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ABPL 30048 STUDIO:AIR 2014 S1



Table of Context

Introduction----------------------------------------------------------------------1 Past Work------------------------------------------------------------------------2 PART A CONCEPTUALISATION Part A.01 Design Futuring-------------------------------------------------------5 Part A.02 Design Computation------------------------------------------------13 Part A.03 Composition/Generation-------------------------------------------23 Part A.04 Conclusion-----------------------------------------------------------31 Part A.05 Learning Outcomes-------------------------------------------------35 Part A.06 Appendix-Algorithmic Sketches-----------------------------------39 PART B CRITERIA DESIGN Part B.01Research Field: Biothing Pavilion------------------------------------47 Part B.02 Case Study 0.1: Biothing Pavilion-----------------------------------51 Part B.03 Case Study 0.2 : FLUX-----------------------------------------------55 Part B.04 Technique: Development-------------------------------------------63 Part B.05 Technique: Prototypes----------------------------------------------77 Part B.06 Technique: Proposal-------------------------------------------------85 Part B.07 Learning Objectives and Outcomes-------------------------------93 Part B.08 Appendix-Algorithmic Sketches-----------------------------------95 PART C DETAILED DESIGN Part C.01 Design Concept----------------------------------------------------105 Part C.02 Tectonic Elements-------------------------------------------------115 Part C.03 Final Models--------------------------------------------------------121 Part C.04 Additional LAGI Brief Requirements------------------------------131 Part C.05 Learning Objectives and Outcomes-----------------------------135 Reference---------------------------------------------------------------------141


My name is Naijia Li. I'm currently studying in The University of Melbourne. I am a third year Bachelor of Environments student major in Architecture. Before I immigrated to Austrlia with my family, I spent my primary school in Shanghai, China. Later I finished my secondary and high school in Melbourne. Now Melbourne University is another destination for me to achieve a higher standard. Both of my parents are fashion designer, which brings me strong interest in creative design when I was small.

The very first time I get in contact with the idea of Architecture was back in the year 2000. Electoric Arts launched the game "The Sims". When I firstly get the oppotunity to build a house on my own, I start to realize, building can just simply be a shelter, a refuge against natural weather with day to day living functions satisfied. Yet, Building can also be something creative, something performative, something customizable, something that is unique. Architecture is unique, but still highly relative to the surrounding context and the overall social cultural presentation. "The Sims" is not a professional architecture design sofeware. Still, even only a limited numbers of materials and design contexts can be chosen, there are still millions of solutions to the desired dream house. When I get into University of Melbourne two years ago, I start to get in touch with a few professional softwares. A successful reproduce of the campus building "Gate keeper's Cottage" in Sketchup was done when I was in the first year doing Mapping Environments. Virtural Environments in second semster again lead me into the use of Rhino. All of those softwares have insipred me the infinite possibilities of modern architecture. Grasshopper is brand new to me. Yet in these few weeks it has already shown its powerful ability in assisting digital design. However, as the modern digital software develops, it still needs our idea of creation, innovation and our far-sighted consideration to form architectures that are representative and sustainable. Design for the future, design with the renewable energy, design against defuturing, is our new task.

Figure 0.1: Four sets of photos for past Virtual Envrionments lattern work



Part A.01 Design Futuring

“Collectively, across all our differences, we human beings have reached a critical moment in our existence. It has always been recognized that individuals, communities,races andeven nations can be fated or made to disappear but we are now at a point when it can no longer be assumed that we, en masse, have a future. If we do, it can only be by design against the still accelerating defuturing condition of unsustainability. “[1]

Part A.01 Design Futuring

The crtical element of furturing is the idea of sustainable development, as it is the fundamental need for the future to “exist�, rather than damaged by human. In order to achieve sustainability, as TonyFry suggested across the page, design against defuturing situation should be made. Using renewable resources, extending the lifetime of an architecture, lower the frenquency and cost for repairing can all contibute to a more sustainable futuring design. Futhermore, their contribution to vernacular site and inhabitants, field of ideas are all appreciated as sustainable design elements. The present of paramatric design undoubtedly increased more possibility of designing. It could also help assisting the designer to use the material effeiciently. Within same design intent, paramatric design allows the designer to find the best design with most effeicient material usage. Not only for futuring ideas, paramatric design also contributed to environmental futuring. Two precedent parametric architectures are analyzed on the future oppotunities and their contributions towards sustainability of the buildings.



