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THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 00


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IN THIS ISSUE OF The Canadian Council on Africa Magazine, Fall 2012, Issue 2

14

32

Aid, trade and Africa

34

Africa by the Numbers

22

Sherritt: a highly responsible foreign investor in Madagascar

EDC gives advice on African markets

40

Industry and civil society find common ground in their desire to increase transparency

The CCAfrica Team Lucien Bradet President, CEO CCAfrica Ottawa Chris Kianza Director of Communications and member relations CCAfrica Ottawa Marje Aksli Magazine Editor CCAfrica Ottawa Jaime Hidalgo News editor CCAfrica Ottawa Karl Hasenhuendl Graphic Designer CCAfrica Ottawa Karl Miville-de Chêne Vice President CCAfrica Montréal Léonie Perron Project Manager CCAfrica Montréal Nola Kianza Vice President CCAfrica Toronto Dalal Zayouna Project Manager CCAfrica Toronto Frank Kense Vice President CCAfrica Calgary VIEW OUR DIGITAL EDITION ONLINE AT WWW.CCAFRICA.CA FOR ADDITIONAL CONTENT

Editorial

2

Future African Specialists come from the

Canadian Ambassadors in Africa

4

Institute of African Studies Carleton University

Investing in Africa

6

CPCS: Infrastructure is essential for growth

28

Ethiopian Airlines lands direct flights in Toronto

8

Past Events and Missions

42

SEMAFO Foundation contributes to the development of West Africa

9

Future Events and Missions

45

Services

48

Agribusiness investments in two of East Africa’s Giants: Ethiopia and Kenya

10

Market Access Initiative for 34 African countries

18

What we need to know about AGOA

20

CONNECT WITH US USING SOCIAL MEDIA

26

Resource Guide for African Expertise in Canada 50 New Members

54

CCAfrica Member List

56

CCAfrica offices and Info

57

Please contact our head of marketing and publications Chris Kianza for more details on how to get your advertisement in our next issue. Copyright 2012 CCAfrica All rights to the pictures and articles within belong to CCAfrica and its members.


Editorial:

The Canadian society has a role in Canada-Africa relations

ments we took vis-à-vis Africa. First, we can congratulate Africa for making progress towards achieving the first two goals; to “promote peace and security” and to “strengthen the institutions and governance”. Today, Africa is increasingly peaceful and prosperous – the number of conflicts has steadily gone down since 2002 and most of the countries have held elections. Security has also improved considerably. From about 10 countries in conflict at the beginning of the decade we are now talking of less than four.

en years ago two important events occurred in Canada. The first one was the G8 Summit in Kananaskis, Alberta where the Action Plan for Africa was developed and approved by the G8 countries and five African leaders representing the African continent. The second event was the foundation of the Canadian Council on Africa, an initiative by the private sector in Canada. Perhaps it would be a good occasion today to remind ourselves of that big event in Kananaskis and the commit-

T

Of course, not everything is perfect and steady progress has to be made to declare a total success. On the other hand, as the 2012 African Development Bank report on Millennium Development Goals has stated: Africa is on track to achieve the targets of universal primary education; gender parity at all levels of education; lower HIV/AIDS prevalence among 15-24 year olds; increased proportion of the population with access to antiretroviral drugs; and increased proportion of seats held by women in national parliament by 2015.

As well, we have seen pro-

gress on the third G8 commitment to “foster trade, investment, economic growth and sustainable development”. Although GNI has grown roughly twofold since 2002, we would like to point out that while the standard of living for some Africans has been rising, the majority has yet to see the benefit of this progress. During the last ten years, Canada has been successful on a number of initiatives – for example the establishment of the Africa Action Plan. In retrospect however, some decisions slowed the progress of our involvement in Africa. We have closed some embassies, the number of aid priority countries has been reduced, and other continents have been declared as priority continents but not Africa. The Canada Investment funds, which the Canadian government financed at the 50 percent level attracted more than 100 million dollars from the private sector, and were invested on good projects. The Canadian private sector invested over 30 billion in the natural resources sector alone, a real feather for Canada’s hat. We increased our trade relations with Africa five-

New

African Ambassadors in Canada Credits: MCpl Dany Veillette and Sgt Ronald Duchesne, Rideau Hall. © 2012 Office of the Secretary to the Governor General of Canada.

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The Governor General David Johnston with His Excellency Girma Birru Geda Ambassador-designate of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

The Governor General David Johnston with His Excellency Ahmed Ould Teguedi, Ambassador-designate of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania


fold, from two to ten billion dollars annually. But since everything is relative, one has to look at the rest of the world and see if we have done better than others or underperformed. Unfortunately, we must say that Canada is closer to the latter. We could have a long list of the achievements of other countries, but

“The 21st century will be African!”

Mr. Matthieu Pigasse, the CEO of Banque Lazard, France let’s just cite a few. China has increased its trade numbers by about 20-fold to close to 160 billion dollars this year. Brazil has doubled its number of embassies to 32. Australia is now the first in the mining sector in Africa while a few years ago Canada was first. We now rank fifth. Brazil, China, India, Turkey, EU, USA – all have a comprehensive Africa strategy, Canada does not (yet). We have a major challenge. Will we let a unique opportunity pass, while there is still time, to make a difference in Africa? According to the different reports and statements made on Africa, the continent is frequently declared as the continent of the 21st century. It has the fastest growing and the youngest population in the world.

The Governor General David Johnston with Her Excellency Sidibé Fadjimata, Ambassador of the Republic of Niger.

The number of people is to double in the next 35 years to two billion. Africa enjoys the fastest growing GDP in the world – seven African countries rank in the top 10 in terms of growth. Africa also has the biggest mineral resource reserves; and the list goes on. The question then is what should be done and by whom? The Canadian Council on Africa is convinced that the whole of Canada must be involved to ensure a meaningful role for our country. The private sector must make greater efforts to understand the economic and business climate in Africa, accept that we are facing competition but that we also have unique knowledge and a very extensive experience to offer and that risk is everywhere, not only in Africa. The government must find ways to increase their support to these efforts. We should be increasing Canadian presence on the continent, developing a comprehensive Africa-strategy to demonstrate our full commitment. Canada should be facilitating the issuance of visas for African visitors who want to increase their relations with Canadian counterparts, and to pursue a proactive approach in supporting NGOs that share these goals. These are challenging but achievable goals if we commit to them. Most importantly, if Canadians believe that the one billion Africans deserve a better life - and the

The Governor General David Johnston with His Excellency Ojo Uma Maduekwe, High Commissioner of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

“Africa's economic growth has become fastest in the world.” Mr. Ban Ki-moon, the United Nations Secretary-General in United Nations General Assembly, September 25 2012. Canadian Council on Africa is convinced that they do - then the Canadian society must play a more significant role than now. I would like thank each one of you for your support, which has allowed us to keep the importance of changing our vision on Africa on the agenda. For the fact that you are reading this magazine, we assume you care about Africa-Canada relationship as we do. Lucien Bradet President and CEO Canadian Council on Africa

The Governor General David Johnston with His Excellency Membathisi Mphumzi Shepherd Mdladlana, High Commissioner of the Republic of South Africa.

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 3


Canadian Ambassadors in Africa Sébastien Beaulieu becomes Ambassador to the Republic of Tunisia.

Sébastien Beaulieu joined the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade in 1998. He served abroad at the Canadian mission to the World Trade Organization in Geneva from 2000 to 2003 and at the Canadian mission to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in Paris from 2006 to 2009. In Canada, he has had assignments in the Legal Bureau, the Trade Policy Branch, the International Security Branch and the Global Issues Branch. Mr. Beaulieu most recently served as director of the Office of the Associate Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs. Mr. Beaulieu succeeds Ariel Delouya.

David Angell becomes High Commissioner to the Republic of Kenya, in Nairobi.

David Angell joined External Affairs and International Trade Canada in 1989 and served abroad in several missions, including in UN as alternate representative on the UN Security Council; and as high commissioner in Nigeria and ambassador to the Economic Community of West African States. In Ottawa, he served as director general of the Africa Bureau (2007 to 2008), the International Organizations Bureau (2008 to 2009) and, since 2009, the integrated International Organizations, Human Rights and Democracy Bureau. He served as the G-8 deputy Africa personal representative from 2001 to 2004 and, from 2007 to 2012, as the G-8 Africa personal representative and, as such, was closely involved in the organization of the 2002 and 2010 G-8 summits in Canada. Mr. Angell succeeds David Collins.

Louis de Lorimier becomes Ambassador to the Republic of Mali. Louis de Lorimier joined the Department of External Affairs in 1982. He served abroad as second secretary and vice-consul in Côte d’Ivoire, counsellor and consul for La Francophonie at the Embassy of Canada to France, counsellor and consul for the political section at the Embassy of Canada to the Republic of Korea and as counsellor for communications and public affairs at the Embassy of Canada to France. At Headquarters, he served as director of the Francophonie Division. From 2005 to 2008, he was Canada’s ambassador to Lebanon. Most recently, since 2008, Mr. de Lorimier served as Canada’s ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg and Canada’s representative to the Council of Europe. Mr. de Lorimier succeeds Virginie Saint-Louis.

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David Usher becomes Ambassador to the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. David Usher is the Ambassador to the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, with concurrent accreditation to the Republic of Djibouti, and Permanent Observer of Canada to the African Union.David Usher joined External Affairs and International Trade Canada in 1991. From 1994 to 1997, he served as second secretary in the Canadian embassy to Turkey. From 2004 to 2005, he was director of the Trade Controls Policy Division and, later, director of the Softwood Lumber Controls Division. From 2008 to 2009, he was senior departmental adviser in the Office of the Minister of International Trade. Most recently, since 2009, he served as minister-counsellor and deputy permanent representative at Canada’s Permanent Mission to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in Paris. Mr. Usher succeeds Michèle Lévesque.

Sandra McCardell becomes Ambassador to the Kingdom of Morocco. Sandra McCardell joined External Affairs and International Trade Canada in 1992. Following an assignment in Egypt, she was posted to the Embassy of Canada to Israel. She was subsequently political counsellor at the Embassy of Canada to Lebanon (2002 to 2003). Most recently, Ms. McCardell was ambassador to Libya (2009 to 2011), representing Canada both before and after the Libyan revolution. In Ottawa, Ms. McCardell has been Deputy Director of the East Adriatic Division, Director of the Executive Assignments Unit and Director of the Partnership Division of the Invest in Canada Bureau.

Kingdom of Morocco

Republic of Tunisia Libya

Egypt

Senegal

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Sudan Nigeria

Republic of Mali Côte d’Ivoire Ghana

Cameroon

DR Congo Tanzania

New ambassadors Canadian embassies

Botswana South Africa

Republic of Kenya

Zimbabwe Mozambique

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 5


AFRICA: INVESTING IN

Sannie Karkra-Kouame

A

ccording to the Export Development Canada (EDC) data, one in three Canadian investors considers increasing investments on foreign markets. However, in addition to the little information available on foreign markets and their commercial environment, the main challenge seems to be the difficult access to financing. Nine percent of the entrepreneurs who were questioned by EDC said that finding public or private financial resources, either on the Canadian market or on foreign markets, to help fund their foreign investment projects is very hard. The issue of difficult access to financing, precisely on African markets, has often been mentioned. African banks are often said to be “reluctant” to grant loans to businesses. This reluctance is due to many factors.

Challenges facing local financial institutions and potential remedies

Very often, information on companies’ credit record and creditworthiness is not entirely available. Businesses often lack sufficient guarantees. The low level of equity and other financial resources impact their debt capacity and increase the risks banks can encounter. Besides, local commercial banks have their own constraints. Their resources are mainly short-term resources, which are not suitable to finance long-term projects. Finally, the legal and judicial environment in many African countries slows down the development of credit to businesses because the judicial system and the laws do not always play their role as invest-

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Access to financing and the key role of regional guarantee funds

ment guarantors. The issue of legal reform in Africa is a common concern for investors. Investors and banks need to feel that their investment is protected by the laws in place in the country. If the laws are silent or the judiciary is corrupted, investors will feel reluctant to invest. Similarly, the banks will not feel comfortable to grant loans. The solutions lie at different levels. In regards to local authorities, in many countries, legal and judicial framework reform is necessary. Regarding businesses which seek loans from local banks, it must be said that they should strengthen the security package they put forward to banks to reassure their financial partners. In terms of guarantees, not only will the recourse to regional guarantee funds favour banks’ trust but also encourage banks to take part in the financing process. By supporting part of the cost of risks resulting from the funded operations, guarantee funds allow credit institutions (banks and other financial institutions) to finance projects that would otherwise be considered too risky to be financed under normal banks’ business activity. The cost of risks is often perceived by the credit institutions as dissuasive. Regional guarantee funds support part of these risks by guarantying a percentage of the project’s cost. It means if the borrower defaults and does not reimburse the bank on a particular date, the bank goes to the guarantee fund and asks for reimbursement provided that the terms and conditions of their guarantee agreement have all been fulfilled. On the one hand, guarantee funds are beneficial to financial institutions because they enable them to fund operations that they would normally reject or would consider only at very restrictive conditions (high interest rate or demanding security package). On the other hand, guarantee funds are also beneficial to businesses because they enable them to access financings

at better conditions. Therefore, the guarantee fund acts as a catalyst tool in a market mechanism.

Guarantee funds available on the African market There are several guarantee funds on the African continent, which investors can take advantage of. The Guarantee Fund for Private Investment in West Africa (GARI) is a regional guarantee fund initiated by a number of international development institutions. GARI was created in 1994 by bilateral and multilateral sponsors and is composed of several commercial banks and financial institutions established in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) area. ECOWAS is composed of the following countries: Burkina Faso, Cap Verde, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo. GARI aims at facilitating West African private businesses’ access to long and medium-term financing by sharing operational risks with financial institutions. It guarantees loans granted by banks and other financial institutions to the private sector, to finance productive investments in the ECOWAS member countries listed above. GARI works with other partners in West Africa such as the African Solidarity Fund (ASF) and the African Guarantee and Economic Cooperation Fund (AGECF). The ASF and AGECF are both regional guarantee funds designed for the ECOWAS region. They also share GARI’s objective which is to guarantee financing granted to businesses by financial institutions.


MALI CAPE VERDE

NIGER GUINEA

GAMBIA GUINEA BISSAU

BURKINA FASO SENEGAL SIERRA LEONE

The requirements to be eligible for GARI’s guarantee facilities are the following: The payment of a non-refundable flat commission, set at two percent of the guaranteed amount for shareholder institutions (i.e. French Development Agency, the European Investment Bank, the German Development Corporation, the West African Development Bank, the Swiss Federal Agency for the external economic affairs), and three percent for non-shareholder institutions, The payment of a guarantee commission set at 1.5 percent, calculated on the successive outstanding amount guaranteed and due every six months,

LIBERIA

BENIN

COTE D’IVOIRE

TOGO

transport, hotel industry, agriculture and production sector related services. Furthermore, at a continental level, a guarantee fund named African Guarantee Fund was created on 1st June 2012. It is an initiative launched by the African Development Bank in cooperation with the Danish and Spanish governments to address key constraints faced by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Africa. The fund provides loan guarantees and capacity-building support to financial institutions lending to SMEs, as well as capacity-development support to SMEs. These services will enable SMEs to strengthen their productivity and competitiveness.

The investment project must be located in one of the ECOWAS member countries,

In order for Canadian investors to be eligible for GARI’s guarantee facilities, their projects or investments must include a local company that will hold the necessary licences and permits to operate the business. The local company called special purpose vehicle company (SPV) will usually be a subsidiary of a Canadian company that will hold a majority of shares. The SPV will then submit to banks a request for financing.

The private sector company benefiting from the facility must operate in one of the following fields: manufacturing industry, agro industry, fishing, mining, tourism, telecommunication, infrastructure,

Canadian investors seem to have understood the importance of including African guarantee funds in their investment operations on the continent. On the

Various counter-guarantees required by GARI depending on the type of project and the assets to guaranty, The loan guaranteed must reach a minimum amount equal to the counter value of 94 500 Canadian dollars,

NIGERIA

GHANA

one hand, such partnerships enable the share and mitigation of market risks. On the other hand, it also enables Canadian investors to benefit from the African guarantee funds’ experience and knowledge of the local commercial environment. As a matter of fact, on March 10th, 2008 Export Development Canada and the African Guarantee and Economic Cooperation Fund AGECF signed a Memorandum of Understanding in order to increase the Canadian participation in projects conducted in the AGECF 13 member states (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Centrafrican Republic, Ivory Coast , Mali, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Mauritania and Guinea Bissau), thanks to financial guarantees that AGECF will grant to EDC, enabling EDC to mitigate the financial risks Canadian investors encounter in Africa. This Memorandum of Understanding set the beginning of a promising partnership. The author, Sannie KAKRAKOUAME, is a UK-trained legal counsel specialising in project finance and international financing. She has experience on international development issues having worked for the West African Development Bank in Togo on infrastructure, energy, mining and agroindustrial projects.

