Jakarta [Network of Water] [Flow of People]
Cat Callaghan Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute School of Architecture Thesis 2011-2012 Section: T. Ngai
Acknowledgements_ I wish to acknowledge the assistance of several people along this journey. In particular my infinitely patient support structure, Tommy Etkin and Olesia Kruglov. Also, my parents and sister who have each helped in their own way. I would also like to thank the people who helped in my travels to Jakarta, particularly Maggie Tiojakin, and Ronny and Anneke Poluan, who each had a unique point of view on the city. This could not have been completed without the support and guidance of the professors at the School of Architecture.
Project Proposal 32
Table of Contents
Abstract Jakarta, the capital city of the island nation of Indonesia, has traditionally had a strong relationship to water. In the past sixty years, rapid population growth has degraded the rivers systems which have become highly polluted with household and industrial waste. This problem has been largely ignored by both the government and the general population, leading to an even greater taxation on this invaluable natural resource with devastating social and economic expense. In order to address this problem, a strategy has been devised to reverse the attitudes and actions that people take towards their waterways, while raising general awareness of the issue. A self-propelled sensor network explores the cityâ€™s rivers, alerting the populace and directing floating bioremediation units to locations where action is required. By forcing an acknowledgement of the effect that individuals and neighborhoods have on water quality, the networked system seeks to reverse the repellent nature that water currently has on people, while revealing the impact that architectural landscaping can have on the perception of and reaction to reality.
#1: China Pop: 1,339,724,852 Area: 9,640,011 km2
Pop: 1,210,193,422 Area: 3,287,263 km2
#3: United States Pop: 312,782,000 Area: 9,629,091 km2
Indonesia is a country made up of over seventeenthousand islands. Itâ€™s capital is DKI Jakarta located on the central island of Java. It is a country of a vast number of peoples and cultures. There are over two-hundred and thirty-eight million people in Indonesia, as of their last census in 2010. This makes them the worldâ€™s fourth most populous country after China, India, and the United States. Unlike these other countries, however, the space available on the Indonesian archipelago is far less per person. While there is unoccupied space, and very low density populations throughout the country, there are good reasons not to try to develop these areas. For instance, the large area on the island of Borneo is one of the last great rain forests in the world, part of the reason that Indonesia has the second highest rate of biodiversity on the planet. The country also spans from the Asian to the Australian continents. The western side contains far more Asian species, while the eastern side is more Australian. Much of the eastern islands cannot be developed either, as they are weirdly lifeless swamps, and while some native tribes have made their home there, the land is not valuable for modern agriculture or other developments because the land is of such poor quality. In order to maintain the biodiversity of Indonesia, further building developments and population movement should occur within or around the areas already developed.
Pop: 237,641,326 Area: 1,910,931 km2
Dry Bulb Temp
Wet Bulb Temp
There are significant advantages and disadvantages to the climate in Indonesia and Jakarta. The country lies right across the equator, so it has fairly stable temperature patterns. There are no massive swings in temperature or humidity throughout the year, so in terms of designing for the area, a need to insulate against the cold will never be a problem. On the other hand, this stable temperature is quite high, usually staying between seventy-five and ninety degrees year round with over seventy-five percent relative humidity. So, to say it is muggy may be an understatement. These fluctuate slightly with the rainy seasons that effect the area. Since the islands span from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean with intermediary seas in between, they are subject to weather patterns that effect each. While Jakarta has only one monsoon season and one dry season, other parts of the country are subject to two or more rainy seasons. Jakarta receives most of the two meters of rain it gets within a period of four months from January to April. This also means that without proper water management, they are also subject to flooding in the seasons where they might otherwise get less rain. Climate Data 13
The island of Java is in central Indonesia. It is home to almost sixty percent of Indonesia’s massive population, making it the most heavily populated island in the world. It is home to the majority of Indonesia’s cities, drawing even more people to this already overly populated island. It has also been the home of many of Indonesia’s older civilizations, containing such monuments as Borobodur, one of the best preserved and largest Buddhist temples in South East Asia. The topography is quite varied, from the flattened areas, like Jakarta. There are volcanic areas in Central Java. Undeveloped areas are covered in swathes of rainforests, which are under consistent threat from human development. The majority of Indonesia’s GDP is generated on Java, primarily from industry and agriculture.