The Water Cube, often known as the National Aquatic Center, designed by PTW Architects for the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics has shown a new idea of an athletic architecture. Its outstanding cubic shape with “bubble” cladding conveying both the element of Chinese culture and symbolize of water. [2] It is located on one side of the central line of Beijing, with the National Stadium, “Bird’s Nest”, on the other side to create an echoing between these two parametric modern architecture. It is also a significant modern architecture sits in the historical city. Even though water cube is designed under the requires of the competition place for the 2008 Olympic hosting swimming, diving and synchronized swimming events, its life didn’t end after the finish of Olympic. It was opened to the public after half of it revamped into a water park. The initial function is saved and more people are able to use this architecture as an indoor swimming pool. The usage of the architecture is extended, even more participants got involved in this aquatic center. Water Cube is also the combination of culture and design idea. It has emphasized the design of the architecture can be communicating both vernacular culture and aesthetics. The basic cube representing traditional Chinese culture of rules, encountered the modern cladding design of bubbles. The cladding again brings new concept of future possibilities

by using new materials and new structure. The Weaire-Phelan structure[3] requires each beam to be straight to have better resist axial compression. Complex cladding shape of different irregular bubbles is created by using parametric design tools. Furthermore, the use of ETFE plastic for cladding allows more natural lights to come through. The cladding is also capable to provide good thermal mass to decrease the usage of air conditioning. ETFE also allows the surface to clean itself when it’s raining. The smooth and transparency cladding also makes the aquatic center looks crystalized. Moreover, the cladding can “cure” itself by make a small area of patch when it has broken hole. This characteristic extended the life of the material and reduces the cost of the repair. “The relation between creation and destruction is not a problem when a resource is renewable, but it’s a disaster when it is not.”[4] Design futuring cannot be achieved without sustainability. Water Cube builds modern parametric design elements based on traditional culture by using self-curing materials and flexibility for revamp for future use allows more future possibilities and makes the building more sustainable.

A.01 Design Futuring

Top left: Overview of Water Cube[5] Top right: Enlarged cladding view of the Water Cube[5] Bottom left: Interior view of cladding[5] Bottom right: Siting of the Water Cube opposite the Bird’s Nest[5]



Garden by the Bay is a project led by landscape architects Grant Associates. This masterplan draws from the distinctive flora of the region to create a new destination in the city. It has been designed as a series of distinct ecosystems which will enable the gardens to function with maximum environmental efficiency.

Figure 1.1: Garden by the Bay[6]

Sustainability has been a key design driver for the Garden by the Bay project. The most spectacular climatecontrolled glasshouses employ low-energy and renewable systems. Envelopse of both blomes are designed to allow maximum amount of light to enter so the plants within can flourish. The hybrid structure, supported by the giant steel arches was informed by extensive daylight analysis. Based on the climate of Singapore, the consideration of heat and sunlight are considered. The use of double-glazed units which enclose the biomes will have a low-e coating on the inner face of the outer pane to allow approxmimately 65% of the incident daylight through to the interior but only 35% of the solar heat. [6]

A.01 Design Futuring

Figure 1.2: Sustainable system in Garden by the Bay[6]

Waste water from the dessicant circuit will be exhausted to the atmosphere through a flue concealed in the trunk of the on-site ‘Supertrees‘. These great steel and concrete sculptures allow plant to grow around their trunks creating striking vertical gardens whilst their brances will also support solar hot water collectors, PV panels and rainwater harvesters. Figure 1.3: Layout of the project Garden by the Bay[6]


Part A.02 Design Computation

“The digital in architecture has begun to enable a set of symbiotic relationships between the formulation of desin processes and developing technologies. In order to accommodate these dvelopments, a new and comprehensive domain of architectural theories is beginning to emerge in the intersection between science, technology, design and architectrual culture.�[7]

Part A.02 Design Computation

Computation, the procedure of calculating and determing the relationship between factors by using algorithm. It is a clear mathematrical and logical flow of method to help architect generating, processing the design in the computer. Whereas computerization, is about conversion, digitization and mechanization. It is based on foudation of design that is preconceived and pre determined. Digital in architecture starts to be commonly seen in the process of designing. As the acrchitecture discipline emerges the idea of computation and computerization, there are benfits yet challenges and limitations as well.



From the time when buildings “were constructed, not planned”[8] to the time drawings are used as the communication tools for architects and builders, now computation is introduced, as the new language of communication. Even the creativity is not able to be programed, computing assists the design process. Computation “allows us to capture not only the complexity of how build a project, but also the multitudes of parameters that are instrumental in a buildings form.”[9] Computation allows design to be done in a more rational point of view. Its instant reflection on the action/command provided gives architect the direct result reflection. Errors and mistakes can be detected in early stage by using computing design as well. Within the use of design computation, more complex architecture can be formed and achieved. Furthermore, installed database gives architects more opinions and ideas of techniques, design and material.