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 7


Ethiopian Airlines

lands direct flights in Toronto From left to right: Mr. Tewolde Gebremariam, CEO of Ethiopia Airlines, H.E. Ms. Michèle Lévesque, Canadian Ambassador to Ethiopia, Nola Kianza, Vice President, CCAfrica Toronto

C

anadian Council on Africa was pleased to welcome the first non-stop flight from Toronto to the continent of Africa by Ethiopian Airlines, on July 17, 2012. “This is good news for business people from Canada doing business or exploring opportunities in Africa,” said Mr. Nola Kianza, CCAfrica’s vice-president. Ethiopian Airlines made a historical connection between Toronto and Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia, by landing at Pearson International Airport in Toronto on Tuesday, July 17, 2012. Among the dignitaries present at the arrival of this nonstop flight were: Hon. Deriba Kuma, Minister of Transportation of Ethiopia; H.E. Ms. Michèle Lévesque, Canadian Ambassador to Ethiopia; Mr. Howard Eng, President and Chief Executive Officer of Greater Toronto Airports Authority; Mr. Tewolde Gebremariam, CEO of Ethiopia Airlines; H.E. Girma Birru Geda, Ambassador of Ethiopia to USA and designated to Canada; and Mr. Nola Kianza from CC Africa. “The introduction of this new service is incredibly important to Toronto and Canada in general. Regularly scheduled non-stop service from Toronto to the African continent marks a major milestone,” said Howard Eng, President and CEO of the Greater Toronto Airports Authority.

“This service will help boost trade

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ties between Canada and Ethiopia, and will serve to connect the thousands of Ethiopians in the Toronto area with one of Africa’s largest markets with a population of more than 80 million people.” The CEO of Ethiopia Airlines, Mr. Tewolde commented that Ethiopian Airlines inaugural and consequent flights to Toronto are overbooked, which is a rare occurrence on new routes. “We were only given landing rights for two weekly flights. Considering the huge traffic that exists between Canada and Africa, two weekly flights cannot adequately serve the travelling public,” added CEO Tewolde. “I hope we will be allowed more weekly landing rights in the coming few months so that we can serve the traveling public with better frequencies and more weekly capacity. Toronto’s addition to Ethiopian network is part of the airline’s route expansion plan set in its 15 year strategic roadmap, Vision 2025, of connecting Africa to the major economic, financial and industrial centers of the world.” Ethiopian Airlines, the fastest growing airline in Africa, made its maiden international flight to Cairo in 1946 and now the Airline provides dependable services to 69 international destinations spanning four continents. Ethiopian Airlines is

proud to be a Star Alliance Member. The Star Alliance network is the leading global airline network offering customers convenient worldwide reach and a smoother travel experience. The Star Alliance network offers more than 21,555 daily flights to 1,356 airports in 193 countries. Ethiopian Airlines is a multiaward winner for its commitment and contributions towards the development and growth of the African aviation industry and in recognition of its distinguished long-haul operations enhanced by the introduction of new routes and products. Recently, Ethiopian won Gold in the 2011/2012 African Airline Awards organized by the African Aviation News Portal. Ethiopian Airlines also received the 2011 African Airlines Association (AFRAA) award for being consistently profitable over the years and has won the “African Cargo Airline of the year 2011 Award” for its excellence in air cargo. Ethiopian Airlines also won the NEPAD Transport Infrastructure Excellence Awards 2009 and “the Airline of the Year 2009 Award” from the AFRAA. With its acquisition of and firm orders for several new modern aircraft and its fast expanding network, the airline is well positioned to become the leading aviation group in Africa, as per its Vision 2025 strategic roadmap.


Foundation contributes

to the development of West Africa T

he SEMAFO Foundation is a charitable organization focused on helping countries in West Africa, specifically the communities in Burkina Faso, Guinea and Niger. Created only in 2009 and working in partnership with SEMAFO, a Canadian-based mining company with gold production and exploration activities in those countries, the Foundation supports local agricultural production and incomegenerating activities, builds schools and health huts, digs wells, and connects villages to electricity. Brought into existence by Benoit La Salle, president of the board, the foundation has set its mission to support communities and offer an improved quality of life, notably in the regions where SEMAFO or one of its subsidiaries is present. When the activities started with one person in 2009, by 2011 already 98,300 people were impacted one way or another by the foundation. The SEMAFO Foundation intends to align its actions with the eight Millennium Development Goals established by the United Nations in 2000, aimed at improving the living conditions of the poorest people, by 2015. In particular, objectives 2, 7 and 8 are prioritized: to achieve universal primary education, ensure environmental sustainability and develop a global partnership for development.

and distributed. Three libraries were established and classrooms renovated. Valerie Parisé who is responsible for the administration tells CCAfrica of one of the successful education initiatives: “The implementation of school lunch programs in Burkina Faso village Wona is progressing well. It seems to be a necessity in the region. In fact, one school registered its highest enrolment of students since its creation in 1962. As of March 31, 2011, the program had served over 25 thousand meals. We noticed that children as old as ten, who had never been to school, were coming to see the program monitor in the hopes of gaining access to one of the two schools.” Foundation installed four multifunctional platforms where the local people can mill their grain and rice, grind shea, and do welding jobs in Burkina Faso. Foundation constructed four water wells, donated two grinding mills and a motor pump. In partnership with the Nigerian electrical company NIGELEC, the Foundation has begun working towards the electrification of the Bossey Bangou village in Niger. Electrification will expand educational opportunities, strengthen the available health care and permit the use of electrical equipment, while offering the opportunity to develop income generating activities.

What defines the foundations work? As Chantal Guérin, the director general of the Foundation mentions: The 2010-2011 year can be defined by one word, “launch”: the launch of the sesame, shea and paprika projects; the launch of our Ouagadougou office; the launch of financing activities; the launch of the foundation’s visibility.”

The SEMAFO Foundation maintains a pool of volunteers who participate in the realization of projects. For the 20102011 year, 80 dedicated volunteers worked over 4000 hours in both Montreal and Africa. Volunteer activities provide support for collecting, sorting and distributing donations as well as implementing projects that will ultimately benefit the target populations.

Among revenue generating projects, the foundation implemented three projects for the production of sesame and paprika as well as a center for the production and transformation of shea products. Among educational projects, eight schools were constructed, solar panels were installed on schools and master’s level education was supported. In addition, textbooks and school kits were purchased

For Mr. La Salle, everything starts with a deep respect for human beings and the environment and a conscious understanding that it is because of people that it is possible for the company to do the work. He says: “We are guests in the countries where SEMAFO operates and is therefore insistent that over 95 percent of the workers at our mines are local workers.”

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 9


Agribusiness Investments in two of East Africa’s Giants: Ethiopia and Kenya By David Shiferaw

E

thiopia and Kenya remain active competitors in the global competition for agribusiness investments. Both countries boast fertile highlands and best possible agro-climatic conditions for the production of a diverse range of crop. However, their contrasting historical contexts and policy approaches have provided them divergent trajectories with respect to commercial agriculture and agribusiness investment. Ethiopia has had a volatile political history, which undermined early efforts to modernize agriculture and stimulate agribusiness investments. Kenya on the other hand has had a much more stable political environment that has been supportive of commercial agriculture and agribusiness investment. The article, which will focus on the past seven years, will examine the respective performance of Ethiopia and Kenyas agribusiness sectors. This is a period which has seen Ethiopia aggressively pursue transformative agriculture and investment policies that have the objective of modernizing Ethiopias agricultural sector. Ethiopia and Kenya are East Africa’s economic giants. In current US dollars, the two countries’ economies are approaching GDP par, with Ethiopia’s GDP

of $31.7 billion being slightly less than that Ethiopia’s industry value added as a share of Kenya’s $33.6 billion. Underlying this of GDP of 13%, see figure 1. These strucconvergence has been Ethiopia’s recent stel- tural differences reflect the comparative lar economic growth, which has averaged underdevelopment of Ethiopia’s financial 10.6% over the period 2004 to 2011 com- and industrial base in comparison to that of pared to Kenya’s 4.8%, see table 1. Kenya’s. Table 1. Basic Country Statistics, Ethiopia and Kenya Agribusiness Sector Ethiopia Kenya Performance Population 84.7 million 41.6 million GDP - Current US$ 31.7 billion 33.6 billion GDP per capita - Current US$ 374 808 Real GDP Growth 7.3% 4.5% Ave. Real GDP Growth (2004-11) 10.6% 4.8% Total land size (sq. km) 1 million 569 thousand Agricultural land as % of total (2009) 35.0 48.1 Arable land as % of total (2009) 13.9 9.5

A thorough examination of Ethiopia and Kenya’s agribusiness sector performance over the past seven years in terms of investments and value added Sources: World Bank’s WDI database and HNP statistics production is constrained by data limi30 July 2012. Note: All data for 2011, except where indicated. tations. However, the following information gathered suggests Structurally, the two economies that Ethiopia has managed to attract greater are different. Kenya’s economy is much investments and enjoy greater agribusiness more advanced than that of Ethiopia’s, with sector growth rates than Kenya. Kenya enjoying liberal financial and telecommunications sectors. Moreover, Ken- Ethiopia has received a signifiya’s agricultural value added as a share of cant amount of foreign investments, while total GDP is 23% - only marginally greater Kenya has not. Between 2004 and 2010, for than that of its industry value added, which example, Ethiopia received $2.2 billion of is 19%. However, Ethiopia`s agricultural foreign direct investment, which was 76% value added as a share of total GDP is 42%, greater than the $1.2 billion that Kenya rewhich is more than three times that of ceived.

Kenya

Ethiopia Services 45%

Agriculture 42%

Agriculture 23% Services 58%

Industry Non-Man. 8%

Industry Man. 5%

Figure 1. Ethiopia and Kenya - GDP Composition by Sector Value Added, 2011. Source: WDI Database

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Industry Man. 11% Industry Non-Man 8%


A large portion of foreign investments that Ethiopia received was in the agribusiness sector, particularly, commercial agriculture, textile, and agro-processing. In Kenya, on the other hand, the bulk of foreign direct investments were in the service sector, i.e., telecommunications and tourism, with a very limited share going into the agribusiness sector.

indicate that Ethiopia’s real annual average growth rate in manufacturing value-added of 9.6% was more than twice that of Kenya’s 4.5%. See figure 3 below. The rationale for the contrasts in investment and productivity performances between Ethiopia and Kenya’s agribusiness sectors over the past seven years are primarily related to the Ethiopian government’s prioritization of agriculture development and direct support to investors in targeted strategic sectors, many of which are agriculture-related.

Indian investors

Qatari investors

• Over $4 billion in approved agribusiness investments.

• $200 million approved agribusiness investment.

Saudi Arabian investors

U.S. investors

Agriculture in Ethiopia’s policy documents is central to development. This centrality of agriculture in Ethiopia arises from a political conviction that agricultural development promotes broad-based growth. Ethiopia’s development policy is described as Agricultural Demand-Led Industrialization (ADLI). Meanwhile, Kenya’s development policy prioritizes agriculture, but only as one of six sectors.

Dutch investors • $163 million invested in breweries by Heinekein.

Source: Online news sources.

Ethiopia Average

Kenya

16.5%

16%

17.5%

14.6%

13.6%

11.7%

10% 6.6%

8% 6%

5.4% 4.4%

4.8%

8%

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Figure 3. Annual Average Real Growth Rates, 2004 to 2011 Source: WDI database

9.9%

9.6%

7.3% 5.1%

4.8%

4%

4.5%

5.0%

2.1%

2% 0%

0%

9.6%

10%

6% 5.9%

5.1%

12.3%

12% 14.8%

14%

2%

Kenya

14%

18%

4%

Ethiopia

Kenya Average

20%

12%

Although, these criticisms are well-founded, there is a recognition that any economic transformation cannot occur without some population displacement or environmental concern. Balancing the need for transformative reforms with social and environmental safeguards is of paramount importance. Therefore, the Ethiopian government must do significantly more to ensure transparency in the process by publishing the contractual terms and outlining the social and environmental assessments undertaken. Kenya’s colonial history with large-scale, commercial farming started

This laudable commitment to agriculture by the Ethiopian government is also demonstrated by substantive institutional reforms, which include the introduction of an Ethiopian Commodity Exchange,

In terms of value added production, Ethiopia’s annual average real growth rate in agriculture value added over the period 2004 to 2011 was four times that of Kenya’s. Meanwhile, UNIDO statistics Ethiopia

These efforts have garnered criticism by international environmental groups and human rights organizations for their dislocative nature, as well as their lack of transparency. “The Oakland Land Institute for example criticizes the dislocations that have resulted from dam-related, irrigation agriculture, as well as the lack of transparency in the large-scale land deals”

Not surprisingly, therefore, the share of total government expenditures going to agriculture in Ethiopia has been significantly greater than that in Kenya. Over the period 2004 to 2008, for example, government expenditures to agriculture as a share of total government expenditures averaged 14.8% in Ethiopia compared to 5.4% in Kenya, see figure 4 below

• Tens of millions in agribusiness investment.

• Billions approved in agribusiness investments.

The Ethiopian government has an ambitious transformative agenda that aims to dramatically increase physical infrastructure investments as well as to modernize Ethiopia’s farming space. In line with these objectives, Ethiopia has been investing significantly in physical infrastructure such as roads and hydropower, including constructing two of Africa’s largest hydroelectric dams simulataneously, and also leasing out significant tracts of land in areas outside of the highly populated highlands.

1. Government’s prioritization of agriculture development

Figure 2. Foreign Investments in Ethiopia and Kenya’s Agribusiness Sectors

Kenya

2. Government’s ambitious transformative agenda

Explaining the contrasts

The bulk of foreign investment in Ethiopia’s agribusiness sector comes from investors from India, Saudi Arabia, the Netherlands, China and Turkey. In Kenya, foreign investments in the agribusiness sector have been marginal with some investments from U.S. and Qatari sources. Figure 2 provides the profile of agribusiness investments in the two countries.

Ethiopia

as well as an Agricultural Transformation Agency, which both attempt to modernize Ethiopia’s agricultural space.

Real GDP

Agriculture, Value Industry, Value Added Added

Manufacturing, Value Added

Services, Value Added

Figure 4. Government Expenditures on Agriculture as a Share of Total Government Expenditures, 2004-08

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 11


much earlier with the large-scale settlements by Europeans on Kenya’s fertile highlands – “white highlands”. Reversing this process through Kenya’s post-colonial settlement schemes, which encouraged the transfer of land from “white” settlers to “African” farmers had been a major land priority once Kenya acquired independence. Moreover, the Land Control Act of Kenya, which stipulates that private limited liability companies incorporated in Kenya

Investors in these targeted sectors are offered very attractive investment incentives that include low land lease-rates, concessional loans, tax incentives, and low cargo-handling rates. In addition, the prioritized sectors are supported by technical and training institutes that promote sector best practices and build human resource capacities.

Kenya, on the other hand, does

“The political prioritization of agriculture in development is critical as it promotes broad-based, more equitable economic growth.” cannot own agricultural land unless all of its shareholders are Kenyan citizens further highlights the sensitive nature of foreignland ownership in Kenya. 3. Government’s attractive investment incentives for agribusiness investors The Ethiopian government provides direct support to investors in targeted strategic sectors that are believed to be potentially competitive. Many of these targeted strategic sectors are agribusiness-related and include agro-processing, floriculture, leather and leather products, and textile and garment. Moreover, in 2010, Ethiopia prioritized import-substitution industries that have high domestic demand such as the sugar and palm-oil industries.

