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Shifting Gears: A Guide to School-Based Bike Share By PLACE January, 2011


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Forward Portland is renowned throughout the United States as a city where people bike and walk. As the city strives to balance the needs of its transportation system into the future, active transportation will play an ever-more important role. Making it safer and more attractive for people to walk and ride their bikes helps us accommodate growth in the metro area without creating more traffic. Our residents will be healthier, our communities will become more tightly knit, and we will move closer to reaching our carbon emission reduction goals. In this context, the PLACE Team at Caitlin Gabel School has demonstrated that they understand the key transportation issues facing the city – and they have provided a thoughtful analysis of bike sharing systems that will help Portland move this important innovation forward.!! -Sam Adams, Mayor of Portland Oregon


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Table of Contents Executive Summary…………………………………………………………3 Introduction………………………………………………………….………. 5 Who Are We…………………………………………………………………..6 Project Context.……………………………………………………………...7 Methodology……………………………………………………………….11 Findings..…………………………………………………………………….17 Recommendations..………………………………………………………32 How To: Bike Share 101.…………………………………………………..43 Appendices.………………………………………………………………..57


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Executive Summary We, PLACE (Planning and Leadership Across City Environments) are students working with a client, TriMet. Our goal is to create a comprehensive last-mile bike-share plan to be implemented across a variety of environments, beginning with a pilot program at the Catlin Gabel School (CGS). Through extensive research of the CGS community as well as of comparable programs worldwide, we are able to make recommendations relevant not only to CGS, but to other communities and institutions looking to expand their own transportation options. Methodology: ! To begin, we needed to research different examples of bike-share programs from around the world. While incorporating different aspects of other systems, we focused on making our project feasible for the CGS community. ! Our next step was to gather information from students and faculty at CGS, as well as from experts in the field of bike-sharing. This involved conducting interviews and focus groups over a two-week period of time. ! We also created an online survey for students and faculty in the CGS Upper School to take, in order to gather data from a larger sample than the sample gathered in focus groups.


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Executive Summary: Continued Findings: ! Through focus groups, interviews, and surveys relating to CGS we found that over 85% of people surveyed thought the program would fit well with the Catlin culture. Yet we also found that the program could work better if applied elsewhere, due primarily to the geography and environment of the area around our school. ! We found through research of comparable programs that the start-up costs would be higher than the operating income, and thus could take a long time to find a balancing point. ! We found that the majority of the CGS student population wouldn’t participate in bike share program due to inaccessibility and school possessions (backpacks, books). Yet if incentives were included such as tokens for food, or a P.E credit, more would use the program. Recommendations: ! The goal of our recommendations was to create a replicable bike share program, starting with a pilot at Catlin. ! Our recommendations focused around two key problem areas: ! Safety/Education: Problem: The road between CGS and the Sunset Transit Center is crowded and not adequately designed for biking. As the program deals with young students, safety is not only the concern of the bikers, but also of parents, teachers, etc. Solution: All participants in the program will attend a training session, consent to always wearing a helmet and receive parental consent before participating. ! Awareness/Advertising: Problem: Members of the CGS community are unfamiliar with bike sharing and our plan in particular. Additionally, families have a comfortable method of transportation to and from school and are unsure about a change in routine. Solution: Advertising for the program will take place through email, social networks, posters and face-to-face conversations to inform others of the program and persuading them to try it. ! We then took these categories, and created a plan for not only our school, but for other communities and institutions to use In their own development of a bike-share program


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Introduction Catlin Gabel School (CGS) is a small, private school in Portland, OR, which prides itself on its sustainable initiatives and creativity. TriMet, Portland’s public transit agency, asked students to draft a plan and guide for a bike-share between the Sunset Transit Center (STC) and CGS, about a " mile distance. This plan will ideally be a model for other institutions to create their own bike-share programs. To this end, PLACE designed and distributed a survey to students and faculty in the CGS community with a series of questions to determine if this type of program would be successful at CGS. We also conducted interviews with transportation officials and parents and researched other successful bikeshares throughout the country and abroad. This document catalogs our findings, details our process and lays out a general implementation guide for others. Using this plan, other institutions can form their own successful bike-share program.


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Who Are We We are Catlin Gabel’s high school urban studies class, part of the PLACE (Planning and Leadership Across City Environments) program, comprised of 11 motivated, wellinformed students trying to make a difference at our school. We are working with TriMet to reach our goal of implementing a “last-mile” bike share program between Catlin Gabel and Sunset Transit Center (STC) as well as creating a guide that other schools around the country can use to create programs. Most of our project work has been completed in the classroom with the exception of interviews with experts in the greater Portland metro area.


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Project Context


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Project Context TriMet, Portland’s public transit agency, provides Portland-area residents with reliable bus, light rail, and commuter rail transportation. The Portland Metro Area has supported improvements to the city’s transportation options. In 1978, the Portland Transit Mall opened with two one-way streets dedicated only for bus traffic. Continued transit-oriented development shows that Portland is is keen to continue the growth of transportation options in the community and eager to try new systems, such as bike sharing.

Sunset Transit Center

Portland has had a controversial history with bike sharing. Portland’s first bike share program in 1994 was the Yellow Bike Project, which allowed residents to use city-owned bikes to get to their destinations, assuming that users would drop off the bikes at specific stations after use. This program was unsustainable due to lack of an incentive to return the bikes as well as bicycle theft and vandalism.

Catlin Gabel School


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Project Context Other cities around the world have developed successful bike share programs. For instance, the Vélib in Paris has achieved a well-organized and accessible bike-sharing program that reduces vehicular traffic. Another program, Capital Bike share in Washington D.C., has created an affordable mode of transportation for commuters and fostered independence for non-drivers. These bike share programs prove the viability of the concept, and have led other cities such as Denver and Minneapolis to implement bike sharing as a form of public transportation. TriMet is investigating bike share for use as a “last-mile” solution, one that does not require new large scale infrastructure like the Vélib, but functions as a way for people to travel from transit centers to their destinations.

TriMet had asked Catlin Gabel’s PLACE summer urban studies program to formulate a last mile solution between the STC and school’s campus. Our first semester urban studies class completed the project this fall.


