Architecture Zine Project 2019 A Block
Deadline for submission of all work: Thursday 19th December 2019
Deadline for submission of all work: Thursday 19th December 2019
Deadline for submission of all work: Thursday 19th December 2019
Slide 2: The Index Slide 3: The Brief Slides 4 & 5: The Project Requirements Slides 6 & 7: Uploading Order of the Project Slide 8: What to pay careful attention to Slides 9: Copy of the Assessment Sheet Slide 10 Example of a filled-in Assessment Sheet Slides 11 & 12: Task 1 – Response to quote by Helene Binet Slide 13: Task 2 & Task 5 Good examples of photographs from past years: Slide 14: What to avoid doing in Task 2 & Task 5 Slide 15 & 16: Task 3 & Task 8 - guidelines on writing annotations and the annotation questions Slide 17:Task 4 – Artist Analysis on Michael Wolf Slide 18: Information on Michael Wolf Slide 19: Choice of 6 images by Michael Wolf from his ‘Architecture of Density’ series Slide 20: Analysis Questions on Michael Wolf Slide 21: Task 6 – Responding to the ‘Big Question’ Slides 22 - 26: Task 7 - List of podcasts you will need to watch to create digital experiments Slides 27: Task 9 – Inspirational Experimental Artist Slide 28 - 31: Task 9 – Examples of work by possible artists for the ‘Inspirational Experimental Artist’ task Slide 32 & 33: Task 10 – Examples of independent experiments by past students Slide 34: Task 11- The Final Zine Slide 35: Cropping & Sizing of imagery to fit into the zine Slides 36 & 37: Task 12 - Project Evaluation questions and exemplars
Brief: “Dezeen is one of the world's most popular and influential architecture and design magazines” You have been commissioned by ‘Dezeen’ to create a high quality 20 page architecture digital zine that celebrates the combination of mid-century ‘Brutalist’ architecture and more contemporary architecture seen in London. The zine will contain only photographic imagery and no text. (This means no buildings built before the 1950’s)
The Project Requirements Task 1: Respond to a quote by Helene Binet. (See instructions on slide 11)
Task 2: Create the first set of 8 ‘light’ edits of your London Architecture photos. (You must read the information and advice on slide 13 first)
Task 3: Annotate this set of photographs – focus on what you have learnt from taking & editing these photographs, also what went well and what you could improve on. (Advice: Don’t annotate every single photograph, just annotate them generally as a set beneath the last one of the set. (Help for this is on slides 16 & 17)
Task 4: Complete A written analysis on Michael Woolf. (See instructions on slides 18 - 20 and questions on slide 21) Task 5: Create the second set of 8 ‘light’ edits of your London Architecture photos
(Same advice as Task 2
Task 6: Respond to the ‘big question’. (See instructions on slide 22 ) Task 7: Create 4 different digital experimental techniques (1. mirror image / 2. square collage / 3. kaleidoscope / 4. layer mask photo-montage) on 4 different photographs that you have already lightly edited). You should aim to do more than one example of each and you can include more than 1 example of each in your final zine, but be careful not to over-do it. When uploading these to SWAY, upload the original edited photograph first and then below it or on the right of it, upload the experimental version, do this with all photographs. (see instructions on slides 23 – 26)
Task 8: Annotate for this set of experimental images â€“ focus on what you have learnt from editing these photographs in an experimental way, also what went well and what you could improve on. (Help for this is on slides 16 & 17)
Task 9: Find 1 artist / photographer that has created experimental architecture photographs (A list of potential artists are on slides 27 - 31) and complete 2 written paragraphs of analysis (Help is on slide 27)
Task 10: Produce 2 - 4 creative experiment (either digital or hands-on away from the computer) linked in some way to your choice of artist in Task 9. All experiments will be created using the same method / equipment. (Help for this is on slides 32 & 33)
Task 11: Produce a final zine (20 single pages). Create by selecting a few of the best selection of photographs and experiments that you have on your SWAY already and also some brand new edits into an empty document using In-Design. Think carefully about the flow of the photographs and how you move from straightforward images to experimental images, from colour to black & white and from single vertical images to double page horizontal images. (Information & help for this is on slides 34 & 35) Task 12: Project Evaluation (answer all the given questions on slide 36)
