and 2) quest measures the degree of “readiness to face existential questions in all their complexity while at the same time resisting clear-cut, pat answers” (Religion and the Individual: A Social-Psychological Perspective by C. Daniel Batson, et al., 1993, p. 166). Committed questers—those high in both measures—display higher well-being and provide an opportunity to explore movement toward more complex faith and greater ownership of one’s faith and values. Our research results show that a Christian college can create a place where values guide personal behavior and nurture human flourishing, and questing can be a positive if sometimes stressful path to spiritual growth.

A Sample of Our Findings Participants were highly religious and influenced by highly religious parents. Religion was “very important” to most of our participants. Three-quarters attended church at least once a week, and orthodoxy and intrinsic religiosity were high. Participants reported that their parents were highly religious. Religious faith has multiple positive effects on daily life, improving wellbeing by influencing one’s personal characteristics (identity), relationships (attachment), and the choices one makes. A Christian college creates a place where values guide personal behavior and intellectual maturity can be nurtured in a Christian environment. One interviewed student said, “Having a well-founded faith is great when it comes to tricky decisions.” Another said, “I laughed to think that I might be accepted at a Ph.D. program at Harvard, but Gordon prepared me well. I not only got in [to Harvard] but I’ve loved it. My faith is often challenged but it’s stronger now, and even if [people at Harvard] don’t know it, they operate from values too.” Participants described God and their faith in terms of classic descriptors of faith more than in terms of “moralistic therapeutic deism.” MTD was developed by University of Notre Dame’s Christian Smith to describe a parasitic form of “watered-down” religion. MTD adherents picture God as the source of moral rules for good and bad behavior (moralistic), as problemsolver (therapeutic), and as distant (deistic). In our study, those scoring high in four measures of religiosity described God and their faith using classic descriptors, for example, mentioning ownership of their faith, trust in God, and a historically central religious idea (e.g., salvation). Those low in religiosity did not. Moralistic (M) and particularly therapeutic (T) comments appeared in the high religious coherence protocols, as well as in the low religious coherence protocols, although deistic (D) comments did not.

Sample comments made by those high in religious coherence (initials have been changed): • K.D.: “God is so much bigger than the way we understand Him to be.” • M.G.: “God makes a difficult situation easier.”

Our Methodology In 2008, surveys were sent to 2006 and 2008 graduates of two Christian colleges to evaluate their religiosity, ego identity, relationships, and well-being using standardized measures. In 2010, surveys were sent to 2006, 2008, and 2010 graduates of those same colleges, seeking longitudinal data when possible. In total, 2,579 graduates were petitioned (1,813 were contacted twice), and 962 respondents (37 percent) emerged (284 participated twice), including 530 recent graduates, 478 two-year graduates, and 238 four-year graduates. Participants were in middle to late emerging adulthood (mean age 24 years, range 20 – 34) and were generally Caucasian (91 percent), female (69 percent), and Protestant (91 percent, predominantly self-identified as nondenominational, Anglican or Episcopal, and Baptist). A subsample of 159 alumni participated in half-hour interviews that more carefully explored faith, identity, and relationships.

• S.M. described God as sovereign, saying he is continually “feeling close

to God and feeling secure.” • L.G. experienced God as “good,” saying she “realized God’s love for me

and His value for my life.”

Sample comments made by those low in religious coherence: • P.J. talked about “feeling more distant from God” and about God as “the

source of ethics.” • E.N. talked about no longer going to church because God is “hands-off.” • K.H. described God as “independent…doing His own thing.”

Visit for a link to the complete research findings.

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


Survey Says: Give Me a Live Person When Crunching Numbers! Reaction and Response to the Department of Education’s Net Price Calculator



By Heidi Raass Spencer

or prospective students and their parents, figuring out the true cost of higher education can be elusive, confusing, and even somewhat intimidating. In addition to trying to understand a new language of code words— such as Pell grants, Stafford Loans, and EFC (Estimate Family Contribution)—parents and students must also filter through an institution’s

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

net price calculator

advertised tuition costs while subtracting a school’s varying merit scholarships and potential institutional aid. They are searching for the bottom line. “How much is this education really going to cost our family?” asks Jeanette Kiddie, whose son, Alex, is a freshman at Bryan College in Dayton, Tenn. In 2009 the U.S. Department of Education

“I think there’s no substitute for talking with admissions personnel or visiting a school if your son or daughter is really interested.” Jeanette Kiddie Parent of Bryan College Student

mandated that every college and university nationwide, including all CCCU schools, provide a cost calculator on its website by late October 2011. According to the department, “The net price calculators will give students and their families an idea of what college costs would look like based on their individual

and potentially result in a school losing a stu-

Live Conversation Still Best

circumstances, such as the size of their fam-

dent who otherwise might apply, he explains.

ily and their family’s income. This information

That’s why Gordon decided to liberally invest

sonalized aid packages developed when col-

in its online cost calculator. Going beyond the

leges know a student’s unique situation. “We

requirements set forth by the Education De-

are all about getting to know our prospective

partment, Gordon opted to provide two calcu-

families at Asbury University. We understand

lators—one for incoming first-time students

that the loss of a job, the death of a parent, and

would go beyond a school’s ’sticker price’ to help students and families better estimate their actual costs to attend that institution, once grants and scholarship aid are taken into consideration.”

and a separate tool for transfer students.

However, calculators cannot replace the per-

the economy can all affect our students. This is why we don’t want a prospective student’s

The process is fairly simple. Students log on

“These very different students need different

to a college’s website, locate the net price

methods in estimating college costs, and we

calculator, and enter a series of basic details,

felt it was important to offer separate calcula-

such as the prospective student’s grade point

tors,” O’Connell explains. Gordon’s net price

average, standardized test scores, and family

calculator is also marketed to make clear that

income. The calculator is then supposed to

it will only approximate a family’s out-of-pock-

Tabor College in Hillsboro, Kan., has featured

calculate the amount a prospective student

et expenses.

two scholarship calculators on its website for

will have to pay each year.

At Asbury University in Wilmore, Ky., admis-

It sounds good. But Kiddie isn’t completely

sions officials are incorporating similar ele-

convinced. “It’s a great online tool in getting

ments into their online cost calculator. Like

an estimate of a how much a family might pay

Gordon, Asbury’s website indicates that the

out of pocket. However, it’s not accurate. It

tool is only an estimate. Customizing Asbury’s

can’t take into account outside scholarships from outside sources, for example. I think there’s no substitute for talking with admissions personnel or visiting a school if your son or daughter is really interested.”

online calculator, such as embedding admissions office contact information into the

interest in our university to end with an online calculator,” notes Harper. “Ultimately, we want the opportunity to have a live conversation with prospective students and their families.”

the past couple years, recognizing the school’s sticker price is not reflective of how the cost of a Tabor education actually compares to the cost of a degree at, for example, a public university. “The calculators do help students look beyond the sticker prices,” says Scott Franz, director of student financial assistance.

pages, was necessary to encourage future

Tabor is revamping, and will rename, their

dialogue with prospective students, notes Lisa

merit scholarship calculator to comply with

Harper, director of admissions.

the Education Department’s net price calculator specifications. The school will continue

The Calculator’s Limitations

Another reason both Gordon and Asbury

to offer prospective students the option to

have spent extra resources on the new cal-

be anonymous secret shoppers computing a

Daniel O’Connell, director of student financial

culator is that prospective students may use it

general idea of Tabor’s real cost or to identify

aid at Gordon College in Wenham, Mass.,

as a way to preview colleges. “This could be

themselves by providing additional documen-

agrees with Kiddie, noting, “The net price

another great way for interested students to

tation that allows financial aid staff to explore

calculator is only as good as the information

hang out at our website for a while and get a

the student’s unique options and admissions

entered.” Wrong information entered by a

better feel for what we have to offer, not only

staff to follow up. Echoing Harper, Franz says

student unfamiliar with their parents’ assets,

financially but academically and spiritually,”

Tabor focuses on customer service for fami-

for example, could generate misleading totals

O’Connell notes.

lies. “There are too many different scenarios

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


net price calculator

Above: Matthew Reese (#18) with the Gordon soccer team. Left: Craig and Jeanette Kiddie with son Alex at Bryan College.

“This could be another great way for interested students to hang out at our website for a while and get a better feel for what we have to offer...” Daniel O’Connell Director of Student Financial Aid Gordon College

for each student. We try to [offer financial aid] more on an individual basis.”

Since the online calculator is a brand new

A Student Perspective

cess to it when they were previewing colleges last year. “Looking at the net price calculator

Knoxville, Tenn., thinks the calculator is help-

now,” Kiddie says, “I’m not so sure about it. I

ful and isn’t certain it would push away pro-

think it’s good in a broad sense, but I could

spective students. Rather, he believes the ad-

have easily plugged in our family’s numbers

vertised high cost of tuition, room, and board

and said, ‘Whoa, we can’t afford that,’ and we

at many private colleges has the potential to

would have lost out on Bryan College, which

dissuade interested students first. “If inter-

is a great fit for Alex and a great school.”

ested students and parents are willing to give the calculator a go, they are probably realistic enough to consider that there may be additional financial aid available,” he offers.

She adds, “If Alex didn’t have outside scholarships to attend Bryan, the net price calculator would have been fairly accurate. However, we ended up paying a lot less than what the

Reese also notes that for many incoming

college calculator said when I plugged in my

students, making a college decision hinges

numbers [to Bryan’s net price calculator] this

on much more than the price tag. From aca-

fall out of curiosity.”

demics and majors to sports teams and environment, students are persuaded to attend certain colleges based on a host of factors. Despite assumptions about how tech-savvy teenagers like to garner information, Reese prefers the old-fashioned method of making a phone call and getting information from a live person

“Colleges need to educate parents about this tool, making sure parents realize it’s not the bottom line…There’s no substitute for talking to people in the financial aid office. The people at Bryan were very well prepared and walked us through the process beautifully.”

who can answer his specific questions.

mator on their website, Reese thinks adding a large disclaimer disclosing “that this is only an estimate” could prevent some people from navigating away from the website as soon as they see their results on the cost calculator.