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Project Context Catlin Gabel was selected as a place to start because of the school’s energetic atmosphere and commitment to sustainability. When students, teachers, and parents were asked if they could see this plan fitting in with Catlin Gabel’s culture, the majority said they could. Every year Catlin Gabel advances its sustainability efforts. For example, the school uses reusable dishes instead of disposable ones in the cafeteria, organizes “Empty the Lot Day” where students are encouraged to use sustainable methods of transportation to get to school (bus, carpool, walking, etc.), and conducts frequent electricity and landfill reports to monitor our impact on the environment. Students are open to alternative modes of transportations and are excited to become part of an increasingly popular means of getting to school. This plan is intended to function as a model that can be implemented in similar scenarios that involve commuting between transit centers and schools around the country.


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Methodology To create a methodical work plan, we extensively researched many aspects of bike shares. We reached out to our client, TriMet, the CGS community, the city of Portland, and other programs that could be helpful. We used four discovery methods: interviews, surveys, case studies, and focus groups.


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Methodology: Intro Case Studies ! To begin, we needed to research different examples of bikeshare programs from around the world. While incorporating different aspects of other systems, we focused on making our project feasible for the CGS community.

Interviews and Focus groups ! Our next step was to gather information from students and faculty at CGS, as well as from experts in the field of bikesharing. This involved conducting interviews and focus groups over a two-week period of time.

Surveys ! We also created an online survey for students and faculty in the CGS Upper School to take, in order to gather data from a larger sample than the sample gathered in focus groups.


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Methodology: Case Studies The purpose of a case study is to perform in-depth research on one system or concept that pertains to a general topic of interest. In our case studies group, we executed extensive investigations on bike share programs nationally and internationally. We looked at bike shares in Bordeaux and Minneapolis, and others that ran within small communities such as NYU and the University of Denver. In each case, the research was done with the goal of finding aspects of systems that worked that we could use in our much smaller CGS plan. Each case study and body of research furthered our knowledge on other bike shares. We also carefully searched within each case study for efficient approaches to a bike share program, including, safety, cost, education, and infrastructure. These characteristics, which could potentially be used as a template, were noted and modeled as a successful approach for implementation.


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Methodology: Interviews While conducting interviews concerning our project, we gleaned useful quotes and facts, but also ran into some problems, and looking back, we would have done certain tasks differently.

We found interview candidates from our initial interview with Colin Maher, our contact at TriMet, and by asking our instructor, George Zaninovich. After each interview, we asked for recommendations for people to talk to next. We scheduled interviews by phone, and most of the people we called were willing to give us an interview. One setback in the process was when people did not return our calls or emails, but this is inevitable and unavoidable. We recorded the conversations using so we could play them back after the interview was completed and lift specific quotes. Despite planning, once we started the interview process, we realized that we did not have a clear enough purpose going into our interviews. Although we received good information, it was not carefully targeted for clear questions and themes. After compiling our data, we attempted to sort it into themes and overall lessons learned.


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Methodology: Focus Groups To collect data and determine the questions for our surveys, we conducted two focus groups: one including four teachers from the CGS Upper School and the other with seven students from the CGS Upper School. Originally, we had planned to conduct a third focus group with four to six parents of Upper and Middle School students. However, we found it difficult to identify parents who were available during the day. In lieu of a parent focus group, we administered specific surveys over email to four randomly chosen parents, asking them to answer questions we would have asked them in person.

Though these email responses gave us a good gauge of parental reactions to the bike share program, they also presented specific errors. In a focus group, participants are able to bounce ideas off each other. This was not possible through email responses, making our data from parents different than the data from teachers and students. We also were not able to explain the concept of a bike share to parents as thoroughly as with students and teachers.


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Methodology: Surveys In order to understand the CGS community’s interest in a bike share program on a larger scale than the focus groups, we conducted surveys for Catlin Gabel students and faculty members. We received feedback from 129 students and 22 faculty members. The purpose of our surveys was to ascertain student and faculty interest in using the bike share program. We also sought information about what factors could potentially hinder its usage. By converting the feedback into useful statistics, we were able to use the information to help us create a plan that best suits its users. ! After conducting and analyzing our survey, the flaws are as follows: ! Not all of the respondents read the statement of purpose for our bike share program, therefore completing a survey about a topic that they did not understand. ! With a limited amount of time to conduct the survey, the survey results were smaller than anticipated.


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Findings


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Findings: Cost Summary Using survey results and research we approximated the cost of a system at CGS. Survey results said that 40% of respondents indicated that the hill would negatively affect their bike-share use, and 70% replied that their burdens would hinder them. In accordance with TriMet rates, CGS would incur the cost of $20 per bike. The $25 relates to the cost of obtaining a key card for use at STC. We found that approximately $1,500 would be needed for the bike racks and the locks for the storage facilities at CGS. In total, the start up cost is approximately $7,950. The following chart is a cost analysis comparison for three different models of bikes for the program.


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Findings: Cost Type of Bicycle

Example Bicycle

Pros

Standard

Hiland Spark

Internal Hub

Shogun Eagle Ridge Cruiser

Electric

eZip Trailz

Cons

Approx. Initial Cost

Maintenance Cost

All around solid Higher bicycle. Able to maintenance climb hills. Built in cost. fenders and racks

$189

7.6¢ per mile

Inexpensive, easy Fewer gears to use. Low means harder hills maintenance cost

$122.28

4.4¢ per mile

Battery requires $348 9.5¢ per charging. Bike is mile heavy, maintenance costs are higher. Oregon state lawdeciding on a bicycle supplier. * These bikes are only examples; costs would need to be reevaluated after Electric pedal assist helps with hills.


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Findings: Cost We found that the initial start-up costs will exceed the operating costs, and it would take a long time to earn back those funds. However, ridership fees rarely fully fund public transit. Knowing this, if the primary motivation is to showcase an alternative transportation (bicycles) that allow greater freedom without the use of cars and provide a springboard for public dialogue, then a demonstration system between CGS and STC may be worth the expense, and may garner investment by CGS. The cost of the system would not be recovered directly in the form of ridership fees, but if it influences the behavior of people in the community and inspires other green efforts, then its value may prove.