Uploading Order of the Project Headline Post: ARCHITECTURE PROJECT Text Post: Upload the brief (copy & paste from the post below this booklet on Tumblr) Headline Post: RESPONSE TO QUOTE BY HELENE BINET Image Post: Upload 2 or 3 modern architecture photographs by Helene Binet Text Post: copy & paste in the quote by Helene Binet Text Post: add in your written response to the quote (copy & paste from the post below this booklet on Tumblr) Headline Post: EDITED PHOTOGRAPHS Image Post: The first set of 8 light edits of photographs. The same location and either all in black & white or all in colour (if you took them when the sun was out). Present in even sets of either vertical or horizontal format. Text Post: Annotation paragraph for this set of photographs Headline Post: ARTIST ANALYSIS ON MICHAEL WOLF Image Post: 1 photograph by Wolf that you analysed Text Post: the questions & answers for Michael Woolf
Headline Post: EDITED PHOTOGRAPHS Image Post: The second set of 8 light edits of photographs (same location and either all in black & white or all in colour (if you took in bright sunshine). Present in even sets of either vertical or horizontal. Text Post: Annotation of this set of photographs Headline Post: EXPERIMENTAL IMAGES Image Post: 4 experimental photographs (upload the ‘before’ photo first and then ‘after photo’ below it or next to it). Therefore a minimum of 8 different images altogether (unless you have decided to do more than one example per experiment) Text Post: Annotation of this set of experimental imagery Headline Post: ARTIST INSPIRATION ON (name of the 1 experimental artist you selected) Image Post: 2 - 4 photographs by the experimental artist you selected Text Post: the 2 paragraphs of writing for the experimental artist you selected Headline Post: INDEPENDENT EXPERIMENTAL IMAGE/S Image Post: the 2 – 4 independent experimental image/s that you did (upload the ‘before’ photo first and then ‘after photo’ either below it or next to it on the right). Text Post: Annotation of this set of experimental imagery Headline Post: THE FINAL ZINE Photo Post: Upload the final zine Headline Post: PROJECT EVALUATION Text Post: Upload the Project Evaluation
What you must pay careful attention to: * Ensure that your architecture photographs are in focus, have good composition (be cropped skillfully) with careful attention to positive & negative space. Ensure that your editing is sharp & crisp (avoid grainy images). * Ensure that you avoid, bland, mid-tone or grey images. * Ensure that your photographs are presented in similar looking sets (all vertical or horizontal). * Ensure that your photographs to look better than ordinary â€˜tourist snapsâ€™, they must have artistic merit. * Ensure that your responses to the artist analysis questions are expanded on in some depth and also that you are able to communicate your thoughts and opinions clearly and concisely in your own words with effective use of quotes. * Ensure that you pay close attention in your experimental imagery (especially the small details where you are expected to line up imagery very carefully. Also ensure that you have tried to push your creative boundaries, especially in the independently researched experiment. * Ensure that your final zine contains exciting imagery â€“ some of which we will have seen already on your SWAY but also some brand new images and experiments as well. Ensure that there is an excellent flow from page to page and from image to image. * Ensure that you critically analyse your own work in the Final Evaluation using appropriate vocabulary
The Empty Assessment Sheet 14 – 15: 12 - 13.5: 10 – 11.5: 8 – 9.5: 6 - 7.5
A grade B grade C grade D grade E grade
Example of how a filled-in Assessment Sheet could potentially look like 14 – 15: 12 - 13.5: 10 – 11.5: 8 – 9.5: 6 - 7.5
A grade B grade C grade D grade E grade
Task 1: Response to a quote by Helene Binet Much of the information included on Helene Binet has been gathered from the following link: http://www.dezeen.com/2015/03/23/helene-binet-interview-analogue-architectural-photography-film-fragments-of-light-exhibition-wuho/ http://uk.phaidon.com/agenda/photography/articles/2012/december/06/ten-questions-for-photographer-helene-binet/
Basic information on Helene Binet Helene Binet was born in Switzerland in 1959. She is now considered to be one of the world’s leading architectural photographers and has worked for top architects such as Daniel Libeskind, Zaha Hadid and Peter Eisenman. She only works with film cameras and dark room processing and printing (she never works with a digital camera and she does not digitally edit her photographs afterwards).