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

tool, Kiddie and her son did not have ac-

Matthew Reese, a freshman at Gordon from

But if a university has to have this cost esti-


Mixed Response from Parents

Heidi Raass Spencer, a 1997 Asbury University alumna and former associate editor of Asbury’s alumni magazine, lives all over the world with her husband, an active-duty U.S. Air Force Chaplain, and their three children, but currently calls MacDill AFB in Tampa, Fla., her home. In 2007, Heidi was a contributing writer for Meredith Publishing’s Along the Way: Real Life Moments Touched by God.

Going Global

American and Chinese Scholars Consider Role of Religion in China

Our team was guided by three Chinese experts: Prof. Yan Kejia, a senior researcher at the Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences; Prof. Lu Yunfung, a sociologist at Peking University and director of the Center for the Study of Chinese Religion and Society; and our main host, Dr. Liu Peng, a senior researcher at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. They assigned works for the group to read, briefed us on trends, and brought us to a variety of government, academic, and religious agencies to meet leaders and ask questions. Most of the North Americans had not been to China before, and most of the Chinese had not been to the United States, so we made good company for each other. We were impressed by the good humor, resourcefulness, and energy of our Chinese partners. Most of them were Christian believers, and they were well-equipped to guide us as we encountered both the officially-recognized Three-Self Protestant churches and some unregistered house churches as well. We were visiting China at a rather tense time. There was a controversy involving a prominent unregistered church in Beijing that the government was forbidding to meet in public, and there was nervousness about the “Arab spring” uprisings in the Middle East. Even so, we were greeted cordially at universities, government research centers, and church agencies. Chinese and North American seminar members came away with a veritable basket-full of topics for research and writing, and we expect to see some fine publishable work as a result of the seminar. This was the third in a series of seminars sponsored by the CCCU through a partnership with the Nagel Institute for the Study of World Christianity at Calvin College and the Plowshares Institute, a faith-based agency in Connecticut. In 2008 we had an international encounter of visual artists in Indonesia, and it resulted in Charis, a traveling exhibit of 40 fresh works of art. In 2009 we had a team in South Africa studying the role of Christi-


CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

anity in public life. Out of that encounter is coming a book: Walking Together: Christian Thinking and Public Life in South Africa (ACU Press, 2012). What’s next? “Evangelicals and Social Change in Brazil” will happen in June 2013, led by the eminent Brazilian sociologist, Paul Freston. It will be another life-changing experience. Want to join us? Joel Carpenter, Director Nagel Institute for the Study of World Christianity China and the Geography of Religion The CCCU- and Nagel-sponsored Faculty Development Seminar in China was a once in a lifetime opportunity to explore the complexity of religion and the rule of law alongside Chinese scholars and Chinese Christians. The seminar was an immersive experience as eight North American scholars roomed, debated, studied, participated in worship, and explored tourist attractions with 12 Chinese experts in religious studies, theology, political science, law, sociology, and anthropology. These new relationships have strengthened my faith and passion for Jesus Christ while opening new avenues of interesting and important research, especially in three areas of my primary field of study, the geography of religion. The focus of the seminar was religious freedom and the rule of law. Dr. Liu Peng of the Institute

of American Studies in the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, who also serves as the Director of the Beijing Pu Shi Institute for Social Sciences and was a leader in our seminar, has proposed a fascinating geographic solution to the “problem” of rapid house church growth. Dr. Lui suggests that special religious zones could be created in the same way that special economic zones helped to open China to free economic markets. These special religious zones would encompass a geographical region in which the country’s typical or national laws would be modified as a type of social experiment in religious freedom. Dr. Lui’s proposal could provide for gradual religious freedom in the country using an indigenous model that has already proved fruitful in the country. Secondly, since the seminar, I have become very interested in exploring Christian reactions to regional migration. China is currently experiencing the largest internal migration in the world as 150 million migrant workers flock to cities from the countryside. Their population registrations remain in the country, so they are essentially secondclass citizens lacking proper housing, social services, and, frequently, fair wages for their labor. A majority of the governmentsanctioned Three-Self Patriotic Movement churches exist in the countryside, leaving substantial urban social needs unmet by the church. Alongside Chinese scholars, I hope to further explore the capacity of unregistered house churches to meet the growing social demands of China’s cities. Finally, I would like to further engage leaders of the Three-Self churches and house churches regarding creation care and environmental stewardship. During the seminar, I had many conversations with indigenous Christian leaders regarding the substantial environmental degradation in China due to severe air and water pollution. In one such conversation with the elder in charge of social services in the Three-Self Church at the church’s national headquarters, I used the

photograph by Joel Carpenter


uring the first two weeks of June, eight professors from CCCU institutions met with a dozen Chinese scholars in Shanghai and Beijing. We wanted to learn more about the role religion plays in contemporary China and the prospects there for a more positive environment for religion.

going global term “creation care” and had to subsequently define it. The Christian leaders I met in China were not attuned to the Scriptural importance of caring for creation, and I would like to humbly continue these dialogues to learn more about Christian environmental stewardship in the world’s most populous, and most polluting, nation. Michael P. Ferber Assistant Professor of Geography and Director of Environmental Studies The King’s University College New Perspective on First Amendment Issues In some ways, the 2011 CCCU China Seminar on Religion, Society, and the Rule of Law can be summed up with the number two. Two dozen scholars spent two weeks together studying two very different perspectives on two specific questions: What religious activities ought to be protected? And to what extent can adherence to the rule of law protect religious freedom? Yet, in another way, our time together could be characterized by the number one. Early on in the seminar, it became obvious that our unified group had one goal, which was to better understand the common cares and concerns that unite us as people and scholars. To further that understanding, our time together was divided between official visits to academic and religious institutions and debriefing sessions that took place each afternoon. For me, the best part of the day occurred when we gathered together to share insights and observations gained from the morning presentations. Often, the robust conversations that marked these sessions were provocative, prompting members of the group to reexamine their political, philosophical, and theological assumptions. For instance, we discussed the nature of religious freedom: Does it encompass the right to possess one’s own religious beliefs? Should all religious activities be protected? We also questioned the source of human rights: Are they divinely bestowed and thus inalienable? Or are they mutable because they are dispensed by the state? By extension, some of these conversations prompted a discussion about the existence of natural law and the precepts that are regarded as

true despite one’s nationality, religion, or paradigm of thought. Still other discussions revealed that much of our understanding about law, freedom, and religion is also framed by language, history, and culture. This comparative perspective will undoubtedly make my own scholarship richer, as I employ an enhanced understanding about the rule of law and religious freedom to First Amendment issues here at home. One of my projects currently in progress is an examination of the U.S. Department of Justice’s implementation of religious rights codified in the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Person’s Act of 2000. Previously, I had assumed that the legislation was largely superfluous in light of the First Amendment protections long-established for religious activities and organizations. However, after discussing concerns about religious land use with our Chinese colleagues, including Professor Liu Peng, a senior researcher at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in Beijing, I have come to realize that supportive legislation—even in an area already protected by constitutional law—can help to minimize conflicts and can help to constructively guide discretionary decision-making of local officials. Moreover, the implementation of comprehensive legislation, such as the kind that is presently being debated in China, would aid small, local congregations who lack the resources to engage in expensive, protracted litigation. Although the primary target of my analysis will be readers in the United States, I am hopeful that a comprehensive review of this program might aid our new friends in tackling similar problems in China and thus reap tangible benefits for many years to come. Jennifer E. Walsh Professor of Political Science and Associate Dean for the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Azusa Pacific University Experiencing Development It seems appropriate to describe topics in scholarly fields through the meaning of the word “development.” I am quite narrowminded but did experience meaningful development during the days of the June 2011 China Seminar, which left many interesting sidelights lingering in my memory. The

episodes I describe below might reflect my learning from the seminar. Hesitation: Our small, temporary groups talked about religious law at a dialogue period in the afternoon. As usual at any academic conference, I prepared to listen more and speak less. The host said to me that I might have my views on the topic. Without deep thinking, I spoke hesitantly and unintelligibly, saying that we do not have any religious law but that we have some regulations and ordinances related to religious affairs. According to my knowledge from reading newspapers and listening to radio and TV broadcasting, China completed the law system a few years ago at a certain level with help from scholars and experts who we invited from Europe, America, and other areas. Understanding: We visited Yanjing Seminary in the morning. After meeting with faculty and students, listening to a class course, lunching there, etc., some scholars noted that they thought the works related to religious studies and theology were not many in the library that was especially for students to use. Because of this, it probably was not easy for students to upgrade their academic level. Some scholars, with deep understanding, pointed out that those students were quite diligent and eager to learn, and they could still get a good education at the seminary. Action: During the culture trip, we asked a lot of questions and received some interesting answers. Those questions and answers made us think open-mindedly and resulted in each scholar’s new research interest. I prefer to study further both English and theology, which can allow me to incorporate intercultural and religious studies into my research in the field of cultural studies. During the seminar, my spoken English was quite poor. My written English even makes me more embarrassed today. Fortunately, despite this barrier, I did learn the meaning of development somewhat. Zhao Hong Editor working with the Hong Kong Foundation of Chinese Culture Development

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


Christ-Centered Higher Education Isn’t Only for Traditional On-Campus Students Finding New Models for Keeping ‘Christ-Centered’ in Education for Students Who Spend Little Time on Campus By Luke Reiter

A 30

fter graduating from high school in 1976, Susan Courneya spent five years working as a secretary before marrying a Northwestern College graduate, giving birth to two children, and staying home to raise and homeschool them. She thought this was the extent of her lifelong calling.