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Findings: Cost Case studies show that bike systems around the world, although varying in size and structure, generally share common features. Systems operated by companies follow a basic structure. The first 30 minutes of usage is free, and add costs after that at about $4 per half hour. Examples of this include Vélib, Capitol Bikeshare, and Nice Ride (Minneapolis). Both NYU and University of Denver provide free bikes for students, with the requirement that the students attend a bike-use information session. Users only incur fees if they do not return the bikes. In evaluating the potential of a CGS bike share, we recognize that Portland’s hilly topography presents cycling challenges. A feasibility report done by the University of Washington College of Built Environments found that “ridership is elastic in response to hills,” with a 10% reduction in the number of people cycling to work found for a 10% increase in the severity of the hill. Furthermore, the report finds this impediment has special significance for bike shares because the bike share bikes tend to be heavier. Using survey results and research we approximated the cost of a system at CGS. Survey results showed that 40% of respondents indicated the hill would negatively affect their bike share use, and 70% replied that their books, computers, and belongings would hinder them. In accordance with TriMet rates, CGS would incur the cost of $25 per bike plus 1-3 cents per hour of storage. The $25 relates to the cost of obtaining a key card for use at STC. We found that approximately $1,500 would be needed for the bike racks and the locks for the storage facilities at CGS. In total, the start-up cost is approximately $7,950.


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Findings: Incentives Summary:, People may not use the bike share program, but many indicated that an incentive would make biking to school more appealing. Adding incentives would encourage bike share use. The most popular options were: ! No Charge for usage ! PE course credits ! Discounts at campus stores ! Tokens for the cafeteria ! Free bus passes


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Findings: Incentives We researched the possibility of using incentives to inspire people to use the bike share. We found that certain universities, such as NYU and the University of Denver, provide their bikes to students free of charge. This incentive is designed to encourage people to use the bike-share frequently, and to spread the word about the benefits of biking. Both programs are overwhelmingly popular with their respective student bodies. Students and faculty at CGS were surveyed about the possible implementation of incentives. The students responded favorably to the idea of incentives, with 75% indicating at least one option that would make biking to school more appealing. The most popular options were physical education course credits (57%) and discounts at campus stores (41%). The faculty responded differently with the majority favoring tokens for the cafeteria (42%) and free bus passes (38%). Faculty were much more ambivalent about the prospects of biking to work, with 38% responding that no amount of incentive could persuade them to bike to work.


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Findings: Incentives Focus groups and interviews provided additional insights to the problem of usage incentives. In the focus groups, teachers explained that transporting their own children would limit their ability to use the bike share, thus making any incentives irrelevant. Student ambivalence stemmed from a general lack of knowledge about bike sharing systems. Because many had a comfortable way of getting to school, they did not see a reason to change their habits. An interview with facilities director Eric Shawn provided insights into CGS history with incentives. Shawn remarked that “It’s all about rewards and incentives.” Facultystaff at CGS receive cafeteria tokens as an incentive to form carpools. This program is widely popular. When asked about the prospects of using a similar system for a bike share, Shawn replied, “The incentives could be convenience, financial, a prize—as long as there is an incentive people will be more likely to do it.” Shawn’s remarks can be applied outside of CGS as well. The reason many bike share programs have not used incentives is because of a larger user base. With a larger population of potential bikers, less effort is needed to meet the carrying capacity for the system, because there are simply more people, so incentives are not as important. Yet still most major bike shares offer some form of incentives, such as the first half hour free. This form of incentive, however, would not work in a last-mile solution since users would primarily be making trips less than 30 minutes.


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Findings: Perception Summary: The public’s perception of biking, good or bad, will determine if the bike share is successful in the community. If the public deems it as unsafe, inconvenient, and time consuming, the program would not be well received. In order for bike sharing to be successful, public opinion must be positive. As Eric Shawn said, “the logistics are possible, it’s just a question of how many people would be interested.” Fifty-eight percent of the faculty surveyed and 31% of the students would be uncomfortable or somewhat uncomfortable riding on the street, and a major component of riding from STC to CGS would be riding on the street. Students and faculty also agreed that time constraints would hinder them from using the bike share program. Both students and teachers tend to choose the quickest way to get to school so they can sleep longer. In the student focus group, those who do go by the STC said they would use bike share only if the shuttle that travels from STC to CGS was running slow. One thing the group agreed on is that although the time and weather would affect use, it all boils down to whichever transportation method will get them to school the fastest. In our focus group with teachers, none of them could see themselves using the bike share program. One of their concerns is traveling with children, since they would not feel safe taking their child on Barnes Road, especially over the hill. The teachers are concerned that it might be a hard ride for younger students, and believe that the students should be in high school to use the bike share, and helmets should be required for all students including those older 16 and older.


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Findings: Perception An overwhelming 68% of student respondents and 67% of faculty respondents listed helmet use as one of their top concerns. Also high on the list was things you have to carry to school. Seventy-six percent of the faculty and 66% of the students surveyed agree that their heavy backpacks and other burdens would hinder their ability to use the bike share. On the up side, public perception of a bike share in general is positive at Catlin Gabel. Almost 100% of faculty and students alike agree that a bike share would fit into the CGS culture, most of them just wouldn’t actually use it. Rob Sadowsky from the Bike Transportation Association said, “The major reasons people don’t want to bike is they think it’s dangerous, they’ll get wet, it’s dirty, there is the myth it takes more time, but it’s funny, in many instances it actually takes less time if you factor in waiting for the bus.” He added, “Generally biking is not a dangerous activity but there is a study that just came out by OHSU that 20% of bikers had some form of minor injury, like an elbow scrape.” He mentioned that to get around the “hill bias” an “electric bike would be really cool, but way more expensive.” In a case study, the Seattle bike share initiative found that ridership decreased in proportion to the degree of the hill. It is clear from a review of the literature that steep hills can be a major impediment to cycling. However, this is especially true in the case of bike sharing because the bicycles are typically heavier than average and utilize fewer gears. In addition, a higher proportion of novice cyclists or occasional riders are likely to use the system compared with regular cyclists or bicycle commuters. Therefore, topography should be considered very carefully when the potential demand of a program and its location are analyzed. Sadowsky also said “Overall there has been some resistance to biking because people think federal funds should be used to encourage and make more jobs, not to help with biking.” From our experience, public perception of the bike share will most likely determine the success of the program.


