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Coco Scope J A N - M A R

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Philippine coconut authority field services branch

coconut extension training center


Australian buyers of coco-based products in Davao City Coconut Scale Insect What you need to know about Oil Palm Make a simple Business Plan for Kaanib Projects

V O L .

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ords from the Editor

We start this year anew with a fresh look at our quarterly publication. We thought a more

thematic approach in relating the coconut industry is called for and a magazine format is the perfect take on the material.

Beginnings are truly the underlying core in this issue. Calamities, like typhoon Pablo, may have

the power to suddenly change people’s lives. But, at the same time, they also provide the power to make people stronger in their struggle as they begin to rise from their brokenness after the storm.

In this first issue of COCOSCOPE 2013, we will not focus on the tragedy itself, but how the

affected people have overcome it. What is the extent of typhoon damage? What has PCA done to lessen the impact of the damage in terms of programs that respond to the needs brought about by the typhoon? These are just some of the questions that the current issue tackles.

Lastly, we also give an update on the Coconut Scale Insect which is now ravaging Batangas and

the control program being implemented by PCA.

Edgar T. Bahala OIC-CETC

w h a t ’ s

I n s i d e

what ’s




Business KAANIB











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Nor thern Region X





Coconut-Coffee Farming System

Life After Pablo, PCA effor ts and programs






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C o c o Scope




Late last year, typhoon Pablo inflicted severe damage to people and properties in 25 municipalities of Southern Mindanao and felling or reducing to sticks some ten million coconut palms. Grim stories of suffering and death are vividly shown in countless photos in the newspapers and the internet. But hope also lifted the spirits of affected families as enormous help flowed not only from the Philippine government but also from foreign donors. Like the man in our cover photo, life goes on. Every problem provides its own opportunities. The devastating typhoon Pablo is no exception.

Behind the Scenes Editorial Adviser


Editor in Chief


Writers/Associate Editors


Managing Editor






philippine coconut authority management



Deputy Administrator Field Services Branch


Deputy Administrator Research Development & Extension Branch


OIC Deputy Administrator Trade & Market Development Branch


Deputy Administrator Corporate Services Branch


COCOSCOPE is published quarterly by the Coconut Extension Training Center (CETC) of the Philippine Coconut Authority, Field Services Branch as a vehicle of information for coconut and oil palm farmers and farmworkers, extension workers, entrepreneurs, and policy makers of the industry. The CETC welcomes articles, manuscripts, artworks and photographs which shall be considered for publication. Please send your contributions to CETC email ad: Loss or damage, however, of the materials is not the responsibility of COCOSCOPE.

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COCO HUSK PRODUCTS PROVIDE INCOME TO FARMERS A community-based Coco-Coir Fiber Production and Processing Plant in Barangay Bayho, Lope de Vega, Northern Samar, is giving jobs to people who now engage in producing twined ropes and coconets out of coconut husks. This business venture is being assisted by the Philippine Australia Community Assistance Program (PACAP) in partnership with Coco-Coir Business Integration Development (COCOBIND) which was turned over to the local government unit/peoples organization (LGU/PO) in 2009. The plant can decorticate 9,000-10,000 husks per operation yielding 45 rolls of coconet which can cover an area of 2,250 square meters.

With the coir fiber provided free, the coconut farmers earn as much as P1.50 per 15-meter twined rope and P4.00 per square meter of coconet woven at 40 x 40 specification. The increasing market demand for coco-coir based product has prompted COCOTECH, a coir company, and the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), to forge an agreement with the LGU of Lope de Vega for the purchase order of 225 rolls of coconet every month and 825 rolls, respectively, for use as side slope protection. The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) is also supporting this project by training the beneficiaries and providing them bicycle-type

twining machines and wooded weaving looms. Likewise, the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) has approved a 1-million peso proposal entitled “Livelihood Enhancement on Coco-Coir Production and Processing Project.” As the coco-coir plant extends its services to nearby and far-flung barangays, 40 new beneficiaries and counting have been added to the 171 existing number of beneficiaries.

Source: Engr. Eric E. Lopez, CCDO, PCA-VIII Northern Samar Writer: Araceli A. Loyola

Coco-based Processors Meet with Australian Buyers In a business matching meeting held last February 5, 2013, the owners of a Filipino company, Jimalie, based in Cairns, Australia discussed their interest of buying food and non-food coco-based products from the Philippines. Present in the meeting were the Davao region’s known producers of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO), coconut sugar, buko and coir products. Three were coir processors (Pontmaine Resources, Regwill Industries and Dole/ Stanfilco); one VCO producer (AG Nutraceuticals) and two coconut sugar/syrup processors (Hijo Resources Inc., and Katakus Foundation). The regulatory agencies, PCA and DTI, arranged the meeting.