A.02 Design Computation

One precedent to look at is the Guggenheim Museum designed by Frank Owen Gehry. From the rough hand drawing to the final building, computation helped him to produce the trademark of nonrepetitive geometries. The virtual design environment has brought the architect the freedom to fully explode his idea, but also helped to transform performance-oriented designing to a more parametric based design for good understanding and building. These conceivable geometries created are bringing modern architecture to higher and higher level, to achieve those impossible.

Top: Handraw draft of Guggenheim Museum[10] Bottom: Finished Guggenheim Museum


Similarly, in Zaha Hadid’s masterpiece, Guangzhou Opera House, computing design helped to transfer the idea of weathering rock[11] into the design of the building. However, in the drawing of the design we can already see a clear desire to design this building in parametric form. Existing logic of associative and dependency relationships between objects are already planned. By using computerization designing, computing design gives architect the accuracy of evidence-oriented designing, both exterior and interior. It ensures the outcome is exactly the same as in the designer’s mind.

Top:Finished Guangzhou Opera House[12] Bottom: Interior parametric cladding[12]

Paradoxically, despite the advantages mentioned above, architects can still be limited by the digital designing tools. Computerization and computation can only be achieved by the familiarity of the software which wrote by programmer with only basic design tools. Scripting cannot be changed for some unique designs and architects may limit by their knowledge of the software as well. As Rivka said in his article, “It is the period during which may of the leading architectural and structural engineering practices began to form their own internal multidisciplinary research units that developed expertise in exploiting computational geometry in the mediate generation and analysis of digital design”, architects should extend the knowledge in digital designing in order to create a more desirable design.

A.02 Design Computation

Top left: Initial rough stone analogy[12] Top right: Wind influence the weathering of the rock[12] Middle left: Weathering rock trasformed into the architecture[12] Middle right: Site modiration to echoing the Pearl river[12] Bottom left: Parametric design elements on the building[12] Bottom right: Night view of the Opera House[12]


The Bird’s Nest, also known as the National Stadium, is another symbolic architecture constructed under the demand of Beijing 2008 Olympics. Herzog & De Meuron Architekten, the designer of the stadium allows it become the world’s largest steel structure using unwrapped steel. Again it represents the culture of Chinese ceramics. In attempt to hide the steel support elements of the stadium, the idea of randomlooking additional steel blends the steel into the rest of the stadium. [13] From the shape to the design, computation tools are used. The temperature and airflow speed in the stadium is calculated using computational fluid dynamics simulation based on the Games’time situation at each angle of the structure to ensure the design of the stadium performances at its optimum to satisfy the need of the structure.

Top: radom-looking steel pattern Bottom: Paramatric unwrapped steel structure

A.02 Design Computation


Part A.03 Composition/Generation

“Architects are increasingly experimenting with computation to simulate building performance, to incorporate performance analysis and knowledge about material, tectonics and parameters of production machinery in their design drawings. These new custom digital tools allow for performance feedback at various stages of an architectural project, creating new design oppotunities.“[14]

Part A.03 Composition/Generation

Digital design tools emerge into the area of architecture provides a new idea to the designing. Installed compositions in the software provde wide choices for the architects based on their design requirements. Yet, architecture is not only puting those compositions together to generate a building, it is also a process of generation, a process to apply creativity to those compositions. Generative approaches allows architectes to design by using algorithm. It also provides other utilities. Michael Handsmeyer’s and Neri Oxman’s work will be discuessed in this section.


“Nature is the great architect of the form.” As Michael Handsmeyer said in his Ted speech, natural elements have inspired the architects in a lot of ways. Both his own work and Neri Oxman’s work uses a lot of analogy of the nature cell division forms. Their works, share another similarity. The process of their design involves generation, the approach that is achieved by using simple algorithm to achieve complexity.

Michael Handsmeyer’s Plastonic Solids work[15]

A.03 Composition/Generation

In Michael Hansmeyer’s work, parametric design is achieved using a simple algorithm. Even the shapes are different from each of these works; the algorithm is the same- folding. Through his work, the utility of using generative approach is emerged. Generative approach allows the maximum possibilities and changes in one same algorithm. Again as a digital tool, it gives instant feedback. Generative approach also provides inspiration and new design options and decisions. Generative approach can also inspire the architect about the relationship between the compositions and enables them to better control ability. Michael Handsmeyer’s Plastonic Solids work[15]


Neri Oxman’s work, Rapid Craft, shows a maximized surface area of those branching geometries while still maintaining the structural support. The analogy is taken from the natural morphology and finishes the design with algorithm which helped her to view the instant outcome of the change of the system. Generative tools have provided architects their desired design performance within all the lists of manufacturing requirements fulfilled. However, generative tools might bring limitations to the design. Since the algorithm is set by the script installed in the software, designer could only come up with something that is expected by the programmer and installed in the software. Otherwise, digital tools would not be able to perform the design outside the region of its program. Moreover, for the two examples, we can see obvious similarity. Furthermore, those works requires huge amount of layers with different individual cutting pattern. The construction of the model therefore means material waste and energy waste. If the design applied to large architecture, the building of different types of mold would be time and money consuming.