Java + Mexico: A Population Comparison
Population Cat Callaghan
Mexico: Area: 761,606 sq mi Population: 112 Million People
Java: Area: 49,535.7 sq mi Population: 138 Million People
Cat Callaghan Jakarta
Jakarta has been described by many as having no singular defining features. Having been there, I would have to say that it is characterized by this patchwork nature. While it is dirty and poorly governed, the people that I met in my journey, from the upper class to the very poorest of people have a sense of joy about life that perhaps we are lacking. Virtually everything is characterized by differences. There is the mall culture and the street culture. The former being comprised of the middle class, who strive to become more affluent and relish in conspicuous consumption. These people spend the majority of their free times within the confines of a multitude of malls, seeing movies, shopping, eating, and anything else one might do in their spare time. In contrast, the latter is defined by the Indonesian version of Islamic culture, which is a vast subject in-and-of itself. These people attend the street markets and locally organized events. While people identify themselves as belonging to one culture or another, there is no clear dividing factor. There are malls that resemble street markets and no one can exist inside forever. There is also the contrast between the numerous cultures that exist within the city. The most prominent is the aforementioned Indonesian Islamic culture. However, as migration continues toward the city, larger communities of other Indonesian Island cultures are amassing. The third group, which has been, since the departure of the Dutch, scapegoated for many issues, are the Chinese. They, however, have been in Jakarta for hundreds of years. I have even heard people complain that in Glodok, the Jakartan China Town, that the Chinese descendants no longer know how to speak Chinese and choose to instead speak Bahasa Indonesian. As more people move to the city, there is the potential that the differences that characterize peopleâ€™s view of their city and how they define themselves will drastically decrease, as has happened in many other cites, or will continue to grow and cause increased tension. One might hope that the differences are maintained, but the tension associated with this will decrease as the importance of social and environment factors outweighs the necessity to emphasize these differences.
1602: Founding of the Dutch East India Company Jakarta is its unofficial capital Limitations on Jakartan Expansion
1949: End of Dutch Rulership
1998: End of â€œTwo Children is Enoughâ€? Policy
2011: Jakarta population is expanding by approximately 300,000 per year
The population of Jakarta, particularly since the expulsion of the Dutch in 1949, has drastically risen. This is in part due to the increasing disparity between the rich and the poor, which is driving hundreds of thousands of people to centralized cities, which are seen as being the only way to avoid devastating poverty. Building development has expanded well beyond the legal limits of the city, but the potential outward sprawl is limited by the topography. To the south of the city is a now dormant volcanic mountain range. This means that most growth must occur to the east and west.
Geography + Growth 19
Jakarta City Line
As previously mentioned, the sprawl of Jakarta has extended well outside the original city lines. There was once a hope that satellite cities would draw people to other areas, but over time, growth has merged all of these areas into a single fabric. This extended area, known as Jabodetabekja, is now regarded as the second largest mega-city in the world, home to almost thirty million people. There are few high-rises, so this sprawl is set to continue, particularly along major roadways and river fronts.
Urban High Density Low Density Residential + Dry land Agriculture Urban Low Density Low Density Residential Wetland Agriculture Population of Urban Centers 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000
Jakarta Night Illumination
ple/km 2 )
Population Density 21
Housing in Jakarta tends to be limited to no more than two to three stories. The government has occasionally attempted to build high-rise apartment buildings, but due to the structure and space provided, most people choose to remain in low-rise housing as there are more economic and social opportunities in non-formal settings. The very wealthy have segregated themselves into gated and guarded communities, ignoring the dilapidated situation that most of their fellow citizens are subjected to. That being said, from interviewing people, it seems as though the majority, even in the worst areas, are content to live where they are, with the only wish that their houses would not flood every day during monsoon season. I believe, that new educational requirements will lead people to be more ambitious in regards to their wellbeing, and over time, the housing disparity may decrease.