Jimalie Owners The local producers introduced their respective companies and their products and product lines. The Jimalie owners also shared some insights on the market prospect and requirements of the Australian market. The group later visited the Hijo Resources, Inc. in Tagum, Davao del Norte and AG Nutraceuticals in Padada, Davao del Sur. During the meeting the Jimalie representatives stressed that, before placing any order, they conduct audit for new overseas suppliers with regards to production and processing.

They said that the Australian importers are particular on consistent quality, and like Europe and North America, they require an organic certification for VCO. The Australian quarantine regulations are strictly enforced to protect their agricultural industries, ensure the cleanliness of the packaging as well as freedom from fauna. Currently, the supply of VCO in the Philippines is low and irregular. Nevertheless, the country is seen as a significant supplier.

Writer: Marianita N. Eroy C o c o Scope






On February 11-12, 2013, Throughout the training, thirty-five (35) coconut farmers the participants were required from ten KAANIB sites in Oriental to take part in cooking and Mindoro, underwent a two-day processing of the products. Mr. training on coco toyo, vinegar Noscal stressed that the coco and ketchup making using products should stand out, not coconut water. The training was blending with the existing part of the Community-based products in the market. Participatory Technology Therefore, the farming families Development (PTD) in KAANIB should innovate. They can add sites. It was held in Amor Beach herbs and spices and come up Resort, Tacligan, San Teodoro, with products like coco moringa, Oriental Mindoro. coco oregano, vinegar with spices “Maraming pagkakwartahan mula sa niyog”(You and the like. But they should also can earn a lot from coconut), said make their products more Mr. Medardo Noscal one attractive by improving their of the packaging resource “Maraming pagkakwartahan to excite the persons consumers and add mula sa niyog.” (You can from more value to their earn a lot from coconut.) Marketmix products. The Business training was in-line with the Development Center. He said that project activities of the coconut water can used for the PCAARRD- funded project production of high value-added entitled “Development of products such as coco water Integrated Income Generating drink, nata de coco, coconut champagne, coconut Scheme in Partnership with the vinegar and an emerging Local Government Units and product, the coco toyo. Private Sectors to Reduce

Poverty in Oriental Mindoro and Bicol” and the DA-PCA “Kasaganaan sa Niyugan ay Kaunlaran ng Bayan” (KAANIB) Project currently implemented by the Philippine Coconut Authority. The training equipped the Community-Based Organizations with skills in identifying, testing and selecting the income generating technologies in accord with the livelihood activities of the project. It also enhanced their competence in enterprise development. Ms. Erlene Manohar (Project Leader), Dr. Georgina Bordado of CBSUA, Ms. Gloria Claveria of DAR-Oriental Mindoro and the PCA Community Coordinators were present during the training.

Writer: Irish Camela Valderrama

The participants to the Community-based Participatory Technology Development (PTD) training in KAANIB sites of Oriental Mindoro. Mr. Domingo Frugal, OIC of PCA I-IVB, (5th from left, front row) was there to inspire the participants.

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7-Step Business Plan for KAANIB Livelihood Projects



Name your business. The business name reflects the character of your business, so be very deliberate when choosing one. You can also come up with a separate name for your product or service, which serves as your trademark. Be very careful when choosing product names for they determine the brand image and brand experience of your product.

State your mission. Spell out the purpose of your business and its goals, including the product or service concept you plan to adopt. Keep the business goals and targets realistic, so as not to put off the reader (investors) with fantastic claims.

Introduce the business and its management team. Make a clear and complete description of the business and how you plan to start and operate it. State the rationale behind the business’s establishment. Introduce the people-the team-who will run or invest in it. Include a brief look at their background including prior professional and business experience, educational attainment, leadership skills, and personal resources.

Elaborate on your product and marketing plan. Discuss your product or service in detail, and how it would G enerate revenues for your business. Include here the following information: unique characteristics of your products, size of the potential market, suppliers, etc. Next, describe your market, and provide a detailed description of your potential customers [demographic profile and recent consumption trends].



Illustrate your financial strategy. This part should attract the most interest from your readers. Show the flow of money into and out of the business, coming up with either a profit or loss for a particular period of time. Keep in mind that finance people will look at the numbers and analyze your projected performance ratios. If necessary, seek assistance from your Coconut Development Officer (CDO) to help find the right people in preparing this section of the plan.


Go over the entire document. Whenever it is possible, use charts and graphs to illustrate cash flows and projected return on investment.


Write the executive summary. This section encapsulates your entire business plan for those who don’t have time to go over the entire document, these are often the decision-makers who should be informed about the business. The executive summary is usually written last, after the entire document is completed, and it may appear at the start or at the end of the business plan.