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

changing demographics

“I got married right out of high school and of

While entering college directly after high

dents’ lives both inside and outside the

course the generation I grew up in, which is

school is still considered traditional, it is no

classroom are re-examining how to provide

the Baby Boomers, that’s pretty much what

longer the standard in America. Students like

a spiritually formative education to nontradi-

you did as a woman,” Courneya says. But

Courneya are increasingly common. Accord-

tional students living off campus and attend-

when she returned to work as an administra-

ing to a report from the National Center of

ing classes part-time.

tive assistant in the early 1990s, Courneya

Education Statistics, by the turn of the millen-

realized she wanted more from her career

nium, 73 percent of all undergraduates pos-

this time around and feared her limited edu-

sessed at least one attribute qualifying them

cation would keep her from achieving ad-

as a nontraditional student.


In 2009, more than 21 percent of students

When Courneya researched adult education

at public and nonprofit undergraduate pro-

programs, she was intrigued by the faith-in-

grams were over age 25. In CCCU schools

fused curriculum and accelerated degree op-

that number was higher, with students over

tions offered at Bethel University in St. Paul,

age 25 equaling nearly 23 percent of CCCU

Minn. She enrolled and, after two arduous

undergraduates. Since 2009, most adult

years of classes, studies, and full-time work,

degree programs have remained resilient

graduated this past May with a bachelor’s

despite the economic downturn and have

degree in communication studies. Courneya

marked continued—albeit slow—growth in

is now capitalizing on her academic momen-

student numbers.

tum by beginning a master’s degree this fall

The Ministry of Adult Higher Education In the 1990s and 2000s, private and public institutions alike scrambled to tap the burgeoning adult education market, increasingly battling for-profit competitors such as the University of Phoenix and Capella University. But in the 1980s, even before the adult education trend had been noticed, Indiana Wesleyan University (Marion College at the time) in Marion, Ind., began weighing the benefits of adding accelerated degree-completion programs for working adults against the risks

in Bethel’s counseling psychology program.

With enrollment demographics shifting,

of investing in the trending but still unproven

The Changing Demographics of CCCU Student Rolls

many Christian institutions historically com-


mitted to shaping all aspects of their stu-

“At that time IWU...wasn’t doing that well fi-

Waiting for College Brings Added Opportunities for Trevecca Student By Luke Reiter

Originally from Brazil, Rejane Migliore moved to Nashville, Tenn.,

“For me to be here today is thanks to Trevecca,” says Migliore.

Images courtesy of:

Rejane Migliore,

Debra Hoag, and

Andre Bordeaux

in 2003 after marrying an American musician. A short time after she settled in her new home, Migliore was asked to serve as a

With the encouragement of her husband and son, Migliore also

Spanish translator at a high school. As a Brazilian, Migliore speaks

became one of the first nontraditional students from Trevecca to study

Portuguese, but she was intrigued by the offer and decided to

off campus when she entered the CCCU’s BestSemester Washington

study Spanish at a community college.

Journalism Center in Washington, D.C., for the fall 2011 semester.

After taking a few classes, she began receiving mailings from

Migliore says she’s been stretched between her internship at Market

colleges—mailings that evoked a yearning in Migliore, who was

News International and keeping up with her younger classmates,

unable to attend college under the Brazilian education system. She

but she’s constantly amazed to be working in the U.S. capitol and

enrolled at Tennessee State University in Nashville, but found herself dizzied by a thronging, fast-paced campus that operated on precepts of what was still a very foreign culture to her.

enjoying formative experiences she would have missed if she had gone to college in Brazil as she originally desired.

Driving home on Interstate 65 after class one day, Migliore spotted

“We can make up our plans, but I always believe in my heart that God

a billboard for Trevecca Nazarene University and decided to inquire

directs my path,” she says.

about their adult programs. After finishing a final semester at Tennessee State, Migliore transferred to the more personal setting

Migliore expects to graduate with a bachelor’s degree in

of Trevecca.

communications and a minor in journalism in May 2012 and is

Despite being nearly fluent in English, Migliore said taking classes in her second language is an obstacle. However, with the support of

considering a career as an international correspondent. Of all the knowledge she’s acquired since starting college, perhaps the most

her husband, her teenage son, and the Trevecca faculty, Migliore has

important lesson is also the simplest: “It’s never too late to get an

thrived in the classroom.

education,” she says. “This old dog is learning new tricks.”

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


changing demographics

nancially. It was really on the edge,”

must convert to Christianity or practice their

Reaching a Milestone Despite the Roadblocks

explains Bridget Aitchison, vice presi-

faith in a certain way to be accepted at APU.

dent and dean of IWU’s College of

The school does not require nontraditional

Adult and Professional Studies. But

students to follow a particular doctrine, but

By Debra M. Hoag 2009 Houghton College P.A.C.E. alumna

the school took a risk and launched

Garlett says he tries to be forthcoming in ex-

the program, and as Aitchison says,

plaining that all classes are taught from a bib-

that program “has really helped cre-

lical perspective and some required courses

ate what we have we have today: this

will focus largely on theology.

As a single mother, my mission had always been to instill in my daughter the importance of a college education, despite

amazing university.”

“Occasionally there are companies who say ‘I

IWU is now considered one of the

won’t pay for a Bible class’ or ‘I won’t pay for a

foremost leaders in continuing edu-

certain kind of class [for which] we can’t show

degree. I was inspired to complete my bachelor’s degree

cation among CCCU members and

work relevance,’” Garlett notes.

when I discovered my daughter’s plans to continue toward

hosts the CCCU Center for Research

a doctorate in public health administration. It was my

in Adult Learning. The 12,000 adults

daughter’s motivation and tenacity that drove me to work

enrolled annually between the CAPS

harder than I imagined I could and to achieve more than a

and nursing schools now outnumber

mere degree, to achieve a milestone.

their traditional peers four to one.

not having one myself. I completed my associate’s degree around the time my daughter received her bachelor’s

I was diagnosed with stage four breast cancer in 2007,

IWU offers classes at education cen-

right in the middle of my progression toward a bachelor’s

ters in three states and strives to add

degree through Houghton College’s P.A.C.E. (Program for

up to three centers per year. Count-

Accelerating College Education). I underwent aggressive

ing its online programs, the school

treatment every weekend for six months. My energy was

serves students in all 50 states and

zapped, but I insisted on returning to work and class every

around the globe.

week. I don’t think my professors knew about my cancer; I didn’t want any favoritism or special consideration.

While IWU continues to post steady enrollment in its adult programs,

In January 2009 I was informed by my doctors that I had suffered a stroke that would have permanent implications on my learning ability. My comprehension was affected. I now forget names, and things I want to say often linger at the tip of my tongue, out of reach. Reading is difficult, and my attention span is limited.

Aitchison says the most important metric for success can’t be found in the balance sheets. “Growth is not about the money. It’s not about the numbers,” she emphasizes. “It’s about the ministry.”

In cases where a corporate sponsor cannot be persuaded to pay for a mandatory religion course, the school tries to work with students to find alternative funding or an appropriate substitution for the credits. However, Garlett says that’s becoming less of a problem as companies increasingly find the strong ethical foundation their employees receive at APU to be an asset in the workplace. Similarly, Aitchison says IWU maintains its identity as an institution of Christ-centered learning while appealing to a diverse range of adults because of its reputation for quality. According to Aitchison, 50 percent of the university’s nontraditional students come from secular or alternative faith backgrounds. While these students are not required to follow a particular set of beliefs, she notes that

Despite the obstacles, I refused to give up. I had to work

the school has a unique opportunity to pro-

twice as hard to get through the P.A.C.E. curriculum as I

vide spiritual guidance to them.

battled school, work, cancer, and a newfound learning disadvantage. In May 2009 I graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in management from Houghton College P.A.C.E.

Achieving market appeal while teaching a Christian worldview One major consideration unique to

Today I work for the Seneca Nation of Indians Education

CCCU members offering adult educa-

Department as the higher education coordinator. I assist

tion programs is finding a way to honor

Seneca Nation members with college admission and help

the Christian worldview and heritage of

them prepare financial aid forms. I get excited for the students when they graduate. It’s like I’m graduating all over again!

their institutions while increasing their market appeal and accessibility for

Finding a way to pastor nontraditional students Because of nontraditional students’ busy lifestyles, IWU is finding new and creative ways to deliver that spiritual guidance. Bob Burchell, an online chaplain at IWU, is tasked with caring for nontraditional students who rarely set foot on campus and likely will never meet Burchell

Aside from my daughter, my greatest accomplishment was

adults, especially those who receive tu-

the completion of my degree. Houghton College P.A.C.E.

ition assistance from secular employers.


According to Fred Garlett, dean of

“We realized what we’re doing is sort of

was the ideal place for me to complete my bachelor’s degree. It has enlightened me on life and academics,

pioneering a level of ministry here, realizing

helped me understand more about life and society, and it

the College for Adult and Professional

has given me credibility in my position. I even enjoy learning

Studies at Azusa Pacific University in

and reading for fun now! That degree was all I wanted to

Azusa, Calif., prospective students

accomplish, and P.A.C.E. made it possible.

can be apprehensive about faith-

see what worked, what didn’t work.”

based education and often ask if they

One of the early ideas Burchell abandoned


CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

there wasn’t a whole lot of example out there to follow,” notes Burchell. “We tried things to

changing demographics

Testimonials from Indiana Wesleyan University Online Adult Students Excerpts from the publication “Instruments for God’s Use: The Spiritual Impact of Indiana Wesleyan University Faculty Members on their Students,” which was presented at IWU’s fall 2011 faculty retreat

was an online faith corner where he

ies at Courneya’s new alma mater, Bethel,

could host chapel services and al-

many Christian schools may have been slow

low students to play games together

to serve the nontraditional market because

through the College of Adult and Pro-

they were unsure how to tailor their faith

fessional Studies website. However,

components to an accelerated program.