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Findings: Accessibility Summary: The bike share proposal is a last-mile solution, but we face a first-mile problem Accessibility determines the success of the bike shares. At CGS the students and faculty agreed almost unanimously that accessibility and ease of use would factor into their use. Fifty-five percent of the faculty surveyed and 69% of surveyed students said that where they live would negatively affect their use of the bike share. In our student focus group, all agreed that MAX is inconvenient for travel to and from school because the MAX stops are infrequent. A couple of students who already bike or bus to school were willing to change the way they get to school from bus to MAX. In some carpool instances it would take almost triple the time to ride a bus or MAX to get to school. For example, one student who drives from Vancouver to CGS can get to school in 20 minutes. However, if she were to take the 105 TriMet bus to downtown Portland, then switch to the MAX to travel to STC, it would take over an hour and a half. If it is convenient, easy to use, helpful, and affordable compared with other transportation modes, people will use a bike share system.

Accessibility also determines the success of the bike shares. If it is convenient, easy to use, helpful, and affordable compared with other transportation modes, people will use a bike share system. At CGS the students and faculty agreed almost unanimously that accessibility and ease of use would factor into their use. Fifty-five percent of the faculty surveyed and 69% of surveyed students said that where they live would negatively affect their use of the bike share. In our student focus group, all agreed that MAX is inconvenient for travel to and from school because the MAX stops are infrequent.


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Findings: Accessibility We found in focus groups that students who already bike or bus to school were willing to change the way they get to school from bus to MAX. In some carpool instances it would take almost triple the time to ride a bus or MAX to get to school. The bike share proposal is a lastmile solution, but we face a first-mile problem. In our research, one of the defining characteristics of successful bike shares is accessibility in other cities and countries. In Denver, Colorado, the “magic bike” is citywide, with four membership levels purchasable online, or at solar-powered kiosks. Denver University has recently implemented the “bike library,” a program that offers rentable bikes for Denver U students. These bikes are rented through their student ID card and are free as long as you return them to the library by 7 p.m. Kiosks and bikes are in easily accessible, strategic spots to maximize the ease of use.

Other initiatives such as the Vélib in Paris, France, are public bicycle rental programs that have proven successful in accommodating many people and reducing car traffic. Public bikes in these programs are placed almost every three blocks. Programs similar to the Vélib, such as the Capital bike share in Arlington, Virginia, have been started in the United States. They help create a cheaper source of transportation and foster independence for nondrivers because of their accessibility. Students have praised the NYU bike share system for its low cost, ease of use, and prospect of alleviating congestion on the NYC subway system.


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Findings: Accessibility Another example of extreme accessibility leading to a successful bike share program is Bordeaux, France’s Vélos de la Communauté Urbaine de Bordeaux (V#), with 1,545 bikes and 139 stations. Design and implementation are integral parts of a new transit system for Bordeaux and its neighbors. Nine out of every 10 stations are at a transit stop, so this system could easily be used for last-mile solutions. In the city the stations are close together, no more than 300 meters apart. Outside the city are 40 stations. A new single RFID Bordeaux transit card, valid throughout the region, allows holders of the transit card to use the bikes at a substantially discounted rate. At the “V#+” stations, located outside of town, a percentage of the bikes are set aside for registered commuters to keep overnight and bring back the next morning at no extra charge, which increases daily use. If the bike share program is convenient, easy to use, helpful, and affordable in comparison to other transportation modes, people will use it.


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Findings: Culture Summary: The culture surrounding the bike share program might have a influence upon the public perception, and therefore the usage. As part of our research process, we examined the culture of the Catlin Gabel School to determine whether or not it would be a receptive place for a bike-share pilot program. What we found was immensely positive. CGS is known to be a very environmentally friendly place, with stated goals and programs to encourage environmental responsibility. Among other things, the school uses goats to help manage invasive species, the cafeteria space uses reusable dishes to reduce waste, and nearly all of the buildings on campus have eliminated incandescent lamps to reduce energy use. Eric Shawn, the facilities manager for CGS, explained that all of these things are part of a stated goal of the school to be a zero-waste campus by 2020. We found that a bike share program would be another element that fits into the Catlin community perfectly. Its encouragement to use bikes and not cars contributes towards the sense of environmental responsibility that CGS strives to inspire in its students.

Students and faculty were surveyed whether the idea of a bike share program would fit into the Catlin Gabel culture. 93% of students and 100% of faculty responded affirmatively. The survey deliberately left the definition of the CGS out of the question description so as to allow respondents to apply their own definition to the question. Additionally, in questions where respondents were given the option of adding additional details, the word “sustainability� was one of the top words used. This overwhelmingly positive result, however, was countered by a negative result of potential use. The survey found that, despite the emphasis on sustainability, only one faculty member and three students would use the system daily. Most respondents (95%) said that their current mode of transportation was effective and regular, implying that change may be hard to initiate. This sentiment was echoed in focus groups, where teachers, students and parents all agreed that although the system was within the CGS culture, it was unlikely to be highly useful. These results indicate that while CGS may not be the optimal place for a bike share program, but not for lack of congruity with culture.


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Findings: Safety Summary: In a bike share program between a school and a transit center, young children would be riding bikes on the street and in traffic. One of the most prominent questions asked during the development of the bike share program was the question of safety. To answer such questions, we researched how other programs had tackled safety. A commonality between colleges and universities is they both have safety classes. Both NYU and the Denver University require users to take classes on how to operate the bike-share bicycles, and how to be safe on the roads. This is done for both legal reasons, and to justify a lack of a user fee. The Capital bike share program in Washington D.C, a more public operation, offers instructions on their website. They provide a 32page safety book, ranging from topics as “How to fall”, “Traffic Basics”, to “Riding at Night and in Bad Weather”. Capital Bike-Share also offers classes, but unlike the collegiate bike-shares, they are not mandatory. Another area that we researched was helmet use. In general, most bike-shares do not require the use of helmets.

Programs cite hygiene, fitting and degradation as the primary reasons for the lack of the requirement. In cities where laws require the use of helmets, other systems have been tried, to varying results. Melbourne, for example, uses vending machines to sell discounted helmets. That program has had limited success. The more popular option, used with most colleges, is to require students to use helmets by having them sign a release form. With this program students provide their own protection. The waiver then releases the institution of any legal obligation and protects the student, while, at the same time, making sure via the use of classes that they are safe and secure on the road.