The Quote by Helene Binet "I've never done anything professionally with digital ….. Digital has made architectural photography very slick – sometimes you don't know if it's a photo, or if it's a rendering, and that I find very disturbing …. If you've spent five years to ten years making a building, you want to make sure that the photos are like a building and not like a rendering.“ Definition of Rendering: (in this particular context) I think what she means is a photograph that has been digitally edited to such an extent that it is difficult to tell whether it is a photograph or a computer --generated image – see an example of a ‘rendering’ type image by David Keochkerian on the next slide.
Instructions for how to respond to the quote is on the next slide
• Write in the quote by Helene Binet. • Explain what Helene Binet has said in this quote in your own words. • Explain whether you agree or disagree with the quote and provide reasons as to why you agree or disagree with what has been said by Binet. Write at least 180 words Images by Helene Binet – using a film camera & traditional techniques.
Example of a rendered image by David Keochkerian
Task 2 / Task 5: Light edits of the photographs Make sure that all of the 8 photographs have something in common such as the same location or types of buildings etc.
Advice: edit all of the set in either colour or black & white using Viveza and / or Silver Efex). Advice: remember that if the sun was not shining when you took the photograph, then you will need to work harder with your editing because there wonâ€™t be any natural shadows or contrast in tones, and then it might be better to edit your photographs in black & white using Nik Silver Efex and avoid overediting in colour. Advice: try to select 8 vertical or 8 horizontal photographs but if you cannot do this, then at least group together all the vertical photographs together and all the horizontal photographs together.
Examples of successful Task 2 / Task 5 photographs from past students
What to avoid doing in Task 2 / Task 5
Avoid uploading grey, midtone, dreary colour photographs. Also avoid including a random passer â€“ by.
Avoid cropping the top off the buildings and not having enough sky at the top.
Avoid colour photographs with a grey sky with a straightforward composition of building too far away.
Task 3 / Task 8: Help with writing annotations In the annotations, discuss the reasons for the decisions you made and what you learnt through taking the photographs and creating the experimental digital edits. Do not waste time providing a step by step description of what you did and do not discuss each photograph one by one. Try to use ‘because’ throughout your annotations because then you have to give a reason for what you did (see below). Also give an honest opinion on what you have created. Remember to discuss: the composition (angles, positive & negative space) the colours or tones & shades if the photographs are black & white (do not mention ‘colour’ in black & white images). the subject matter itself (the buildings) The mood & atmosphere SUGGESTED FORMAT FOR THE ANNOTATIONS FOR THE PHOTOGRAPHS & LIGHT EDITS In this particular set of architecture photographs, I decided to really concentrate on the negative and positive space because I had noticed how important the sky is in creating a strong composition. I decided to hold my camera at an angle to take these photographs because I wanted to achieve a sense of dynamic composition which would echo the impact that tall skyscrapers such as these have on the surrounding area. On the whole I am pleased with what I have achieved here, although I think that I could have included more sky above the top of the buildings in some of them. I decided to edit all these photograph in black & white because when I took them it was overcast and so I couldn’t really capture any shadows or a wide range of tones. Therefore in order to bring a sense of depth and 3D qualities to the photographs, I decided to use quite a high contrast, which has worked successfully in some images, such as the first and third, but is disappointing in the second image because it still looks too flat and over-edited. (and so on …) DO NOT WRITE YOUR ANNOTATIONS LIKE THIS Frist I took the photographs by using an ISO of 400 and then I had to change the rest of the settings depending on the photograph I was taking. After this I transferred them onto the computer and I opened them up into the RAW sliders. I was happy with the editing I did using this software and then I open them up in Photoshop. I used Nik Viveza to edit some of them by increasing the structure and the contrast. After I did this I saved them back into Photoshop and then I sharpened some of them using ‘High Pass’ and 16 ‘Unsharpen Mask’. I was happy with the finished result and they created a ‘city vibe’ and they really grabbed your attention because they were really bold (and so on …)
SUGGESTED FORMAT FOR THE ANNOTATIONS FOR THE EXPERIMENTS
In this set of experiments I followed the tutorials closely in order to learn the techniques required. I found the most straightforward experiment to do was the ‘Mirror Image’ because it was very straightforward to technically complete. I found the Digital Montage experiment the most interesting one to do because there were a lot of different creative options to choose from, in terms of which buildings to place together. I think the quality of the digital montage image is very strong because the scale of each of the building I selected to use were quite similar, which created a slightly distorted effect that was very subtle, yet effective. I found the kaleidoscope experiment quite difficult to do at the start because there were a number of different stages to complete and it required a lot of precision placement of the shapes; however I am happy that I persevered because I feel that the end result is visually creative and have brought together a combination of shapes and patterns that could not have been captured in a straightforward photograph (and so on …)