Burchell quickly found that idea was unrealistic in the nontraditional market, as are many of the requirements placed on traditional undergraduates at IWU, such as including a statement

By a recent graduate of the online M.Ed. program: After completing [the] M.Ed. program, I look back at where I started 18 months ago, and I can honestly see a big transformation. This transformation has occurred in my professional, personal, and spiritual life, and I am so thankful for this experience. I feel that every class has been helpful, and I have learned things that can improve my teaching. Personally, I have learned to balance my time more carefully and to rely on others for help… Did I mention

of faith and a pastor’s referral in their applications and attending mandatory chapel services three times a week once enrolled.

“Part of it is, we have historically been very committed to a whole-person education, and sometimes that is interpreted to mean that you provide the residential education, and you provide student life, and you provide chapel, and you provide all of these things that go into a richly-resourced undergraduate education—all of which are hugely important—but I think sometimes we’ve thought you can’t

“[Adults are] there for an education,

provide a good education without all of those

first of all, and they’ll go somewhere

things, rather than saying ‘How can we pro-

else if we load them up with all these

vide a strong education without some of those

other external requirements,” he ex-

things?’” Jass notes.


Bethel, like IWU, does not require adult students

Instead, he believes IWU’s ministry to

to adhere to its statement of faith or come from

in person? I know that some of the relationships I have

adults should be carried out primar-

a Christian background, but professors are in-

formed with my cohort members will last long after this

ily by instructors, who tend to have

structed to integrate faith elements into their les-

program has ended, and I am very thankful for this!

the most interaction with both online

son plans and provide ministry in the classroom.

the wonderful friends I have made who I have never met

Spiritually, I have finally been able to fully connect my Christian worldview with my chemistry teaching. I have appreciated each devotional this program has offered, and I will miss this part of the program!…Like many others in this program, I made a last-minute decision to start this journey without much research about education programs anywhere else. The fact that I’ve had such a positive experience has helped me to really trust God with His plan for my life.

and classroom students. He says the faith-based aspects of IWU’s education are interwoven into the curriculum, and his role now tends to center on student care and crisis resolution. Burchell hopes to partner with 12Stone Church of Georgia in the near future to share their online services through the CAPS website for

By an online New Testament Survey class student:

interested students. For now, even

I am joyful to say that this course has brought some

though nontraditional students may

much-needed awareness for me. I feel a much stronger connection to Christ and a longing to keep up with the weekly ritual of taking my family to church. During this class, I attended church regularly to complete my New Testament Field Project, and this has brought upon many good things for not only me, but also my family!

By an online New Testament Survey class student:

have a less overt spiritual component

In some sense, Jass says, the approach not only follows Bethel’s mission but expands on it by adding an element of outreach. “We really see ourselves as having a huge opportunity to be salt and light, and to be kind of world-changers,” she explains, “in the respect that we come into contact every single day with nonbelievers and we have an opportunity to say, ‘This is what being a Christ-follower looks like.’ And we invite them into that walk with us.”

to their education than their tradition-

Visit for

al campus-dwelling peers, Burchell

the story of nontraditional student Andre

says weaving faith into the classroom

Bordeaux who is studying at

still plays an important role and is

BestSemester’s American Studies

often the only way students receive

Program this fall.

Christian influence.

I learned a wealth of biblical knowledge while completing this class, moved closer to Christ, and resolved a

“I don’t know that anything’s lost,” he

negative impression of religion and Christianity, in

says. “I think based on the testimony

particular. I have completely changed my attitude in a

[from students] that we do get, there’s

positive manner since completing this class. I found the

a lot of spiritual impact.”

class interesting, beneficial, and most of all a stepping stone in Christ’s direction. I anticipate the class not only increasing my spiritual wellness, but also improving my life socially and academically.

Enrolling a mission field According to Lori Jass, dean of the College of Adult & Professional Stud-

Luke Reiter is a graduate of Bethel University and an alumnus of the Washington Journalism Center. He now works as a reporter at a community newspaper covering the suburbs of St. Paul, Minn.

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


As Goes the Church, So Goes the CCCU? Exploring the Implications of People’s Changing Relationship with Churches


By Rebecca Rine

his September the Hartford Institute of Religion Research released the results of a 10-year study of the health of American congregations. The study noted a significant decline in church attendance among both mainline and evangelical denominations, with average attendance for weekend worship dropping from 130 to 108 persons between 2000 and 2010.


CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

Church-university relations

An additional shift taking place among those who attend church regularly is a weakening loyalty to particular denominations. Rather than identifying themselves using denominational labels, many Christians instead profess affiliation with a broader theological tradition, a style of worship, or simply a local congregation. CCCU member institutions stand in a complex set of relations with both denominations and local churches. Since CCCU schools draw most of their students and employees from American congregations, a decline in overall church attendance indicates a potential decline in the pool of students, faculty,

Since CCCU schools draw most of their students and employees from American congregations, a decline in overall church attendance indicates a potential decline in the pool of students, faculty, and administrators available to study and serve at Christian colleges.

and administrators available to study and serve at Christian colleges. Furthermore, a decline in loyalty to denominations raises important questions about how CCCU schools formulate their own religious identities. This is particularly true with respect to student recruitment and enrollment. How will CCCU schools represent their own denominational particularities to prospective students, parents, and church leaders? Sixty-four of the CCCU’s 113 member institutions (57 percent) describe themselves as affiliated with a sponsoring denomination. At some universities, the majority of the student body is also affiliated with this denomination.

colleges’ church relations professionals, and

PLNU established the Center for Pastoral

for collaboration among CCCU schools and

Leadership in 2004. The Center has devel-

other higher education institutions.

oped a Master of Ministry program to train church leaders, hosts numerous training

Growing Focus on Partnership Increasingly, leaders in both the university and the church are considering themselves as partners in the task of Christian education rather than entities on either end of a pipe-

events annually, and helps church-goers identify and cultivate their strengths through the Nazarene Strengths Institute. PLNU’s extensive engagement with the church positions it as an educator of students as well as of the church at large.

line through which students and resources

Westmont College in Santa Barbara, Calif.,

are transferred. “Even though our ties with

has a similar philosophy. Silvio Vazquez, dean

the Church of the Nazarene have traditionally

of admissions, says, “We are experts at pro-

been strong, we have started to ask a new

viding education. That is what we are good

set of questions about how we can do more

at. What we try to do is to reach out to youth

to help the church be effective,” says Bob

pastors, pastors, and church members and

lower: Houghton College in Houghton, N.Y.,

Brower, president of Point Loma Nazarene

to provide opportunities for them to learn, to

reports just 17 percent of its students are af-

University in San Diego, Calif. “We’re not ask-

hear speakers, to attend conferences, to con-

filiated with the Wesleyan Church, while 20

ing what we can get from the church in terms

nect with alumni. We want them to see that

percent of students at Point Loma Nazarene

of money or students; we’re asking how we

we are continuing the work that they have

University in San Diego, Calif., are affiliated

can engage with and serve the church.”

started in their local churches, that we are

For instance, Southwest Baptist University in Bolivar, Mo., is affiliated with the Missouri Baptist Convention and reports 60 percent of its students are Baptist. At other institutions, the percentage of students from the college’s sponsoring denomination is much

with the Church of the Nazarene.

Brower sees this as a response both to the

educating people for service in the church.”

CCCU schools not affiliated with a denomi-

changing landscape of Christian denomina-

Denominational leaders also value university-

nation are equally concerned with cultivating

tions and to uncertain economic times. “Due

church partnerships. Vic Borden, chairman

relationships with congregational leaders and

to the economic downturn, local churches are

of the Missouri Baptist Convention’s Inter-

churches. Given the changing shape of the

increasingly restricted in terms of resources,”

Agency Relations Committee, describes the

American church, many CCCU schools are re-

he notes. “This gives us as a university the op-

MBC’s relationship with affiliated schools as

thinking their approaches to church relations,

portunity to assist the church by developing

one of “accountability and facilitation.” The

creating new trends for relationships between

and housing resources that highlight our insti-

committee sees itself as a resource for its

CCCU schools and churches, for the roles of

tutional identity while also serving the church.”

colleges and makes every effort to remain in-

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


Church-university relations

formed about the challenges and opportuni-

members to connect prospective students

sometimes regard Christian institutions of

ties facing Christian higher education. It then

or interested church members with the col-

higher learning as less academically challeng-

responds to these circumstances, as Borden

lege. As the CCCU’s 2009 Market Research

ing than their private or public counterparts.

says, “in a way that only we could do.” For

revealed, pastors and church leaders are

Other Christians believe a CCCU school will

example, the MBC recently established a

concerned about the spiritually formative ele-

shelter their students in undesirable ways, ul-

$10,000 scholarship fund for the training

ments of Christian higher education as well as

timately preventing them from getting a “real”

of ministerial students at Southwest Baptist

with issues of academic excellence, cost, and

education in an environment outside of their

University and Hannibal-LaGrange Univer-

career preparation.

faith tradition.

“Though the responsibility of planning and

“At times our message is collectively strength-

implementing recruitment plans correctly falls

ened when we say something together about

under the office of admissions, an institution

what someone will experience at a Christian

is hindered from reaching its enrollment goals

college,” says Mullen. But she also notes that

The promise of the partnership model is

if admissions is not working strategically with

cooperative efforts should be balanced with

that both denominations and universities do

other offices such as financial aid, academics,

thoughtful consideration of how a particular

what they do best, working together in mutu-

campus technologies, athletics, church rela-

CCCU school might draw on its institutional

ally beneficial ways within the larger body of

tions, alumni, development, and marketing,”

history and identity to contribute uniquely

Christ. However, this model also introduces

notes Westmont’s Vazquez.

to the sector of Christian higher education.

sity. This fund provides essential resources for student recruitment while reinforcing the connection between the MBC and its affiliated schools.

new levels of complexity and requires that participants in the partnership communicate well and build trust.