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Recommendations Our class has researched all aspects of bike shares. Not only pertaining to our own community but also about how a last mile bike share program could be implemented at another school. We have written two sets of recommendations. One is a guide for implementing our pilot program at CGS and the other is a guide for any high school of varying size, and location. For the guide for our own high school we go over the different variables of a bike share, such as types of bikes, number of users, and how to advertise. We first briefly outline these variables to get the main information through a chart, and then delve deeper into them in paragraphs. Hopefully, after reading our guide for CGS you will be able to visualize how we tackled the obstacles we faced when trying to implement a bike share, such as a hill. Although the guide for our High School may be helpful, the variables may not fit with your high school. For this reason have created a Bike-Share 101 guide for a high school with many variables, so you can chose the variables that apply to you and take our advice accordingly.


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Recommendations: CGS Bike Share Types of Bikes

•Standard Bike: Hiland Spark (with fenders and racks) •Internal Hub Bike: Shogun Eagle Ridge Cruiser •Electric Bike: eZip Trailz** **Most likely to be used given the hill between CGS and transit center. N.B. These bikes are only examples. For a large-scale bike-share, options for mass quantities of bikes would need to be explored.

Number of Users •10 Users daily •Number of users will vary based on: Weather, Day of the week (traffic, etc.). After school schedule (sports, clubs).

Profile of Ideal User

•Interested in biking •In decent physical shape •Does not have anybody depending on him/her to get to school (child, carpool, younger sibling(s)). •Willing to modify their daily schedule •Have easy access to a MAX/bus stop from home

Education & Training

Three groups of people to educate: •The biker – he/she needs to know about bike safety, geography, and road rules. •The Driver – he/she needs to know about share the road safety tips. •The Student/Faculty Member – he/she needs to know about the CGS bike-share program and how to contribute either as a bike or driver.

Marketing & Advertising

•Visual Art: Bike drawing is the primary logo for our project. This logo can be incorporated on t-shirts, posters, etc. •Internet: Email, bulletin, and Facebook group. •Oral Communication: Speaking at assembly or holding a free hot chocolate gathering where we talk about the bike share. These are the most effective ways to speak to people.

Liability & Safety

•The program will require a waiver formed signed by participants. •It will also require a safety checklist, which explains how to properly adjust bicycle to be safe on the roads. •Host a bike safety meeting that is mandatory for all users. •Helmets will be required for use. The program will not provide them.

Incentives

•Physical Education credits. •Discounts at campus store. •Cafeteria tokens. •Free/reduced price transit passes.

Cost and Funding Start up cost is $8,000 •Includes: 10 bikes, storage fees at TriMet “Bike-and-Ride” stop. •Funds from: CGS fundraising and grants.


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Recommendations: CGS Bike Share


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Recommendations: Education The CGS community bike share education program will need to create the safest and most secure bike share program possible for the students and faculty. We must find a way that will be educational and fun for drivers, riders, and the overall community. There are a few ways to do that:

The Biker Problem: Most high school bicyclists are not as concerned with safety as necessary. Solution: Working peer to peer with students to get information to them in a fun and educational way. With faculty, the best tactic will be to meet with them as a whole and give demonstrations. The basics will need to be either taught or retaught to the biker. They will need to know how to ride a bike, how to signal to drivers and pedestrians, know the roads and have a proper fitting helmet.

The Driver Problem: Most drivers either do not know or do not pay attention to signals bicyclists use. Knowing how to share the entrance and the Catlin Gabel road with bikers will be essential. Solution: Parents who drive on and off campus will need to be educated on how to safely coexist with bikers in the community. They will need to know bikers’ signals that warn drivers about their movements.

The Community Problem: Unfortunately, being concerned about bike safety is not a popular cause amongst high school students. Solution: This could be done in a very simple manner with handouts to parents and classrooms. Every educational tactic use should be tailored to the specific age group


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Recommendations: Advertising Problem: Those who don’t know about the bike-share program will not use it. The challenge is to get people informed and interested in using a program that is novel to them. Solution: CGS is a community relying heavily on email, and advertising for the bike share program should not be difficult through email. A daily bulletin is sent out to the entire high school community every day. Adding facts about the program to the bulletin could increase people’s knowledge about the bike share program. Advertising is a form of persuasion, and people aren’t persuaded by something they are uninterested in. With a bulletin announcement or email there would have to be a reward, such as humor, for the audience to listen. Using either the bulletin or email, we could rapidly spread information throughout the entire Catlin Gabel community. Another way we could use technology to our advantage is to create a Facebook group that advertises the bike share. This would be particularly useful in relating to youth, since the vast majority use Facebook daily. We would keep it simple, summarize what the bike share is, and outline upcoming events such as a speech at assembly or free t-shirts.


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Recommendations: Advertising Visual advertisements are known to be effective, since An important part of advertising is speaking with people people remember about 10% of what we hear, 30% face to face. We plan to directly speak to the Catlin of what we read, and about 80% of what we see. We Gabel community at a high school assembly. First we can expect that many people will learn about the will quickly explain specifically what this bike share is, CG bike share program through visual without being boring or repetitive. Then we would advertisements. Good advertisers know that for a advocate for our program, giving some brief product to sell, the advertisements must help advantages of a bike share. We would also advertise persuade the customer that the product is reliable, our other publicity venues, such as the Facebook necessary, correctly priced, and stylish. Although the page. We would end the quick speech by showing CG bike share program does not intend to sell a our logo. Another opportunity to speak to people “product,” we do plan to persuade our audience face to face would be our hot chocolate giveaway. (CG students) to change an idea or lifestyle. This would be more personal, as we would be able to Therefore, our advertisements must make the answer questions and talk to people directly. For this program seem reliable, necessary, inexpensive, and to work, everyone in the class would have to have stylish. The best forms of advertising may be posters donate hot chocolate. Then we would set up a stand around school (taking advantage of the free window somewhere on people’s way to the barn during space) and possibly t-shirts, wristbands, and free bikelunch, and give out hot chocolate. The point would shaped cookies. Although some of these ideas are a be to get people to come to us, and while they are little out of the ordinary, we think they are fun ways to getting something free from us we would talk all grab the attention of young people. about the program. We would also have our logo on the cups, so even after people left the stand they would still be thinking about the bike share.


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Recommendations: Advertising There are many advantages of this face-to-face advertising. While posters and a Facebook group are useful in letting people know about the bike share, there is no guarantee they will actually read them, and there is no one to answer their questions. Face-to-face advertising lets people ask questions, gets us close to addressing the whole community at once. This guarantees everyone listens, and offers a more personal touch, which some people will respond to more easily. Overall, whichever form of advertising we choose, we will try to keep it simple. We will outline what exactly this project is, and encourage people to consider using it.