Standard + Kampung Housing
Housing Density + Economics 23
There are a multitude of problems with the control of waste that ends up in the water system. This is in the form of human waste, from black and gray water, industrial waste, and commercial waste. Most people get their drinking and washing water from shallow wells, the rivers, or from still pipes. Industrial complexes and newer buildings can also be connected to deep wells, of which there are about 1,000 in the city. All of these systems are intertwined, and when there is an issue with one, it causes a ripple effect in the others. There have been many problems, the most detrimental being increased frequency and severity of flooding, lack of clean drinking water leading to declining health, subsidence caused by over-drawing of the deep aquifer, and high expense, particularly for the poor. It was not until the 1970s that the government of Jakarta even began examining these systems, and they still hold that sanitation is a â€œpersonal responsibilityâ€?. Effective intervention at this point, in any conventional manner, is not seen as feasible, particularly economically. Additionally, the vast blanket of buildings causes the construction of new sewer systems to be difficult at best.
Major Water Pipes
Water Treatment Facility
Household Waste Water Pollution Loads
Septic Tank [ Adequate Drainage] Human Waste Disposal
Septic Tank [Inadequate/No Drainage]
Access to Sewer System
Toilet Drains Directly into Rivers
3% of human waste is adequately dealt with, the rest ultimately ends up in the water system
No Private Toilet Access
Water Issues 25
â€œThe Jakarta Environmental Management Agency reported that none of Jakartaâ€™s rivers could be qualified as being in good condition...
“According to the Agency, 71 percent of the city’s river water is heavily polluted, 20 percent is partly polluted, and 9 percent is only mildly polluted.” - The Jakarta Post, May 2011 
Wood Plastic Paper
There is one large landfill to the south of the city of Jakarta. In parts it measures over three kilometers long by one kilometer wide. It is considered to be the largest landfill in south east Asia. It is on the verge of being full, although what determines that is unclear. There were once seven other dumps located within the city, but the last one of those filled up about a decade ago. Despite this, people had continued to put trash at these sites up until a tragic accident in a neighboring city in 2004, in which an unstable pile of trash fell over, crushing houses and killing dozens of people. Since then people have stuck the more traditional method of putting trash in piles in empty spaces. The map to the left shows all the areas that could be found from satellite imagery at which trash has been relocated. The size of these areas varies, as can be seen in the middle three images, which are at the same scale. In the process of searching for these areas, a pattern emerged. In densely packed areas, the trash was moved away, or at least not compiled, but in areas that were less dense and seemed to be at least somewhat organized, piles appeared at the edge of communities, usually in an unoccupied corner lot. The vastness of the tendency is a testament to the failure of the systems currently in place to deal with waste disposal. It is because of this failure that such a large amount of trash ends up in the rivers daily.
3 km 29
~ $5 USD
~ $11 USD
> COMPARATIvE COST PER MONTH
Despite immense poverty within Jakarta, there is a large and increasing number of people who have access to the internet. This is currently dominated by access through internet cafes, but this is rapidly changing to access through smart phones. It is estimated that by 2013 there will be more people in Indonesia who have access to the internet than there are people in Japan. Jakartans, like many other people, have a fascination with social networking. They make up some of the largest populations on Facebook and Twitter. It has been stated that if Facebook were a nation, Jakarta would be its capital, with over seventeen million people claiming it as their home. This is, of course, more people than there are in Jakarta, but the point is there. There have also been recent articles about Twitter that bring up the issue that there are reasons that things that are strange to Americans tend to trend on the site. The reason is that Indonesians are very invested in the system. It has been hypothesized that the reason that Indonesians are so eager to use social communication via the internet is that they have natural tendencies towards social networking in the real world. Unlike cities in the United States, the areas within Jakarta are effectively made up of hundreds of little villages, or Desakota, which literally translates to village-city.
Most Popular Social Media in Indonesia by Users
Indonesia vs. The World
#1 Mobile Internet Usage/Capita
Jakartan Internet Access
#2 Number of Facebook Users #3 Number of Twitter Users
67% Jakartans with Cell Phones $2 Unlimited Cellular Data Plan
77% Jakartans using the internet who visited a social networking website
Internet in Jakarta
13-17 18-24 25-34 35-44 44+ Mon.
Access: Day of Week
Access: Time of Day
Age Distribution of Social Media Users
Jakarta, the capitol city of Indonesia, has traditionally had a strong and positive relationship with water because of its abundance. However, due to its rapid growth over the last half century, with a current population of over 10 million, coupled with the governmentâ€™s failure and inability to provide basic sanitation infrastructures, the waterways have degraded to a point that even treated water must be boiled before use. Thus everyone is aware that there is an issue with their water, even if they do not believe that anything can be done.