7 C o c o Scope

Coco based farming system

s o m e C O C O N U T

p o i n t e r s o n - C O F F E E F a r m i n g

Planting coffee under coconut is a good practice, which greatly benefits the coconut farmer. Coffee is a highly in demand-product. It is the second commodity traded in the world market. The Philippine supply is so lacking that the country imports 50-75 thousand metric tons per year. Below are the key features of coffee:

Suitable for Coffee Production

Advantages of Planting Coffee • • • • • • • • •

50 years plant productivity Suitable to Philippine climate and soil Short waiting time from planting to first harvest Non-perishable crop Very high pest – disease tolerance Low maintenance crop Available high yielding quality planting materials Value chain product Can eradicate poverty (Php 67,570 – 100,000 net income per hectare, based on a one ton per hectare yield.) • Each hectare of coffee produces 86 lbs of oxygen per day, which is about half the production of the same area in rain forest • Available technical assistance and training from Department of Agriculture and Nestle.

Assessed by National Convergence Initiative • • • • • • •

CAR Cagayan Valley Central Luzon CALABARZON MIMAROPA Bicol Region Western Visayas

• • • • •

Central Visayas Eastern Visayas Northern Mindanao Davao Region SOCCSKSARGEN


green coffee varieties in the Philippines

8 5 % Robusta

7 % Excelsa

5 % Arabica

3 % Liberica

- has twice the amount of

- drought resistant

- has the best flavor and aroma

- drought resistant

caffeine as Arabica

- good as rootstock

but is susceptible to rust fungus

- easy to maintain

and other diseases compared

- yields 1,200 kg/ha/yr

to other cultivars

- used for production of instant coffee

Note: The percentage refers to the availability of each variety in the country. J a n - M a r

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Varieties Suitable Under Coconut Robusta and Excelsa

Planting System Best planted at 2 meters away from the base of coconut palms

A Planting System Guide of Coffee Cultivars Cultivar

System & Spacing Single row Double row


3 m x 1 m – 3 m x 2 m

2 m x 2 m x 2 m x 3 m


3 m x 1.5 m – 3 m x 3 m

2 m x 2 m x 2 m x 4 m

Excelsa/ Liberica

4 m x 5 m – 5 m x 5 m

*BPI 1986

A farm layout of a coconut-coffee cropping model under square planting system of coconut spaced at 10m

*Hedgerow planting is highly recommended in rolling or sloping lands (up to 15-30% slope)

A farm layout of a coconut-coffee cropping model under triangular planting system of coconut spaced at 8-9m

growing conditions and technology CLIMATIC FACTORS

Altitude (m above sea level) Temperature (oC) Relative Humdity (%) Light Total annual rainfall (mm) Typhoon frequency (%)

coconut Less than 600 24-29 80-90 >2000 sunshine hrs 1500-2500 (well distributed) <20


Arabica-1000-2000, Robusta/Excelsa/Liberica-0- 800 15-29 70-85 1,000-3,000 ft-candles 1500-2000


Soil depth (cm) Drainange Soil Acidity (pH0) Soil texture Major nutrients required


>75 Moderate to well drained 5.5 – 7.5 Sandy, loamy, clayey (with good structure) N, K, Cl, S, P, Ca, Mg, B

>75 Well drained 4.5 – 6.5 Loamy, clayey N, P, K, S, Ca

C o c o Scope

Plantation Establishment 1. Land preparation

• Slashing • Layouting/staking • Holing & digging & refilling: 40cm x 40cm x 40cm

2. Transplant coffee seedlings

• Plant at least 4 strains of Robusta (IC2, 7, 8 & S274) to increase pollination • When 6 pairs of leaves have fully developed & with no lateral branches yet • At the start of the rainy season

3. Bending one month after planting

• To produce triple stems; 2-3 months from bending, select 3 sprouts, cut the main stem

4. Spreading

• To stimulate lateral branch formation

5. Laterals

• Fruiting branches; spread using sticks

6. Detop or prune

• 1.8m ideal height

Plantation Care and Maintenance 1. Weeding

Use either of the following: • plastic mulch (2 yrs life span) • organic mulch – rice straw, coconut fronds/husk • plant covercrops

2. Pruning

• De-sucker (monthly) • Remove infested twigs, broken laterals, exhausted twigs (after harvest)

3. Fertilization

• Non bearing: 120-120-60 NPK • Bearing: 120-60-120 NPK (Fertilizer Grades: 18-46-0; 46-0-0, 0-0-60)

Pest and disease control • Monitor coffee trees for occurrence of pests (coffee berry borer and coffee leaf folder) and diseases (coffee rust and die-back). • Collect and destroy infested berries before and after harvest. • Pick all berries, including those that fall on the ground, to eliminate breeding and feeding sites of insects; • Spray with any available insecticides. • Maintain vigor of trees by fertilizing with the right kind and amount of nutrients at proper time.