Possible CGS bike share logo.


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Recommendations: Liability Problem: This bike-share program deals with minors, who are not legally responsible for themselves. Solution: We have found that insurance and liability requires a waiver form signed by participants in the bike share. As a legal document, the form would have to be approved by the school’s board or legal team. Capital Bike share’s terms of use include requirements like subscribing to their website, knowing the code of conduct for the website, having a valid credit card, and reading a disclaimer with a liability waiver. The Berkeley bike share also requires a signed liability form. Ours will be similar to theirs. We have to make it clear that riding is at the participant’s own risk, and that a waiver stating that must be signed. It is also recommended that we provide a safety checklist for users to look over before they start riding.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF RISK AND RELEASE FROM LIABILITY Bike Share Project Please read carefully: We will travel to the north side of Mt. Hood, about a two hour drive. While there we will camp for the night near the bus and then make the hour long hike up the east moraine and drop onto the glacier. While on the glacier there is a risk of rockfall, of slipping on the ice and of falling into a crevasse. These risks and the risks listed below could result in serious injury or death. While on the glacier we will set up top ropes and climb in and around crevasses. While climbing students will need to be responsibility for their safety by ensuring that they are alert to hazards, follow the leaders instructions and adhere to practices as prescribed. The risks while ice climbing include falling, equipment failure and rockfall. In many cases students will need to rappel into the crevasses Almost all students will climb on top rope, with both student and adult belayers. There are other hazards associated with this ice-climbing trip including equipment failure, misjudgments and human error, weather, darkness, stoves, and campfires. The driving on this trip will be at least 150 miles, and includes all the risks associated with driving. If there is any doubt whatsoever about you/your child’s ability to safely participate in this activity, you/your child should have a physical examination by a physician. Catlin Gabel School may also require a physician's consent as a precondition for participation. I have read the above and understand that the trip involves risk. The leaders of the trip are not professional guides. By signing below, I acknowledge the risks and I assume the risks. I release, discharge and agree to defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Catlin Gabel School, its agents, officers, trustees, employees and the trip leaders from all claims and liability and for any loss or damage in any way connected with my son/daughter/ward’s participation in the trip. This release includes claims and causes of action for personal injury, wrongful death, property damage that may result during my son/daughter/ward’s participation in or travel to or from this activity. In case of accident, illness or other incapacity, I understand that I must pay medical and/or evacuation expenses, whether or not authorized by me. I understand and willingly agree to this release. If any portion of this agreement is found by a court or other tribunal to be unenforceable, the remainder of the agreement nevertheless will remain in full force and effect. I also understand the school’s drug and alcohol policy, and agree that I will be responsible for and/or pay the cost of transporting my son/daughter/ward home if the leaders determine that he or she is in possession of drugs or alcohol or has been using them during or immediately prior to the activity. Parental signature:______________________________ date _________________

STUDENT:

I have read the above and understand the nature of the trip, and I have noted below any medical or physical conditions that might affect my participation in this trip. I recognize that participation in this trip is voluntary on my part and is an encouraged but not a required or mandatory activity. I also recognize that there are certain risks inherent in the participation in this trip which I hereby voluntarily assume, and I release the school, together with its employees, agents, and trustees, from any and all liability (including liability for negligence) for personal


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Recommendations: Cost We found that the initial start-up costs will, by far, exceed the operating costs, and it would take a long time to recoup those funds. Public transit, for example, never pays for itself using ridership fees. If our primary motivation is to showcase an alternative form of transportation that allow greater freedom without the use of cars, and to provide a springboard for public dialogue, then a demonstration system between CGS and STC may be well worth the expense, and may garner the school’s investment. The cost of the system would not be recovered directly in the form of ridership fees, but if it influences the behavior of people in the community and inspires other green efforts, then its value may prove to be incalculable.


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Recommendations: Cost Problems: To begin this pilot program, there will be a need for initial investment. The problem is that CGS is up a fairly steep hill from STC, so we recommend at least 1/5 of the bikes be electric to aid users ride up the hill and increase ridership. EBikes are more expensive and would cost approximately $1,200 per unit, depending on the model selected. Another problem is although the survey results indicate that more electric bicycles would be beneficial, Oregon state law requires that riders of electric bicycles be over the age of 16. This age requirement would limit the potential users. Yet another obstacle is for the remaining 4/5, we recommend a standard bicycle that cost approximately $475. Yet another is that Barnes Road is dark and rainy. Solution: One solution to the financial aspect for the normal bikes would be an integrated hub 3-speed bike, which helps keep down maintenance costs. There is also a solution to the issue of Barnes being dark. For riding on Barnes Road while it is dark and rainy or there is poor visibility, bikes would need reflectors or lights. Since students would be using the bike share, the bikes would need a place to strap a backpack or books. Judging by the survey results, we estimate a need for an initial purchase of 10 bikes.


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Recommendations: Cost Problem: Bicycle storage. Solution: Since this program would only be used by CGS, the bicycles could be stored at CGS facilities during the day. We would not need auto-locking racks to store the bikes during the day, as basic bike racks with inexpensive locks would suffice. At night, the bicycles would be stored at the facilities already in place at the STC.

Problem: Yet another obstacle is how to organize charging fees for the program. Solution: In accordance with TriMet rates, CGS would incur the cost of $25 per bike for a key card. User fees would recover this cost. We have recommended a budget of approximately $1,500 for the bike racks and the locks for the storage facilities at CGS. In total, the start-up cost is approximately $7,950. We recommend usage fees for the bicycles on a 3-tier system: daily, weekly, and monthly. The daily usage fee would be $1, and the weekly would be $4. We recommend a $40 monthly fee, which include a TriMet pass for the month. In an effort to reduce infrastructure costs, we recommend that the cards for unlocking the bikes at the STC are held at CGS. The day before use, the user would check out a card from the office and the fee would be added to their account. In this way, users can be assured that a bike is guaranteed for the next day’s commute.


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How To: Bike Share 101 Now that you have seen a small idea grow with the work of one small community, you know it is possible. The following is a “How To� guide to creating a bike share for any community with a public transit system, and last-mile route. This guide offers a step-by-step process to start your share, a recommendation chart for variables within your implementation environment, and overall tips.