Neri Oxman Rapid Craft work[16]

A.03 Composition/Generation


Part A.04 Conclusion

Part A.04 Conclusion

From the first few weeks of studio, I realize that ideas can be achieved by computation as well. Viusually attractive and structural friendly can be achieved by the use of computations. Designs therefore have more possibilities. Since sustainability become the new topic of this era, A design using renewable energy would be environmental friendly and help to fight agaist defuring. A basic idea of using wind, the renewable natural energy is emerged. A pavilion using wind to generate energy, yet still providing human interaction. In order for our pavilion to be attractive, we are also thinking of adding sounds. Again, sound are created by the sustainable energy: wind.


Part A.05 Learning Outcomes

Part A.05 Learning Outcomes

In the first few weeks of the semester, I start to get in touch with Grasshopper. As a strong Rhino plug-in software, grasshopper showed me the digital design tool's ability to assist designing. Even I am still not really familiar with all the scriptings, I found that using computation really explores more possibilities of design to me. The use of different software, including Photoshop, Illustrator, Indesign and CAD to assist journal writing also shown me how to clearly explain myself using more clear format. Handdraw designs I did in the past may have confusion, yet with those softwares, I could easily change them into clear explaination. Digital designing tools are making design more creative, and communication more clear.


Part A.06 AppendixAlgorithmic Sketchbook

A.06 Appendix


A.06 Appendix




Part B.01 Research Field: Biothing Pavilion

B.01 Research Field

The Boithing Pavilion is extending from “self-modifying patterns of vectors based on electro-magnetic fields (EMF).”[17] From the appearance, the pavilion is fluent. Divided in a few small parts yet centralized. The logics of attraction were computed in plan firstly and then lifted in 3D though a series of structural micro-arching sections “through different frequencies of the sine function.”[18] It is also responding to the local adaptation to the site. Since it is implanted to a steep hill, “EMF trajectories needed to “find the ground”.”[19] The plan is unique, different from the notion of ordinary architectural plan. This pavilion’s dynamic nature and parametric relationship between different parts shows us the possible geometric relationship that fabrication could have. It also shows the use of self-modifying in fabrication method with a basic pattern given. Moreover, from 2D plan to 3D pavilion, Boithing Pavilion shows more opportunities in spatial relationship.


Part B.02 Case Study 1.0: Biothing Pavilion

B.02 Case Study 1.0

Part B.03 Case Study 2.0: FLUX

Top: panelling on the surface[20] Bottom: View of FLUX[20]

Flux, work of California College of the Arts in San Francisco in the year 2009. It was generated to answer the demand of Architecture in a Parametric Landscape exhibition that “focuses on the emerging field of advanced digital design.”[20] The design intent of this project is “to explore the possibilities of parametric modelling and digital fabrication through the production of the exhibition armature. ” [20] By using parametric design tools the undulating structure expands and contracts as the volume extends down the center of the long nave space. Flux uses twisting geometry and perforated skins to achieve the demand of the exhibition and shown the capacity of its quickly updated skills to generate new design criteria.

B.03 Case Study 2.0


1. Determine section shape By sketch the section shape of the FLUX as the start point. Since the project is a twisting structure based on this shape, determine of this shape is foundemantal and critical.

2. Find central line for rotation A central point of the section shape is found by using script 'Area'. A line is generated from the central point to be used as centre of rotation. Perior to rotation, a basic form of the FLUX project is done by moving multiple section shape along x axis.

3. Extend curve and rotate Once the basic pattern of the FLUX is formed, 3D rotation is taken by using the central line generated in second step as the centre of rotation. To ensure the turing angle is similar to the original project, a Graph Mapper is connected to the 'angle' command in 'Rotate 3D' script. By this stage, the general twisting form can be seen. Faces are subtracted to form a hollow section as well.

B.03 Case Study 2.0

4. Scale two sized rotate curve To this stage, for a more actual revesing of the FLUX project, the boundary surfaces are seperated into two parts. One is the rigid structure and the other one is the surface lofted between the structure.

