Issuu on Google+

SELACHIMORPHA

1 SELACHIMORPHA


ABOUT

selachimorpha the scientific name for Sharks are a group of fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head. sharks are a beautiful animal in the sea with over 470 species they range in all different sizes from 17 centimeters to 41 feet.

2 SELACHIMORPHA


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Top Shark Movies................. Infamous Shark Attacks........... Becoming Endangered.............. Shark Finning.................... Bycatch.......................... Programs in Place................ Shark Week....................... Jacques Cousteau................. Damien Hirst.....................

4 6 13 14 15 16 17 19 22

3 SELACHIMORPHA


TOP SHARK Deep Blue Sea 1999

Searching for a cure to Alzheimer’s disease a group of scientists on an isolated research facility becomethe bait as a trio of intelligent sharks fight back.

Shark Attack 3- Megalodon 2002

When two researchers discover a colossal shark’s tooth off the Mexican coast their worst fears surface - the most menacing beast to ever rule the waters is still alive and mercilessly feeding on anything that crosses its path.

Jaws 1975-1983

When a gigantic great white shark begins to menace the small island community of Amity, a police chief, a marine scientist and grizzled fisherman set out to stop it.

4 SELACHIMORPHA


K MOVIES Open Water 2003

Based on the true story of two scuba divers accidentally stranded in shark infested waters after their tour boat has left.

Raging Sharks 2005

Doctor Mike Olsen returns from his oceanic observation station, where his wife Linda feels in charge, when it’s reported in desperate trouble after a sudden shark attack wrecked the oxygen supply. The accompanying ship and even the coast guard are also attacked, and soon other sites in and around the Bermuda triangle. The US Navy sends a submarine, which also carries bureaucrat who berates safety and other violations aboard. More dangers lurk inside as getting out proves physically daunting.

Mega Shark Versus Giant Octopus 2009

The California coast is terrorized by two enormous prehistoric sea creatures as they battle each other for supremacy of the sea.

5 SELACHIMORPHA


INFAMOUS SH 10 MOST DANGEROUS PLACES FOR SHARK ATTACKS 10. Papua New Guinea 9. South Carolina 8. California 7. Brazil 6. Brevard County, Flordia 5. Queensland, Australia 4. Hawaii 3. New South Wales, Australia 2. South Africa 1. Volusia County, Flordia

6 SELACHIMORPHA


HARK ATTACKS Jersey shore, 1916

Arguably the most famous shark attacks in history resulted in four dead and one injured, probably at the hands of a great white or bull shark, over a ten-day period. Why the notoriety? The spate of attacks is thought to have inspired the film Jaws.

Matawan Creek, New Jersey, 1916

Just a week after the Jersey shore attacks a 12-year-old boy was killed by a great white in Matawan Creek, prompting a shark hunt by local men. It claimed another victim and wounded a third before being caught, and when cut open the shark was found to contain 15lb (7kg) of human flesh and bone. 7 SELACHIMORPHA


U.S.S. Indianapolis, 1945

Oceanic whitetip sharks are held to be responsible for the deaths of hundreds of sailors stranded at sea after the U.S.S. Indianapolis was torpedoed. Between 600 and 800 sailors lost their lives but it is not known how many died from exposure and how many from shark attacks.

Brook Watson, 1749

The first known survivor of a shark attack was 14-yearold Brook Watson, a crew member of a trading ship who was twice attacked while swimming in the harbour of Havana, Cuba. His shipmates saved his life, but the shark took his foot and he later had his leg amputated. Watson went on to become an MP, the Lord Mayor of London, and to be featured in one of the most enduring images of a shark attack, Watson and the Shark by John Singleton Copley, who witnessed the event.

8 SELACHIMORPHA


Rodney Fox, 1953

Fox, an Australian spearfishing champion, was defending his title when he was attacked by a great white which took him around his waist in its jaws. After an epic struggle he was released. He is the bestknown survivor of a shark attack simply because of the extent of his injuries, which required four hours of surgery and 360 stitches, and his miraculous survival.

Bethany Hamilton, 2003

One of America’s highest-ranked s u r f e r s , 13-year-old Bethany Hamilton, lost her arm in an attack by a tiger shark in Hawaii in 2003. She was undeterred by her injury and defied the effect it had on her balance to win a national surfing title in 2005. 9 SELACHIMORPHA


Barry Wilson, 1952

Another case that surely influenced the makers of Jaws, 17-year-old Barry Wilson was killed as he swam with a friend off the shore of Pacific Grove, California, in front of scores of witnesses. One saw him jerk suddenly before being pulled from side to side. The shark then lifted him completely out of the water before dragging him under.