An Expanded Vision for Church Relations

In order to maximize effectiveness, the various campus staff responsible for church re-

intentional about articulating our similarities but also be equally bold about institutional

priorities with respect to denominational/

personalities and differences.”

church relations, but also insuring that feed-

see denominational and church relations.

is available to other staff members who serve

These employees may be located in an of-

as liaisons to the church.

with youth pastors, and another with local

The trends identified here tell only part of the

The Value of Collaboration

century America. But they point to a signifi-

CCCU schools do not interact with denomina-

is intimately tied to the health of the church.

tions and churches in isolation. They often

The trends also reflect the deep connection

cant principle: the health of CCCU institutions

collaborate through associations such as the

between university and church, the impor-

CCCU, the Association of Reformed Institutions

tance of continual re-examination of that rela-

Such staff members rely on specialized skills

of Higher Education, the International Associa-

tionship, and the possibility that the university

and knowledge to cultivate key relationships

tion of Baptist Colleges and Universities, and the

may not only respond to but also shape the

and are essential liaisons with churches.

Nazarene International Education Association.

landscape of American denominationalism in

However, an overemphasis on their role in

One result of such collaboration is a new

the coming decades.

developing and maintaining church relations

study of denominationalism and the CCCU

tends to obscure the presence of additional

designed by nine professors at seven CCCU

avenues for productive interaction between

institutions. Baylor University’s Perry Glanzer,

university and church. Some universities

the principal investigator, estimates a sum-

are beginning to ask how the institution as a

mer 2012 release of the findings of the study,

whole can be informed about the best ways to

which will gather empirical evidence about

connect church-goers with the university. For

the role of denominational identity in various

instance, many members of CCCU campus

aspects of university life within the CCCU.

churches and congregants.

communities attend a local church, creating a natural but often under-utilized connection between the college and local congregations.


Looking Ahead story of university-church relations in 21st-

fice of church relations or may work in ad-

communicates with senior pastors, another

similar and where we’re different—that we be

This involves not only agreeing on institutional

back provided at one level of the organization

laincy. In many cases, one university official

tian colleges would state both where we’re

lations should stay in close communication.

Most CCCU schools appoint staff to over-

missions, upper administration, or the chap-

“What I would hope in the end is that Chris-

Perry Glanzer’s list for further reading on recent scholarship related to religion and denominational identity in higher education and for 2009 Market Research insights on church leaders’ knowledge of CCCU institutions.

CCCU schools also collaborate in making the case for Christian higher education in general, in both church and denominational settings.

The specialized staff who cultivate church re-

Shirley Mullen, president of Houghton Col-

lations can equip other campus community

lege, notes that church leaders and members

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

Visit for

Rebecca Rine, a 2001 alumna of Campbell University in Buies Creek, N.C., is a Ph.D. candidate in Religious Studies at the University of Virginia.

On the shelf

What Your Peers are Reading

Mathematics Through the Eyes of Faith

The big questions are introduced and made approachable through an engaging dialogue between four idealized students about the nature of

By James Bradley & Russell Howell (HarperOne, sponsored by the CCCU, 2011)

mathematics and its relationship to the nature of God and Christian belief. Questions such as “Can the idea that chance exists in nature be reconciled with God’s sovereignty?” direct us to consider how reflection

Review by Kristin Camenga Assistant Professor of Mathematics Houghton College

on mathematical concepts gives insight to deep theological questions. Questions about the nature of truth and beauty call us to reflect on how these properties that are important to Christians are treated in mathematics. The classic mathematical question “Is mathematics invented or discovered?” leads us to investigate the source and nature of mathemati-

I have a confession: as a professor of

cal objects and reasoning in light of our Christian beliefs.

mathematics at a Christian liberal arts col-

The authors approach these questions by using Christian faith as a

lege, I struggle to integrate my faith and my discipline. Nothing in

lens through which to view mathematics. They do not seek to change

the content or methods of mathematics changes based on whether

mathematics or recreate it in a Christian form, but to consider the

I am a Christian or not. I find many of the attempts to integrate faith

nature and methods of mathematics from a faith perspective. While

and mathematics contrived: assigning a number to each letter of the

the text introduces possible answers to the big questions and consid-

alphabet and adding the values for “Love of God” to total more than

ers their strengths and their weaknesses, the authors do not take a

100 percent is neither math nor Christian faith.

position. Rather, the reader is invited to continue the conversation

While mathematics and Christian faith were often tied historically, modern practice of mathematics lends itself to treating issues of faith as independent from the discipline. Mathematicians are trained to think abstractly: logical reasoning does not claim that the axioms we base our reasoning on are true, but only that our carefully proved deductions will be valid. Even if the axioms are false, this does not affect the validity of the mathematical reasoning. This allows us to imagine different axiom systems where the rules are different and contradictory results are proved.

and come into dialogue with the different perspectives. It is these big questions that I find to be this book’s most compelling contribution to the discussion on faith, living, and learning. These questions serve as a starting place for continued reflection and exploration whether you are a mathematical novice or expert. The book is organized to be accessible and useful for a variety of students. Significant attention is given to introducing the mathematics concepts discussed so that the chapters are largely self-contained and might motivate students to explore mathematics further. Mathematics Through the Eyes of Faith could be used either as a whole in a capstone

We leave the question of whether our foundational axiom systems are

or introductory survey course or a chapter at a time throughout the ma-

true or false to scientists and philosophers. With this approach to rea-

jor. References for further study and exercises, both mathematical and

soning, it is natural for mathematicians to treat issues of faith as inde-

reflective, are included, moving the pedagogy of faith learning forward

pendent of the discipline; we are more likely to consider the implica-

with further opportunities for study and discussion.

tions of certain belief systems than to pass judgment on them.

This book has reenergized me with a new way to approach the interac-

Mathematics through the Eyes of Faith is a significant contribution to

tion between faith and mathematics by placing it in the context of big

my personal study and reflection, helping me to move past this pur-

questions instead of looking for isolated connections. Rather than a

ported independence and work toward complete integrity between

completed integration of the two, Mathematics Through the Eyes of Faith

my faith and work. The authors refrain from contrived examples and

charts a course for a lifetime of continued exploration and reflection.

frame the work around careful consideration of big questions on which both mathematical and religious perspectives can be brought to bear, thus providing common purpose and investigation to areas

For reflections on faith and learning from additional disciplines, see the Faith and Learning section on page 12.

usually seen as independent.

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


on the shelf

Joining the Mission: A Guide for (Mainly) New College Faculty

Despite my esteem for VanZanten and this particular work, she does leave me wondering what influence the church has on how scholars

By Susan VanZanten (Eerdmans, 2011)

understand the academic vocation. She references the importance

Review by Todd C. Ream

church. However, she does not explore in detail how participation

Senior Scholar for Faith and Scholarship and

in the worship practices of the church defines how scholars under-

Associate Professor of Humanities in

stand themselves, the educational communities they populate, and

the John Wesley Honors College

the constituencies they serve. Such a conversation would prove to be

Indian Wesleyan University

Perhaps no faculty member serving a CCCU member institution is better suited to advise young scholars than Susan VanZanten. A noted Emily Dickinson scholar and the founding director of Seattle Pacific University’s Center for Scholarship and Faculty Development, VanZanten has served not only her newest colleagues well but also faculty across the country through her varied speaking engagements

of religious traditions and even her own personal involvement in her

a valued addition. Regardless, junior faculty (and, arguably, even many senior faculty) would be served well by considering this book as a means for getting their academic careers off to a good start. VanZanten’s collective wisdom is a valuable reminder that faculty serving in mission-driven institutions are part of a body of like-minded colleagues seeking to cultivate a valued understanding of the academic vocation.

and writing efforts. A collective form of her wisdom is now present in

Transformations at the Edge of the World: Forming Global Christians through the Study Abroad Experience

Joining the Mission: A Guide for (Mainly) New College Faculty. Admittedly, VanZanten’s book is not fully applicable to faculty serving in all academic contexts. She intentionally limits her audience to individuals serving in what she calls mission-driven institutions, or private

Edited by Ronald J. Morgan and Cynthia Toms

institutions that purposefully incorporate the religious nature of their

Smedley (Abilene Christian University Press, 2010)

missions into their cultures. With the exception of research universities such as Baylor University and the University of Notre Dame, mission-

Review by Kevin Book-Satterlee

driven institutions are comprehensive universities or liberal arts col-

Missionary, Latin America Mission

leges. VanZanten encourages faculty at these institutions to fully appreciate the “blessed reality” of the greater flexibility such institutions offer (p. 193). While research and publication are rightfully prized in

Transformations at the Edge of the World is a noteworthy book describ-

these environments, teaching and service are viewed as equally valued

ing student transformation through Christian study abroad programs.

components of the academic vocation.