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How To: Implement Step-by-Step ! Feasibility report ! First ask a lot of questions to see if a bike share might work. ! Reach out to your community and tell them about your ideas. ! Evaluate the geography of your campus. Will the program work well in your school community? ! Partner with local transit authority ! Get in touch with your local transit authority. Provide them with some information about your school and what you hope to do. Once this connection is made, do not lose it! Keep in contact with them through email and telephone with new, important information on the project.


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How To: Implement Step-by-Step 3. Work Plan You submit a detailed work plan to your partner to show how your work process will go. You will need: ! A short introduction about your community, the atmosphere the share will be implemented in, and your partner(s). ! A list of your objectives, roles, responsibilities, and key assumptions about the project. ! A list of challenges you may face and if and how those problems are fixable. ! A statement of your scope of work ! Address your inclusions. You may want to cover tasks to be performed; resources assigned to tasks, associated costs, location of project, tasks that do not result in specific deliverables (such as project management), and tasks to be performed by your partner(s). ! Include exclusions with tasks that are not part of the scope of your project and are outside of your community. ! Express deliverables. This can include items that will be developed or provided from the performance of the tasks (products, service, plans, status reports, documentation), quantities, locations and dates for delivery, periods of performance for services, testing program plan, implementation or migration plan to production, documentation standards to be applied, reliability measure used, and milestones. ! State your work process. ! Conclude with completion criteria and final acceptance criteria. This is what you need to do to finalize your program plan. This can include project timeline and a list of deadlines.


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How To: Implement Step-by-Step 4. Research ! Interviews: Interview community experts on bike shares and transportation. For example, our class interviewed the co-administrator of the Bike Transportation Alliance to gain valuable information on how a bike share might work with a school. ! Surveys: Have specific questions and conduct your survey so it will best be received. For example, since all the students at CGS have laptops, we conducted a survey through email. Make sure you clearly explain what the bike share is so people have background for their responses. ! For high school bike shares, organize focus groups including interested students, faculty and parents. Have specific questions and be prepared to contrast their responses to survey responses. Keep in mind these people are most likely interested in the project, so ask them questions like how often they would use it and what would be a good incentive. ! A case study contains in-depth research on cases that pertain to your general topic of interest. Investigate other bike share programs that relate to yours. If you are part of a college or university environment, it would be in your best interest to conduct a case study on other campuses like yours. Look for aspects of other shares that would be helpful for you, like specific, educational training programs, payment structures, infrastructure, and incentives. This research does not have to be extensive, but it should help you to get a frame of reference for bike shares in general.


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How To: Implement Step-by-Step 5. Funding ! First find the revenue for the start-up costs of your bike share. This will differ vastly depending on whom your particular school has connections to, and whether the public transportation institution agency you are working with is willing to help with funding. ! If you cannot find a major donor you will need to raise money. This can happen through bake sales, car washes, etc. You can also go out in the community and ask companies to donate money to your bike share, and possibly give them some deal where their logo could be on the bikes. ! Remember to stress that this is an innovative and beneficial program that is one of the first of its kind, and people will be more likely to support it.


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How To: Implement Step-by-Step 6. Advertising ! Advertising is a key part of any bike share, because you need to let people know your bike share exists. We suggest advertising in more than one way, so you can reach the greatest number of people. ! We suggest advertising online through emails and possibly a Facebook group, through visuals such as posters and signs, and through face-to-face communication such as an announcement at a community meaning or while handing out pamphlets during lunch at the school. ! The main point of this advertisement should be to let people know exactly what this bike share entails, so they can know not only that there is a bike share, but how it works. ! Create a logo that is fun and easily identifiable. ! The secondary goal should be to educate them on the incentives, which should encourage them to use the bike share.


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How To: Implement Step-by-Step 7. Education ! Bikers need to be educated to keep themselves out of dangerous situations. Include a short and to-the-point handout or lesson about: ! How to ride properly ! How to lock the bike properly ! The importance of always wearing a helmet ! Tricky areas in your location ! How to be proper placed on the road ! How proper signals are established ! The driver in this situation must be safe in order to avoid dangerous encounters with bikers. Drivers should be educated about: ! Where the bikes are allowed ! The geography of your location ! Biker signals ! How to share the road ! The student, faculty-staff member, or community member, even if not a driver or sharer, should be educated by all of the above in addition to: ! How it is good for your community ! What anyone can do to help ! Make sure you have all these education plans, and that you have addressed specific concerns of your community. Then, release the plan!


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How To: Deal With Variables Different variables dictate how you will implement your bike share. One large difference is incentives; those depend on what people will most respond to in your specific community. At Catlin Gabel, the cafeteria charges money for hot lunches, about four dollars. Many students find this price too expensive, and therefore don’t always buy the hot lunch. Because of this, one incentive a Catlin Gabel Bike Share would use, if possible, is money off the bar lunch. This would not work at another school where the hot lunch is free. Incentives change for what works for your community specifically. The only thing this guide can guarantee is for a school where you take a survey and predict a larger number of bikes will be needed, you have to be prepared to give the incentive prize to more people. As long as you are able to provide your incentive in a fair manner to those who complete the bike share, and people have expressed interest in the incentive, it should work. The following is a list of examples of variables and possible solutions.


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How To: Deal With Cost Cost

Hill Severity

Number of Students

Weather Conditions

•A severe hill means less incentive to use. To change this, electric bikes become an option. However, this will raise the start up and overall maintenance costs of your share. •With a more severe hill the breaks and the chains get worn down faster causing higher maintenance fees.

•With a larger number of students more bikes are necessary causing a higher start-up cost •More students leads to more break downs causing higher maintenance fees. •With less students, less people would use the bike share which means less money for start-up cost. •Less students leads to less breakdowns which leads to less maintenance which lowers costs.

• Harsh cold weather, could mean less use leading to more incentives necessary to raise the user ship, costing more to maintain during the winter. •Salts from snowy weather can cause rust. •Will not function during snow seasons, so the cost will go down. •High temperature can cause less incentive, which means more incentives would have to be made, costing more money .


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How To: Deal With Education Education

Hill Severity

Number of Students

Weather Conditions

•A possible training session to teach people to successfully ride up hills. Also to train people how to watch their speed when riding down the hill.

•With more students more/larger training groups are necessary and possible different methods to accommodate more people.

•For harsh cold weather training will have to go over safety pertaining to those conditions. This includes safety riding in the rain, knowing that drivers may not be able to see as well or that the roads are slippery.