Harvesting • Berries mature in 6 to 8 months after blooming but varies on the environmental factors from region to region. • For quality beans, harvest only matured berries (i.e. berries turn red from its green color.) Some growers pick coffee berries by priming or berries selected individually. In Mindanao, Arabica flowers in January to May and berries are harvested in August to December. In Luzon, coffee trees bloom just after the first heavy rains in May and June, Arabica and Robusta berries are harvested in late December to March; Excelsa and Liberica are harvested later.

Source: NESTLE Philippines PCA-Davao Research Center Writer: Rhoieliza E. Recla

4. Top nutrient deficiencies

• Zinc (Zn) – little leaf • Boron (B) – uneven leaf size, short internode • Iron (Fe) – albino leaves

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SCALE INSECT In the last quarter of our 2011 issue, we briefly mentioned the sudden occurrence of a high population of scale insects in coconut farms in Batangas and Marinduque. Now the infestation has spread to nine municipalities in Batangas. This poses a great threat to the CALABARZON region, one of the largest coconut growing areas in the Philippines. It has reached nearby provinces of Laguna, Quezon and Cavite affecting some 774,000 palms. To address the problem, the Philippine Coconut Authority is now pursuing a combination of control programs. In any kind of infestation, early detection is the key to avoid outbreaks.

WHAT IS A SCALE INSECT? Aspidiotus destructor Signoret, commonly known as the Coconut Scale Insect, attacks leaf petioles, flowers and nuts of the nursery seedlings and mature palms. In severe infestations, it greatly multiplies forming continuous yellow crust all over the underside of the leaves. It causes premature death of the leaflets, resulting in decreased nut yield. The nymph and adult are the most destructive stages to coconuts. The plant surfaces, where these insects feed, are usually covered with sticky fluid called honeydew, which is secreted by the insect while feeding. Ants sometimes protect these insects from predators for their honeydew secretions and may even help to spread the pests. Oftentimes a black sooty mold forms on the honeydew which reduces photosynthetic capability of the palms. LIFE CYCLE



The egg of the Coconut Scale is yellow, laid around the femaleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body under the scale; its incubation period is 6-9 days. Its nymph leaves the maternal scale and secretes waxy fluid to cover its body (nymphal period: 24 days in male and longer in female). The adult Coconut Scale is 1.5-2.0 mm in diameter. The female adult lays as many as 350 eggs. The scale attaches itself to the leaf for 45 days.

C o c o Scope

P C A â&#x20AC;&#x2122; S CO N T R O L P R O G R A M LEAF PRUNING The PCA has adopted this measure to reduce the population of the scale insects. When leaves are pruned, the spread of the insect can be checked. So far, almost 67% of reported infested palms has been pruned of yellowing and dry infested fronds. The pruned palms or the pruned leaves have also been sprayed with 4% vegetable or mineral oil in water to kill the scale insects. Palms that are pruned are also fertilized with inorganic and organic compounds (1.5kg Ammonium Sulfate and 2kg Salt-Agricultural Grade per tree) to allow the palms to recover faster and compensate for the loss in photosynthetic leaf area lost in pruning and pest damage.

Larvae of coccinellid predators

CHEMICAL SPRAYING The agency has also resorted to spraying seedlings and young palms with pesticides, although it is considered impractical and expensive. Pesticides also kill beneficial insects which feed on the scale insects. This measure, however, is done only when necessary. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL The most promising control measure that PCA is adopting against the Scale insect is the use of predators and parasites like coccinellid beetles that keep the population of the scale insect down. Research has identified them as:

Pruning the leaves of an infested tree

1. Coleoptera Coccinellidae: Chilocorus nigritus, Chilocorus circumdatus Sch., Pseudoscymnus devipakalpa, Pullus xerampelinus, Scymnus sp., and Telsemia sp. 2. Coleoptera Nitidulidae: Cebocephalus so. Source: Ambrosio Raul Ricardo Alfiler Division Chief, Epidemiology Division Albay Research Center Writer: Catherine Rose Bengan/Araceli A. Loyola

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Spraying pruned palms with coconut oil solution


regional focus

NORTHERN MINDANAO REGION X Northern Mindanao Coconut Industry

Northern Mindanao is composed of five coconut provinces:

Lanao del Norte, Misamis Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Bukidnon and Camiguin. These provinces are less affected by tropical weather disturbances. Other climatic conditions, especially rainfall, are very favorable to the development of coconut. Ninety to ninety-five percent (90-95%) of the farms in the region is less than 5 hectares. About 302,197 hectares are devoted to coconut, producing 413,000 metric tons of copra per year.

Four million coconut palms, planted in about 40,000 hectares, are

already senile â&#x20AC;&#x201C;representing a production loss equivalent to 50, 000 metric tons per year.

The regional copra production averages 1.2 metric tons per hectare

per year. A coconut farm in Northern Mindanao has only about 40-45 percent production efficiency. The region has nine oil mills with a total daily crushing capacity of 3, 500 metric tons or an annual capacity of 1.0 million metric tons.