DON’T WRITE YOUR ANNOTATIONS LIKE THIS
I first did the ‘Mirror Image’ experiment and for this I started this by opening up the original photograph and then I dragged it into another, bigger document, then I copied it and flipped it the other way to create a final image. I think it turned out really well because it is eye grabbing with a ‘trippy’ vibe. I did the square college by creating new, smaller squares inside the bigger squares and then turned them 90 degrees. I didn’t really like this experiment and I thought it looked dull (and so on …)
Task 4: Information & questions for the Artist Analysis on Michael Woolf Information on Michael Wolf and his ‘Architecture of Density’ project First read the information on these 2 links: https://newrepublic.com/article/115209/michael-wolf-photography-hong-kongs-architecture-density http://www.port-magazine.com/architecture/michael-wolf-architecture-of-density/ Then listen to Michael Wolf discussing his ‘Architecture of Density’ project on this link: https://www.archdaily.com/802813/michael-wolf-explains-the-vision-behind-his-hong-kong-photo-seriesarchitecture-of-density Michael Wolf moved to Hong Kong in 1994 and for many years he has been intensively concerned with the topic of vernacular culture and architecture (See definition below) His project ‘Architecture of Density’ also deals with the issue of the cultural identity within Hong Kong. Definition of Vernacular Architecture: buildings that people live in as opposed to office buildings or government buildings. Definition of Density (in this context): Packed in tightly together.
Hong Kong is one of the most condensed, populated and vertical islands in the world, and because of this, they build upwards (and have more skyscrapers over 150 meters than any other city in the world) to make up for the lack of space on the ground. “The air is populated with a forest of high rises.” In his ‘Architecture of Density’ series of photographs, Michael Wolf has taken a series of images that captures a large number of buildings which have been built on a very small space of land. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. The photographs in the ‘Architecture of Density’ series are quite large scale pieces (many of the over a meter high) and they focus on repetition of pattern, shapes and forms to create complex visual imagery and he captures these city scenes by highlighting its forest-like expanse of high rises. The work investigates the socio-cultural phenomena of Hong Kong’s rapid expansion and ever-expanding architectural anatomy, while also allowing for an unconventional peer into the inhabitants who occupy it. wolf’s compositions are laced with evidence of human life — clothes lines, plants, mops and air conditioning units.’ Source: http://www.designboom.com/art/michael-wolf-photographs-the-architecture-of-density-01-16-2014/
Quote by Michael Wolf: Many of the shots in Architecture of Density’ seem: “almost ambivalent … they could be supermarket barcodes or Mayan tapestries” when viewed from afar …. the images evolve from simple, seemingly infinite, repeating patterns to an almost living, breathing documentation of city life. “It’s only when you come up close and see a pair of jeans hanging out or a tshirt …. that you realise behind these windows there’s a small apartment and there are people living there,” he says. “I like that effect.” 19 Source: http://www.port-magazine.com/architecture/michael-wolf-architecture-of-density/
Select 1 of the following images by Michael Wolf from his â€˜Architecture of Densityâ€™ series
The questions are on the next slide
The Questions Add in the questions in bold black only when copying over to your SWAY 1. Background Information on the artist * What year and country was Michael Wolf born in? * Discuss whether Wolf studied anything art or photography based at college or university? If not, then explain very briefly how he became a professional artist / photographer and discuss Wolf’s motivation for being an artist. 2. What is the context behind the series of photographs / images you are researching and what important concepts (ideas) is the artist exploring? * Give the title of the series of photographs, the year it was created and the title of the individual image you are analysing (if you can find this out). Also provide other basic information about the series of work only if it is relevant. * Explain the concept (idea) behind this series of photographs (with quotes by Wolf or a journalist) and explain why Wolf wanted to explore this theme / concept (with quotes by Wolf or a journalist). 3. How are the main concepts (ideas) being communicated in the series as a whole and also in this particular image? * Firstly, You need to clearly establish and discuss whether this has been done in a straightforward & literal way or whether it is done in a symbolic way. Discuss whether you needed to read an explanation by the artist (or someone else) to fully understand what the image is communicating to you? (symbolic) or did you understand it just from looking at it and / or reading the title of the piece? (Literal) * Then explain how the artist is actually communicating her / his ideas to the viewer in this series of photographs (with quotes by the artist or a journalist as evidence to back up what you have said) and use the artists’ image you have selected as an example to explain it in more depth. 4. What issues have arisen whilst researching this artist? * Discuss anything controversial that Wolf has said (with quotes by Wolf or a journalist). Or find something that Wolf has either done creatively or said in an interview that you disagree with or that you can actually argue for, because you agree with it, however you will need to say why it doesn’t go far enough. 5. Do you believe that this is a successful image? And is it part of a successful series? Give your reasons why * Provide your own opinions to back up your points and you may want to use quotes by Wolf or a journalist as extra evidence for your points.