12 /// WWW.CCAFRICA.CA

not provide direct support to targeted sectors. Instead, Kenya’s investment promotion activities rely more on non-sector specific incentives including tax holidays for companies in Kenya’s export processing zones as well as marketing Kenya’s regional comparative advantages, which include a fully liberalized economy, skilled Englishspeaking workforce, and well-developed business and financial infrastructures. This lack of targeted investment incentives for the agribusiness sector in Kenya has meant that Kenya has seen some agribusiness investors relocate in whole or part to neighboring countries. In addition, it has meant that Kenya’s agribusiness sector has been overshadowed by investments in other sectors, most notable the financial sector, tour-

ism and telecommunications sector. What can we conclude? Given the similar agro-climatic conditions in Ethiopia and Kenya, Ethiopia’s comparative recent success in the agribusiness sector over that of Kenya is centered on government policies – particularly policies that prioritize the agricultural sector and policies that support agribusiness investors. These policies are reflected in the comparatively higher share of Ethiopian government expenditures going to the agricultural sector, bold institutional reforms in the agricultural space, as well as Ethiopia’s investment regimen that actively targets and supports agribusiness investors. This political prioritization of agriculture in development is critical as it promotes broad-based, more equitable economic growth. In addition, this prioritization of agriculture contributes to social stability at a time of economic transformation. As East African governments begin to deal with recent discoveries of oil and gas, these lessons will become even more important. Author David Shiferaw is CEO of Lucid Africa Consulting Inc., an Africafocused advisory services’ firm that provides customized, indepth analysis on policy, economy, industry and value chains.


THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 00


AID, TRADE AND AFRICA

Interview by Marje Aksli

novative ways do you have in mind? We need to change our view of the relationship with Africa. We historically have had a vision of Canada as a rich country giving aid to poor ones in Africa. This paradigm is changing fast: we need to develop for ourselves a new image for Africa as Africa has come a long way. One innovative way would be for example, for Canada to review how to spend some of our aid money. Currently, Canada has approximately five billion dollars in its budget dedicated for aid, and its use is governed by what OECD has determined to be Official Development Assistance (or ODA).

M

r. Paul Hitschfeld, Chair of the Africa Study Group and of Trade Facilitation Office Canada in Ottawa, and a former director in CIDA spoke to CCAfrica about aid and trade in development. CCAfrica: You are currently the Chair of the Africa Study Group – an organization which provides a forum for an open exchange on African issues and to study trends and events in Africa. You mandate also states that you would be making recommendations for policy makers about the new and innovative ways of enhancing relations between Canada and African countries. What in-

14 /// WWW.CCAFRICA.CA

But since the situation in Africa is changing fast, a portion of that money could be used to strengthen trade links, which is what would help Africans today even more. But currently many trade promotion activities are not considered as aid and therefore if we decided to use part of our aid money for trade promotion, the statistics would show on paper a decrease in Canadian share of aid in our Gross National Income. Canada’s “generosity” would appear to be decreasing. Canada could propose to the OECD to change the rule-set for aid delivery to allow more trade promotion. Alternatively, Canada could make that

change unilaterally regardless of OECD rules. Africa has come a long way, and in some countries growth is increasing fast. The old concepts of aid need to change and Canada should adjust to this reality. Your background in both a development agency and now with TFO Canada puts you in a unique position to provide a common ground between traditional aid and a more trade- oriented approach to Africa development. So, in your opinion, what is African future development all about? After establishing independence, it took one or two generations of African leaders to realize that economic growth cannot be willed or decreed, but must follow a certain logic, based on innovation, investment, proper resource exploitation, and added value, which rests on the skills and work of citizens, which results from education and training, and a buy-in by citizens, so that they will pay their taxes, which comes from governance reforms. The development process is a long path on a continuum, with some societies, which enjoy peace, good government and ample resources are moving along more quickly. Others, with poor governance, few


or misused resources and little investment, are barely progressing. There is no end to development – all societies are in a development process, including our own. Considering the post-Millennium Development Goals (MDG) period is approaching soon, there is a discussion on what (if anything) should replace the millennium development goals. What are your views on that? The MDGs were useful when announced as they brought focus to donors and recipients. But, 12 years later the environment has changed and a top-down master plan or framework is less applicable since investment capital and the Chinese presence in Africa means that economic and social priorities are less easily defined by traditional donors now than in 2000. What role do the aid workers play in a country’s development process? They are still very important, but we note that there is a rising class of very competent Africans in all sectors who can decide on how to improve their sphere of activity, be it in business, arts, academia, or politics. This is what donors wanted any-

way (or should want), not to be there forever. 60-70 years ago Canada sent missionaries and religious organizations to work in Africa. 40 years ago it was the time for aid organizations, but now we need other types

tions technology, increased cooperation between African countries in trade groups, more robust local diplomatic initiatives, and better governance. Canada is competing for Africa’s attention with China, India

“We need an updated Africa strategy at the highest political level, to put the image of Africa as a continent of despair, hunger and extreme poverty behind us.” of major players to take up the challenge of making Canada visible and relevant in Africa. What is the role for trade, business and globalization in development of Africa? Do they conflict with aid? Competition for resources and for market share is what is driving the agenda now. This is positive trend, and it is a better framework than the old donor / recipient arrangement, which was not always costeffective, as politics and tied aid distorted costs and priorities. African leaders are increasingly making their political decisions in the global arena, based on the fast-evolving trade relations, new investments in infrastructure, significant increases in communica-

and other emerging economies like Brazil, in addition to traditional big players from Europe and the US. Their presence in Africa is growing, while ours is not, so we are losing “market share”. UK’s Overseas Development Institute published a report Horizon 2025 titled “Creative destruction in the aid industry”. Do you think the fact that more and more poor countries reach middle income status will have an effect on development agencies? I think indeed that new programming would allow donors to address poor country problems in a different way, not only through traditional aid projects. Right now, as I said earlier, the OECD Development Assistance Committee decides what is aid and what is not. It lays out an excel-

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 15


lent framework for benchmarking how to help people in difficulty, but is less useful for helping the increasing middle class, for example in job creation. The US for example has a very useful channel, the AGOA program (African Growth and Opportunity Act), which has significantly increased African exports to the US. This is a program, which provides jobs for 200,000 families. Canada’s preferred import program for low income countries is lower profile and not as well known. In Canada, CIDA has been criticized in media for its turn away from aidcentered approach to Africa which seems now to be replaced with the miningcentered theme. But again, in Obama’s Africa Strategy, the word ‘aid’ was also mentioned only once. Where would a desirable golden middle ground be? The switch is not as significant as you mention in the question. It is only symptomatic of the need for a change in approach and should be followed by other changes. The mining sector was the first to come up in the new paradigm as it is already active and there are good players available to operate in Africa. Other sectors, such as manufacturing, or services, are just as important but will take longer to mobilize as many more people are required, and these are more complex sectors than working with minerals in the ground.

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Eventually, the rising middle class in Africa, economically and politically empowered, will want not only jobs, but also goods and services and this offers opportunities where Canadian companies should be looking for new markets. Our “brand” is different to China’s, and we should be capitalizing on this. By 2050, there will be close to two billion people in Africa, of which hundreds of millions of them with middle class consumption patterns. Aid should still be about basic human needs and governance issues. Aid is still very good in making long term investments into societies, such as support to basic education and women’s rights. But it takes years to get returns on those investments. But aid is less effective in terms of investment and job creation and this is what Africa needs now. Would Canada benefit from a more robust government-initiated Africa strategy? What should it entail and would change for better as a result of it? Canada has a good reputation in Africa built up over 50 years of engagement through aid and the Commonwealth and the Francophonie. These investments, and Africa’s remembrance of them, will fade, though, if they are not updated, as new generations of African leaders will look for investment more than aid, and for economic exchanges, trade, easier people movement, and other forms of equal-to-equal exchang-

es. We are slow to recognize that “the client” wants new products from us. We have to see Africa no longer as a recipient (with Canada as a donor calling the shots) but instead as markets insufficiently penetrated by Canadians. We are ignoring the new Africa and seem to prefer maintaining the current aid paradigm. At this time this is only a mild annoyance to Africans. In a few years it will make us irrelevant. Aid is no longer the powerful lever it was, and thus we have decreasing leverage overall in Africa. Investments and stronger trade relations are what we need to become relevant there again. But most of all, we need an updated Africa strategy at the highest political level, to help ordinary Canadians, our business and civil society leaders, to put the image of Africa as a continent of despair, hunger and extreme poverty behind us. This negative vision, deeply ingrained as part of our popular culture, and maintained by some NGOs and humanitarian organizations, prevents us from seeing the opportunities for innovation, growth and trade in Africa. We need new vision for Africa, across the political and economic spectrum in Canada. Canadians should understand that in some cases, and sooner than we think, we will need Africa more than they will need us.


We take the lead, and We deliver

We’re all about finding ingenious solutions to modern-day problems. With some of the most iconic aircraft on the planet and a groundbreaking train portfolio, we have always evolved and will continue to evolve transportation at its core.

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 00


Canada’s Market Access Initiative

for 34 African Countries

“Without economic growth, poverty does not decrease.” Canada Border Services Agency website www.cbsa.gc.ca

S

ince Canada was praised in the recent OECD peer review for its ‘good practice’ to allow duty-free and quotafree access of 48 least developed countries (LDCs) to its markets, CCAfrica wanted to shed more light to this initiative. Since 34 countries of LDC group situate in Africa, CCAfrica applauds this opportunity, as its goal “to encourage foreign development through duty-free and quota-free access for exports to the Canadian market from these countries thereby promoting economic growth” resonates with what CCAfrica stands for. Basically all products from those countries (marked with green on the map) are welcome with the exception of dairy, poultry and eggs. So what criteria should the Afri-

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can countries meet? There are three basic requirements. First of all, in order to qualify for the benefits of the LDC Tariff Treatment, the goods must be either wholly produced in LDC or been cumulatively manufactured with value-added inputs from other LDCs or Canada. Secondly, there are rules for nontextile and apparel goods as these must be certified as entitled under the LDC Tariff Treatment. Thirdly, the goods must be shipped directly from the LDC in which the goods were certified to a consignee in Canada. Please see Canadian Border Services Agency for more information, ex-

amples and forms by clicking here: http:// www.cbsa-asfc.gc.ca/publications/pub/ rc4322-eng.html As OECD said in the 2012 Peer Review on Canada: in 2003, Canada substantially liberalized this program and promised to eliminate tariffs and quotas on all LDC exports to Canada (except for over-quota supply-managed agricultural products mentioned above). A more recent change was the inclusion of textile and clothing products under the initiative, substantially increasing export opportunities for LDCs to Canada. At the same time, Canada introduced new, liberal rules of origin which have also increased trade opportunities for LDCs. To increase predictability, Canada renews its program only every


10 years; the current program will last until 2014. In the 2012 Budget the government indicated it would be undertaking a formal review of its General Preferential Tariff (GPT) which would suggest some changes are forthcoming which may affect the way in which Canada trades with developing countries, however nothing specific was mentioned regarding the LDC Tariff. But as CCAfrica knows, while the program has been very successful in couple of non-African countries, particularly in Bangladesh and Cambodia, there has been very limited success for African LDCs. Currently, 31 African LDCs exported to Canada in 2011. Many of these countries are only exporting resources to Canada or other products, which would have had duty-free treatment even without the Market Access Initiative. Now, only 15 African countries have formally registered with Canada to take advantage of the textile / clothing aspects of the Market Access Initiative, however only a handful have ever exported such products to Canada in any significant manner. According to Statistics Canada, the total import from African LDCs in 2011

was around $3.425 billion. However the actual value of duty free imports from LDCs is not available. Moreover what is really of interest is the value of imports that would have otherwise had a GPT tariff applied but were duty free as a result of the Market Ac-

Cambodia and Bangladesh which export lots of clothing to Canada. Their export would otherwise be taxed at 18% rate. Therefore, this program is very beneficial to them.

As Brian Mitchell, Executive Director in Trade Facilitation Office Canada told Rising Africa:

“Most manufacturers in African LDCs are not aware of the initiative, and although supply and transportation constraints limit the ability of most African manufacturers from selling to Canada, there are some who could. For instance last year Trade Facilitation Office Canada assisted clothing manufacturers from Lesotho to meet buyers in Canada and some are now doing business here.” cess Initiative (MAI). Most imports from LDCs, particularly resource commodities, would be duty free regardless of the MAI.

CCAfrica can conclude that Canada should promote the initiative more.

African LDCs could copy some other countries in this program such as Canada’s program MAI

The U.S. program African Growth and Opportunity Act AGOA

Which one is more generous Encompasses all products, with some exceptions Much simpler and more generous rules More effective and successful Accompanied by significant investment in trade development technical assistance Included creating “trade-hubs” in sub-Saharan Africa Includes Middle Income Countries, too

Total import from African countries in 2011 THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 19


What

do we need to know about

AGOA?

By David Shiferaw

T

Box 1. Eligible Member AGOA Countries Angola Benin** Botswana** Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon** Cape Verde** Chad** Camoros Congo, Republic Cote D’Ivoire

Djibouti Ethiopia** Gabon Gambia** Ghana** Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya** Lesotho** Liberia**

Malawi** Mali** Mauritania Maurutius** Mozambique** Nambia** Niger** Nigeria** Rwanda** Sao Tome & Principe

Senegal** Seychelles** Sierra Leone** South Africa** South Sudan Swaziland** Tanzania** Togo Uganda** Zambia**

**- Beneficiary country eligible for the lesser-developed country special rule for apparel (third country provision)

he African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) is a U.S. trade, investment and development effort that was enacted in May 2000 and offers eligible sub-Saharan African countries the most liberal access to the U.S. market for any country except those for which the U.S. has a free trade agreement. Initially set to expire in 2008, AGOA was extended through to 2015 in 2006, and currently efforts are underway to extend AGOA through to 2025. As a result of AGOA, duty-free coverage to the U.S. for eligible sub-Saharan African countries was increased by an additional 1,835 Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS) product lines from the 4,650 product lines that were already under the General Service Program (GSP). These additional product lines include the following import-sensitive articles: textiles and apparel subject to guidelines; footwear, handbags, luggage and flat goods, work gloves and leather wearing apparel; semi-manufactured and manufactured glass products; electronic products; and watches. In addition, AGOA mandated an annual, bilateral forum where high-level government officials from both sides discuss ways in which U.S.Africa trade and economic relations can be further strengthened. This highlevel, bi-lateral ministerial forum is complemented by a civil society session and a U.S.-Africa business conference. PERFORMANCE AND IMPACT After 11 years of AGOA’s implementation, there is evidence that AGOA has resulted in a substantial increase in exports from sub-Saharan Africa to the U.S., with an increasing share of sub-Saharan African exports utilizing the AGOA preference treatment.

Legend

AGOA Eligible Countries

U.S. Imports for Consumption, Worldwide and SubSaharan Africa, US$ Billions AGOA

GSP

Other

90 75 60

19

45

10 7

7

18 4-

33

39

2000

2005

2010

30 15 -

Source: USITC dataweb

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20 2 52

2011

In spite of these positive statistics, AGOA’s benefits have fallen way below expectations as only South Africa, Mauritius, Lesotho and Kenya have managed to use AGOA to substantively expand and diversify their exports to the U.S. Moreover, the product line coverage under AGOA has been limited. In 2011, for example, the top five exporters under AGOA registered 96% of all duty-free under AGOA exports to the U.S. Moreover, the bulk of duty-free under AGOA exports have been petroleum products. An analysis conducted for the African Trade Policy Centre by the author identified the following gaps in AGOA’s performance versus its expectations: • General weak response to AGOA at the country level as a result of supply-side constraints; • Weak response to AGOA in agriculture and agro-processing, as well as light manufactures; and • Difficulty faced by exporting firms in building the productive capacity needed to move beyond dependency on tariff-preference coverage.


The following key factors were identified as inhibiting AGOA’s success: • Uncertainty and a lack of predictability with the AGOA trade preference program, which has had to be amended on a number of occasions and has necessitated periodic extensions; • Supply-side constraints at the national level; and • Lack of a robust country response strategy that includes all relevant stakeholders.

AGOA’s

U.S. Imports for Consumption, Worldwide and SubSaharan Africa, US$ Billions Worldwide

SSA

2,500

2,187

2,000

1,899

1,662

1,500

1,205

1,000 500

2000

FUTURE

As AGOA is scheduled to expire in September 2015, political efforts in the U.S. have been focused on charting U.S.-Africa trade, investment and development relations in the post-AGOA period. Some in the U.S. have argued for an end to AGOA’s non-reciprocal trade preference arrangement, particularly as the U.S. aims to narrow its widening global trade deficit. Others, on the other hand, have proposed a graduation clause, which would put pressure on more developed sub-Saharan African economies to engage with the U.S. in free-trade arrangements. These propositions, however, have been vigorously countered by African policy-makers who argue that: 1) U.S.-Africa trade represents less than 2% of total U.S. trade, and, therefore efforts to tame the U.S. trade deficit by focusing on U.S.-Africa trade is misplaced and; 2) Forcing well-performing countries in the AGOA-program to be forced out through a graduation clause would punish success. While AGOA’s future is still uncertain, veteran participants in the AGOA process have indicated that such U.S. push-back on AGOA arises whenever AGOA comes up for renewal – but in the end AGOA does get renewed.