Study abroad programs help create global students by exposing them

In cultivating an appreciation for this blessed reality, VanZanten’s work is a mix of well-catalogued information and heart-felt advice. After opening with a discussion of the nature of mission-driven institutions,

grams help their scholars become not just global students but also global Christians.

she offers a chapter on the history of higher education along with chap-

Editors Ronald Morgan, director of ACU in Oxford (England) for Abilene

ters on teaching, research, and community engagement. In the first of

Christian University, and Cynthia Toms Smedley, director of educational

two chapters on teaching, she includes a battery of information com-

immersions at the University of Notre Dame’s Center for Social Con-

monly found in student development literature but arguably of equal

cerns and former assistant director of the CCCU’s BestSemester Ugan-

value to faculty members. The clear, concise presentation of this in-

da Studies Program, present a four-part book that discusses a student’s

formation is part of what makes it valuable because this allows readers

inward journey, outward journey, relationship with the social other, and

to quickly ingest the relevant guidance on topics that include learning

solidarity with the global poor. They collaborate with other Christian

styles, cognitive development, and moral development.

study abroad leaders who write from the perspective of their respective

The value found in these chapters is enhanced by the elements of personal wisdom VanZanten offers. This candid and even vulnerable quality includes references to both the challenges and the triumphs


to the world’s vast variety of people. Yet, Christian study abroad pro-

programs. Each highlighted program is unique in location and focus, but from the ivory towers of Oxford to the slums of Manila, these global learning programs foster transformation for the Christian student.

she has faced over the course of her career—challenges such as sur-

Imagine the scene as a student steps out of an airport or off of a bus and

viving cancer and triumphs such as the publication of a challenging

experiences their shocking first moment in an unfamiliar place. Wheth-

yet rewarding book.

er the student stands in urban density with burning trash and open

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

on the shelf

sewers or in the desolate silence of a field dotted with small huts, all

one of my old yearbooks. Small colleges are all I know. During my high

the student’s senses are bombarded by a previously unknown-to-them

school days my father attended one. Then I drove across the country to

reality. Displacement creates anxiety, but it also creates space for self-

the Midwest for four years of first-hand experience at another such col-

discovery and learning from a new context. Study abroad participants

lege. Shortly after graduating, I took employment as an entry-level staffer

come to discover their abilities in a new way. For these students it is

at a small college, and once my family became too sizable, my wife and

gut-check time. They become vulnerable like babes. Rather than hold-

I moved to yet another small college. While I do not pretend to be a small

ing students’ hands, the Christian study abroad program creates space

college scholar, I “know” small colleges enough to affirm that Old Main is

for students to rely on God in a new way.

a strong defense of their importance.

Contributors Laura Montgomery and Mary Doctor of Westmont Col-

Schuman defines small colleges as those “institutions that award primar-

lege’s Westmont in Mexico program emphasize “Christ’s model of hu-

ily baccalaureate, four-year degrees and have between five hundred and

mility, empathy, and reconciliation” (p. 119). These core interpersonal

three thousand full-time students” (p. 2). At one time the dominant force

qualities of Christ are essential for becoming a global disciple. By learn-

in higher education, they now make up less than 10 percent of all institu-

ing the attitude of Christ, a student understands God’s heart for the

tions. Threatened with displacement by “huge new enterprises” (p. 4),

world. These qualities of humility, empathy, and reconciliation can only

small colleges find an unflinchingly biased advocate in Schuman.

be practiced, however, in relationship. Creating space for relationship with the social other is an essential part of studying abroad. Mimicking Christ in this way, a study abroad participant can, as contributor Richard Slimbach from Azusa Pacific University’s Global Studies Program writes, “encounter raw realities that resist simple explanations, much less easy solutions” (p. 186).

With the expected detail of a professor’s syllabus, Old Main begins with a fine introduction that deftly describes Schuman’s intended learning outcomes for his readers. From this beginning, the purpose of the book as a small college apologetic is clear. Schuman creates a fine blend of the “forest” and the “trees,” statistics and fieldwork, arguments and stories. While other books may require readers to ponder an author’s intentions,

Morgan and Smedley’s book is seamless. Despite being divided into

Old Main is so well written that all readers, from the prospective student

four parts with multiple authors, the lessons learned and stories expe-

to the retired faculty member, will enjoy Schuman’s style.

rienced by each author work together. Student experiences in the highlighted programs range from Roman Catholic studies and environmental stewardship to intentional community and slum dwelling, yet the lessons of student transformation and global discipleship are common threads in the descriptions.

Chapters two through four are full of descriptions. Indeed, a brief history of U.S. higher education can be quickly captured by simply digesting chapter two. The third chapter is a veritable viewbook for all small colleges. Had one

Slimbach notes “the growing commitment among evangelical twentysomethings to be agents of healing within a broken world” (p. 187). Too often North American evangelicals are criticized for their lack of

disembarked from a few-century journey and never heard of small colleges, this chapter would efficiently convey the necessary information within a matter of minutes.

global engagement and interest in social justice. The stories in this book

The family room of Old Main is found within chapter four. Seeking to ex-

refute this criticism and display an encouraging trend among evangelical

press why small colleges are special, Old Main portrays their people.

students. These students will become future leaders who have come to better know themselves, grow in their relationship with God, and experience solidarity with others through a globally-displacing experience that will continue to impact how they live.

Old Main: Small Colleges in TwentyFirst Century America

The core of Schuman’s advocacy is found in chapters five and six. Here, Old Main convincingly makes the case that smallness strengthens community and diversity, both of which contribute to student learning and development. In chapter seven, Old Main depicts small colleges’ and large universities’ attempts at mimicking each other. Without scorn, Schuman explains that these noble efforts have indeed created constructive outcomes but that

By Samuel Schuman (Johns Hopkins University

ultimately these types of institutions cannot replicate each other. A cost

Press, 2008)

comparison and perhaps a defense of small colleges against large public universities would have been an appropriate addition to this chapter.

Review by Joe Slavens Director of Student Life, Simpson University

The book concludes with an epilogue to new faculty colleagues. It is an excellent tutorial on small colleges’ strengths, weaknesses, and idiosyncrasies.

Reading Old Main: Small Colleges in Twenty-

Small colleges are necessary, different, and perhaps imperiled.

First Century America was like peering into

In Old Main, Schuman has well articulated a case for this type of school. CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


on the shelf

Seven Days in Utopia: Golf’s Sacred Journey By David L. Cook (Zondervan, 2011)

From there, Johnny tells the story of Simon Peter’s “chance” meeting with Jesus Christ, his repentance, and his decision to follow Jesus Christ (based on the opening paragraphs of Luke 5). Both biblical Simon Peter and fictional Luke Chisolm illustrate the fact that

Review by David Sanford Director of Communications & Public Relations and Special Representative of the President Corban University

someone never knows when he or she might meet someone who (or read some book that) will change his or her life. Resources beyond the book include a well-written study guide and soonto-be-released DVD, available from the publisher and from the author’s

What can a best-selling 176-page novel teach website.

us—and CCCU student athletes, business majors, and others—about the game of life? Author David L. Cook is a Baylor University graduate who went on to

The Heavens: Intimate Moments with Your Majestic God

earn a Ph.D. in sport and performance psychology from the University of

By Kevin Hartnett (Thomas Nelson, 2011)

Virginia. His clients have included Olympians, national collegiate chamReview by Patrick Miller

pions, NBA champions, a number of PGA tour champions, and many

Professor of Mathematics, Hardin-Simmons University

Fortune 500 companies. After more than two decades of success as a high performance psy-

The Heavens: Intimate Moments with Your Majestic God by Kevin Hart-

chologist, Cook stumbled upon the tiny Texas town of Utopia, a real place

nett provides enjoyable and inspirational reading. You do not need to

with an authentic cowboy church, an old cemetery, and a golf course that

read it in one sitting. It flows nicely when read only a few pages at a time.

was so pitiful he couldn’t get it off his mind. Instead, Cook was inspired to write his first novel, Seven Days in Utopia, originally published in 2009 as Golf’s Sacred Journey: Seven Days at the Links of Utopia. This fall a film based on the book hit theaters. The backdrop of the story is a “chance” meeting between a professional golfer named Luke Chisolm (played in the movie by Lucas Black) and an eccentric rancher named Johnny Crawford (played by Robert Duvall). As the story unfolds, Luke—and the reader—learn from Johnny about inspiration, influence, and a deeper, more profound way of looking at life. In many ways, Luke and Johnny represent each one of us in our various stages of growth. We clearly learn we must be willing to coach and be coached all through life. We also learn that we need to recognize, write down, and deliberately reject the half-truths and outright lies that keep us from a life of significance. This book offers more than effective and wise high performance psychological axioms. It also includes direct biblical content and a clear-cut invitation for the reader to commit (or recommit) his or her life to Jesus Christ. In Johnny’s words to Luke: Let me let you in on a little secret. Life in the end will be measured by significance, not a golf score. Significance will be defined by your character, relationships, values, virtues and faith, not by a golf score. Years ago there was a man who spent his life dreaming about the big win, the day he would be heralded as the best. He was defined by what he did, and his livelihood depended upon his performance. He was a passionate man, a contender. He was a fisherman. His name was Simon.

The author divided the book into 2- to 3-page segments, in which he presents the science of astronomy punctuated with incredibly spectacular deep sky photographs. He then draws a connection between the science and the spiritual. The science citations are impeccable, as they should be since the author is the NASA deputy science operations manager for the Hubble Space Telescope. The deep sky photographs are beautiful, many coming from the Hubble. People often think there is a conflict between science and the spiritual, but as the author clearly demonstrates, there is no conflict between the two. Hartnett shows how natural it is to derive spiritual insight from scientific insight. This is most definitely true for astronomy, in which scientists are striving to understand the nature of the universe created by God. As the book’s subtitle indicates, this devotional relates the majesty of the universe that we can see and measure to the majesty of the universe’s Creator. The Heavens is a book that you can take with you outside on a warm summer evening. It provides inspirational reading while you look up at the myriad stars and the Milky Way in the skies above. Or perhaps you are outside looking at an eclipse of the Moon or counting meteors flashing overhead in a shower. The Heavens offers you a clear and natural connection between God and the marvels that you can see above. Without reservation I recommend Kevin Hartnett’s book. You will find it a valuable and truly inspirational addition to your library. It will be one that you will pick up and read over and over again throughout the years. Each time you do, you will learn something new and gain a deeper insight into God and His creation.


CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

on the shelf

Elegy for Trains

the reader to explore the divine impulse to bring two realms into

Benjamin Myers (Village Books Press, 2010)

one, where the sublime enters the ordinary, a wooden marionette becomes a real boy, and elegy turns into praise. In these poems,

Review by Miho Nonaka

Oklahoma and the world become a fresh text, which along with

Assistant Professor of English, Wheaton College

the poet and teacher, we, too, are reading “for the first time.”