Source: Regional Manager Luis G. Cruz PCA-X Northern Mindanao


C o c o Scope




MINDANAO “I am pleased to tell you that we finally put our Hybrid Coconut Production Project in place. Last year Administrator Forbes gave his blessing to proceed with it, and so on May 17, 2012 we launched it at Brgy. Tagpako, Gingoog City. We now have 298 hybrid coconut production sites in the region in about 250-300 barangays. The total area for these sites is about 660 hectares with each site ranging from 2-5 hectares. I’m also glad that other regions are following our footsteps. ” This was what Regional Manager Luis G. Cruz of PCA-X (Northern Mindanao) shared when asked by this writer about the status of his hybrid seed production project. “It’s now off the ground. We used Tacunan Green Dwarfs as our female parent materials and the Tagnanan Tall as our male parents,” continued RM Cruz. This year RM Cruz hopes to put up other seed farms in the other barangays. But he wants the farms to have more enterprises that will provide extra income to the farmer-cooperators of the Project. He wants these

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RM Cruz (third from left) during the launching of Hybrid Coconut Production Project in Tagpako, Gingoog City together with farmers cooperators to produce coco sap which they can sell for a profit as such or process into coconut sugar and other coco sap products. “Aside from this and to ensure higher percentage of pollination in the seed production farms, we will introduce apiculture where farmers can raise honey bees. These bees can do well to enhance the natural pollination among the dwarf coconut mother palms by transferring the pollens from the tall palms.” Cruz said. He also spelled out his other plan to develop the palm industry in his region. “I’m also looking into the possibility of intercropping coconuts with Fishtail Palms (Pugahan) and Sugar Palms for the production of alternative energy like Bio-Ethanol from palm sap and other palm products.”

This advocacy on Bio-Ethanol production from Fishtail Palms and other palm species had been initiated since 2010 through some informal talks with people who know the potential of these palms as alternative energy source. However, RM Cruz said that there is still a need to locate these palms, collect their seeds or seedlings for propagation and identify interested farmers who are willing to set up a small area for growing the palms as genetic banks. “This will also entail research works by our experts in Zamboanga Research Center,” Cruz said. With these plans laid out, what remains are the works and resources needed to put the plans into action. But for now, Northern Mindanao’s coconut industry and its stakeholders appear to be in the good hands of a leader with a vision. Writer: Edgar T. Bahala



SURVIVING PABLO PCA and its initial response to rehabilitate the lives of coconut farmers

She described it as if it happened yesterday. “Nikat-kat siya sa lubi, dili unta to siya mamatay kung wala siya niambak. Pero naluoy man siya sa iyang mga anak.”(He climbed a coconut tree, if he had not jumped then he would have survived. But he pitied his children.), said Elena Pasignasigna of her husband’s final moments. Elena is a board member of Ilam-Mulig Integrated Community Based Organization (IMICOMBO). She is one of the recipients of the CacaoCoconut Intercropping Project under the KAANIB program, which is PCA’s current major program in response to Typhoon Pablo onslaught. She lives alone with her grandchildren while the rest of her family resides in Compostela Valley, one of the Pablo-stricken areas. Her coconut farm in Ilam, Davao City is one of the things left to her after the calamity. She joined the cooperative hoping to find a way to build her family’s future. International and local aids came pouring in for the victims of Pablo. Tents were given as temporary substitute to their damaged homes. And trucks full of relief goods were delivered to meet their basic needs. In all of these, the government plays a major role in helping the people to start anew. The coconut industry also suffered from the calamity. The latest report is that, nearly 11 million palms in Compostela Valley, Davao Oriental and Davao del Norte suffered damage from Pablo. Region XI reports that this has also greatly affected the livelihood of coconut farmers.


Cateel, Davao Oriental

IMPACT ON COCO INDUSTRY Southern Mindanao OIC-Regional Manager Rex B. Buac said that the response to Typhoon Pablo involves several agencies. He said that PCA and these agencies are focusing their efforts mainly on debris management. But he added that other programs will follow such as pest management and livelihood programs for the farmers. Davao Oriental constitutes 41% of the total coconut area of Southern Mindanao. Baganga, one of the hard hit areas, is about 20% of Davao Oriental. When asked about the impact of Pablo on the coconut industry, Noel Prieto, OIC/PCDMDavao City, said that the typhoon significantly affected the Southern Mindanao Region. However, it can be alleviated. He added, “Since Mindanao is a continguous area, whatever we lost dito sa Banganga pwede naman mag-ship ang South Cotabato, Caraga and Northern Mindanao.” C o c o Scope