Canadian companies, therefore, are well-advised to take a closer look at investment opportunities in sub-Saharan Africa’s burgeoning export sector. Author David Shiferaw is CEO of Lucid Africa Consulting Inc., an Africa-focused advisory services’ firm that provides customized, indepth analysis on policy, economy, industry and value chains.

2005

2010

2011

Source: USITC dataweb U.S. Direct Investment Position in Sub-Saharan Africa, US$ Billions (Historical Cost) 40 35

Nigeria

South Africa

Mauritius

Angola

Other

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2000

2005

2010

2011

Source: Data from U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA).

Top 5 Sectors - U.S. Duty-Free under AGOA, 2011 Apparelknitted 1%

Apparel- not knitted Iron and steel 1% 0% Other 1%

Vehicles and parts 4%

This optimism is reinforced by the Obama administrations consistent vocal support of AGOA. In the 2011 AGOA Forum in Zambia, for example, the Obama administration indicated its support for AGOA’s extension through to 2025 and the extension of the third country-fabric provisions through to 2022. In addition, the administration committed up to $120 million for the African Competitiveness and Trade Expansion Initiative (ACTI), which funds regional trade hubs in Ghana, Botswana and Kenya. The historically strong bipartisan support for AGOA, as well as the recent push by emerging economies like India, China, Brazil and Turkey to institute their own trade preference program for sub-Saharan Africa have left me convinced that AGOA will be extended, without any significant modifications in 2015.

74

64

50

22

-

Petroleum products 93%

Source: USITC

Top 5 Countries - U.S. Duty-Free under AGOA, 2011 South Africa 5% Chad 6%

Congo - RC 3%

Other Countries 4%

Angola 22%

Nigeria 60%

Source: USITC

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 21


a highly responsible foreign investor in Madagascar

Article by Marje Aksli

C

oins, cell phones, cars and aircraft components and thousands of other everyday items contain nickel and cobalt. The Rising Africa talked to Torontobased Sherritt International Corporation, the largest Canadian-owned nickel and cobalt producer, to find out about its operation in Madagascar that mines, processes and refines finished nickel and cobalt. Our conversation might not have taught us much about mining itself, but we did learn a great deal about how a Canadian company should approach sustainable development in Africa. Sherritt is the operator of Ambatovy, a large-tonnage nickel and cobalt mining operation in Madagascar, in partnership with SNC-Lavalin Inc. as well as other investors from Japan and Korea. At a construction cost of about half of the gross domestic product of Madagascar, the $5.5 billion operation employs more than 6,000 long-term workers and is the largest-ever foreign investment in the country, and among the biggest in sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian Ocean region. As the map on the following page shows, Ambaovy’s footprint covers multiple locations in central and eastern Madagascar. Ambatovy, like all large-scale mining operations, impacts the surrounding land

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and its people; these impacts are minimized and mitigated through industry-leading practices in environmental management and community relations. Designed to operate for at least 29 years, Ambatovy is committed to contributing significantly to sustainable development in Madagascar. As part of this commitment, Ambatovy made the decision early on to build its nickel and cobalt refinery in country, which is fairly rare in sub-Saharan Africa. By doing so, there is substantive value add-

of variables). While constructing its facilities and supporting infrastructure, Ambatovy fostered strong relationships with local stakeholders – including government, civil society, media, communities, employees and contractors – to gain their trust, input and acceptance. In pre-construction, Ambatovy resettled impacted communities to nearby parcels of land. The resettlement process

“In consultation with our archeology team, for example, it was discovered that a cellular tower at the Mine site was planned on a sacred hill. We removed the tower and facilitated a traditional ceremony to bless the site.” ed to the local economy, including knowledge transfer, more than a thousand additional jobs, and a wide range of commercial spinoffs. Once Ambatovy is producing at capacity, nickel is poised to become Madagascar’s leading export, which will generate significant foreign exchange for the country. Over its lifecycle, Sherritt’s Ambatovy operation will contribute hundreds of millions of dollars to the government of Madagascar in taxes, royalties, duties, and other payments (exact figures depend on a range

was fair, transparent and participatory, respecting local cultures and traditions in accordance to Malagasy law and the International Finance Corporation’s Performance Standard 5, widely considered the industry-leading standard for resettlement guidelines. Ambatovy built 296 new houses, a health center, schools, water facilities and sanitation projects for the resettled communities. Each family was able to select their preferred house design and received a parcel of land for agriculture and livestock


grazing. Social development and livelihood programs are well underway to ensure autonomy for the resettled communities and, ultimately, improve their quality of life. To help carry out its commitment to lasting prosperity and sustainable development, Sherritt’s Ambatovy operation has a large corporate social responsibility (CSR) team on the ground; there are 120 employees working with local communities to support social and economic development through a range of health, education and livelihood programs. The CSR team also works closely with its counterparts in the environment department on environmental awareness and protection initiatives

that require community involvement. Ambatovy is making every reasonable effort to have a net-benefit impact on local communities. Ambatovy’s External Relations Director, Tom Outlaw, told Rising Africa: “Respecting human rights and local beliefs, culture and heritage is very important to us, at every level of our business. We made, for instance, significant engineering decisions to avoid building on archaeological sites and areas containing sensitive biodiversity, which required us to reroute our 220 km pipeline by several kilometers.” Ambatovy’s in-house archeological team has collected 4,851 objects, such as

pottery, ceramics, tumblers, stones, metals, bones, plastics and botanies. According to Africa Review, these discoveries will make a significant contribution to promoting Malagasy culture and scientific knowledge. In the words of Malagasy people themselves, Sherritt takes CSR and good governance seriously. “Ambatovy has indeed shown a strong commitment towards transparency by publicly supporting and complying with the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), which requires mining and oil and gas companies investing in Madagascar, the Malagasy government and other government-linked entities to disclose

A 220-km Pipeline has been built to transport the slurry mix from the Mine to the Plant Site near the Port city of Toamasina for processing. Most of the energy needed to move the ore through the Pipeline comes from the 1,000 m difference in elevation between the Mine and the Plant. Pipeline is buried for nearly its entire lenght in 1.5 m deep.

Ambatovy is working to secure the conservation of 6,800 ha of endangered forest 71 km northeast of the Mine Site. This initative is key to ensure no net loss of biodiversity, but rather a net gain.

The Ambatovy has made substantial investment in upgrading facilities at the Port of Toamasina: extending fuel terminal, installing equipment for handing the import of bulk raw materials, and building a rail road.

Ambatovy relocated families that were living near the Tailings facility to Vohitrambato village, 8 km west of Toamasina.

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 23


financial information; namely, payments made by extractive companies to the government,” explains Mbola Andrianady, a Malagasy graduate student in international development, focusing on CSR in mining. Ambatovy is obliged to adhere to national and international standards. Ambatovy’s performance is monitored by Madagascar’s regulatory body, the National Environment Office, under the national investment and environmental compatibility act. Ambatovy is also the first mining investment in Madagascar to be governed by the country’s Large Mining Investment Law, which was developed by the government in partnership with the World Bank. Furthermore, financial institutions that provided Ambatovy with project financing for construction are signatories to the Equator Principles, requiring them to take into account social and environmen-

tal criteria in the large-scale projects they finance. As a result, Ambatovy’s financing covenants require it to adhere to these Principles by complying with the International Finance Corporation’s Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability. Ambatovy is also committed to the following voluntary measures for sustainability, going well beyond its legal obligations to regulators and lenders: the Business and Biodiversity Offsets Program, the International Council on Mining and Metals’ Principles and EITI, as mentioned above. Sherritt’s Ambatovy operation aligns its reporting practices with those of the Global Reporting Initiative, a leading standard for sustainability reporting. Ambatovy’s sustainability reports, presentations and other disclosure provide an

1400

overview of how it manages a range of sustainability issues, including health and safety, economic development, environmental and biodiversity management, training and employment, stakeholder engagement, community development and other areas. The latest sustainability data can be found at www.ambatovy.com. It’s clear that Ambatovy is eager to communicate its values publicly. When Rising Africa asks whether this is a unique approach in the mining industry, Outlaw responds: “This is a common approach for responsible mining companies. To be relevant to our Malagasy stakeholders, we work hard to take into consideration the culture of the host country in the way we ‘live’ our values. In Madagascar, for example, there is a strong spirit of ‘Fihavanana,’ which means solidarity, tolerance and brotherhood in the community. Ambatovy is committed to embracing this spirit, as we consider our-

12,000,000,000.00

1200

10,000,000,000.00

1000 8,000,000,000.00

800

refined nickel

600

cobalt

400

ammonium sulphat

200

6,000,000,000.00 4,000,000,000.00 2,000,000,000.00

0 Ottawa area

plant area

mining site

Comparative size of mining sites

24 /// WWW.CCAFRICA.CA

0.00

tailings site

Madagascar GDP

Outcome of production

Investment

Comparative size of investments to Madagascar GDP


selves a full-fledged member of the community. We’re not perfect, but we try hard to conduct ourselves in a culturally appropriate manner.” Ambatovy’s Local Business Initiative run by the procurement department is a leading-edge program aimed at developing the capacity of local suppliers to meet the company’s needs at a standard of quality that is appropriate for a world-class operation. Ongoing training and audits are conducted to ensure current and potential suppliers make the grade. At present, there are more than 500 local suppliers that have benefited from well over a billion dollars in contracts from Ambatovy. One such supplier is the central agency for agricultural produce, which provides a central point for local farmers to sell their agricultural produce to Ambatovy for its food requirements. The agency, which is located by the plant site, has been very

successful, prompting the establishment of a second one near the mine site, hundreds of kilometers away. Ambatovy has also established an agricultural training centre near the plant site. This training centre is focused on providing new skills to workers hired during the construction phase who have completed their contracts. Its programs are also available to others in nearby communities. (Note that nearly 20,000 workers were contracted for construction; all of them were provided with opportunities, such as this one, to transition to other incomegenerating endeavors.) Although the actual training at this center is nothing new to Madagascar, no other large-scale company has done anything on this scale to support its demobilized workforce. As Ambatovy assets are located in an area containing unique biodiversity, the company adheres to stringent environ-

mental management practices, which aim to ensure no net loss, and preferably a net gain, in biodiversity. As a result, Ambatovy is managing several initiatives – such as its lemur monitoring program – which are helping to protect populations and habitats through avoidance, minimizing impacts or mitigation measures, such as offsetting – learn more about offsetting at bbop.foresttrends.org. Ambatovy’s social investments include sponsorships, charitable donations, educational and health programs, vocational training and professional development, and a wide variety of other sustainable development projects. Anyone interested in learning more about Sherritt’s or Ambatovy’s sustainability initiatives should visit www. sherritt.com or www.ambatovy.com, or email sustainability@sherritt.com.

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 25


Future Africa-specialists come from Carleton University Institute of

African Studies CARLETON UNIVERSITY

(IAS) in 2009. What institute is this? IAS is a multidisciplinary institute which brings together a wide range of expertise in African history, politics, societies and culture, legal systems and economies. We have been offering undergraduate education in African studies since 2009.

Interview by Marje Aksli

P

rof. Blair Rutherford, founder and director of the Institute of African Studies and Professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology in Carleton University in Ottawa talked to CCAfrica about a new opportunity for students and of his research. CCAfrica: You were a founding member of Institute of African Studies

26 /// WWW.CCAFRICA.CA

In fact, we are opening a unique master’s level program in Canada as of January 2013. Carleton University will offer the first ever graduate level specialization in African Studies in Canada to 14 programs, including a MBA program. This means that students in different fields can receive a specialization in African Studies to their master’s degree. This provides them with knowledge of the current and historical approaches to understand African economies, politics, cultures, and societies. Students will also have learning opportunities in a workplace or in Africa itself. With over 35 faculty members cross-appointed to the

Institute, Carleton is a leading university in Canada in the field of African Studies. Naturally, we take advantage of a broad range of governmental, non-governmental and diplomatic institutions and experts on Africa based in Ottawa-Gatineau. In the three years of its existence, the Institute has organized and co-organized over 70 public events and we always welcome suggestions for potential public speakers. In May 2013, we are hosting the annual meeting of the Canadian Association of African Studies under the theme of “Africa Communicating,” calling for papers on the theme of the “digital revolution” on the continent. Who are the students who study African issues today? We have a wide variety of students, many of them naturally with social science background, but some also from the humanities, journalism and business fields. Many of them continue working on African issues, in international organizations, Canadian NGOs, governmental agencies,


or businesses or continue their education in post-graduate or professional degree programs, with a focus on the continent. In your academic research about African civil society, land ownership and economic strategies, you have concentrated on Zimbabwean rural workers. What prompted your interest in Africa to begin with? It was a World University Service of Canada poster during my undergraduate anthropology studies, which caught my attention. It advertised a study seminar to Zimbabwe and as it sounded interesting, I applied and was lucky enough to be selected. In the six week seminar, university students from across Canada had the incredible opportunity to meet a wide range of

tested terms. In my research, I not only look how they are translated into local languages but also in what socio-cultural context they are used, taking on new meanings and uses. Africans have tended to say: We have more collective, communal understanding of rights while Westerners have brought more particular forms of rights. But today, more and more African scholars, writers, journalists, activists and bloggers promote individual rights like freedom of speech and freedom of assembly and so forth. These Africans make sure that those terms are not only understood as Western constructions. The rights based agenda has thus taken root in parts of Africa despite our perception that Africa’s focus is more on collective rights than on the rights of an in-

“Carleton University will offer the first ever graduate level specialization in African Studies in Canada to 14 programs, including a MBA program.” Zimbabweans – such as government ministers, industrial leaders, teachers, and peasant farmers. In my postgraduate research, I deepened my studies in Zimbabwe, carrying out research on commercial farm workers. Currently, I have refocused my research on the growing number of Zimbabweans working on the farms in northern South Africa. What would Canada’s role be in African development? I define development as an enhancement of livelihoods and living conditions, as local people themselves desire. Africans have been long defining, debating, and strategizing about ways to “develop.” Of course, Canadian institutions, organizations and individuals have been participating in this dialogue and also in development practices in different parts of Africa. I do support involvement of Canadian expertise and resources to assist as partners to African governments, civil society organizations, businesses and universities when they seek to enhance and diversify their livelihoods, improve living conditions, and strengthen their institutions and practices of governance. Your academic research also includes a study of how ‘rights and freedoms’ are understood in African context.

Yes, rights and freedoms are con-

dividual. For example, individual rights are at the centre of South African constitution, which can be considered one of the most liberal in the world. At the same time, Western NGOs and African activists have also encountered pre-existing and changing fields of more collective rights: this can be found particularly in regards to land and land-based resources. In many African countries, there is really a hybrid mixture of customary, state, and individual land tenure regimes due to pre-colonial practices, colonial laws and institutional arrangements, and post-colonial interventions. What about investments? Doesn’t communal land ownership block investments from taking place? I would claim that communal rights work well in some African communities. What are called communal tenure regimes have not necessarily blocked investments from taking place. It is possible for smallholder farmers in such tenure regimes to access credit and get a bank loan for their agricultural activities. There are successful communal farmers in Zimbabwe for example who access land through a form of customary tenure, have access to credit and manage their farms well. Smallholder farmers can also enter into contract agreements to grow vegetables or sugar or cotton with larger enterprises and process-

ers and they do not need to have titles on the land. Not everyone needs private property. Forcing land titles on Africans (like what happened in Kenya in the 1960s) can have detrimental outcomes: it can lead to high displacement of people when farmers are forced off land. This causes them to move to cities, which do not have the necessary infrastructure to accommodate all of them. Moreover, it can generate resentment and fuel future conflicts – such as in the Rift Valley in Kenya. What could Western leaders learn from your research in composing their rights-related rhetoric? In terms of minority rights in Africa, we have to be aware that there are local activist groups working and demanding their rights in the local cultural context and in a way, which is suitable in those communities. Very often we have to be aware of local political situation, for example, whether elections are coming. In those situations, Western demands for increased rightsawareness can be used for the purposes of local politics, meaning that our demands for social liberalization are not going to be fruitful. When development assistance is given on the condition to liberalizing local laws, it can easily be used by more reactionary forces to mobilize against “rights” in these societies. They may decry this language as a “Western invention” but often their real targets are their compatriots who are advocating for, say, women’s or children’s rights. I think minority rights should be promoted by local activists who, if they wish, should be supported by outsiders. Besides, aid conditionalities will not necessarily be effective as loans and other external funding is increasingly coming to Africa from outside the West, such as China and other BRIC nations. Often, they have other priorities. In other words, one needs to pay attention to the social pragmatics of ways rights are understood locally.