Against our cultural moment, where the idea of “home” as a geographical location has become suspect, the elegiac poems of Benjamin Myers, associate professor of English at Oklahoma Baptist University, speak clearly of their roots. The topography of Oklahoma looms large as readers enter landscape marked by barbed wire, buffalo grass, red clay, “knobby” plains, and ghost trains traveling westbound through “fields of broken corn.” Each scene is an attempt to trace personal genealogy as well as a signpost for the collective mythos; the local action of noodling for catfish, digging “the rusty dross of land” with “one thin arm fumbling for leviathan,” becomes the poet’s link to a greater ancestral consciousness.

ON TAKING COMMUNION WITH MY STUDENTS From Elegy For Trains By Benjamin Myers

Let greasy spikes be caught in halos thrown from chapel windows and the lazy shuffle of saints trace the body of Christ down the chapel alley. Let this one,

Based on this sense of rootedness, Elegy for Trains traverses history

paper late,

and literature, covering many grounds in both thematic and formal

eyes avoiding mine

concerns. Myers’ erudite journey takes readers through varied po-

like two blackbirds in sudden flight,

etic forms—sonnet, sestina, American haiku, to name a few—and


characters—biblical authors, Polonius from Hamlet, and such literary prophetic personae as Virgil, Whitman, and Pound. Never-

And let this one,

theless, this type of interaction with past literature is not the main

absent a week

strength of Myers’ book.

only to resurface

More interesting tension arises when he compares his career as a poet/teacher to his ancestors’ earthbound labor. His is “the struggle not with rock / nor earth,” but the task “to plant / one green thing in the minds of my students.” The speaker wants to show that his mental task is no less authentic than theirs, and he refuses to draw an easy line “between the book and the burden of the sun,” because “The men who make the road and man who makes / these words all work the same within our fall.” The penultimate poem of the book, “On Taking Communion with My

as the sinking vessel rises one last time from ocean’s deep midnight, also receive. The wind empties itself outside the chapel, madly hurls the vowels and consonants collected all its lifetime ceaselessly at the stones.

Students,” presents a rare occasion which unites the disparate spheres of the teacher’s professional persona with the deeply private moment of

I hear on the gale

receiving the Lord’s Supper. The teacher is called to participate in the

my words

body of Christ with his students (including the slacker who failed to turn

from the morning’s lecture:

in his assignment on time, “eyes avoiding mine,” or who showed up in

the world is text.

class “as the sinking vessel rises” after a week of unnotified absence). Epiphany comes when the words “the world is text” take on another

I, too, am reading it for the first time.

meaning: the world is indeed text not only in all its rhetorical forces, but also in light of its origin in God’s Word, where spirit meets flesh. Myers’ debut collection is a satisfying journey of lyrical mediation and a source of inspiration, especially for those who serve and are served in Christian higher education. Elegy for Trains invites

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


on the shelf

Islam without Extremes: A Muslim Case for Liberty By Mustafa Akyol (W.W. Norton & Company, 2011)

In his well-reviewed new work, Islam without Extremes: The Muslim Case for Liberty, Akyol grapples with one of the most serious questions facing modern Turkey and its relations with the West as well as with the wider Islamic world: Can Islam generate and sustain its own version of a liberal society? By asking this question, Akyol not only sheds much-

Review & Interview by David Holt

needed light on the shadow of conflict that currently obscures mutual


understanding between Islam and the West generally, but also reminds

CCCU’s BestSemester Middle East Studies Program

Western readers how important it is to re-examine their own struggle to forge the pillars of a liberal society. For many readers, this call to reflec-

The Middle East Studies Program is honored to introduce CCCU faculty to an important new book by journalist, author, and speaker Mustafa Akyol, one of contemporary Turkey’s most engaging editorial writers. A long-time favorite speaker for MESP students, Akyol talks to MESP each semester about the main domestic and foreign policy challenges facing modern Turkey.

tion alone is a journey of potential transformation. Educated in international relations at Istanbul’s Bosporus University, Akyol communicates in ways that resonate strongly with Western evangelicals because he understands and appreciates their respect for the importance of combining the ideas of both liberty and religion in public life.

Q&A with Mustafa Akyol David Holt: Western media coverage of current political conflict and regional instability in the Middle East tends to reinforce Western views, however well or poorly informed, about Islamic culture as violent, authoritarian, tribal, or sectarian. How can your book help speak to these impressions?

world. I only have one chapter that focuses on Turkey, and I do this to use

Mustafa Akyol: I try to help those impressions in several ways. First, the

Erdogan, which has been in power since 2002, has underlined Turkey’s

media focuses on now, but I look at history and show that a millennium ago

Muslim identity and its connections with other Muslim nations. Some regard

it was actually Christendom which looked “violent, authoritarian, tribal, or

this as bad news, whereas I think in quite the opposite way: Turkey now

sectarian” when compared to the world of Islam. What has happened since

looks closer to other Muslim societies, so the democratic experience of

then, and why it has happened so, is a question I probe in the book.

Turkey becomes more inspiring for them. No wonder many liberal-minded

Turkey as a case study to observe the liberating influence of democracy and the market economy on the Muslim mind. Secondly, Turkey has actually become more relevant to other Muslims in the past decade. The incumbent Justice and Development Party (JDP) of Tayyip

Arab Islamists who have participated in the Arab Spring have explicitly said Secondly, I am “deconstructing” the troubles in the Muslim world, in a sense,

they take Turkey’s JDP as an example.

and showing that quite a few of them come from non-religious roots, such as pre-Islamic traditions, social structures, and even modern forces such as nationalism. In Turkey, for example, the main threat to Christians’ religious freedom is not Islam but Turkish nationalism, which is a secular and modern idea.

Holt: Especially since 9/11, many Muslim intellectuals around the world have written apologetic pieces arguing that Islam is a religion compatible with moderation, democracy, and pluralism. What motivated you to write this book and how do you see its contribution to this literature overall?

Thirdly, I am demonstrating the liberal trends within Islam, both in the

Akyol: You are right to point out the apologetic nature of some of the post-

pre-modern and modern periods. The medieval Islamic school called

9/11 Muslim rhetoric, and that’s one reason I wanted to avoid that in my

Postponers, for example, built a theological argument for religious pluralism

book. Instead, I tried to be more explicit about the troubles in the Muslim

that British liberal John Locke would repeat some nine centuries later. They

world and even the Islamic tradition. In other words, my book is not saying

were called Postponers because instead of warring over contradictory

that everything in Islam is okay; I am rather acknowledging the problems

religious interpretations, they decided to postpone such judgments until the

and offering arguments on how they can be overcome.

afterlife when God would resolve all things.

Holt: Some critics might argue that because you are a Turkish author and Islam in Turkey is not a model acceptable to most Sunni or Shiite Muslims around the world, the central message of your book is therefore limited to the particulars of Turkish society. How would you respond to such thinking?

Of course, I believe that Islam, at its very core, is a noble religion with a liberating message. I would not be a Muslim if I did not believe so. But I see a big difference between the divine core of this religion and the historical trajectory it has followed, which has, in my view, brought some authoritarian elements to it. The ban and punishment of apostasy, for example, is totally post-Quranic and reflects the political conflicts of the early Muslim community, not the everlasting principles they were asked to subscribe to.

Akyol: Well, first of all, much of my book has nothing to do with Turkey. Rather, I address questions relevant to all Muslims who live in the modern


CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

See the rest of this interview online at

Reorganizing Campus Departments Can Be Another Tool in the Enrollment Toolbox By Jessica Shumaker There’s a new office on Malone University’s campus. When students and faculty returned to the Canton, Ohio, school this August, in addition to reconnecting with each other, they began plugging into the newly-created Center for Student Success.

“What we had here was a standard three-person career services department that for many years had reported to the provost and had a strong academic sense,” he says. In time, the office was passed to student development. Then, more recently, as school leaders began discussing the possibility of a one-stop shop for student needs rang-

According to Howard Taylor, Malone’s vice president for university advancement, the addition of the center, which houses four formerly distinct offices (accessibility services, retention and tutoring, aca-


ing from advising to tutoring, they realized they could include career services, too.

demic advising, and career services), streamlined the school’s career

Thus, the old office was shuttered, with two career services employees

services department.

taking their expertise to the Center for Student Success and alumni

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

enrollment toolbox

office. The third employee, who had covered administrative responsibilities, was transferred to fill an opening in admissions. The move was an opportunity to scale back where possible, Taylor says, and to strategically organize personnel with career services expertise in order to better recruit new students, serve current students, and support alumni. “Necessity is the mother of invention, I think, in our case,” quips Taylor of the personnel shifts.

“I think as we see tighter and tighter budgets in higher education across the board, we’re going to see a lot more people looking at: What’s the synergy? Can we make this work? Can we make this better?”

Malone isn’t the only school seeking new ways

Howard Taylor Vice President for University Advancement Malone University

to support enrollment through either reshaping its organizational structure or encouraging collaboration among departments that were previously nominally related.

Orchestrating Moving Parts Taylor believes moves like Malone’s are indicative of a bigger picture in higher education. “I think as we see tighter and tighter budgets in higher education across the board, we’re going to see a lot more people looking at: What’s the synergy? Can we make this work? Can we make this better?” Jim Turcotte, vice president of enrollment management and student affairs at Mississippi College in Clinton, Miss., says money is one obvious incentive for college leaders to take a fresh look at their organizational structure.

An overarching interest in providing consis-

vote with their feet. They’ll leave if you mis-

personnel and prospective and current stu-

treat them.”

dents, which ties into attracting and retaining students, necessitated Mississippi College’s decision to combine enrollment, student affairs, retention, and career services into one oversight area, says Turcotte, noting that so far this system has worked for the college. “Our vision here fits for us,” he notes. “It depends on the university. Our vision is one V.P. orchestrating a lot of moving parts from the first point of contact to graduation and getting

Turcotte is no stranger to Christian higher

a job. It’s a very far cry from my initial job as

education. He’s been with Mississippi Col-

director of admissions.”

seen a shift in how the enrollment process is approached, as well as how other offices relate to the campus admissions office.