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How To: Deal With Safety Safety

Hill Severity

Number of Students

Weather Conditions

•Although it is tempting to want to speed down a hill, it is important to add in the training that speeds must be maintained at an acceptable pace, that is, one where drivers will be able to be aware of your presence.

•The more students, the higher the probability that there will be more bikers is. This means to be extra precautious within in the bike lanes, and make sure your riders maintain overall awareness of oncoming cars.

• Due to increased maintenance and safety concerns, biking in the snow is not recommended. • Make sure your riders get the proper education on riding in the rain and where there may be slippery leaves.


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How To: Deal With Marketing Hill Severity Marketing

Number of Students

Weather Conditions

•With a larger hill, your •With a larger school, •If your location has riders will decrease advertising can be good conditions, use because of lack of hard. Especially with that for your incentive to bike. This high school and advertising as incentive means stronger college/university to ride. advertising. Try to campuses, use social advertise health and networking sites to fitness as an incentive create blogs or pages to biking up any hill. about your share. This is a way to reach out to that particular generation and advertise your program.


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How To: Deal With Users Users

Hill Severity

Number of Students

Weather Conditions

•Your number of users will decrease when there is a hill. See marketing, cost, safety, and training.

•When there are more overall students there will be more users, when there are less students (smaller school) there will be less users.

•The more harsh weather, the less users there will be. This is an unmanageable task.


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How To: Deal with Variables As you can see from the previous charts, different variables dictate how you will implement your bike share. One large difference is incentives: those depend on what people will most respond to in your specific community. At Catlin Gabel, the cafeteria charges money for hot lunches, about four dollars. Many students find this price prohibitive, and therefore don’t always buy the hot lunch. Because of this, one incentive a Catlin Gabel bike share would use, if possible, is a discount on hot lunch. This would not work at another school where the hot lunch is free. Incentives change for what works for your community specifically. The only thing this guide can guarantee is that if your survey forecasts a larger number of bikes, you have to be prepared to give the incentive prize to more people. As long as you are able to provide your incentive in a fair manner to those who complete the bike share, and people have expressed interest in the incentive, it should work.

Just as each plan will differ when it comes to incentives, it will differ in the step by step plan and the overall time line. Overall, the first thing anyone who wants to start a bike share last mile program in a high school needs to do is survey the whole community to see if the program would even work. If a significant amount of people express interest in the program, the next step is to get the funds to set up the program, while also advertising and brainstorming incentives. Once you have the logistics figured out you can implement the program, and have people start using it. The timeline will differ considerably depending on the community, but expect time for a project like this to actually take off, since it takes a lot of planning and you may need to raise funds.


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Appendices


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Appendix A: Acknowledgements ! Our teacher: George Zaninovich

! Informative sources:

! Client: TriMet

! BTA: Bicycle Transit Alliance; Rob Sadowsky – Head of BTA

! Colin Maher: Bike Programs Planner ! Katja Dillman: Transportation Advisor to Mayor Adams ! Sam Adams: Mayor of Portland, OR

! Alta Bike Share; Brodie Hylton ! Catlin Gabel Community; Eric Shawn – Facilities Manager; Nadine Fiedler and Karan Katz - Editors; Focus group participants; Survey participants


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Appendix B: References Portland Bureau of Transportation: Bike Sharing < http://www.portlandonline.com/transportation/index.cfm?c=50814> Site set up by the PBT to answer common questions about bike sharing and help gather insights for a citywide system. ! NYU Bike Share <http://www.nyu.edu/sustainability/campus.projects/bike.share/> Provides information about the New York University bike share system. Provides a baseline system to compare ours to. ! Melbourne Bike Share <http://www.melbournebikeshare.com.au/> Provides information on communities where helmets are required. Useful because our system would require helmets ! Sanyo Electric Bike Press Release < http://sanyo.com/news/2010/03/16-1.html> The official press release by Sanyo detailing their electric bike installation. !


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Appendix B: References Treehugger blog post on Sanyo Bike Share installation < http://www.treehugger.com/files/2010/03/sanyo-solar-parking-lots-electric-bikes-tokyo.php> Provides commentary on the installation of electric bikes in Tokyo by Sanyo. Is useful for other prospective outside of the official press release. Tri-Met Bike and Ride < http://trimet.org/howtoride/bikes/bikeandride.htm> Gives details on the current installation at STC. http://www.vcub.fr/ This is the official bike share page for the Bordeaux (France) bike share. It provides an example of a bike share program that is fully integrated with the transportation system. ! Seattle Bike Share http://seattlebikeshare.org/ The feasibility study found here was the basis of our reports on hills. This is useful because of the commonalities between Seattle and Portland. ! Walmart: Bikes http://www.walmart.com/cp/Bikes/136291 This provided a price reference for standard and electric bikes. !


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Appendix B: References Ken Keifer: Bike Pages http://www.kenkifer.com/bikepages/ This source provided cost estimates on maintenance of bicycles. ebike store http://www.ebikestore.com/ Gave us good information about electric bicycles and cost estimates Bicycles Helmet Safety Institute http://www.helmets.org/stats.htm This shows us the statistics surrounding bike safety Bicycle Safety http://bicyclesafe.com/ Provides Safety Instructions for bike riding near


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Appendix C: Glossary !

Last-mile- A program to get people the short distance from a transit center to their work or living place.

!

Bike Transportation Alliance- An alliance that works to promote bicycle use, improve bicycling conditions throughout!cities.

!

Bike-share - A number of bicycles that are made available for shared use by individuals who do not own the bicycles.

!

ebike – A motorized electric bike.

!

Infrastructure - The basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function.

!

Mode of transportation– a term used to distinguish substantially different methods of transportation, such as a car versus a bike.

!

PLACE- PLACE stands for Planning and Leadership Across City Environments, it is an Urban Planning program designed for High School students started by the Catlin Gabel School in partnership with the greater Portland community.

!

TriMet – TriMet provides public transportation in the Portland, Oregon, and metropolitan area.

!

STC – The public transit center about a mile away from the Catlin Gabel School

!

Case Study- in-depth investigation of a single individual, group, or event.!

!

Focus Group - A form of research in which a group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs and attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, or idea.


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Appendix D: Student Survey Data


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Appendix D: Faculty Survey Data


PLACE TriMet BikeShare Plan