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 27


Infrastructure is essential for growth

Interview by Marje Aksli

CCAfrica had a virtual dis-

cussion with two key decision makers from CPCS. President and CEO Peter Kieran spoke to us from Nigeria, and Anirudh Gautama, a consultant for the Company’s East and Southern Africa division spoke to us from Ottawa. We discussed the infrastructure gap and CPCS’ recent projects in Africa. CCAfrica: Peter and Anirudh, we hear a lot about the importance of infrastructure in Africa. From your own experience with CPCS, can you tell us a little more about the role that infrastructure plays in development?

Anirudh Gautama Consultant for CPCS

Anirudh: Good infrastructure is essential for driving sustained economic growth. Even the slightest hiccup in the provision of basic infrastructure can bring about a series of adverse events which set the tone for subsequent

28 /// WWW.CCAFRICA.CA

periods of economic stagnation. Perhaps the most salient example of this lies in the widespread power outage that struck India in July 2012 and for a few hours affected nearly 600 million people. Despite the government’s promise to launch an official inquiry, Moody’s was quick to declare that the outage—which highlighted the inadequacies of India’s infrastructure network— would reduce India’s growth. Peter: When you look at the impact of this one failure, you can imagine the impact of the chronic power-outages that plague most of Africa. Even though Africa as a whole has Peter Kieran been growing very President and CEO quickly, we believe that the continent’s shortage of electricity has hindered its pace of growth over the last decade. In a country like Nigeria for example, we estimate that shortages in electricity have cut growth by approximately 3% a year—an extra 3% would make an incredible difference.

With a population of 160 million people, Nigeria’s total available power generation is about 3.5 gigawatts — compare this with Canada, which produces about 105 gigawatts for a population of 35 million. No one in Nigeria has enough electricity and virtually every business owns and operates its own generators. The President of Nigeria, Dr. Goodluck Jonathan has made adequate electricity his highest single objective. Are there any studies that show the impact of the provision of electricity on development? Anirudh: The World Bank’s latest Doing Business Survey has found that 80 percent of enterprises in Nigeria have cited electricity as their main constraint. This becomes particularly evident when one reviews the impact which the lack of dependable electricity has had on the Nigerian textile industry; between 2000 and 2007, over 100 textile mills have either closed down or relocated their operations to other countries. Our research has indicated that a country needs about 2,500 kilowatt hours


This graph shows the precise nature of the relationship between electricity consumption and human development.

(kWh) per person to achieve high human development. Africa’s average annual power consumption is only about 124 kWh per

government in selling the entire distribution system and the government-owned power generating plants.

How is that going? Have you

“The most successful areas will be those that provide good financial returns and that will attract private investment: telecommunications, electricity and ports.” Peter Kieran, President and CEO capita—about one tenth of the consumption in the rest of the developing world. I understand that CPCS is helping Nigeria to improve the situation. Peter: Yes, Nigeria is a very important country for us. A few years ago in response to Nigeria’s very disappointing experience with electricity, the government adopted a wider ranging plan to build new generating plants, to encourage new Independent Power Plants (IPPs) and to take the government out of the electricity business. We were very pleased to be appointed as the Lead Transaction Advisor to help the

been successful at attracting private investors to Nigeria even with all their problems? Peter: The interest and response has been amazing. All the people who said it couldn’t be done are strangely quiet. We started work eighteen months ago and had over 350 investors that submitted expressions of interest for the 17 companies. We are now at the final stage and we are assisting Nigeria with the evaluation of a total of 79 full technical and financial bids from investors and technical partners in dozens of countries including Canada, the US, the UK, Spain, Turkey, India, Malaysia, Korea,

Japan, Nigeria and many others. After this round is completed, we will be helping the government to sell 10 brand new gas-fired thermal plants that will add about 5,000 megawatts of new capacity to the grid. We expect very strong interest in these plants as well. What do you think is causing these investors to develop such great interest in Nigeria? Peter: Investor interest in Nigeria is actually reflective of interest throughout Africa. Some would think that the lack of infrastructure would scare away investors – but the opposite is also true. Firms are looking at these shortages as investment opportunities. The absence of infrastructure points to the presence of untapped potential that can be unlocked through investments in the sector. We believe that Africa is full of such investment opportunities, and the benefits to be derived are substantial for everyone. Broadly speaking, these investments will play a very important role in enhancing Africa’s integration into the global economy; they are precisely what

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 29


will lead to improved human development outcomes, and inevitably, to a new era of unprecedented growth on the continent. It appears that CPCS has done really well in Africa. What makes a company leave their usual market and enter into the unknown territories? Is it possible to compare what your company was before you entered African markets and now, some years later? Or was this direction always part of your company’s strategy? Peter: Well that is a big question and really I can only speak to my own experience and the experience of CPCS. The truth is that we have always been in Africa. I was lucky enough to be selected for a summer internship with McKinsey and Company in Tanzania. It was a great experience and I really felt that I had found a career where I could make a difference. Back at school several of us who had had similar experience formed a management consulting company to work in Africa and other developing countries. I’ve been doing the same thing ever since, although it did take a while to learn how to make a decent living at it.

30 /// WWW.CCAFRICA.CA

Unfortunately many companies in Canada seem to lag behind—both in terms of entrepreneurship, and in terms of their willingness to explore more distant markets. You can see the Chinese everywhere and now the US are making a really big move in Africa. The visit of Hillary Clinton in August 2012 is just the latest sign. I’ve read some analysis recently that shows that the US is fighting its way out of this recession on the back of exports to new markets. Hundreds of American companies that have never exported before are winning contracts in Africa and in other emerging markets. Maybe we don’t need it as badly but I sure don’t see Canada out there in the same way. What do you think the future holds for African infrastructure? Peter: I think we will see a lot of changes over the next ten years. The most successful areas will be those that provide good financial returns and that will attract private investment: telecommunications, electricity and ports. There is no excuse in these sectors – the money and know-how are available. I think most countries will

get the policy and regulatory frameworks right and the investment will flow. The financial return on roads is low but they have high economic returns and we will continue to see a lot of investment, especially from development finance institutions. Many countries have established national road authorities and we are seeing an important and essential improvement in road maintenance as a result. There is a lot of talk about railways but privatization has not come with private investment and it will take investment from government and development assistance agencies to even keep the existing rail networks in operation. New railways will depend on significant mineral finds - not higher value minerals like gold or nickel or copper and certainly not passengers. New railways will only be built in places like Botswana or northern Mozambique to exploit massive finds of low value commodities like iron ore or coal. Thank very much for sharing your experience, and good luck with your projects.


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THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 00


Africa by the Numbers

Ethiopia recorded higher growth than China, and Uganda outperformed India. In 2011, Ghana had the highest rate of growth in the world. While the Kofi Annan led think tank Africa Progress Panel expects the growth in Sub-Saharan Africa to recover to 5.3 per cent in 2012 and 5.6 per cent in 2013, African Economic Outlook report predicts slightly lower numbers: 4.5% in 2012 and 4.8 % in 2013.

According to World Bank`s report, 20 countries in Africa rank better than BRICs in terms of ease of doing business. 7 countries in Africa are efficiency-driven meaning they have improved their higher education and job training to be able to compete globally. 30 countries improved their rank compared to previous year. Ethiopia and Mozambique raised 7 places, based on the report of Global competitiveness. UNCTAD has calculated that 24 African countries have attracted FDI above their potential, whereas Congo places 10th in FDI Attraction Index. Moreover, 34 countries in Africa can take advantage of Canada’s Market Access Initiative program of quota- and tariff free import to Canada.

A

ccording to African Progress Report 2012 titled Jobs, Justice and Equity, Seizing opportunities in times of global change, there are five global trends shaping the continent: the youth surge, agriculture and climate change, the rise of the emerging powers, science, tech and innovation, and the rising tide of citizen action. See the graph which summarises African successes on the right. Below we have compiled some of the African trends, measured in numbers. Africa’s youth population will rise from 133 million at the start of the century to 246 million by 2020. According to Jim Yong Kim, World Bank President, between 7-10 million young individuals are added to the labour force annually; which will require 74 million new jobs to be created in the next decade to prevent higher unemployment rates, states the African Progress Report. Despite a decade of high growth, poverty is far from eliminated but the numbers are falling fast. One in three Africans is now middle class, report of African Development

32 /// WWW.CCAFRICA.CA

Bank finds. By 2010, the middle class had risen to 34 percent of Africa’s population or nearly 350 million people. These people

Between 2000 and 2008, ODA flows to sub-Saharan Africa increased from $12 to $36 billion per year, and of Canada’s top ten aid recipients six are located in Afri-

“Africa’s youth population will rise to 246 million by 2020. 7- 10 million young people are added to the labour force each year. It requires 74 million jobs over the next decade simply to prevent youth unemployment from rising.” consume daily 2-20 dollars and are the key source for private sector growth in Africa, accounting for much of the effective demand for goods and services supplied by private sector entities. UNCTAD report estimates that total 42.7 billion dollars entered Africa in 2011 as FDI of which 37 billion entered SubSaharan Africa. Although African share in global FDI has diminished from 3.3% 2010 to 2.8% in 2012, African FDI brings still 20% return (US data). During 2005-2009,

ca. In 2011, for the first time, aid decreased by 3 per cent to Sub-Saharan Africa. What would countries do in this situation? An analyst by Think Africa Press offers its insight: large-scale projects are unlikely to lose funding and further, aid cuts are likely to create opportunities for new investments, particularly from non-traditional sources, such as Asia and Turkey. Time will tell…


Africa: Successes

Source: African Progress Report 2012

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 33


Interview by Marje Aksli

E

xport Development Canada is Canada’s export credit agency, offering financial and risk management solutions to help Canadian businesses expand into the international market. CCAfrica talked EDC’s Chief Representative, Africa Ms. Patricia Bentolila about African markets.

gives advice on African markets

based Transnet and MTN Ghana in support of existing and future procurement of Canadian goods and services.

In the future, we certainly would like to do more, as we see tremendous growth potential in the region. It’s important to note that we have an internal team dedicated to political and economical analysis of the region, whom can provide valuable market intelligence to Canadian exporters and is key for us to understand this market. What explains African growth to your mind?

Patricia Bentolila Chief Representative, EDC Africa CCAFrica: Can you tell us about EDC`s role in Africa? EDC has long business experience with the continent. In 2011, EDC supported 457 Canadian companies in 46 African countries, for a total of $2.39 billion in transactions, of which $1.71 billion took place in Sub-Saharan Africa and $682 million in North Africa. Part of our volume is relatively stable and related to traditional and non traditional exports (such as agricultural products and ICT goods), or related to investments of Canadian companies, in particular in the extractive sector, for which EDC provides political insurance coverage. The other part of the volume is project driven. We are particularly proud of a couple of transactions in the last 2-3 years: support of the construction of a new 130 MW thermal power plant in Takoradi – Ghana (2009), support of the rehabilitation of a Dam in Angola (2011) and two recent financing transactions with South Africa

34 /// WWW.CCAFRICA.CA

Between 2011-2015, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Tanzania, Congo, Ghana, Zambia, Nigeria will be the fastest growing economies in the world. The growth can be explained by many factors, including a sharp decrease in political violence, better governance, an improving business environment and a stronger macro-economic standing. Governments have lowered inflation, trimmed foreign debt, and shrunk budget deficits. Many countries adopted policies to energize markets: privatizing state-owned enterprises, reducing trade

tion. Finally, Africa has benefitted from the commodity boom in the last years driven by increased demand from China and emerging markets. The important point we have to ask ourselves is if this growth is sustainable, and we believe it is, because the continent is going through a unique transformation reflected by declining poverty rates and improving human development index. There has been a variety of excellent reports on the topic, and I would like to mention two of them: the Mc Kinsey reports “Africa at work: Job creation and inclusive growth” and “Lions on the move: The progress and potential of African economies” and Ernst & Young report “Africa Attractiveness 2012”. However, it must be pointed out that this trend is general and not all countries have witnessed these improvements. What opportunities would you bring out in particular? Based on growth projections, and according to the McKinsey reports mentioned above it is estimated that four industries could represent $2.6 trillion in annual revenue by 2020. These are: consumer

“Based on growth projections, and according to the McKinsey reports it is estimated that four industries could represent $2.6 trillion in annual revenue by 2020.” barriers, cutting corporate taxes, strengthening regulatory and legal systems. The demographics also play a key role, as Africa’s population today is over 1 billion people and it is growing fast. When taking into account remittances, the broader consumer class makes up 40% of the African popula-

products, resources, agriculture, and infrastructure. Consumer goods, telecom and banking represent the largest opportunity, and these sectors are already growing 2 to 3 times faster than those in OECD countries. Africa is now the fastest growing mobile market in the world, and now the second


“EDC supporting the Takoradi power plant project in Ghana” largest after Asia. Penetration hit 649 million connections in 2011, with growth rates averaging 20 percent a year over the past five years. One of the opportunities lies in agribusiness, as Africa has 60 percent of the world’s uncultivated arable land. However, there are several barriers which include lack of advanced seeds and other inputs suited to the continent’s ecological conditions. Africa’s inadequate infrastructure to bring crops to market and unclear land rights also hinders the business, as do lack of technical assistance and financing to farmers and lack of tax incentives. According to the Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic, it’s estimated that an annual investment of $93 billion would be required from 2010-2020 to close the infrastructure gap. This is without taking into account the infrastructure needed to develop some major mining and oil and gas projects, in particular in power, rail and ports. Those are great opportunities for Canadian companies. And, last but not least, are the opportunities related to mining and oil and gas, with huge projects being undertaken in the mining sector by large multination-

als (eg.: expansion of coal production in the Tete region in Mozambique, Simandou iron ore projects in Guinea, just to name a few), and major discoveries in oil and gas in Eastern Africa and Namibia. What challenges are there in Africa in general? There are still major differences between countries, and an exporter or investor has to do its due diligence carefully before entering a market. Just to name a few challenges: relative distance from North America, logistics, security, infrastructure, business environment, language in some cases (eg.: Angola or Mozambique), etc... One key aspect is to structure a transaction properly to mitigate payment risk, either by using letters of credit or advance payment mechanism, and also be aware of convertibility and transferability risk which again varies from one country to another. One recurrent issue is the lack of financing to procure certain goods and services or undertake projects. As a general rule, we distinguish between a sovereign or quasisovereign borrower and a private sector borrower. In the first case, it’s important to note that 24 African countries have IMF programs in place with the vast majority of them including restrictions on the gov-

ernment’s ability to borrow on commercial terms and for some sectors. 39 African countries are subject to Sustainable Lending Practices, this is lending that supports the buyer country’s economic and social progress without endangering its financial future and long-term development prospects. In respect with private sector, we are often asked to support companies that have no track record, or who provides us with financial information that is not presented according to international standards. Our challenge is to try to find financial partners to channel the transaction, which is not always easy. What recommendations would you give for Canadian exporters who are interested in Africa? Start by targeting properly your markets. Be patient and resourceful. Building a good business relationship takes a while, multiple visits are required. You obviously know that African concept of time is not similar to North-America. Do you have the patience and cash flow to sustain long negotiation periods? Are you aware of local laws and regulations with regards to your business? Also ensure that any commercial contract is solid, valid and binding. Do you understand the logistics related to

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 35


transport (customs, taxes, timing, etc) and are the risks mitigated? Do your research on local market, partners, and competition. Calculate in the cost of transportation and ask is your product still competitive? Mind that competition is high: Europe and China are both present and active, but also India, Brazil, South Africa and Turkey. To find a good local partner, we recommend working with the Canada Trade Commissioner Service. Make sure you understand that Africa is composed of various regions, and economic zones. It is preferable to focus on zones with similarities for flow of goods, currency, legal system, and language. Base your decisions on analyzing various indicators and country ratings by the Transparency International, WB Doing Business guide, and others to make sure whether the country would be suitable for you. Depending on the market and sector, the other option is to target affiliates of foreign companies that are present in Africa. For exam-

ple, the major investments in mining and oil and gas are carried through US, European, Australian, Canadian companies and South African companies. South Africa is also seen as a very good platform to target the Southern Africa regional market, and depending on the opportunity, support can be available from IDC or DBSA. What if someone finds opportunities in fragile countries? It is possible to do business in risky countries if you choose the right partners, as there are a number of tools that exist that mitigate country-level risks including various EDC products. In addition to Zimbabwe, DRC, and both Sudan and South Sudan, which have weak regulatory systems, Madagascar is still considered risky due to ongoing political transition following coup d’état several years ago. Guinea suffers under ongoing transition following elections this year that ended several years of military rule. Côte d’Ivoire is under transition following the election-related crisis in 2010

and early 2011 that led to armed conflict. Other countries, such as Eritrea and Equatorial Guinea have their specific challenges. Somalia is a special case, given there are no proper governmental institutions in place. Would it be possible to bring out couple of favourable markets? EDC’s priority markets are South Africa, Angola, Nigeria, Ghana and Morocco, but we are also looking at certain regions which are favourable, such as Southern and Eastern Africa. This is based on the size, relative stability, and the fit between opportunities and Canadian expertise. Of course, other markets can also be attractive depending on sector of activity (mining, oil and gas, infrastructure) and can include Tanzania, Mozambique, Kenya, Gabon, Burkina Faso and Guinea for example. Botswana, Mauritius and Namibia are generally viewed as being the most stable and less risky countries in Africa.