PCA EFFORTS The Southern Mindanao Region XI had dispatched chainsaws in two provinces devastated by Typhoon Pablo. Thirty six (36) units were sent to Compostela Valley and one hundred one (101) to Davao Oriental. These chainsaws are now used for cutting and lumbering operations in collaboration with the United Nations Development Programâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (UNDP) cash for work program. As of March 2013, almost 125, 000 palms had been cut or made into lumber using the chainsaws. There are already 3, 880 households served by the operation. PCA has also launched an information campaign to upgrade its present capacity in clearing the coconut debris and for the control of Rhinoceros Beetle outbreak through mass production and application of Green Muscardine Fungus (GMF), and the procurement of pheromones and the installation of traps on site. Moreover, one of the long term objectives is to organize a Bantay Dangan brigade to continually monitor pest incidence and facilitate its integrated management. The program will last from February until the end of this year. The beneficiary locations are Davao Oriental (municipalities of Baganga, Cateel, and Boston) and Compostela Valley (municipalities of Monkayo, New Bataan, Montevista, Maco, Compostela, Laak and Nabunturan). Source: Philippine Coconut Authority Southern Mindanao Region XI Writer: Catherine Rose B. Bengan

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20, 000, 000 18, 725, 433 18, 000, 000 16, 000, 000 14, 000, 000 12, 000, 000 10, 000, 000 9, 013, 209 8, 000, 000 6, 000, 000 4, 274, 487 4, 195, 193 4, 000, 000 1, 894, 292 2, 000, 000 5, 306 0

Compostela Valley

Davao Oriental

Davao del Norte

No. of Bearing Trees (2012) No. of Damaged Trees from Typhoon Pablo *PCA Southern Mindanao Region XI Statistics

A task force worker cuts a coconut stump which is a potential breeding site of Rhino Beetles

A worker digs a deep hole to bury unutilized coconut debris


inspire me


But they weren’t grateful.

gratitude are a magnet.

I’m talking about a nervous, first-time speaker who opened his talk with a question:

A pillar of fire accompanied them by night and a pillar of smoke accompanied them by day. But they weren’t grateful.

Grateful people get more of what they’re grateful for.

“Who among you still woke up this morning? Raise your hands and clap! Thank the Lord if you are still alive!” Everybody was, of course, laughing! We all know that the dead can no longer clap his hands or say “Thank you”. If there was one person there who did not clap, he must be dead! But that speaker’s message was clear: WE NEED TO BE GRATEFUL! Bro. Bo Sanchez once said that there are two ways of living on earth: You can grumble or you can be grateful. Both habits are powerful. Do you know how long the Israelites travelled from Egypt to the Promised Land? The Bible says it took them 40 years. But do you know that it could have taken them only two weeks? Here’s why. The distance from Cairo to Jerusalem is only 391 kilometers. That should have only taken the Israelites 14 days to travel from Egypt to Israel. But why did they take 40 years? Because the Israelites took the grumbling path instead of the grateful path. Think about it. They were rescued from 400 years of slavery. But they weren’t grateful. Led by Moses, they saw 10 mind-boggling miracles, from water turning into blood, a staff turning into a snake and to frogs leaping out of the lake… But they weren’t grateful. They crossed the red sea on dry land.


The grumbling path is much longer that the grateful path. In the case of the Israelites…40 years longer! Bo Sanchez also said that marriages can’t be strong without gratitude. He said that married people have affairs not because of sex but because they grumble instead of being grateful. “Your spouse has 90% of what you need. But because you’re not grateful for that 90%, you search for that missing 10% in a mistress. Someone fresh. Someone prettier. Someone more affectionate. Someone who smells nice. But when you go home, your wife smells of paksiw. She isn’t affectionate because she’s tired, taking care of the kids the entire day. So you have an affair. At first, it’s exciting. It makes you feel wonderful. But one day, you’ll wake up and realize you’re holding Miss 10% in your arms. You’ve lost your Miss 90% to get Miss 10%.” Be grateful today. Even as you read this article, be grateful. Do not wait for something big to happen for you to be grateful. Some will say, “I’ll be grateful if I win the Lotto…” Or “I’ll be grateful if I get promoted…” Or “I’ll be very grateful if I have a baby…” Don’t wait to be grateful. Be grateful now! Why? Because both grumbling and

If they’re grateful for happiness, love and friendships, they’ll have more happiness, love and friendships. If they’re grateful for financial blessings, they’ll have more financial blessings. In the same way, grumbling people get more of what they grumble about. If they grumble about their problems, they’ll have more problems. If they grumble about lack, they have more lack in their lives. Let me ask you a few questions. Did you have food on your table last year? Thank God. Did you have clothes to wear last year? Thank God. Did you sleep well at night last year? Thank God. Did you have work last year? Thank God. Did you receive your bonus from your office last year? Thank God. Did you earn money last year? Thank God. Did you have friends last year? Thank God. Did you serve God last year? Thank God. Open your eyes to see that you were swimming in an ocean of blessings last year. You should be overwhelmed at what God had done in your life. Be thankful. And remember: gratitude attracts blessings. What do you have that you did not receive? … Already you have all you want! Already you have become rich! (1 Corinthians 4:7-8)