Task 6: Response to the ‘Big Question’ Look at the following images by Mattia Mognetti from his Architecture inspired series titles ‘Istigkeit’.
The Big Question: Do you consider Mattia Mognetti’s images from his ‘Istigkeit’ series to be more ‘Architecture’ photographs or more ‘semi – abstract art photographs’? Discuss your reasons for thinking this. You must write a minimum of 180 words to achieve higher than ‘limited’ (1 mark) Definition of Semi-abstract: a form of artwork (such as a photograph where the original subject matter remains recognizable, even though it has been altered to a more stylized image.
Task 7: Digital Experiments Experiment 1: reflected / mirror image
Learn how to do this by watching the tutorial on: https://youtu.be/6swBo-QBwZI
Read this: The image on the left is the original architecture photograph and the image on the right is the mirror reflection. You will need to use a vertical format photograph for this experiment. Original Image
Experiment 2 - Square Collage
Learn how to do this by watching the tutorial on: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eP_N-aAnKZc&feature=youtu.be
The image on the left is the one taken from the tutor podcast where the reduction in each square is 1 cm. The image on the right is a student example where the reduction in each square is 0.5 cm which produces a far more intricate pattern structure and might be better to try.
Experiment 3 - Kaleidoscope Photograph Learn how to do this by watching the tutorial on:
Read this: The image on the left is the original architecture photograph and the image on the right is the kaleidoscope version of it. Please note when listening to the tutorial at 2 min 22 sec you will be asked to click on the Pen Tool.
After clicking on it, make sure the box in the top left corner says shape and not path
A completed kaleidoscope
Experiment 4 – creating a digital photomontage Learn how to do this by watching the tutorial on:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hfgpNkkactQ The photographs on the left and in the centre have been combined to make the digital montage image on the right. Read This: Fill up the sky area and do not use the Opacity slider to see one building through another On Image 1
Image 1 & 2 combined
Another example of a digital montage. This technique works best if there a significant area of sky in your original ‘front’ photographs which you then fill up with a section of another building in your finished montage.
Task 9: Inspirational experimental artist / photographer of choice •
Find 2 - 4 examples of experimental architecture photographs by 1 artist that is linked in some way to what you plan to do for your Task 10 and upload to SWAY. Provide the name of the artist and place it underneath the appropriate photographs.
Write a paragraph of analysis, explaining what the artist is trying to achieve in her/his photographs and why s/he wanted to do it.
Write a paragraph explaining how these images have been inspirational to your experimental ideas.
If you decide to do a digital experiment for Task 10, then select an artist that does digital experiments. You may want to look at one of the following artists: • • • • • •
Kazuhiko Kawahara (aka Pallalink) (Examples of work on slide 28) Victor Enrich (Examples of work on slide 28) Filip Dujardin (Examples of work on slide 29) Cory Stevens (Examples of work on slide 29) Ritty Tacsum (Examples of work on slide 30) Simon Gardiner (Examples of work on slide 30)
If you decide to do a more art based experiment for Task 10 (i.e. using a projector or acetates or cut out collage etc.) then select an artist who takes a more ‘hands-on’ approach. You may want to look at one of the following artists: • •
Lynette Jackson (Examples of work on slide 31) Christine Erhard (Examples of work on slide 31)
Links to Interviews with experimental architecture photographers Kazuhiko Kawahara (aka Pallalink) http://www.pallalink.net/modx/about/
Victor Enrich http://www.metropolitansociety.co/blog/victor-enrich-interview http://www.3d-dreaming.com/2011/07/interview-with-visual-artist-victor.html
Filip Dujardin https://newatlas.com/filip-dujardin-fictions/25802/
Presentation / lecture on Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wtVjvFeHR6o
Ritty Tacsum http://www.maltatoday.com.mt/arts/art/18531/challenging-normality-ritty-tacsum-20120529#.Wg1vjVVl-M8
Lynette Jackson https://theappwhisperer.com/2014/10/mobile-photography-interview-day-life-lynette-jackson-talented-mobile-photographer-unique-style/ https://www.archdaily.com/233533/architectural-iphoneography-lynette-jackson
Christine Erhard https://www.lensculture.com/christine-erhard-2 https://www.lensculture.com/articles/christine-erhard-moscow-intervention
Task 10: Own choice of creative experiments You need to decide whether you are going to do a digital experiment or a more art based experiment.