5. Extrude and Cap For the surface lofted between structure, lists of faces are scaled. By using planar, it ensures all the faces are scaled in same direction. Extrude. Then the series of faces are cull indexed. For the structure part, again it is been scaled. Planar command is again used to ensure the scale is done in same direction. Extrude. Then holes are capped the brep.

6. Join two boundary Join two parts of the boundary to get the final revese engineering of FLUX project.


Top: Side view of Reverse Engineering FLUX Bottom: Perspective view of Reverse Engineering FL Left: Section view of Reverse Engineering FLUX

B.03 Case Study 2.0



Part B.04 Technique: Development

Rotation center- By changing the central grid line to create new central of rotation to form new iterations

B.04 Technique: Development


Dimension- By changing the linear curve graph mapper to form different geometry such as smaller base w

B.04 Technique: Development

with large open on the top


Rotate angle- By applying different graph mapper to change the rotation form of the geometry

B.04 Technique: Development


Base surface- By changing the base surface to effect the change of central point and shape of the bounda

B.04 Technique: Development

ary to form new iterations


Solid- By using different 3D shape such as cone, box and cylinder to form new iterations

B.04 Technique: Development


The final iteration we did experienced the change in its rotation angle, center of rotation, scale and base surface shape to form a geometry which allows the performance of the wind to be seen. To fulfill our design intent of having 'things to be sound' from the structure, we chose piping as the final solid choice. Pipe ensures the stability of the structure, also allows the structure itself to generate sound by experiencing wind. Wind as renewable energy, can be used over and over again. This structure using wind energy to be self supported ensures the design is sustainable. Wide expanding allows larger surface area to receive wind. Different length of the pipes allows different sound to be made though the pipes.

B.04 Technique: Development


Part B.05 Techniques: Prototype

Part B.05 Technique: Prototype

Proposed Materiality



Composites: • Such as glass reinforced plastic, wood-epoxy or injection molded plastic with carbon fibers • lightweight and high stiffness, hence composites • Reducing the weight of the tubes = reduce the loads on the tower and foundations.

STEEL: • Cheap, stiff and strong enough to support the weight of the tubes. • must also withstand fluctuating wind loading and loading resulting from tube rotation

B.05 Technique:Prototype


Joints Experiment

For a better rotation performance, we also researched for different types of joints to maximize the friction. Two joints, Rzeppa-Type CV Joint and Self-Rotate Internal Joint come to choices. Joint using beads are used to represent the idea of Rzeppa-Type CV Joint in our prototype.

B.05 Technique:Prototype

First experiment is using the bead. The rolling of the beads are expected to reduce the friction and increase the speed of rotation of the pipe.

Second experiment is using the wheels to achieve better friction reduction.

Last experiment is using similar technique as the selfrotate internal joint and test the rotation frequncy of the pipes.


B.05 Technique:Prototype


Part B.06 Technique: Proposal

Based on the wind diagram we found from a weather station near the LAGI design site, we can see the wind is majorly coming form the South Western side of the site. Since we uses wind as our renewable energy, layout of our design facing South West would be our start point of seleting location. Furthermore, from the diagram below, it is obvious to see that the average wind speed over the four seasons in Copenhagen. It further reinforced the strength of the wind as a good renewable resource to be used on site.

Left: Geographic position of the LAGI site and weather station{22] Bottom: Average Wind Speed chart in Copenhagen[21]

B.06 Technique:Proposal

Wind chart of Copenhagen[22]


Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT)

Researches has also been done regard how wind energy is generated. The Vertical Axis Wind Turbine[7], short as VAWT, fulfilled our desired vertical high rise appearance. Its high efficiency with rotating fan echoing with our thinking of rotating pipes. Compare to Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines, VAWT: 1. have lower cut-in speeds than horizontal axis wind turbines 2. can be positioned lower to the ground than can HAWTs 3. can be located in closer proximity to each other

REVOLUTIONAIR WT1KW (GHT TYPE DESIGN) Image courtesy of PRAMAC. Design by Philippe Starck.

Our design intent is to produce a infrastructure sits in LAGI site in Copenhagen which could generate energy though the renewable resource: wind. Further to that, this infrastructure is identical, from its twisting form. It is verically high rised and identical from the site. Furthermore, the structure itself could create sound by using piping. When wind blow into the tube, sounds will be made. Different length of the pipes would result in different sound to be heard. By using a similar theory of the vertical axis wind turbine, we proposed the energy to be generated by rotating the pipes. The shape pattern of the pipes is also in our consideration. The curvy shape of the sound wave inspired us. By analyse the expand of the sound wave from central horizontal axis, the shape pattern for our structure can be determined.