In order to address the problems with the waterways, I propose a bottom up remediation system that utilizes the human capitol of the city. To this end, I have designed a series of modules, each with its own function, to act as networked immune system for the city.
This alone, however, will not be sufficient to mitigate the vast problems facing the water systems. Thus, up-to-date information will be provided to the local citizens with suggestions for required actions. This provides a system through which perception toward water can be altered from one of despair to one of empowerment. Over time, as attitudes change and the rivers become cleaner, the system can be in a more passive state, becoming less dependant on a need for action and reaction. In this state, the modules dock themselves to the shores and to each other creating a new public space that beckons the citizens of Jakarta to enjoy their achievement.
Jakarta does, however, have a young population with access to inexpensive technology that grants even the poorest of people access to information through the internet and social networking. Additionally, they have strong work ethic and sense of community, even if opportunities to exhibit these qualities are not available.
The small sentinel units work to seek out areas in which human waste, toxins, wastewater and trash are entering the river system in order to determine the appropriate action for the larger remediation units, while calling attention to the problem through a regulated lighting scheme.
The site chosen to work with was based on several factors. The first was, by necessity, along a river front. Additionally, the prevalence of built footbridges made it a safe area to traverse, particularly since many river crossings are entirely vehicular or consist of a single pipe, which has been put to a second use. It was an area that was primarily residential, but was adjacent to a commercial street. Additionally, the site was quite near to some of the few towers within the city that were outside of the wealthier areas. This provided an opportunity to get a birdâ€™s eye view of the site and not simply to examine it from ground level.
One of the primary issues facing any remediation efforts facing Jakarta is a high degree of misperception on the part of people who do not live directly next to it. There are those, particularly those living in wealthy sheltered communities, who choose to believe that everything is fine. They have piped water, which still needs to be boiled, but they have an inappropriately positive view of the waterways, convincing themselves that nothing need be done. The converse is people, generally less well off, but with enough means to not live on the waterfront, who are inappropriately appalled by it, viewing the rivers as a cesspool that should never be approached if it can be avoided. If people can come to terms with the reality of the situation, then action can finally be taken on a large scale, supported by both types of people.
The importance of paying attention to the ecological effects of sea-level rise, flooding, and pollution are going to become ever more pressing. Much of Jakarta lies within two meters of the current sea level. Inundation of the northern part of the city is more likely than not to take place within the next fifty years. A great deal of focus is being placed on the massive flooding, tied to El Nino, that takes place every five years or so. A few programs are being enacted to help minimize the damage that this can wreak. However, this has diminished focus on the pollution loads on the rivers, which is a large contributor to increased flooding within the city.
Through an examination of eco-attention projects, it seems as though it is through a combination of unnatural, unexpected, and startling imagery that groups or individuals have gained the most attention to problems facing the environment. With this in mind, the Network/Flow system applies these lessons to its form and appearance.
Current Septic Tank Majority are never emptied, so leakage inevitably occurs
Monsoon Season Level
Build up on sides prevents erosion, creates a consistently maintainable anchor point for smaller units, as well as supporting plants and gravel for filtration that allows water to travel from the river to the ground and viceversa, while maintaining a barrier that limits the pollution that can travel from one water system to the other.
LUMINIFEROUS SENTINEL [senses water quality [alerts via lighting system [alerts network via cellular system
Range of Movement
The sentinel module is at the heart of the Network/ Flow system. It is designed to work as an individual sensor unit that sends out information regarding its position and the water status in that area. It examines turbidity, acidity, and temperature in order to make this assessment. It is controlled by the use of an Arduino board that is connected to rotational motors, the sensors, GPS, and wireless communication. It can also work much like a flock or swarm, coalescing into a mass. This serves several purposes. The first is to determine the extent of particular pollutants in the water, creating a gradient of information. It also provides a walkable landscape on the surface of the water. This allows access to problems, other units, or simply as an ephemeral passage. In times of extreme flooding, it can even provide a place of refuge for those stranded or struggling to traverse high waters.