Lloyd Skinner, 2010

A shark described as “dinosaur huge” and “longer than a minibus” killed tourist Lloyd Skinner as he swam neck-deep just yards from the shore of a beach in Cape Town, South Africa. The shark, thought to be a great white, twice pulled him under water, leaving behind no trace of the victim except a pool of blood and his swimming goggles.

10 SELACHIMORPHA


Henri Bource, 1964

In one of the first attacks captured on film, Henri Bource was swimming with two other divers off the coast of Australia when a great white pounced and bit off his leg. His colleagues saved his life by dragging him to safety and giving first aid. Bource later claimed he tried to free himself by gouging the shark’s eyes and ramming his arm down its throat.

w, 2010

A spate of attacks at the Red Sea resort was thought to have ended when two sharks were captured, and the beaches were reopened. The following day a 70-yearold German woman was killed as she snorkelled close to the shore. The attacks were thought to have been prompted by the dumping of a dead sheep from a ship.

11 SELACHIMORPHA


Shark Attack Survivors enjoy eachothers company.

Paul de Gelder bethany hamilton

12 SELACHIMORPHA


BECOMING ENDANGERED Sharks are endangered because of threats that are the result of human activities including shark finning and getting caught in fishing gear. These are apex predators (at the top of the food chain) and play an important role in the health of the oceans. Without them, the entire food chain can be affected, negatively impacting the entire ecosystem. Sharks are long-lived, mature late, and produce few young making them especially vulnerable to exploitation.

13 SELACHIMORPHA


SHARK FINNING/ COMMERCIAL FISHING

The biggest threat to sharks, skates, and rays is the overfishing and over-consumption of their meat, fins, and cartilage. Shark fins are particularly sought after for traditional Chinese medicine and shark fin soup which is considered a delicacy in Asia. Commercial shark-finning is a practice where sharks are caught and their fins are cut off, then the body of the shark is discarded. Shark finning kills an estimated 100 million or more sharks globally per year.

14 SELACHIMORPHA


BYCATCH

Bycatch in commercial fisheries is also a major threat. Bycatch is the unintentional capture of a non-target species. Fisheries targeting tuna and billfish in particular have a high impact on sharks. Rays and skates are also under threat from unintentional capture in commercial fisheries. They are greatly impacted by bottom trawl fisheries as they are mainly bottom dwellers. Bottom dwelling sharks are also impacted by this fishery.

15 SELACHIMORPHA


PROGRAMS IN PLACE Our trips and expeditions benefit several shark conservation organizations, including: Foundation for the Protection of Marine Megafauna: Created to research, protect and conserve the large populations of marine megafauna found along the Mozambican coastline. ECOCEAN: The ECOCEAN Whale Shark Photo-identification Library is a visual database of whale shark encounters and of individually catalogued whale sharks. The library is maintained and used by marine biologists to collect and analyse whale shark encounter data to learn more about these amazing creatures. Wildlife Conservation Society (Belize): To assess and promote the conservation of the marine environment of Belize, WCS founded the Glover’s Reef Marine Reserve Station. OTHER PROGRAMS IN PLACE Shark Advocates International SeaStewards (San Francisco) Pretoma Shark Conservation Program (Costa Rica)

16 SELACHIMORPHA


SHARK WEEK Every Night, Beginning August 4, at 11|10C SHARK AFTER DARK is Discovery’s first ever latenight live talk show that will be featured each evening during SHARK WEEK. Comedian Josh Wolf will lead viewers through an hour-long celebration of all things shark-related that will include celebrity guests, shark experts and shark attack survivors, among others. Wolf will also look back at some of the highlights from the past 26 years of SHARK WEEK, and look ahead to give viewers a sneak peek at the next day’s SHARK WEEK programs. The show will also give viewers the first opportunity to interact live on-air every night with tweets, questions to the shark experts and more.

Sunday, August 4, at 8|7C Air Jaws programming has pushed and expanded our understanding of Great Whites sharks and has become one of the iconic SHARK WEEK programs. In AIR JAWS: BEYOND THE BREACH, a documentary crew goes behind the scenes to see how Air Jaws has changed what we know about these incredible creatures and to give SHARK WEEK viewers a sneak peek into the next Air Jaws special, Finding Colossus, which will air during SHARK WEEK 2014

17 SELACHIMORPHA


Tuesday, August 6, at 9|8C I ESCAPED JAWS is another SHARK WEEK first as we utilize riveting real shark attack footage captured by eye-witnesses to examine harrowing firsthand accounts from everyday people who stared into the jaws of a shark and survived. These survivors used their wits and experience and all lived to share their chilling stories. Shannon Ainslie faced three Great White sharks throughout his lifetime. 18 SELACHIMORPHA

Wednesday, August 7, at 9|8C and Nicole Moore, a nurse, lost her arm in an attack while vacationing in Mexico and saved her own life by instructing those on the beach on how to treat her wounds. Australian Navy Diver Paul de Gelder relied on his experience as a diver to survive after a shark bit off both his arm and leg.