“EDC supporting the Takoradi power plant project in Ghana” 36 /// WWW.CCAFRICA.CA


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In business since 1911, SNC-Lavalin is a global service provider with permanent offices across Canada and in over 40 countries worldwide. We offer the full spectrum of technical expertise from engineering consulting and design services to full EPC/EPCM assignments, including project financing, long-term concession agreements, and the operation and maintenance of infrastructure assets. Over the past 40 years, we have completed some 800 projects in Africa. Our reputation is built on our seamless and sustainable execution of projects of all sizes, our commitment to health and safety, and a keen understanding of our clients’ various needs.


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The essential cornerstone of sustainable growth and development is capable leadership. The Africa-Canada Emerging Leaders’ Dialogue (ACELD2013) is an interactive learning experience designed to advance the capabilities of participants from business, labour, government and civil society. Our strategy is simple:

GATHER | CONSIDER | TRANSFORM

WHAT IS THE ACELD? The ACELD is a Leadership Development Opportunity that will expose young leaders to ideas, issues and people that will fundamentally change how they see themselves. It will give them new knowledge and skills to engage successfully in the challenges and opportunities they will be facing as leaders in the future. It will expose them to new cultures and perspectives. The ACELD will provide relevant experience to participants that will expand their knowledge of issues of international importance and provide insight into the thinking of top leaders throughout the hosting countries they will visit over a two week period.

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“This conference was unique... and marvelous... We’ve got enough bloody conflict in the world. The more people can get together the better.”

Hon. Robert Hawke

Former Prime Minister of Australia

“It helped us cap our egos so that change could be achieved.. to be good listeners... to ask probing questions... to reflect collectively... and then to come to the best solutions. For me this conference was a life changing experience.”

Mrs. Lenia Samuel

Deputy Director General, European Union, Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities


WHO IS IT FOR? The ACELD is for up and coming or "emerging" leaders from all sectors in a community - government, business, labour, civil society and academia. With only 120 placements available, all nominations will go through a screening process to meet the programs selection criteria. We are looking for those individuals who have been identified as future leaders with a strong track record of accomplishment. There will be 80 selections from throughout the Commonwealth Countries in Africa and South Africa and 40 selections from across Canada.

WHERE IS IT GOING TO TAKE PLACE? The Dialogue will open in Canada where all participants will engage in three days of presentations, discussion and networking. Participants will be addressed by global leaders who will begin exploring with them the Dialogue theme in its different dimensions. The participants will then divide into teams or delegations of fifteen that will travel in Canada then to an African country to visit communities and workplaces from the public and private sectors as well as civil society. These will be on-site visits to discuss with leaders in their environment the challenges they face, and the strategies used in meeting them. All participants, guests, volunteers, will reconvene for three days in Johannesburg where each team will prepare a presentation on what they have observed and learned about leadership and how it has impacted their own notion of what it is to lead. The teams will present to the full delegation, our president, HRH, The Princess Royal, Princess Anne and invited guests.

HOW DO I GET INVOLVED? The ACELD is looking for CCA members and leading edge organizations to join us in an unprecedented learning opportunity to "raise up" potential future leaders for both Africa and Canada. The program has been actively shaping mid-career individuals for over 50 years with programs in the Caribbean, Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, India and the UK. Further locations for the future include Latin America and Asia.

“The formula that brought young leaders together over 50 years ago has stood the test of time... challenging assumptions, expanding perspectives while learning the finer points of leadership.”

HRH The Princess Royal, Princess Anne President, ACELD

For sponsorship information, please contact: Barb Crompton - bcrompton@springstreet.ca or call us at +1 (905) 836 7812 INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COUNCIL PROF. OLIVE M. MUGENDA PH.D VICE CHANCELLOR AND PROFESSOR KENYATTA UNIVERSITY

PROF. CHERYL DE LA REY, PH.D VICE CHANCELLOR AND PRINCIPAL UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA

SIR RICHARD GOZNEY KCMG, CVO, KSTJ FORMER GOVERNOR OF BERMUDA MRS. SUE LEE FORMER SENIOR EVP SUNCOR

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE JOE CLARK, PC, CC, AOE FORMER PRIME MINISTER OF CANADA

PROF. PHILIP OXHORN PH.D PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE & FOUNDING DIRECTOR, INSTITUTE FOR THE STUDY OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT MCGILL UNIVERSITY

CONFERENCE CO-CHAIR

PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS

MR. PHILIP J. JENNINGS GENERAL SECRETARY UNI (UNION NETWORK INTERNATIONAL) GLOBAL UNION

AfricaCanadaELD

MCGILL UNIVERSITY - ISID UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA KENYATTA UNIVERSITY CANADIAN COUNCIL ON AFRICA

WWW.ACELD.NET

Website coming soon.

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 00


Industry and civil ground in their Claire Woodside, Director of Publish What You Pay-Canada and Pierre Gratton, President and CEO of the Mining Association of Canada

M

any African countries have experienced a dramatic increase in resource extraction over the last decade. Yet despite increases in resource revenues, some countries struggle to turn domestic resources into economic growth. For countries that have seen a dramatic expansion of the resource sector, such as Burkina Faso, for whom mining as a percentage of exports increased from two per cent in 2005 to 41 per cent in 2010, finding ways to turn this growth into positive economic and social development is paramount. One of the key reasons that countries fail to turn domestic resources into economic and social development is the lack of transparency surrounding the payments companies make to governments. In many countries, the monitoring of mining and oil revenues is nearly impossible since citizens do not know how much is owed to their governments or how much is collected. This gap can result in the mismanagement, loss and outright theft of resource revenues that are critical for development.

A mine worker crushes rocks in an old flour grinder, Bagega, Nigeria 40 /// WWW.CCAFRICA.CA

This is most evident in Equatorial Guinea, where vast oil revenues fund lavish lifestyles for the country’s ruling elite, while much of society remains mired in poverty. This is despite the fact that the country enjoys a GDP per capita of 36,500 (according to the World Bank)—the 21st highest in the world and one place above the United Kingdom. For Equatorial Guineans, recent improvements to transparency are a source of hope. Hope that one day they can overcome significant income disparity and extreme poverty, and translate their resource wealth into longer life expectancies (currently 51 years of age) and better overall development (the country continues to be ranked 136th on the Human Development Index). The case of Equatorial Guinea is a stark example of the problems that emerge when revenues are shrouded in secrecy.


society find common desire to increase transparency However, these problems are not unique to the country and instead can be seen across many resource-rich countries around the world. Fortunately, efforts to increase transparency in the extractive sector elsewhere in the world have already led to significant changes over the past decade, most evident in the recent legislative efforts of the United States and European Union. On August 22, 2012, the US Securities and Exchange Commission released its long anticipated rules requiring the disclosure of company payments to governments. Europe will follow suit with similar legislation in the fall. Both initiatives have significant implications for many Canadian mining companies.

in more than 100 countries. Moreover, in the past five years, the Toronto Stock Exchange handled a whopping 83 per cent of the world’s public mine financings, demonstrating that Canada is clearly a global mining leader. Recognizing Canada’s prominent role in the extractive sector, alongside the benefits of transparency, industry and civil society have united to announce a groundbreaking collaboration – the Extractive Resource Revenue Transparency Working Group. Formed by the Mining Association of Canada, the Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada, Publish What You Pay-Canada, and the Revenue Watch Institute, this group aims to collaboratively develop a framework for the mandatory disclosure of extractive company payments

“Our Canadian advantage in the mining sector stems not only from our expertise and technology, alongside our ability to raise capital, but also from our willingness to embrace initiatives that empower citizens and governments to use resource revenues to support sustained economic growth and poverty reduction.” The Dodd Frank Act requires mining, oil and gas companies listed on USbased stock exchanges to disclose payments to governments on a country-by-country and project-by-project basis. These rules will dramatically increase transparency in the extractive sectors, affecting more than 100 of Canada’s largest oil, gas and mining companies. This is no small matter for Canadian extractive companies whose ability to have a positive impact on improving financial transparency on a global scale is enormous. About 60 per cent of the world’s mining companies and over a third of the world’s oil and gas companies are listed in Canada. There are also approximately 1,000 Canadian exploration companies active

to governments that can be implemented in Canada. The framework will require that companies report a variety of payments useful to governments, investors and communities, such as taxes and royalties. Building upon existing regulations and drawing upon experiences in other jurisdictions, information will be disclosed on a countryby-country and project-by-project basis in a clear, usable format that aims to minimize additional reporting burdens. The focus on disclosure stems from a recognition that one of the key reasons that some countries struggle to turn domestic resources into economic growth is the lack of transparency surrounding the

payments companies make to governments. For communities, resource revenue transparency can empower citizens to hold their governments accountable for how revenues are managed. While for host governments, disclosure can not only improve resource revenue management, but also encourage development and reduce corruption. The benefits do not stop there. Increased transparency is not just about doing the right thing; it is also good business. For companies, disclosure clarifies the economic contributions of resource extraction, supports industry’s social license to operate, and contributes to more stable, productive operating environments. Meanwhile, better access to information can help investors assess risk and, in some cases, enhance returns on investment. Our Canadian advantage in the mining sector stems not only from our expertise and technology, alongside our ability to raise capital, but also from our willingness to embrace initiatives that empower citizens and governments to use resource revenues to support sustained economic growth and poverty reduction. Finding common ground between industry and civil society organizations can sometimes be challenging. However, on this particular issue, the four members of the Working Group share the common belief that revenue transparency is a necessary step towards a world where resource revenues contribute positively to development. As a result of improved transparency, citizens will be equipped with the information they need to hold their leaders accountable, and leaders with the information they need to make informed decisions about resource management. For the 1.5 billion people that live on less than $2 a day in countries considered to be rich in natural resources, translating resource development into sustainable economic development is absolutely critical.

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 41


Past Events & Missions

Webinar on Africa’s business specifics CCAfrica frique years

10 ans

Développement économique, Innovation et Exportation

SÉMINAIRE En prémisse à la conférence “Business and Entrepreneurship in Africa”

Jeudi,17 mai, 2012

Université Laval, Pavillon Palasis-Prince

O

n May 17, the Canadian Council on Africa, in partnership with MDEIE, welcomed about thirty Quebec business people in Université Laval in Quebec City to take part in a busy day full of information and practical tools for doing business with the various sub-regions of Africa. For the first time, CCAfrica pioneered by broadcasting this event instantly on the web, allowing five other Quebec entrepreneurs who could not travel to Quebec City to attend.

The day began by welcoming the

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participants who took a moment to meet and exchange with the other participants and as well as meet our experts presenting that day. For the first session, CCAfrica welcomed Mr. Noureddine Zekri, Director General of the “Foreign Investment Promotion Agency” in Tunis, whose presentation focused on the environment and investment opportunities in Tunisia since the Arab Spring. After a short break, Michel Lapointe, Director of International Affairs at FlexExports Group shared personal and professional experiences with the participants to advise them on how to do business

with the UEMOA in West Africa. In his presentation, he discussed various topics such as critical evaluation of the potential to do business in Africa, the importance of market research; the importance of a good local partner, financing and payment methods, how to negotiate in Africa; the important documentation to have, tips and tricks to export in Africa and points to keep in mind when doing business with Africa. After a networking lunch that allowed participants to freely exchange with one another, we continued with the third session which focused on East Africa. Mr. Egide Karuranga, President of the Rwandan Diaspora in Canada, presented the East Africa which has a growing economic importance. The day ended with the presentation of Mr. Augustin Raharolahy, Honorary Consul of Madagascar in Quebec. The presentation focused on the recent method of Pragmatic Development of International Relations between Quebec and Madagascar: Madagascar-Quebec Committee for International Cooperation (CQMCI).


CCAfrica at the Africa Day celebrations!

On May 30, CCAfrica was in-

vited to the celebrations of the Africa Day in Ottawa. This was the seventh time that CCAfrica President/ CEO, Lucien Bradet took part in this event organized by the African Diplomatic Corps in Ottawa. For the first time ever, three Federal Ministers took part to the festivities! Indeed, Foreign Affairs Minister Mr. John Baird, Minister of International Trade and Minister for the Asia-Pacific Gateway Mr. Ed Fast and the

Minister of State and the Francophonie, Mr. Bernard Valcourt. The speeches that the three ministers made were very encouraging for the relations between Africa and Canada. Indeed, Mr. Baird and Mr. Fast announced the strengthening of the partnership that exists between Canada and Africa, including through formal negotiations with Benin and Burkina Faso to make agreements for the promotion and protection of foreign

investment. These measures will promote transparency and investment stability while continuing to promote our shared values such as democracy, security and prosperity. Through various interventions throughout the evening, CCAfrica was recognized and mentioned several times, demonstrating the important role that our organization has played in recent years.

Members of the Africa Diplomatic Corp with His Honorable John Baird, Minister of Foreign Affairs, His Honorable Ed Fast, Minister of International Trade and His Honorable Bernard Valcourt, Minister of State (Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency) (La Francophonie)

Canadian Council on Africa’s Energy Forum

O

n June 11th, CCAfrica Energy Forum was held in Calgary about Sub-Saharan Africa’s emerging role in the global energy sector. The event, which purpose was to learn, share and network, featured Mr. Wale Tinubu, CEO of Oando PLC from Nigeria as a keynote speaker, and included many Canadian and African oil and gas experts as panellists and part-takers. Throughout the conference it was stressed that like Canada, Africa’s future

also depends on the development of its resources: both the kind in the ground but also of its people. African governments can learn from Canada how to create fair conditions for technological advancements to happen so that the positive outcomes can take place in the energy sector. Companies themselves also have a role to play – they can come together to collaborate on research in environment or safety issues and agree to share this knowledge legally.

While Africa offers lots of opportunities – the rate of return in Africa has been said to be one of the highest in the world – there are also lots of challenges. Major problem is the gap between the perception on Africa – which tends to be bad – and the reality – which is much more optimistic. Lack of regional integration and corruption hinders business, as well, as does the current condition of infrastructure. Thankfully, the current prosperity period in Africa is coupled with government reform, which sounds promising for the future development. While investments to Africa have risen sharply, more is needed to the infrastructure and agriculture sector. But this will be a topic for completely different forum.

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 43


Eleventh Annual General Assembly of CCAfrica

The Canadian Council on Africa

Networking excellence

Annual Report 2011-2012

On June 13th, the Chairman of

the Board, Mr. Michel Côté, was pleased to

invite all members to the Annual General Assembly. This year, we invited the partners with whom we have worked closely throughout the last decade. As usual, we wanted this assembly to be a meeting place for all organizations and individuals active in the economic development of Africa. Thus, after reviewing the activities of the past year and provided an overview of what awaits us next year, the members present at the AGA elected the new Board of Directors for the year 2012-2013. You can also access the online Annual Report 2011-2012 at www.ccafrica.ca During the past year we have held a large number of activities throughout Canada. These activities have enabled us

to work with hundreds of Canadians who share our goals and to inform them about the opportunities and challenges of the continent. These events have enabled us to receive a large number of African delegations clearly interested in developing closer relations with Canadians. CCAfrica couldn’t have accomplished this work without the close collaboration we have with the African Diplomatic Corps, the Canadian Government and the advice of many senior officials responsible for the continent, the Provincial Governments, members who renew their membership to our network and faithfully participate in our activities and finally a staff dedicated and convinced of the importance of our mission. Thank you all for your support.