Arduino Board Movement Turbidity
Power + Switch
The movement of the sentinel units is based on the sinusoidal movement of cuttlefish fins. This movement creates positive and negative pressure allowing for forward propulsion. In order to obtain this movement, gears are used in conjunction with moving panels in order to create lateral movement from rotational movement. These lateral pieces are then attached to a fin, which acts to propel the sentinel forward when used in tandem, or rotational movement when one fin moves at a time. Mechanical Movement 47
FEATHERED FILTER [waste catchment
Range of Movement
Response to amount of surrounding waste
This module is grounded in place, moving in a vertical plane. It remains compact when there is no pressure indicating the presence of trash in the water. When it does sense this, its fan opens up, much like a feather duster, the type of filter feeder pictured above. These fringed tentacles act as a net for trash, collecting it within its mass. When pressure is high enough to indicate that the module is full, it closes up around the waste. The unit then lights up red and floats on the surface of the water in order to have the waste removed and dealt with appropriately.
Response to amount of waste containment The Modules 49
Used water (either directly or indirectly) ends up contaminating ground and river systems Water Pump Current
Rhizofiltration through plants
Geogrid Fabric Shallow Ground Water
D Dry Season Level
Lower Filtration layers can be embedded during the dry season.
WATER ISLAND [filters water [rain catchment [water retention [occupiable
]yadoT[ ytimixorP deriseD
]0591-erp[ ytimixorP deriseD
Range of Movement
The Water Island serves several purposes. It filters water using rhizofiltration. It also filters water through its porous skin, modeled on the hierarchical structure of diatoms. The layered skin contains smaller and smaller holes as the layers are stacked, allowing only water particles to transverse the membrane. It also serves as water storage, allowing an intermediate enjoyment of cleaned water between the implementation of the project and its culmination. Furthermore, it is an occupiable space that serves as an area of refuge when required, or a place to enjoy when desired.
The Modules 53
ROAMING FEEDERS [filters water [organic composting [occupiable
Range of Movement
Filter feeder Inspiration
Organic Input The Roaming Feeders have a similar membrane to the Water Islands. Through rhizofiltration they also serve to clean the water, but in a much different capacity. Their skin allows for the passage of matter into the interior. In conjunction with organic material taken from the Filter Feeders, waste can be turned into usable compost. This in turn can be used to support the growth of plants required for extensive bioremediation.
BACTERIA + NITRATES [Indian mustard
NITRATES + HEAvy METALS [poplars [willows
A single poplar tree can clean up to 5000 gal. per day
NITRATES, HEAvy METALS + RADIOACTIvE MATERIAL [sunflowers
The colors present in the image to the left are the indicators the Luminiferous Sentinels emit as they determine the quality of water. Each plant indicated is capable of performing bioremediation through rhizofiltration. Additionally, they have been selected for their ability to thrive in the equatorial climate of Jakarta, without creating a problem with overgrowth. Sunflowers are an ideal candidate for all pollutants, however, given their lifespan, it is prudent to include a quick-growing mustard plant, and a long-term growth plant like a hybrid poplar. Through appropriate selection of plants, water remediation can be done in the most effective and efficient way possible.
Floating Waterscape can provide a safe and walkable surface to move from one area to another.
In heavy flooding, porous surface will allow for quicker drainage.
Geogrid Fabric Shallow Ground Water
5 Year Flood Level 59
SHORE PLANTERS [bridge between land + aquascape [filters water [occupiable
Range of Movement
Cat Callaghan Shore Planters
The Shore Planters are built on the shore and adjacent surfaces. They serve to create a surface through which water can move through while filtering said water. This permeable surface permits water to be absorbed into the ground, allowing it to go into the water table, rather than overtaxing the capacity of the river system, which is a leading cause of flooding.
Project Proposal 62
Taman Sari, a former royal garden of the Sultanate of yogyakarta built in the Islamic-Indonesia garden style
Continuity of ground surface to waterscape is maintained as the modules are not in a fixed horizontal plane Cat Callaghan
The Shore Planters also serve as an intermediary between the landscape and the waterscape. The moving modules can attach to the sides allowing for a continuity of surface regardless of the height of the water. It is reminiscent of architectural and landscaping techniques that have been present in traditional Indonesian architecture, particularly on the island of Java. This continuity blurs the otherwise stark boundary between what might be categorized as landscape or building, solid or fluid, ground or water.
Surface Continuity 63
Boidsâ€™ Flocking Simulation
Cat Callaghan System Behavior
When the Network/Flow system senses a problem, the modules react to those in close proximity, bringing in the appropriately planted larger units to deal with the pollutant at hand. The lighting scheme indicates degree of problem, becoming more unnatural, reminiscent of the Green River Project. The modules, in a sense, flock to the problem, acting as a collective remediation body. They remain as long as they are needed. Once a problem is contained or dealt with in conjunction with the actions of the areaâ€™s members, the modules disperse, returning to their individual missions.