He adds, “We can’t just ignore all of these different moving parts and just recruit students. It takes collaboration for all of this to work together.” Gary Phelps, registrar at Malone, echoes that sentiment, noting that the desire for quality control also has played a role in the establishment of Malone’s Center for Student Success. Asking what would best serve students has shaped the center. “Is there a better way of doing it than four disjointed offices? Each one was doing their

lege since 1994 when he took the position of director of admissions. Over his career, he’s

meet the expectations of the students, who

tent, high-quality interaction between school

Leveraging Resources

own thing, but can we leverage that by putting

While finances often play a role in changes,

questions asked at Malone during the center’s

another factor shaping restructuring at institutions like Malone and Mississippi College

them all together?” Phelps asks, describing the creation. “We all had similar goals, but is there a way to put these groups together to provide

Turcotte himself has seen his responsibilities

is quality control. As Turcotte notes, from a

expand from director of admissions to his cur-

student’s perspective, dealing with a confus-

rent job of managing three directors who over-

ing system of offices can be frustrating and

see enrollment, student affairs, and retention/

can cause students to leave. “Quit running

career services.

people around, either physically or virtually,”

Not all changes at institutions have been as

he recommends.

big as rerouting employees, changing job

A few years ago, such a combination would

improved, ongoing services to students?”

Optimizing for Success

descriptions, or creating new offices specifi-

be unheard of, he says, noting that for many

While “quality” can be an ambiguous word in

years, career services operated under colleges’

higher education, Turcotte says it is something

academic side, under the watch of deans and

colleges should be mindful of. “It’s meeting

At Northwestern College in St. Paul, Minn.,

department chairs.

the expectation of the customer. You’ve got to

the newly formed Center for Calling & Career

cally to work with admissions.

CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


enrollment toolbox

... as school leaders began discussing the possibility of a onestop shop for student needs ranging from advising to tutoring, they realized they could include career services, too.

has formed a collaborative relationship with admissions, even though recruitment isn’t its primary goal. Ken Faffler, senior director of admissions for Northwestern, says prospective students are encouraged to visit the center during campus visits and to check into information for students still selecting a major. Center staff are also present at campus preview events. He says it’s natural that offering this service would tie in with admissions. “I think it has everything to do with the greater emphasis in this economy on outcomes. If a student is going to pay for tuition in a down economy, they really want to be sure that they walk away with marketable degrees and programs that help them find their sweet spot.” One example of the center’s services is that it administers StrengthsFinder materials to the campus. “With the Center for Calling and Career there’s a dual emphasis on, A., knowing yourself, your motivations, your calling and, B., how all those things can help you identify careers that fit your personality, skills, and abilities,” Faffler explains. “It’s an attempt to bring all the resources together for each student in order for them to optimize themselves for their success and for the glory of God.”


CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

enrollment toolbox

While Malone’s new center works closely with current students, moving employees from the former career services department has also benefited the alumni office, which indirectly supports admissions, Vice President Taylor says.

Embracing Changes While there are several reasons why schools are restructuring and seeking new initiatives, changes aren’t always warmly received. Turcotte, who has also consulted with other

Jessica Shumaker, a 2009 graduate of Olivet Nazarene University, attended the CCCU’s BestSemester Washington Journalism Center during her sophomore year. Since graduation, she has reported for The Villages Daily Sun in The Villages, Fla. She resides in Lady Lake, Fla.

Christian colleges during his career, said a

His office, which recently gained a profes-

common hindrance to major change is an

sional who can help alumni in need of ca-

unwillingness to take an objective assess-

reer services, has a clear connection to

ment of one’s institution.

generating future prospective students in the long run. “[Alumni] would have a greater

“If you are not nimble as an institution, you

propensity to give when we asked for a gift,

do not have the ability to adjust with the mar-

since they felt it was something helping them

kets,” he says. “I don’t think you would be

[still],” he explains. “For the same reason,

as successful as you would need to be as a

[when] they were helped and aided [with ca-

Christian college. Most of us are going to have

reer services], they would feel better about

to be nimble and need to adjust according to

encouraging their kids, nieces, nephews,

need.” Ultimately, he says embracing change

and young adults in their churches to come

for the better is important to an institution’s

to Malone.”


CCCU Advance | Fall 2011


The last word

What’s Your Mission? Q&A with Father Michael Scanlan


or 37 years, Father Michael Scanlan has been a dynamic and influential presence at CCCU affiliate institution Franciscan University of Steubenville in Steubenville, Ohio, serving as president then chancellor. He retired from the universi-

ty this summer. During his 26-year tenure as the university’s president, he transformed it from a struggling college on the brink of bankruptcy to a university that is hailed as an international leader in Catholic higher education. He also spearheaded a spiritual revolution at the university.

busy I was, to personally interview every new faculty member and many administrative and support staff positions. This was to insure we were hiring people committed to the mission. Remember, you have to first “stir it up” among your leaders. You and your team have to be excited and on the same page if you want the students and those enquiring about your school to see what is distinct about it.

What pitfalls should college leaders guard against during seasons that are particularly uncertain or precarious for their institutions? During my tenure as president, especially early on, I was aware of the pressure on almost all Catholic colleges and universities to blur the college’s Christian character and become more like a secular school. Almost all the Catholic colleges and universities I knew were abandoning or soft-pedaling their Christian character. They wanted to succeed professionally. Eventually, though, this leads to increasingly permissive, individualistic, hedonistic campus life and a loss of mission. You don’t need to always join the pack. Don’t panic and simply become like everybody else. Instead, find a fresh approach to proclamation of mission. It constantly needs to be renewed, through student life activities, through academic convocations, through special studies in the classroom, through chapel. In each aspect of university life, find a way to breathe new life into the school’s mission every year. What do Christian colleges offer that is unique and important in our current cultural milieu? We are surrounded by a culture of relativism. Anything goes. There are no rules, morals, or boundaries. As a result, we have this broken world with so many unhappy people. Christian colleges offer a way to grow in holiness and in academic preparation that many students want (though they may not fully realize they thirst for it before they step foot on your campus). Increasingly, it’s what parents want for their children.


CCCU Advance | Fall 2011

My first year as president I attended every group function on campus, every dance, sport event, every club, and I immersed myself in the classroom environment. I even ate in the cafeteria with the students. I kept an open door and saw students whenever they dropped by. I observed the students and how sad and lonely they were and how they were looking in all the wrong places for companionship. I’ve often said that the loneliest person on earth is a college freshman away from home for the first time. I observed all this, and then I prayed for hours and hours each day. Then I began to implement programs to combat this loneliness and the destructive patterns it caused. I sought to establish a genuine faith environment on campus that was true to our Franciscan, Catholic tradition. How important was reclaiming or redefining mission/identity to Franciscan University’s turn-around under your leadership? It was absolutely essential. We had to connect the mission of our university with the real life of the students. For us, that meant establishing Faith Households, small faith sharing student groups, and stirring up the faith life on campus in other ways—with praise and worship, with spiritual talks, and by establishing theology as the queen of the sciences and increasing its importance in the Catholic liberal arts curriculum. You also absolutely have to hire good leaders. They’ve got to share in the mission and the excitement of it; they can’t just look good on paper. I made it part of my job, no matter how

How can CCCU colleges maintain their identities even as they offer online learning, satellite campuses, and other competitive tools that disperse students from the traditional, physical campus community setting? It is more difficult, but they need to emphasize some form of distinctiveness and, I would suspect, some form by which students would have a presence on their campus, regardless of how much or little time is spent there. Their time on campus should include, as much as possible, learning and experiencing in some way the values and vision of your school—not just the completion of required courses. In conclusion, from the perspective of years in Christian higher education, what other words of wisdom or challenge would you offer CCCU faculty and administrators? I found it necessary to pray every day. Withdrawing into prayer was crucial for my ministry as president. From my prayer time, I experienced being sent forth as a disciple of the Lord Jesus to my official work as president. A Scripture passage I often thought about when I prayed was Matthew 21:21: “If you have faith and never doubt…even if you say to the mountain, ‘Be taken up and cast into the sea,’ it will be done.” This passage seems to point to one aspect of faith—that faith involves risk. Faith means stepping out and relying on the Lord Jesus Christ. For the complete interview with Father Scanlan, visit

2012 Advertising The mission of the CCCU is to advance the cause of Christ-centered higher education and to help our institutions transform lives by faithfully relating scholarship and service to biblical truth.

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2011 Free Market Forum | Atlanta, GA | Oct. 27, 2011

CCCU Research Roundtable | Azusa Pacific University | Azusa, CA | Nov. 3, 2011

2011 Financial Aid Administrators Conference | Las Vegas, NV | Dec. 1-3, 2011

2012 PR/Communications Officers Conference | Tucson, AZ | Jan. 4-6, 2012

2012 Chief Enrollment Officers Conference | Tucson, AZ | Jan. 4-6, 2012

36th Annual Presidents Conference | Washington, DC | Jan. 31- Feb 3, 2012

2012 Campus Ministry Directors Conference | Pacific Grove, CA | Feb. 16-18, 2012

2012 Chief Institutional Advancement Officers Conference | Tucson, AZ | Feb. 22-24, 2012

2012 Chief Student Development Officers Conference | New Orleans, LA | March 7-9, 2012

2012 Chief Academic Officers Conference | Nashville, TN | March 21-23, 2012

2012 Commission on Technology Conference | North Charleston , SC | May 29-31, 2012

2012 Chief Financial Officers Conference | Hobbs, NM | June 6-8, 2012

2012 New Presidents Institute | Breckenridge, CO | July 7-10, 2012

2012 Governance Institute | Breckenridge, CO | July 12-14, 2012

For a complete listing of all the CCCU Conferences & Events schedule, visit

CCCU Advance - Fall 2011  
CCCU Advance - Fall 2011  

The CCCU Advance is the magazine of the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities. Published in the spring and fall of each year, the CC...