A few of the projects will be put on site to the western side where wind is greater. (Shown in white label below) More structures means more energy generated.

B.06 Technique: Proposal


Part B.07 Learning Objective and Outcome

Part B0.7 Learning Objectives and Outcomes

Though the mid term presentation, we get some valuable feedback from the guests. After looking at our prototype and our presentation, a few issues are raised: 1. Human interaction- How human can be attracted to the site to have a interaction with the structure? 2. Wind control- How can we control the direction of the wind to achieve the turning behavior we like? 3. Surface area- Existing area for receiving wind energy is very small. the efficiency could be increased. 4. Prototype- Prototype didn't shown the gradident and rotation we proposed after iteration. 5. Sound wave not shown-The idea of sound wave is not clearly expressed from the prototype.

B.07 Learning Outcomes

From Virtural Environments, I had a brief understanding of how computerization could assist designing. This semester, I learnt not only how to use the Grasshopper and Rhino software, but also how computation could be used in digital designing. Architecture is now in an new era, the generation which digitalization would only grow stronger. It is the powerful and persuasive design tool. From simply link of the scripting different geometries can be formed. On the other hand, similar scripts can result in entirly different outcomes as we did for part B.04. Reverse engineering again provides me the oppotunity to re-consider other people's logic. What was their initial design intent? How did they achieve it by using paramatric designing? By redoing their work, I found that every single script is unique and critical. From the iteration process, I also found that digital design can get more values out from the precedent. It is asking us the ability to not only reproduce others' work, but also look into the project, find the oppotunity, the innovation, the cornerstone of our own idea and design.

When design is done in 3D. we are also asked to focus more on the relationship between the architecture and the air. Spatical relationship has been put to an extremly important stage where design is asked to be echoing and interacting with the atomsphere. Most importantly, digital design allows me to see more possiblities. More advantages and diesadvantages of the project before it is been produced. These could be materiality, strucutre, etc. Overall, computation allows me explored another brand new way of designing from tranditional hand drawing. Yet, even computation assisted architects a lot in designing, it still need human to put idea and live, into the design to make it alive.


Part B.08 Appendix: Algorithmic Sketches

B.08 Appendix


B.08 Appendix




Part C.01 Design Concept

Part C.01 Design Concept

The interim presentation gives us the oppotunity to fully consider and critisize our own project. Based on the commants and suggestions, we refined our design concept to form a more completed project.

The very first element we removed from our design is "the sound". To the consideration of noise, piping is no longer used. Futher to that, in order to form a greater surface to recive wind energy, we come up with the idea of blades, which comes from the research of the vertical axis wind turbine.Without the performance of sound, we decide to transform our design into a wind turbine which shares same principles as the vertical asix wind turbine. As a fully functioned wind turbine with unique aesthetic design, our design allows wind to be used as a sustainable resource and transfered into energy. Based on the idea of maximize the energy generated by the turbine, we decided to put multiple turbines on the site to create generate more energy. Human interaction was rasied as an issue in the interim presentation. How to create human interaction with the multiple wind turbine field become our next consideration.

C.01 Design Concept

As a project in the city of Copenhagen, Denmark, we looked at vernacular clture. Carl Nielsen, one of the greatest Danish composer. His six worldly known symphonies has add a brush of strong musical color to the country of Denmark. We decide to use his six symphonies as inspiration to the shape of our design. Instead of our old idea of acoustic music and sound, we transformed the idea of music into the shape of the turbine, the silent way to perform music. This prevent the possible noise created yet still keep the beauty of music and arts in Denmark as the concept of our project.


One violin section from each of Carl Nielsen’s six symphonies is choisen, as voilin is the most identical and leading instrument in the symphony. From the stave, we transfered it into numbered musical notation. The series of number gives us the database to draw out the curve driven from one central point. The curve is used in grasshopper as the base boundary for our wind turbine. It allows our project to behave different state of shape, rotation and spreading direction.

C.01 Design Concept

The idea of using symphonies as the foundation shape of our wind turbine gives us the oppotunity to produce several unique design of the turbine. As mentioned earlier, to maximize the effeiciency of the wind turbine, 24 wind turbines are planned to be put on site in order to produce more energy. Based on our previous research, wind digram shows that wind mainly come from South Western side of the site. Hence, denser layout of the turbines should be arranged at South Western side. With the assistance of computation, we used the voronoi tool in the grasshopper to generate the final pattern of layout of our project. In order to create human interaction with the project, pedestrian and cyclist footpath are created along the voronoi line. Existing main roads are maintained for vehicles access to the water taxi terminal. NorthEastern side of the site provides an open space for public events. Six series of connection between the turbines represent six symphonies. For a better aesthetic and effeicient purpose, two highest wind turbines are put on the South Western site on the water .