Writer: Edgar T. Bahala C o c o Scope

oil palm 101





Which Ripe Oil Palm fruitlet Confused? Let us take an introductory course on the world of oil palm. To put it simply, oil palm is the tree and palm oil is the product extracted from it. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s that simple. Now, letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s complicate it a little. Elaeis guineensis, a species of palm commonly called African Oil Palm or macaw-fat, is a monoecious crop with both male and female flowers on the same tree. A single tree produces 1000 to 3000 fruitlets per bunch wherein each bunch weighs 10 to 25 kilograms elongated or almost spherical in shape. Generally, the fruitlet is dark purple or almost black which turns to orange red when ripe. Each fruitlet consists of a hard kernel (seed) enclosed in a shell (endocarp) which is surrounded by a fleshy mesocarp. Mature palm trees are wrapped in fronds, which give them a rather rough appearance. The older trees have smoother trunks apart from the scars left by the fronds, which have withered and fallen off. Like the coconut palm, oil palm produces a wide variety of products derived from its different parts.

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Main Products Palm Oil Palm Oil is obtained from the fleshy portion, mesocarp, of the Oil Palm fruitlet. In its virgin form, Palm Oil is very high in carotene which gives its fruit a reddish-orange color. It is also very high in antioxidants and tocotrienols. Palm Oil is particularly good for frying wherein the reuse of the oil adds shelf life to the fried product. Palm Olein, nicknamed blending partner, is the liquid fraction of Palm Oil. When blended with other vegetable oils, it is widely used as frying oil because of its resistance to oxidation at frying temperature, which gives food longer shelf life. Palm Stearin, on the other hand, is the solid fraction. It is a very useful source of fully natural hard fat for products such as shortening, pastry and bakery margarines. Additionally, there are other fractions obtained from Palm Oil including various grades of double fractioned Palm Olein and Palm mid fractions that can be used as cooking and frying oil and as a natural ingredient for tub margarine and for the manufacture of Cocoa Butter Equivalents (CBE).


Palm Kernel The seed of the Oil Palm fruitlet produces Palm Kernel Oil, which is extracted from the inside of the endocarp. The oil consists of fatty acid compositions, which resemble that of coconut oil. Approximately 82% of Palm Kernel Oil is saturated fat and is commonly used in commercial cooking because of its relatively low cost, stability at high cooking temperatures and storage longevity. Palm Kernel Olein and Palm Kernel Stearin, the liquid and solid Oil Palm Seedlings fraction, find uses in margarine, confectionaries, coffee whitener, of digestible starches, sugar and cellulose, high filled milk, biscuit cream and coating fats. phosphorus to calcium ratio, magnesium, copper, Palm Kernel Stearin is used to substitute zinc, iron. It also contains Vitamin E, which acts cocoa butter in many of its traditional uses. as natural antioxidants. More importantly, it is low in unsaturated fatty acids, free of aflatoxin, Biofuel toxic chemicals, heavy metals, pesticides and dioxins, and high in dry matter for small and Derived from Palm Oil, Palm Biodiesel large ruminants. is an alternative fuel that can be used in PKC composition in the formulated animal compression engines. feed ranges from 20% to 25% in poultry (meat Besides being used as diesel for ducks, broiler, layer chicken), 20% for swine, 50% transportation, Palm biodiesel has many other for sheep, 80% for beef cattle & 50% in dairy and applications. It can be used as heating fuel in 30% in aquaculture (AFRICAN HITO). domestic and commercial boilers and also as feedstock for oleochemical industry such as Palm Wine a-sulphonated methyl esters for the production of liquid detergent. The wine is made from the sap of palm More importantly, using Palm Biodiesel trees, obtained by tapping the male inflorescence. benefits the environment. Studies indicate that The sap contains 4.3g and 3.4g of sucrose and sulphur dioxide emissions and particulate glucose per 100 ml. It ferments quickly and the matters are reduced with the use of biodiesel. alcohol content depends on the stage at which Biodiesel has a higher cetane number that the wine is consumed. It is very sweet when improves engine performance and results in cleaner emissions compared to petroleum diesel. drunk fresh. Meanwhile the sourness varies with the length of time after fermentation has already taken place. Palm Kernel Cakes A mean annual yield per hectare of 150 palms of 4000 liters of palm wine is acquired, and Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) is obtained is double in value to the oil and kernels from the from crushed palm kernels. It is attained same number of palms. through a mechanical or solvent process, Palm Wine can be tapped from some where the mechanical one is widely used. varieties of palm trees, including the African Oil PKC contains 50% fat, 9% crude protein, Palm, the Raphia Palm and the Date Palm. approximately 16% fiber, significant amounts