This special updates the international shark attack files for the 21st century and takes a close look at the sharks you don’t want to meet this summer -- and the ones you’re most likely to encounter. From the weird - the feisty cookie cutter, which bites cookie-shaped circles out of its prey; to the macabre, like the Sand Tiger, whose cannibalistic young devour each other in the womb, to the infamous – Great Whites, Tiger Sharks and Bull Sharks – TOP 10 SHARKDOWN ranks these amazing predators.


JACQUES COUSTEAU The Cousteau Society Founded in 1973 by Captain JacquesYves Cousteau, the Society has more than 50,000 members worldwide. Under the leadership of President Francine Cousteau, the Society continues the unique explorations and observations of ecosystems throughout the world that have helped millions of people understand and appreciate the fragility of life on our Water Planet.

Half a century of protecting water systems has expanded to embrace a wide variety of programs to encourage communities to achieve sustainable harmony with Nature as the Cousteau Label program. Headquartered in Hampton, Virginia, the Society welcomes members and visitors to its gallery of photos and artefacts from a half-century of expeditions. A membership-supported, not for profit environmental

education organization, the Society is dedicated to the protection and improvement of the quality of life for present and future generations.

19 SELACHIMORPHA


SCUBA GEAR “The Impossible missions are the only ones that succeed.” JACQUES COUSTEAU

20 SELACHIMORPHA

Jacques-Yves Cousteau was born on June 11, 1910, in Saint-André-de-Cubzac (Gironde) in France. He entered the naval academy in 1930, was graduated and became a gunnery officer. Then, while he was training to be a pilot, a serious car accident ended his aviation career. So it was the ocean that would win this adventurer’s soul. In 1936, near the port of Toulon, he went swimming underwater with goggles. It was a breath-taking revelation. Seeking a way to explore underwater longer and more freely, he developed, with engineer Emile Gagnan, the Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus, or scuba, in 1943, and the world under the sea was opened up to human beings. After World War II, Cousteau, along with naval officer Philippe Tailliez and diver Frédéric Dumas, became known as the “ mousquemers “ (“ musketeers of the sea “) as they carried out diving experiments in the sea and laboratory. In 1950, Calypso, a former mine-sweeper, was modified into an oceanographic vessel, endowed with instruments for diving and scientific research, and the great adventure began. She and her crews explored the seas and rivers of the world for the next four decades.


Diving saucers, undersea houses and ongoing improvements to the AquaLungTM showed the Cousteau touch. With Professor Lucien Malavard and engineer Bertrand Charrier, Cousteau studied how to design a new complementary wind-power system, the Turbosail™, and, in 1985, the ship Alcyone was launched, using the new invention. Today, she is the Cousteau team’s expedition vessel.

“The Sea, once it casts its spell, holds one in its net of wonder forever.” JACQUES COUSTEAU

21 SELACHIMORPHA


DAMIEN HIRST is an English artist, entrepreneur and art collector. He is the most prominent member of the group known as the Young British Artists (or YBAs), who dominated the art scene in Britain during the 1990s. He is internationally renowned, and is reportedly Britain’s richest living artist, with his wealth valued at £215m in the 2010 Sunday Times Rich List. During the 1990s his career was closely linked with the collector Charles Saatchi, but increasing frictions came to a head in 2003 and the relationship ended.

22 SELACHIMORPHA


Death is a central theme in Hirst’s works. He became famous for a series of artworks in which dead animals (including a shark, a sheep and a cow) are preserved — sometimes having been dissected — in formaldehyde. The best known of these being The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living, a 14-foot (4.3 m) tiger shark immersed in formaldehyde in a vitrine (clear display case).

In September 2008, he took an unprecedented move for a living artist by selling a complete show, Beautiful Inside My Head Forever, at Sotheby’s by auction and by - passing his longstanding galleries. The auction exceeded all predictions, wwraising £111 million ($198 million), breaking the record for a one-artist auction as well as Hirst’s own record with £10.3 million for The Golden Calf, an animal with 18-carat gold horns and hooves, preserved in formaldehyde.

23 SELACHIMORPHA


SELACHIMORPHA

24 SELACHIMORPHA


Selachimorpha by Raiana Fonte