Based on the curve generated from numberical musical notation of the symphony and a centre point as the foundation of the rotation axis and boundary.

Rotation is done based on the central axis and boundary. This shape is used later as the length of the blades.

A structural column is desi to support the load of the project. Divide the length segements to create 30 la blades.

igned e into 30 ayers of

C.01 Design Concept

Each layer has one circular joint. Blade shape is extruded from the joint to hold the blades.

Blades lengths are controled by the boundary given in the second step.


1. Blade. 2. Composite plastic 3. Composite plastic 4. Steel structural co Sturctural steel column is constructed . To ensure stability, proper set down into the ground is made. Steel column is stiff and strong to hold the weight of the joints and blades. Each composite plastic joints with blades is instralled over one layer of composite plastic bead rotating joint to achieve rotation and reduce friction. Glass reinforced plastic blades are welded to the joints to ensure it is stable. This material also ensures the light wight of the structure.

C.01 Design Concept

c joint. c bead rotating joint. olumn.


Part C.02 Tectonic Elements

The critical element in our design is the design of the joints. From the interim presentation, valuable feedbacks are received. A few changes are made accounding to the consideration of the friction and safty of the joints. The composite plastic joint is designed to hold the blades. Plastic ensures the joint itslef is light weight and stiff. Grooves are extruded to the shape of the blades for an easy weld. Figure3.1: Composite Plastic Joint

Figure3.2: Composite Plastic Bead Joint

The composite plastic bead joint was raised as a scenario in the interim presentation. We are aware that the risk of beads falling aparts may cause great danger and structural failure. Based on these suggestions, a ‘cap’ was added to the joint. It is slightly lower than the dimention of the bead, allows the bead maintaining the movement of rotation. Yet, the cap ensures the gap in between is smaller than the dimention, so that the beads would not be able to fall over.

C.02 Tectonic Elements

The composite plastic bead joint consists of four parts. A basic bead holder with gap equal to the dimension of hte beads allowing the beads to maintain rotation movement. Two caps are added on inner and oter circle, slightly wider than the gap to cover and prevent beads from falling out. Clapboard base is designed as a base to create larger surface area and hold the whole structure. To further reduce friction, another layer of beads are placed to reduce friction with lower layer of joints. Layer board is also placed to create interacting surface area with the joints above and under.

Figure 3.3: Bead Joint Section


C.02 Tectonic Elements


Part C.03 Final Model

C.03 Final Model

Part C.04 Additional LAGI Brief Requirement

The Copenhagen Wind Forest is the fully functioned wind turbine field park located in the city, Copenhagen. Created as the “Forest in the urban area�, Copenhagen Wind Forest worked same principle as a natural forest, which is, environmental friendly. In the park, there are 24 wind turbines allocated based on the wind diagram data collected for a maximum efficiency of energy generation. Two biggest wind turbines are allocated in the water for visual and efficiency consideration. Layout of the turbines is generated by using computation scripting voronoi based on the density of the wind diagram. Each turbine varies its dimension with the others. Heights vary from 15meters to 30 meters. Bigger turbines are put at South Western direction where wind is the strongest. The shapes of the turbines are determined by the symphony done by vernacular composer, Carl Nielsen. As the symbols of local musical culture, the shape of the wind turbine is transferred from the notation of Carl’s six most famous symphonies. Violin stave are used and transferred into numerical musical rotation. The series of numbers are input into computer to generate a curve along different length deviate from a central point.

The wind turbine is functioned same as the principle of a normal vertical axis wind turbine. Energy is generated when the blades are rotating. To maximize the ability of rotation, each layer of the wind turbine can rotate on itself. As move rotations are formed, more energy is generated. Blades are designed to the curvy shape to satisfy both aesthetic need and better surface area. To further refine the project, joints made of composite plastic are used. Composite plastic ensures the joint is stiff and light weight. Glass reinforced plastic is used as the material for the blades. For stable consideration, steel column is used in the central of the turbine. As steel is cheap and strong, it is economical low cost and provides supporting ability of the structure to prevent structural failure. A proper set down is necessary for the column to withstand fluctuating wind loading. The most identical design element is the bead joint. A safe capped bead joint in between each layer reduces the friction. The Copenhagen Wind Forest also creates human interactions. Based on the voronoi generation of layout, cyclist and pedestrian footpaths are added for people access to the site. Functioned as a forest, people could spend their free time take a walk in the site. For convenience of the vehicles, existing driveways on site are maintained for access to the water taxi terminal.

