Colonial period in Costa Rica
Colonial period , century: XVI-XVIII The exploration of the modern world began with the discovery of a new world, in the year of 1492.
The colonial period It extends from 1575 (when the limits of the territory that Costa Rica would occupy and pacification of the indigenous people of the Central Valley is established) until October 19, 1821, with the swearing in of independence and the events that give rise to life independent of our country.
In colonial society, the Spaniards imposed their laws, language and religion on the Indians. The laws were enacted, and economic production was organized in favor of the Spaniards.
The foundations were planned with a spirit of permanence; There was the mixture of races and culture between the original inhabitants of our lands and the Europeans.
Colonial Costa Rica During the colony, Costa Rica was characterized by isolation (almost abandonment) and lack of financial resources. Poverty was a typical element of our colonial period, especially during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Many Spaniards had to cultivate to survive because Costa Rica did not have large mineral wealth that could be exploited or with numerous indigenous groups to work the land.
The poverty lived by the province of Costa Rica in the colonial years was projected on daily life. The majority of the population did not know how to read or write. For most of the inhabitants, life had no luxuries, and their needs were solved with the resources that were in the middle.
By 1573 little progress had been made in the colonization of Costa Rican territory. However, in the two following years changes occurred that marked the transition from the period of the Conquest to that of the Colony. The native culture was displaced by that of the Spaniards. They founded cities of straw ranches, with small populations.
Costa Rica was a governorate. Its territory extended from the Tempisque River (in the North Pacific) and the San Juan River (in the North Caribbean zone), and from there to Bocas del Toro (currently in Panama) and the Chiriqui River.
The territory of the Governorate of Costa Rica was part of the Audiencia of Guatemala (also known as the "General Captaincy of Guatemala").
The Audiencia of Guatemala was composed of what is now Central America; that is, by Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. The General Captaincy of Guatemala was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, based in Mexico, but in practice, could make its decisions without directly depending on the viceroy.
The governor of Costa Rica depended on the orders that the King of Spain sent to the General Captaincy of Guatemala.
This is how Costa Rica was organized For each group of people who lived in a certain place, there was the Cabildo, a kind of "municipality or town hall". The cabildo was one of the first institutions of local organization; it was formed only by the encomenderos. The encomenderos were people who had better economic and social conditions than the rest of the inhabitants; they had been assigned indigenous groups in encomienda.
The cabildo had mayors and aldermen who were chosen from among the group of people who had founded the city. The function of the council was to order the problems and make decisions about the people who inhabited their territory.
The laws that governed the councils were imprecise until 1812, date in which their functions were established within the Constitution of Cádiz, which constituted the basic law with which Spain governed America. The first town hall was Castillo de Garcimuñoz (founded by Juan de Cavallón in 1561).
The capital of Costa Rica during the colony was Cartago.
In Costa Rica during the colony, there were several social classes marked by the color of the skin and the culture to which they belonged and by the place of origin, but the mixture of all of them came to give as a result the current population of our country.
The colonist or peninsular, criollos, mestizos, indigenous, blacks. The mixtures of these different groups of people gave rise to other social groups that had greater or lesser privileges, depending on their relations with the peninsulares and with the Creoles. As the color of her skin became clearer, her social and economic situation was better.
Education in Costa Rica during the colonial era had little development. The Spanish priests were dedicated to the teaching of the Spanish language and to evangelize the natives to the Catholic religion. They used two texts for teaching: the primer and the Cato. It was clear that not everyone had the opportunity to study, but, if someone could continue studying, he had to move to Leรณn de Nicaragua, San Carlos in Guatemala or to Europe.
Later, the schools that only men could attend were opened. On the contrary, women should not learn to read or write because, at that time, they were only engaged in housework.
The period of the conquest extends from 1502 to 1575, in Costa Rica. The contact period has two phases: the first one goes from 1502 to 1543, and there are coastal expeditions (departing from Santo Domingo and Panama); towns of short duration are founded. The second phase of contact or conquest covers from 1543 to 1575. In this period there are expeditions to mainland and continental. In addition, more stable and better planned towns are founded, such as Cartago, a city founded in 1565 by Vรกzquez de Coronado.
Some important facts of the colony 1561 Juan de Cavallón penetrated the national territory and founded the city of Castillo de Garcimuñoz. 1564 to 1565: Juan Vázquez de Coronado moved the municipality of Garcimuñoz to the valley of El Guarco and named it Cartago. 1575: The limits that would govern the government of Costa Rica and the indigenous people of the Central Valley are pacified.
1594: There is news of the first school in Cartago, attended by the presbyter Diego de Aguilar. 1709: The cacique Pablo Presbere revolts to almost all the indigenous towns of Talamanca 1737: Foundation of the city of San José (according to criteria of the Academy of History of Costa Rica).
1808: The King of Spain ordered that Costa Rica appoint a deputy for the Cortes of Cádiz. 1813: The presbyter Florencio del Castillo was elected president before the Cortes of Cádiz. 1814: The House of Teaching of Santo Tomás was established. 1821 (September 15): The city of Guatemala proclaimed independence; this date has been adopted by the countries of Central America as the date of Independence. 1821 (October 13): The act of independence and the act of the Diputación de León, (Nicaragua), arrived in Cartago.
This is a summary about the colonial period in costa rica . Kimberly Brenes Ledezma.