CCAfrica in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire for the second time in 2012! I

n early July, Karl Miville-de Chêne, Vice-President Quebec and the Maritimes, led CCAfrica second mission to Côte d’Ivoire, Abidjan since the beginning of 2012. This trade mission, by the Ministry of Economic Development, Innovation and Export (MDEIE) of the Quebec government, was organized in collaboration with the Canadian Council on Africa which was mandated by the MDEIE. During the activities surrounding the Quebec delegation to Abidjan, we organized a seminar presenting the business opportunities in Côte d’Ivoire to the participating Quebec companies. We also organized individual meetings between the counterparts in Côte d’Ivoire (on July 3 and 4). Among the com-

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panies and authorities we met, we can mention in particular His Excellency Moussa Dosso, Minister of State and Minister of Industry, as well as various mining companies including SODEMI (Society for the Mining Development of Ivory Coast). The economic mission was aimed primarily at businesses in the mining sector and its related services such as training, ICT, aerospace, rail, geo-information, legal, renewable energy, housing and equipment. Participants had an interest to export their products or services, to establish partnerships or strategic alliances in Côte d’Ivoire, to establish themselves, or to explore new opportunities on the African continent.

This mission has allowed us to confirm the observations made in February during our first visit to Abidjan. We could feel the economic dynamism shown by the people of Côte d’Ivoire despite the fact that project funding is problematic. There is also a willingness to do business with Canadians since the Quebec companies are recognized for their expertise and, above all, their pragmatism, making them an ideal partner. The enthusiasm of Quebec companies that participated in the two missions demonstrates the economic potential of Côte d’Ivoire.


Future Events & Missions Canada-Africa Symposium & 10thAnniversary Gala This is why we dedicate our halfday symposium to topics covering both economic development and governance in Africa. In this regard, we will focus on how Canada-Africa relations are changing under ever-evolving aid, trade and diplomacy conditions. This is an occasion for Canadians and friends to come together and generate constructive ideas for a future Canada-Africa strategy.

I

t is with great pleasure that we would like to announce our upcoming Africa symposium entitled “Looking Forward”, October 16, and the accompanying Gala event to culminate the tenth anniversary celebrations of our organization, the Canadian Council on Africa. We would like to take the opportunity to invite you to join us in our anniversary events for two reasons. First, through these events we want to thank you - our members and sponsors - for your continued support of CCAfrica. This sup-

port has allowed us to become a successful organization bridging Canada with Africa since 2002. As well, our anniversary will be an occasion to look forward. We are now more than ever convinced that CCAfrica will have another successful ten years ahead, particularly as we receive positive news from the African continent on a daily basis. We now are witnessing a period of rapid social development, outstanding economic growth and much welcomed reform in African governance.

As you probably know, Africa’s current population will double in the next 40 years and Africa will become the fastest growing economy over the next five years. With an average age of 18 years - whether we call them “generation M” or the “cheetah generation” as Ghanaian economist George Ayittey calls them - the youth today will be the key to Africa’s future. CCAfrica believes that the rise of this new and populous generation presents good opportunities for investment, trade and economic growth. This generation will lead the democratic governance process in Africa. Of course they are also increasingly becoming the consumers of goods and services.

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 45


Join our delegation to Kenya and Ethiopia in November and equitable society. Today, Ethiopian economy, which doubled in size this century and is growing at 7.5%, makes the country one of the fastest growing economies in Africa. In addition to being the birthplace of coffee, the nation also produces one of the world’s largest livestock and recently opened a new airline to Toronto with Boeing’s new 787 passenger jet and 11 planes purchased from Bombardier Inc.

T T

he CCAfrica is proud to announce two new missions to East Africa: Kenya and Ethiopia, planned around November 5 -10. Organized in collaboration with the Canadian embassies in Africa and the Canadian International Development Agency, the trade missions are a unique occasion to discover numerous business opportunities in the countries that are rapidly changing. Kenya is transforming from offering coffee and safaris to hosting a quiet technology sector take-off. The Economist has recently stated that ten years ago in 2002, Kenya’s exports

of technology-related services were a piffling 16 million dollars. By 2010 that had exploded to 360 million. To its boosters, Nairobi is “Silicon Savannah”. Kenya attracted up to half billion US dollars in investments in 2011, according to World Investment Report, but it has huge potential to catch more due to its attractive market, availability of low-cost labour and skills, the presence of natural resources and FDI-enabling infrastructure. Ethiopia, too, has been rapidly changing from offering hunger-related photo-ops with Irish rock stars ten years ago to rapidly growing

In June, Kenya’s minister Robinson Githae announced an increase in government spending of almost 25%. Further, the East African Community partner states have committed to removing all existing non-tariff barriers by end of this year. At last East-Africa is beginning to realise its energy potential. It is about time, as high energy costs are the biggest drag on East Africa’s economy. The good news is that both Kenya and Ethiopia participate in Business Facilitation Programs set up by UNCTAD, an UN body dealing with trade and development. These programs ensure that the regulatory and institutional environment facilitating investments and trade is up to the task.

Annual Mission to AsDB and IsDB he Canadian Council on Africa organizes a mission of strategic information at the headquarter of the African Development Bank in Tunis, Tunisia, and the Islamic Development Bank in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, end of November 2012.

T

The mission is proposed to Canadian companies, consultants, investors, financial institutions as well as education and training institutions. It aims to increase the business and collaboration with the African Development Bank and the Islamic Development Bank. This mission is organized in collaboration with the Canadian Embassies

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Why participate in this important mission? • During this period of economic crisis, the international institutions are changing their practices as they re-examine their priorities and their projects so it’s important for Canadians to be aware of the new orientations; • To benefit of a large number of meetings in a small period of time; of Tunis and Ryad, the Canadian Executive Director Office’s at AfDB and the Private and Public Partnership department of IsDB. The mission will provide the opportunity to learn more about the mechanisms of funding, (especially the mechanism to fund your infrastructure projects) the priority countries and sectors on the African continent, the criteria of eligibility for the beneficiary countries and the eligibility for businesses and consultants who wish to work on the projects of those two institutions. Individual meetings focussed on sectors of activity will be also on the program.

• To meet with key policy makers; • To have face to face meetings with the Canadian trade officers dedicated to the African markets; • To establish institutional links; • To learn about the Islamic Development Bank which finances and implements many projects in the African continent; • Because it’s important to be where the decisions are taken and it’s important to be known and trusted by the decision makers.


CCAfrica brings you to Mining Indaba

nvesting in African Mining Indaba” is an annual professional conference dedicated to the capitalisation and development of mining interests in Africa. Investing in African Mining Indaba is the world’s largest mining investment conference and the largest mining event in Africa. For 19 years, Investing in African Mining Indaba along with its partners in Africa have channeled billions of dollars of foreign investment into the mining value chain. Mining Indaba is the world’s largest gathering of mining’s most influential stakeholders and decision-makers vested in African mining. 2012 was a record breaking year, with more than 7,000 individuals representing more than 1,500 international

“I

companies from 100 countries and approximately 45 African and non-African government delegations. This is where the world connects with African mining. “I have attended numerous conferences, forums and expositions in the past 38 years as a buyer, exhibitor and speaker. Mining Indaba 2012 is the best conference as far as the caliber of the attendees and exhibitors that I have ever experienced. The level of executives at the exhibit stands was outstanding. The networking opportunities were also excellent. We met many people attending the conference just walking around. This was our first time to attend Mining Indaba and it will not be the last time. It would have taken us 3 to 5 years to make the contacts we did at the confer-

ence.” Roger M. Solomon, Global Consultant, Assa Abloy Hospitality - 2012 delegate The world’s largest gathering of the most influential stakeholders – financiers, investors, mining professionals, government officials, etc. in African mining. By attending Investing in African Mining Indaba, you will join an international, powerful group of industry professionals that make Cape Town, South Africa their preferred destination to conduct important business and make the vital relationships to sustain their investment interests. More than 7,000 of the most internationally-diversified and influential audience can be found at Investing in African Mining Indaba. Global professionals including key mining analysts, fund managers, investment specialists, and governments clearly define Mining Indaba as their preferred venue for obtaining the most current economic and mining developments from the world’s leading experts on African mining. It is held annually at the Cape Town International Convention Centre in Cape Town, South Africa and is organised by Mining Indaba LLC.

Nigerian Oil and Gas Show largest energy gatherings in Africa! At this venue, you will get to better understand the business culture of this country and to meet potential business partners from both Nigeria and more than 29 countries, including other African countries and beyond.

he Deputy High Commission of Canada in Lagos and the Canadian Council on Africa are proud to announce the organization of a mission to Nigeria, to take place during the 2013 Nigerian Oil and Gas Exhibition (NOG) in Abuja, Nigeria from February 18 - 21, 2013.

T

In addition to, or instead of, exhibiting in the show, delegates can use this

opportunity to explore other sectors of interest to them. We are particularly hopeful to encourage companies in the vocational or specialized training, environmental services or remediation industry (soil and water), the infrastructure and power sectors to join us. This mission is a great opportunity to shine and promote your enterprise or institution as well as expertise at one of the

This mission is for everyone who has an interest in exploring the truth about doing business in the second fastest growing African country and making the initial contacts to further their commercial strategy and plans. Business development reps, consultants, investors and vocational or specialized educators are all encouraged to join us. During this mission, we will be in both Abuja and Lagos, the commercial metropoles. Depending on the specific interests of the delegates, we will organize meetings with appropriate agencies as well as set up networking opportunities.

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 47


Africa Rising 2nd Edition: Infrastructure for the development of Africa infrastructure sector, financial institutions and international organizations that have an interest in infrastructure as an engine for African development. We encourage you to attend this important conference not only to explore new the opportunities emerging from the infrastructure sector but also to expand your professional network.

F

or this edition, CCAfrica has decided to innovate by addressing the topic of infrastructure as an engine for African development. The infrastructure sector is a key aspect of economic development in Africa. With the acceleration of economic growth in the continent, there

are new opportunities emerging for Canadian and Quebec companies. This conference will bring together a number of Canadian and African leaders from the private and public sector, including government officials, heads of large Canadian and Quebec corporations in the

The Canadian Council on Africa is the only pan-Canadian organization whose mission is to facilitate and promote investment and sustainable trade between Canadian and African public and private sectors. Our goal is to continue to be the leader among Canadian firms engaged in the economic development of a modern and globally competitive Africa by raising awareness among different stakeholders.

Services: daily Africa News Clipping, weekly Business Development and monthly African Indicators Africa News Clipping Service: An email service which details Africa’s economic news every business morning from various news sources across the world. The subscription includes: every business morning an email with news clippings relating to the business enviroment through-out the African continent.

The Business Development Service: A “member service” which reports international tenders bids and business opportunities from 54 African countries.

Monthly African Indicators: A graphical representation of statistical information gathered from various sources to give a snap-shot view of the economic situation across Africa. At the beginning of every month, a report of all articles from the previous month.

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Africa: Appeal for Private Sector to Help Meet Development Goals

May-06-12, 8:21:44 PM AllAfrica News more [IPS] Cape Town - African countries need the support from the private sector in order to meet by United Nations Millennium Development Goals targets 2015, which include important development and health like poverty reduction, and improved education. [http://allafrica.com/stories/201205070008.html]

Ethiopia: U.S. President Invites Zenawi to G8 Summit May-07-12, 12:15 AM AllAfrica News

Prime [Sudan Tribune] Addis Ababa - Ethiopia’s African Minister, Meles Zenawi, is one among few to leaders invited by US president Barack Obama food attend the upcoming G8 summit on Africa security.

[http://allafrica.com/stories/201205070057.html]

Libya: International trade fair on job opportunities May-06-12, 3:29 PM AfriqueEnLigne

- An Tripoli hosts int’l trade fair on job opportunities job international trade fair, designed to introduce Libyan and vocational training opportunities to the nal Internatio Tripoli the at Saturday began market, Fair, PANA reported. [ http : / / w w w. af r i qu e j e t . c om / i nt e r n at

i on a l -


U.S.-NIGERIA

Infrastructure Conference

BUILDING THE INFRASTRUCTURE FOR NIGERIA’S VISION 20:2020

Nigeria aims to become one of the top 20 largest world economies by the year 2020, with a GDP of US $900 Billion. Now is the time for U.S. private sector investment in Nigeria’s infrastructure.

ROADS

bridges

RAILWAYS Join The Corporate Council on Africa and the Embassy of Nigeria for a two-day U.S.-Nigeria Infrastructure Conference. This forum, themed Nigeria: Building the Infrastructure for Vision 20:2020, will feature ten Nigerian Ministers and eight State Governors as they present the development requirements and vast investment and contracting opportunities in Nigeria’s infrastructure sector. Don’t miss this opportunity to learn about new project opportunities, make connections and meet directly with Nigerian and U.S. government officials and decision makers.

ports

mines

Airports

Communications

HOUSING

WATER

OCTOBER 10-11, 2012

MARRIOTT WARDMAN PARK HOTEL WASHINGTON, DC

For more information and to register,

visit www.africacncl.org

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 00


Resource Guide

for African Expertise in Canada

CCAfrica frique years

10 ans

The Canadian Council on Africa has composed a Resource Guide for your convenience. Feel free to contact those companies, enterprises and organisations for your Africa-related business needs. If you would like to profile your company in our bilingual Resource Guide for African Expertise in Canada, feel free to send your 80-word-profile to CCAfrica. This is free for CCAfrica members! For non-member-fees please contact Chris Kianza.

Canadian Council on Africa Conseil Canadien pour l’Afrique

chris.kianza@ccafrica.ca.

ACCC, the national membership organization serving Canada’s 130 public colleges, cégeps and institutes, works with education and industry stakeholders in Tanzania, Mozambique, Sénégal, Nigeria, among others, to develop training programs that prepare learners for employment and self-employment. Building on the strengths of its members, Canada’s providers of advanced skills, and supported by CIDA, ACCC programs help build African capacity in labour market analysis, industry liaison, demand-driven curriculum development, teacher training, and responsive institutional leadership.

The Collège Communautaire of Nouveau-Brunswick is a Canadian Francophone postsecondary education institution (Bac+2). It offers over 90 programs in professional and technical training divided into sixteen groups (www.ccnb.nb.ca). The CCNB is active in the international scene and includes providing support services to analysis sector according to the skills approach (CPA), institutional strengthening, development of training programs, technical assessment organizational needs and developing partnerships in applied research.

www.accc.ca

www.ccnb.nb.ca

Jolicoeur Lacasse Avocats knows that to be established and to do business in Africa represents an extraordinary challenge and, in order to achieve such an endeavour, our legal services will be precious to you that they be provided in Québec, in Canada or in Africa. When surrounded by partners that know the legal and juridical culture, you significantly augment your chances of success. Our team will ensure that it puts itself forward as the link, as well as play the role of interface, between you and your partners.

Éducation internationale is a not-for-profit cooperative which belongs to the majority of Quebec’s Francophone and Anglophone school boards. It also includes several organizations, institutions and public and private colleges. The activities of Éducation internationale are organized into three departments; international mobility, international development and international recruitment. Éducation internationale makes available on the international stage more than 150 years of experience, excellence and ongoing innovations of education systems.

www.jolicoeurlacasse.com

www.education-internationale.com

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Resource Guide

for African Expertise in Canada

CESO (Canadian Executive Service Organization) is a leading Canadian volunteer-based development organization. Founded in 1967, we harness the expertise of leading Canadian executives and professionals to work in partnership with small and medium-sized enterprises, trade associations, government institutions, microfinance institutions, and civil society. Our volunteer advisors have completed thousands of assignments in almost 30 different countries throughout Africa, providing advisory services, training and mentoring ranging from single short-term projects to longer-term multi-faceted economic, governance and/or community development programs.