Aliran | Jakarta http://www.aliran-network.id.org
! WARNING: THIS AREAS HAS (2) SEVERE HEALTH ALERT ZONES
MEMBERS IN AREA:
SCORE: 126 RANK: 36/84
MEMBERS: 41 LAST ACTIVITY: 3 hours ago
STATUS: 40% Better than last week
SUGGESTED PLANTS Finn
SUGGESTIONS: EMPTY SEPTIC TANKS COMPOST ORGANIC WASTE
SEED PLANTS WRITE TO GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
SEVERE HEALTH WARNING
Area Warnings Selection Map Cow Clicker
Area Map with Module Locations Status + Suggestions Members
Internetworking in Jakarta
Suggested Agriculture + Alert Status
In order for this system to work, people within Jakarta must be involved. They have many opportunities to get online, with official and makeshift internet cafes in virtually every neighborhood. As previously mentioned, there is also unbelievably inexpensive wireless data services for cellphones. In fact, the cost of a phone is far less than the cost of water per month. It is my hope that the former can be used to decrease the cost of the latter. The modules will be continuously sending data about their status, but this can be used by more than just policy-makers and scientists. Much like the games of Farmville, etc. the Network/Flow System requires constant upkeep. Through the use of previously pioneered motivational techniques, I hope to transfer this success from a virtual world with virtual problems, to a real world, with very real problems. By providing constantly updated information, citizens of Jakarta have the opportunity to aid in fixing their water systems while creating new communities that bridge the virtual and real world.
The Network/Flow System cannot be implemented everywhere all at once, so there are a few key places in which this will occur and spread from there, adding new starting points on occasion. As the system spreads, it can map and interpret areas that require the most help. By working worst to best, the river systems will slowly, but eventually return to a more pristine state.
As the water quality improves, quality of life and social investment will improve as flooding and pollutants decrease. The change in attitude is, in many ways, just as important as the physical change. At the moment, the rivers are treated rather poorly, and while this proposal will help to decrease this effect, it can never fully achieve its goals if people continue to treat it as their personal trash can, particularly as the population is projected to continue to grow. However, if attitudes can be changed, then perhaps the relationship to the waterfront can be reversed. It was once the heart of the city, now it is occupied only by those who have no other options. I hope that people will once again be able to embrace this abundant natural resource.
REvERSAL OF WATERFRONT RELATIONSHIPS
Desired Proximity [Today]
Desired Proximity [pre-1950]
Topography + Drainage
Appendix 1: Mapping Jakarta
Patas, Ojek, Other
Mobility in Jakarta
Appendix 1: Mapping Jakarta 77
Parks + Campuses
Appendix 1: Mapping Jakarta
Industry + Commerce
Social + Leisure
Governmental + Public Offices
Appendix 1: Mapping Jakarta 81
Photo Credits pg 6-7: Photo: Cat Callaghan pg 10: World Map: http://www.sunnyguy.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/access_50k-1024x519. png Indonesia Map: Cat Callaghan pg 11: China Map: http://thegospelcoalition.org/blogs/ tgc/files/2012/02/China_Flag_Map.jpg India Map: http://mapsof.net/map/india-flagmap US Map: http://www.canadabuscharter.com/ US_map_flag.jpg Indonesia Map: Cat Callaghan pg 12: Climate Data: Cat Callaghan pg 13: Climate Graph: http://www.climatetemp.info/ graph/jakarta-java_files/image001.gif Climate Change vulnerability: http:// w w w. p re ve nt i o nwe b. n e t / f i l e s / 7 8 6 4 _ asiaclimatechangevulnera%5B1%5D.jpg
pg 14-15: All: Cat Callaghan