C o c o Scope

ADDITIONAL USES • The Central Shoot or Cabbage of Oil Palm is edible while leaves are used for thatching and production of brooms. • The petioles and rachises are reused for fencing and for protecting the tops of rigid walls. • The trunk can be used as firewood, processed into plywood and can be sewn into planks for use in roofing. • New studies claim that oil palm trunk fiber is one of the best known sources of fiber today, as it can be made of more than 70% dietary fiber and a good portion of that is insoluble. It is very light, capable of absorbing lots of water, does not congeal easily, endures extreme temperatures and moisture levels, and contains a high level of insoluble fiber. • Empty Fruit Bunches are used for mulching and manuring and as local fertilizer. Researches say that the oil palm empty fruit bunch is a lignocellulosic source, which is available as a substrate in cellulose production (Akamatsu et al., 1987 and Malik 1997). • The ash produced from empty fruit bunches is sprayed on crops to prevent insects from destroying the crops; it is also used as soap for washing plates and pots. Recent researches blend cement containing ash derived from oil-palm waste shows satisfactory setting times and soundness test results. Workability of concrete incorporating the ash is categorized as good, and no segregation was observed.

Source: ( ( ( ( ( and ( Writer: Jonas Amor G. Sobrepeña/Edgar T. Bahala

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At least P24 billion in new investments are expected to pour in the oil palm industries of ARMM and Region XII or SOCCSKSARGEN within the next three years, according to a spokesman of the Philippine Palm Oil Development Council. During an industry cluster workshop with of the National Industry Cluster Capacity Enhancement Project (NICCEP), PPODC board member Gerard Pinol told the industry cluster from both regions here that Southern Mindanao will benefit from these new investments in the oil palm industry in the coming years. Industry players cited that some 22,000 hectares of land are expected to be planted with oil palms in the year 2013 in the two regions, to be followed later an additional 19,000 hectares during the next three years. Engr. Venouli Belgira, an executive from KENRAM Corporation says that threats like technical smuggling, and illegal trading of palm oil can impede the growth of the industry. However, as a whole, the industry is enjoying increasing sales in both domestic and global export markets. The best growing areas for oil palm are within the region of 10o of the equator. In the Philippines, the island of Mindanao and some of the Visayas provinces, including Palawan, are within this region. But Oil Palms are now spreading to dryer areas up to 15% from the Equator using drought tolerant hybrid seeds (UNIVANICH REPORT, 2013). Source: Leonard Flores, Philpress News as published in National Cluster Bulletin Vo. 2(4). Nov-Dec. 2012



Coco Siopao Coco Siopao was one of the recipes included in the recent ILAM MULIG INTEGRATED COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATION (IMICOMBO) training on confectionery products, conducted by the Philippine Coconut Authority under the KAANIB program. The training, entitled “Hands-On Training on Confectioneries Making (Native Delicacies) and Banana Chips”, covered processing, packaging and marketing of the products. Mr. Tanny Calimpong, an IMICOMBO member, taught the other members to make Bucarillo (Buko Bande), Puto de Coco, Cuchinta, Fancy Rice Ball (Bitsu-bitso), Siopao de Coco, and Banana Chips. In his early days, he worked in five star hotels and cargo ships as chef, citing pastries as one of his expertise. Although he hails from Iloilo, Mr. Calimpong was born in Mintal. Thus he decided to invest in the cooperative. For a healthy and unique twist to your confectioneries, try this recipe.

Source: PCA Southern Mindanao Region XI Writer: Catherine Rose B. Bengan

What you need Steamer Stove Stainless basin Bond paper Spoon Wood roller Flour cloth

Mr. Calimpong showing the members how it is done.

Ingredients Asado Chicken meat or pork or bola bola Boiled eggs Coconut cabbage (ubod) 1 kg. all-purpose flour

1 tsp. active quick/dry yeast 1 tsp. table salt 4 tbsp white sugar 1 ½ glass of lukewarm water Coconut oil Lard

How to do it 1. Prepare basin with lukewarm water. 2. Add white sugar and active dry yeast. 3. Melt sugar and yeast through stirring. 4. Add flour. Mix with bare hands. 5. Add salt. Then add oil or lard. 6. Continue mixing with bare hands until elastic, not cut-like and transparent 7. Roll up and cover with cloth to expand for 5 minutes, then roll again, cut in specific weights, small-15 g, medium-22 g, big-30 g.

8. Form into balls and set for another 5 minutes. 9. Flatten the balls on a bond paper, put the meat on the middle, close the edges, twist the sides, so it will not open when it grow or expand. 10. Set it again for 15 to 20 minutes or until they are well expanded. Cover with a cloth so that air does not penetrate. 11. Steam for 15 minutes in medium high heat then check. Simmer for another 10-15 minutes . Then let it rest.

Cocoscope 1st qtr issue  
Cocoscope 1st qtr issue