CANAC Railway Services Inc. is a creative, single-source provider of end-to-end integrated railroad solutions. We understand all aspects of rail, infrastructure, operations, logistics, rolling stock and training. We provide customized, distinctive and sustainable solutions to meet and exceed our customer’s expectations worldwide. We offer Engineering Services, Rail Operations and Capacity Planning, Mechanical Services, Training Development / Delivery, International Services and Railway Audits. In everything we do we value the highest professional, ethical and business standards.

www.ceso-saco.com

www.canac.com

CPCS is a global infrastructure advisory firm headquartered in Canada providing advisory services to public and private sector clients in emerging economies around the world. With offices and representation in Nairobi, Dar es Salaam, Kampala, Abuja and Lagos, CPCS continues to build a strong track record of turning ideas into plans and plans into successful projects. We work to unlock Africa’s productive capacity through the development of strategic infrastructure in the transport, power and urban development sectors.

Aviation Zenith Inc. exists since the year 2000 for any kind of project in Africa. Our mission has the full support of aeronautical products. Sales of Engines and accessories, spare parts, propeller and general revision, Pratt & Whitney turbine, rotables and consumables, Aircraft sales. Technical support and on-site technical support. Our mission is to meet all the needs of our customers with the least delay without compromising quality. We have a commercial department mastering the rules of international aeronautics trade.

www.cpcstrans.com

www.aviationzenith.com

AECOM is a global provider of professional technical and management support services to a broad range of markets, including transportation, facilities, environmental, energy, water and government. With approximately 45,000 employees around the world, AECOM is a leader in all of the key markets that it serves. AECOM provides a blend of global reach, local knowledge, innovation and technical excellence in delivering solutions that create, enhance and sustain the world’s built, natural and social environments. A Fortune 500 company, AECOM serves clients in more than 130 countries.

The Panafrican Group is a leading full-service provider of construction and mining equipment solutions in 5 countries: Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. Employing 300 people, it is the exclusive distributor of Komatsu equipment, the world’s second largest manufacturers of Construction, Mining, and Utility Equipment globally, with a reputation for quality and reliability. Panafrican also distributes Sakai compaction equipment, Pirtek fluid transfer solutions and Hensley GET.

www.aecom.com

www.panafricangroup.com THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 51


Resource Guide

for African Expertise in Canada

Kestrel Capital is the leading stockbroker on the Nairobi Stock Exchange, and one of the largest traders of fixedincome in Kenya. Its focus on providing excellent research and infrastructure to its clients has resulted in a greater than 50% market share of foreign and local institutional investors. Kestrel has also received several awards as the “Best Stockbroker in Kenya”. Kestrel also is recognized as a leading corporate finance advisory, having advised on some of Kenya’s most prominent M&A advisory mandates and capital raisings.

MEDA – Mennonite Economic Development Associates – is an international NGO founded in 1953 that provides technical expertise in subsector and value chain analysis, market linkages, financial services, health systems, and financial institution capacity development. MEDA’s expertise cuts across sectors, working with vulnerable and underserved populations like youth, low-income women, and rural populations. Through innovative international development, MEDA provides a future for families and whole communities, working to enrich, encourage and assist individuals and their families in improving their standard of living.

www.kestrelcapital.com

www.meda.org

Sarona Asset Management Inc. “Sarona is a private equity firm, investing growth capital in companies and private equity funds in frontier and emerging markets around the world. Our particular focus is the small to mid-market companies that meet the growing needs of the rising middle class in those markets. Our goal is to achieve superior returns by creating world class companies employing highly progressive business strategies, and operating to the highest standards of business, ethical, social and environmental excellence.

Contacts Monde exists since 1998 and is a result of the collaboration of two international experts, Isabelle Limoges and Karl Miville-de Chêne, who are working in the international field since for more than 25 years. Our team includes three full-time people as well as various associates, according to the present records. Our services: Consultation in marketing and market development, training in trade and international processes, support to export promotion organisations and recruitment of specialized personnel in international trade. Our customers : companies and export promotion organizations.

Sarona has developed a wealth of experience and knowledge through 60 years of private investments in frontier markets.”

www.saronafund.com

www.contactsmonde.com

Kenya Fluorspar Company is one of the largest global producers of acid-grade fluorspar, which is utilised in the production of Hydrofluoric Acid and Aluminum Fluoride. Located in Kenya’s Kerio Valley, the company has over 350 employees and 270 contractors. KFC is one of Kenya’s largest mines and one of its largest earners of foreign exchange. KFC maintains a strong relationship with its local community and provides numerous services including housing, medical facilities, free water supply, schools, sports and leisure facilities.

AnyWay Solid Environmental Solutions Ltd. is a global leader in providing soil stabilization products to the infrastructure and development sectors. Our products are based on a unique technology patented worldwide.AnyWay is a subsidiary of The Metrontario Group of companies, an established real estate developer and entrepreneurial investor active since 1946. AnyWay’s commitment is to provide comprehensive, innovative, cost-effective solutions through soil stabilization. Our products have been successfully implemented in road, infrastructure and low cost housing projects using both mechanized and labour-intensive means.

www.kenyafluorspar.com 52 /// WWW.CCAFRICA.CA

www.anywaysolutions.com


Resource Guide

for African Expertise in Canada

Groupe Haus Inc. provides world-class business, industrial and engineering consulting services. Our group has the expertise and resources to drive your business projects forward in any sector. Groupe Haus Inc. in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada carry on multi-disciplinary business in the area of oil and gas, engineering, procurement, research & development, construction management, project management, quality management, property management, manpower supply, IT and consulting. The company has a network of technical partners in USA, Canada, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia, etc. We have African subsidiaries in Ghana and Nigeria.

Export Development Canada is Canada’s export credit agency, offering financial and risk management solutions to help Canadian businesses expand into the international market. Our job is to support and develop Canada’s export trade by helping Canadian companies respond to international business opportunities. We provide insurance and financial services, bonding products and small business solutions to Canadian exporters and investors and their international buyers. We support Canadian direct investment abroad. We work in cooperation with other financial institutions and through collaboration with the government of Canada.

www.groupehaus.com

www.edc.ca

Visas. Legalization. Translation. Global Visa Services assists business travellers, travel agencies, public employees, diplomats, international aid organisations, tourists and students with current visa information as well as instructions and application documents prior to their travels. We offer comprehensive service covering everything from information and representation for visas to legalization and certification of documents. Our services will be offered to CCAfrica members at special reduced rates.

For over 42 years Aquaculture Consulting Service Inc. has been involved in aquaculture in the Americas, Asia, Europe and Africa. by developing master plans, designing and operating varied aquaculture site: salmon, tilapia, shrimp, etc..

www.globalvisaservices.ca

aquaculture.asc@sympatico.ca

Lucid Africa Consulting Inc. is an Africa-focused advisory firm that provides customized, indepth research and analysis on country economics, political risk, industries, and value chains. The CEO, David Shiferaw, has consulted for a wide array of institutions including UNECA’s Africa Trade Policy Centre, the World Bank, and Eurasia Group. His recent consultancies include analytical work on Ethiopia, Kenya, Ghana, Mali, Congo-Brazzaville, Madagascar and Angola.

Canadian Commercial Corporation is the international contracting and procurement agency of the Government of Canada. CCC leverages its international contracting expertise to open complex government procurement markets for Canadian exporters. CCC increases trade by helping governments in Africa and around the world access Canadian products and expertise through the negotiation and execution of bilateral procurement arrangements. In 2011-12, CCC signed $1.8 billion in export contracts with governments around the world.

www.lafrica.ca

www.ccc.ca

Lucid Africa Consulting Inc

ASC Inc. has operated in Canada since 30 years two major Fish Farms: a Fish processing plant (HACCP) and a Fishfeed distribution Company, combining proven expertise in consultation with the realism of commercial aquaculture production.

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 53


NEW MEMBER

Is virtual training a solution to improve the

competitiveness of enterprises in Africa?

Teddy Ngou Milama It is commonly accepted that training plays an important role in the competitiveness of organizations. Making a choice to outsource its training could be due to the lack of skills within the organization and the cost control. In Africa, this is an issue particularly exciting as organizations face:

However, Internet should be used “with caution because it alters the relationship between the trainer and the learner, the latter having a control, a greater responsibility in the knowledge acquisition. It also requires the trainer to have better intercultural skills as the interns are potentially from varied cultures. These few ethical issues must be carefully considered by organizations before making the choice of e-learning.

1) an inadequately trained workforce, 2) a shortage of labour in some sectors (for example mining, petrochemical, etc.), and 3) a lack of specialized training institutions.

If companies take care of integrating these issues they will allow their employees to optimize the knowledge acquisition, while maintaining minimally their competitiveness and even increasing it.

Moreover, the encouraging economic conditions of the continent (6% average growth rate for over 10 years) inevitably push the companies to invest in training of their employees to remain competitive in the market.

In your opinion, what are the other difficulties that may face organizations in using e-learning? What do you think of virtual training as a competitiveness solution for companies in Africa?

Is internet a solution for organizations in Africa? Internet when used as a channel of knowledge transmission provides particularly interesting answer to these questions insofar as it reduces the costs of logistics while reaching a larger number of trainees, and addresses the issues of training programs availability. Furthermore, regarding the effectiveness of e-learning, some studies show that there are no substantial differences between distance learning versus traditional teaching1.

54 /// WWW.CCAFRICA.CA

Author Teddy Ngou Milama is the CEO of Affutjob and the CEO of Dialethik

1Chute, A.G.; Thompson; M.M., and Hancock, B.W., “The McGraw-

Hill Handbook of Distance Learning” and Editions McGraw-Hill, New York, N.Y. 1999, “Online business education in the twentyfirst century”


NEW MEMBER

MGS Energy Group is a technical consulting firm that offers services related to energy efficiency, power generation, the use of alternative energy generating sources and efficient storage sources. MGS services help customers optimize their energy consumption whether it be from conventional energy sources such as diesel or electrical grids. We provide energy efficiency audits, technical and financial feasibility studies for power generation system enhancements. MGS’ team has worked in Africa in the past on turnkey engineering projects for oil and gas customers such Sonatrach in Algeria. The projects were for electrical engineering, automation and control and project management services. Within Africa, our team has completed several projects in Algeria, in Morocco, Nigeria. One of the goals MGS has is to help large industrial customers that use substantial amounts of energy, such as mining companies, help enhance their bottom line by reducing energy costs.

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 55


CCAFRICA MEMBERS Over 150 and growing!

Corporate Members Access Nigeria Consulting Inc. Affutjob African Gold Group Afrique Expansion Mag Agriteam Canada Consulting Ltd. Aksa Management Ltd. Alberta International and Intergovernmental Relations AMIS International Agriculture Consulting Inc. Anyway Solid Environmental Solutions Ltd. AO Global Inc. Aquaculture Service Conseil Asc. Association of Canadian Community Colleges Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada AVC Canada Corp. Aviation Zenith Inc. Babalola,Odeleye, Barristers & Solicitors Banro Corp. Barrick Gold Corporation Bata Shoe Organisation Black Business Initiative Bombardier Inc Bridge Renewable Energy Technologies Broccolini Construction Business Club Algéro-Canadien (BCAC) Caisse Populaire Desjardins Mercier-Rosemont Canac International Inc. Canada Export Centre Canadian and African Business women’s Alliance (CAABWA) Canadian Association of Mining Equipment and Services Export (CAMESE) Canadian Bank Note, Limited Canadian Commercial Corporation Canadian Manufacturers & Exporters Carleton University, International Relations Office Cask Brewing Systems Inc. Cégep de Trois-Rivières Cégep international CEMEQ International Centre de Formation Professionnelle Val-Dor Chambre de Commerce de Québec Chantier d’Afrique du Canada (CHAFRIC) CHC Helicopter CIMA International Inc Clark Sustainable Resources Developments Ltd. Collège Boréal COMAEK Oil & Gaz Corporation Concordia University Consortium for International Development in Education Consultation Contacts Monde Cordiant Cowater International Inc. CPCS CRC Sogema inc. Data & Scientific Inc. Data-Line Management Group Inc.

56 /// WWW.CCAFRICA.CA

Davier Consultants Inc. Deepak Dave Delisys Delivery System Dessau International Development Parnerships Développement international Desjardins Direct Lab International Inc. (Genacol) Distribution R. Desilets E.T Jackson and Associates Ecole nationale d’administration publique Éditions L’artichaut inc Education internationale EMFG: Emerging Markets Financial Group (Canada) Inc. Fondation Paul Gerin-Lajoie Found Aircraft Canada Inc. Freebalance Inc. Genivar Global Thermoelectric Globallinc Inc. Globaltronica Corporation Golder Associates Ltd. Groupe Haus Inc. HABICO Planning + Architecture Ltd. Heenan Blaikie Hickling International Ltd. Holland Water Wells IAMGold Corporation IMW Industries Ltd. Industrial Promotion Services Ltd. Informatique Documentaire Edition Electronique (IDEE) Innovision International Road Dynamics International Visa Passport Service Corp. Jacobs Consultancy Joli-Coeur Lacosse S.E.N.C.R.L. JR InterTrade Inc. Karipur Inc Kestrel Capital Management Corp. La cité collégiale Lasena Investments (Canada) Inc. M & I Heat Transfer Products Ltd. Magellan MagIndustries Corp. Manitoba Hydro International Mecaniflo Nexen Inc. North American Grain Corporation Northern Lights Franchise Consultants Nova Scotia Community College Orezone Resources Oromine Explorations Ltd. PharmAfrican Planet Africa Television Procept Nigeria Promo Invest International Raytheon Canada Ltd. Rio Tinto Alcan Rizwan Haider

Sarona Asset Management Inc. Sasktel International Seneca Serge Teupe Setym International Inc. Sherritt International Corporation SNC-Lavalin International South African Airways Startrust Multi-Dynamics Inc. Surya Ventures Corp. T.M.S. Tecsult AECOM TFI Global Inc. TFO Canada Triton Logging Inc. Tronnes Surveys University of Calgary, International Relations Of University of Ottawa University of Victoria Vangold Resources Ltd. Versascor International VYOP Global Concept Ltd. WDH Company Whiterabbit Resources Ltd. WNL Development Solutions Ltd. Zavic Realty Ltd. / Zavik Ventures Ltd.

Associate Members Alberta International, Intergovernmental and Aboriginal Relations Canadian Commercial Corporation Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada Export Development Canada Ministry of Economic Development, Innovation and Export Trade - Quebec Natural Resources Canada New Brunswick Department of Intergovernmental Affairs Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and Trade (MEDT)

Affiliated African Members Business Club Algero-Canadien (BCAC) Canada Business Association- Ghana Evergreen Supermarkets Fédération des Chambres de Commerce de Madagascar Fédération des Entreprises du Congo Mali Chamber of Commerce Nigerian Economic Summit Group Rwanda Development Board Tanzania Chamber of Commerce, Industry& Agriculture


The Canadian Council on Africa: Realising Your African Dreams What can CCAfrica do for your organization, be it a private company, an NGO or a college? 1. Great networking opportunity. In the multiple events we organize all year round, we bring the key decision players in one room to discuss what Canada can do in Africa-front. Presenters from the fast-rising African countries tell you the African story from the local perspective. 2. Business Development Service. We of-

fer weekly collection of tenders, requests for proposals and opportunities in Africa. 3. News Clippings Service. In order to help you keep up to date with African events, we offer a collection of news which arrives in your e-mail box every day around noon. 4. The Rising Africa magazine. As your advocates, we accept your news to showcase your African projects and successes in our magazine. Please contact us should you wish to reach out to the audience of over

25,000 people. 5. Monthly African Indicators. On a monthly basis, we compose an overview of visualized data, be these economic, financial or development related facts. 6. Missions to African countries. Last but not least, we welcome you to join our delegations seeking out opportunities in Africa for your organization or a company.

THE RISING AFRICA MAGAZINE /// 57


In an emergency, we’re there to help. Barrick Gold has Emergency Response Teams at our mine sites all over the world. So when disaster strikes, our people are often on the move. In just the last few years Barrick’s Emergency Response Teams have been on the ground following devastating earthquakes in Chile and Haiti, a plane crash in Papua New Guinea, and many more situations where expert help is needed quickly. Barrick’s objective is every person going home safe and healthy every day. Trained in everything from fire fighting to first aid, our Emergency Response Teams are on standby, no matter when they might be needed.

www.barrick.com www.barrickresponsibility.com www.barrickbeyondborders.com 00 /// WWW.CCAFRICA.CA

The Rising Africa October 2012  

Since the release of our revamped CCAfrica Newsletter in December and our most recent transformation to a Magazine format this spring, our C...

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