C.04 LAGI Requirements

Since the wind turbines share the same working principles with the vertical axis wind turbine, we estimate that the annual kilowatt-hour generated by each individual turbine would be similar. Therefore we take the data from the vertical axis wind turbine, which is, 12 kW per year as the foundation of our calculation, we therefore come to the result of 288 kW of energy generated per year as we have 24 wind turbines on site. Wind is an inexhaustible resource with a potential for reducing the CO2 emission remarkably. This project is not creating extra energy need yet generating renewable energy. No break of the existing contour prevents the cost of reconstruct the site. Wind turbine itself has low maintain and repair cost. The use of steel for the column, glass reinforced plastic blades; composite plastic joints are all low cost materials and are considered to be weather proof. Overall, this project is the answer to achieve both aesthetic and energy generation purposes. The sustainable design is able to achieve the goal of defuturing, also performed as a green land in urban place responding to the vernacular culture of the city, Copenhagen, Denmark.


Part C.05 Learning Objectives and Outcomes

C.05 Learning Outcomes

Through the final presentation, guests had some positive feedbacks regards our improvment and consideration from the interim presentation. Positive attitudes were received about the idea using blades instead of pipes and the capping of the bead joints for safety consideration. The concept of using vernacular music culture is attracting positive feedback as well. Yet there are still some critics based on the structure. For the reality work of the wind turbine, the increase number of blades does not result into a better effeciency. The existing design is also too dense. Less layers should be allocated to each of the design. Based on these feedbacks, we made a few changes to our design shown in the figure on the left. The design presents a more clea strcture in the new design. In the new design, we also slightly changed the rotation format in grasshopper in order to let the less layers to perform more dynamic. Therefore, it is able to presents the strong sense of rotation performance. From aesthetic aspect, the new design has stronger statement of the idea of rotation and brings out more extrudary feeling.


C.05 Learning Outcomes

By doing Architecture Studio Air, I established foundamental skills of using paramatric digital design tool to accomplish designs. Briefs are reviewed for the possibilities of happening in the digital technologies. I gained the ability to crtic and challenge brief, discover the limitation and possibility of the brief. When in the design process, I gained the ability to generate varies of different possbilities. Doing the iterations allows me to pick out the critical elements in the precedent and how could I be using it to generate more ideas and possibilities. Air Studio also provides me the oppotunity to get in touch with all the digital tools. Photoshop, Illustrator, Indesign, CAD, Rhino and Grasshopper. Design to me has transfered from 2D hand drawing on paper to a 3D dimension visual designing. Not only designing, Air is also about design it, and make it happen. The process of scripting the project, mesh for 3D printing, unroll for laser cutting etc. Air allows me to accomplish the whole process of design to physical model. Thoughout the process, I explored the 3D printing technology and the existing limitations we have nowadays, again reflects me about the limitation to the computation design.

Furthermore, Air Studio as a group work, challenges us with the ability of communication. How to convey your idea to your fellow, how to listen to other's idea. It is my very first time to do design in a group, which really challenged me how to exchange ideas. Most importantly, Air Studio provides the concept of critical thinking. Not only to the precedents we saw, but also to our own design work, to all the works we see. It is about finding existing oppotunities and improvements, finding the foundation of next creative design. Also, thinking sustainabily. In this era, sustainable design would only get stronger as a de-futuring method. Put sustainability on the first of the list would make the design not only unique, but also contributing towards the environments. As architecture is the creature of surrounding enviroments, there is nothing better than repaying the environments back.


Reference: [1] Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 [2] Peter RogersWelcome to WaterCube, the experiment that thinks it’s a swimming pool, May 6, 2004 [3]Peter RogersWelcome to WaterCube, the experiment that thinks it’s a swimming pool, May 6, 2004 [4] Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 [5]National Aquatic Center [6]Garden By the Bay [7]Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 [8]Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 [9]Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 [10]Architecture Studio: Air Week 2 Lecture Note [11]Zaha Hadid Architects [12]Zaha Hadid Architects [13]National Aquatic Center [14]Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 [15]Michael Handsmeyer [16] Neri Oxman

[17]Biothing Organization. Seroussi Pavilion Paris 2007. [18]Dailytonic. ‘biothing’ – a transdisciplinary lobratory founded by Alisa Andrasek. May 2011. [19]Arch20. Seroussi Pavilion Biothing. 24 Jan. 2014 [20] [21] [22] ASOS&station=EKCH. [23]Robert Ferry & Elizabeth Monoian, 2012, A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Technologies


Li naijia 582200 part C  
Li naijia 582200 part C  

Air Studio Final Journal