Examples of experimental digital experiments by past students
Examples of experimental â€˜hands-onâ€™ art based experiments by past students
Projections: The photograph on the left has been projected onto 3 balloons
Using Mirrors: Prints have been reflected in two mirrors and photographed
Acetates: images have been printed onto
Folding: This Cyanotype print has been folded
clear acetates and layered with colour acetates and photographed on a light box.
Task 11: Creating the Final 20 page Zine How to create an In-Design document for the Architecture Zine https://youtu.be/yH28DAOzDmM Although this tutorial was created before the new updated In-Design. The interface will look different but essentially it is the same process that you are following.
The following is a link to a successful zine from a past student: https://issuu.com/eve.armalyte/docs/final_architecture_zine_594a4e2e60a6ef
Cropping & Sizing of images Please be aware that your in your zine, an individual vertical page will be 15 cm high and 10 cm wide, so you need to crop all your vertical photographs to this size.
In regards to horizontal double page spreads, then the measurements will be 15 cm high and 20 cm wide, so you will be required to crop sections off the sides of your horizontal photographs (see below)
35 What your original photo would look like
What it has to look like to fit into the zine format
This is what you would lose in the crop
Task 12: Project Evaluation questions and Exemplars The questions (add these in) * Do you think that your initial photographs are effective and of good quality? (consider composition, focusing and the actual content) * Do you think that you really pushed your creative boundaries enough in your experimental imagery? * How do you feel the project went, are you happy with your final zine? * Then write in the comments / advice that your fellow students gave you in your crit and then respond to these comments / this advice and discuss whether you made any changes in response to this information Help to answer the questions Read the exemplar on the next couple of slides before you state writing your evaluation Please note down every time that I have used the word ‘because’ (they’re in bold and underlined). Every time I’ve used the word ‘because’ I’ve been explaining to the viewer what I’m thinking and what my opinion is, and why I did something – this is important. 36
Do you think that your photographs are effective and of good quality? (Example) On the whole I’m quite pleased with the initial photographs I took for this architecture project because the composition in most of them have been really carefully considered and I believe that they created a strong visual impact on the viewer. However, I’m a bit disappointed with the contrast in some of the London Southbank photographs because I feel that they were too flat, lacking shadows, and did not highlight certain areas and features of the buildings that I wanted the viewer to be drawn towards. However, I was able to correct this slightly using digital editing, although I didn’t really want to change them too much from their original appearance. I was far happier with my later shots of the Barbican because I feel that I managed to use the lighting correctly and achieve a strong contrast in my work. Also I decided to really experiment with my angles because I wanted to achieve a slightly distorted look which would enhance the repetitive patterns created by the layers of windows on each different level.
Do you think that you really pushed your creative boundaries enough in your experimental imagery? (Example) I think that I struggled a little bit at the start because I didn’t really have a clear direction about where I was going with my work, but once I had decided on what level of complexity I was aiming for in my imagery, I then began to settle down and really consider what techniques might best work to achieve what I wanted. I think that I followed each of the tutorials really closely and present enough evidence to show that I understood the methods used to create each one; however; I do think that I didn’t really expand on what I learnt from the tutorials because I didn’t push myself enough to try more complex and challenging techniques. In regards to the independently selected experiment; although it worked out very successfully in terms of technical ability I don’t think that that they were as successful as they should have been because I didn’t combine enough individual layers together and the opacity wasn’t strong enough. However, on the whole I believe that my experimentation was successful because I was able to develop my imagery a long way from the starting point, and because I always looked for different ways to push my imagery forward through both digital and more art-based methods.