pg 20: Jabodetabek Map: Cat Callaghan pg 21: Jakarta Night Illumination: http://buro247.ru/local/images/buro/5926358324_e1fa36afed_b_ jpg_1314821858.jpg Density Study: Cat Callaghan pg 22-23 All: Cat Callaghan pg 24: Water Treatment Map: Cat Callaghan Water Treatment Facility Photo: http:// en.indonesiafinancetoday.com/images/articles/ 2a42bbb023ea7cb204cc2f343520048c.jpg pg 25: Water Pollution Loads: Cat Callaghan Human Waste Disposal: Cat Callaghan Photo (left): http://penguinsunited.com/wpcontent/uploads/2007/12/kidspublictoiletjakartaharborslumbeawihartareuters.jpg Photo (right): Cat Callaghan pg 28-29: Satellite Images: Google Maps Diagrams: Cat Callaghan pg 30-31: All: Cat Callaghan
pg 16-17: All: Cat Callaghan
pg 34: Image: Cat Callaghan
pg 18-19: Expansion Map: Cat Callaghan Population Growth: Cat Callaghan Topography: Robert M. Delinom, Abdurrahman Assegaf, Hasanuddin Z. Abidin, Makoto Taniguchi, Dadan Suherman, Rachmat Fajar Lubis, Eko yulianto, The contribution of human activities to subsurface environment degradation in Greater Jakarta Area, Indonesia, Science of The Total Environment, volume 407, Issue 9, 15 April 2009, Pages 3129-3141, ISSN 0048-9697, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.10.003. (http://www.sciencedirect. com/science/article/pii/S0048969708010310)
pg 36-37: All: Cat Callaghan pg 38-39: All: Cat Callaghan pg 40: Flooding Map: Mega-Stress for Mega-Cities, World Wildlife Foundation pg 41: Photo (top): http://greenmeme.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/DSC01575.jpg Photo (bottom): http://newsinphoto.ru/wpcontent/uploads/2011/01/5305331294_1c13a2
a5c4_b.jpg pg 42-43: Photo (left): Cat Callaghan Photo (right): http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/44264000/jpg/_44264244_floods416afp.jpg Section: Cat Callaghan pg 44: Diagram: Cat Callaghan Photo (left): http://www.flickr.com/photos/ skandargoodwill/7046568421/ Photo (right): http://www.nsf.gov/news/mmg/ media/images/salps1_f1.jpg pg 45: Photo (top): http://www.flickr.com/photos/ suneko/208997985/ Photo (bottom): http://upload.wikimedia.org/ wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5e/Auklet_ flock_Shumagins_1986.jpg/1280px-Auklet_ flock_Shumagins_1986.jpg Arduino Diagram: Cat Callaghan pg 46: Squid Photo: http://www.omeopatiamiele.it/admin/upload_pic/m_20100603123025.jpg pg 47: All: Cat Callaghan pg 48-49: Diagrams: Cat Callaghan Photo (left): Cat Callaghan Photo (Right): http://naturestoc.smugmug. com/Under water/Fish/Steinhar tAquarium2009-10-24/723227270_WfoK6-L-2.jpg pg 50-51: Photo (left): http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_ cxA5Thzz7Eo/S-gS-P1yAlI/AAAAAAAAAKU/wU9pAIXvpPI/s1600/imgp1741.jpg Photo (right): http://www.thejakartapost.com/ news/2009/02/12/daily-trash.html Section: Cat Callaghan pg 52-53: Diagrams: Cat Callaghan Photo (left): http://www.iap.tuwien. ac.at/~gebeshuber/DIESCHOENSTEN.JPG
Photo (right): http://www.astrographics.com/ GalleryPrints/Display/GP2131.jpg
pg 55: Photo (top): http://tinyfarmblog.com/leftovers/ Photo (bottom): http://www.totallygreen.com/ wp-content/uploads/2012/05/black-gold-sifted-compost-150x150.jpg pg 56: Bathing: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fc/Jakarta_slumlife14. JPG/1280px-Jakarta_slumlife14.JPG To i l e t : h t t p : / / w w w. c o r b i s i m a g e s . com/images/Corbis-42-17729551. jpg?size=67&uid=c7f1e4b6-3eea-4f1a-b00d4242a4e9ab02 Boy in Boat: http://img.chan4chan.com/ img/2010-09-02/qyXjG.jpg Industrial Pollution: Cat Callaghan Green Dam: http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/ home/polluted-river-puts-jakarta-city-waterat-risk/388162 Diagram: Cat Callaghan
pg 66-67: Photos: Cat Callaghan Website: Cat Callaghan Tomagotchi: http://0.tqn.com/d/toys/1/0/d/J/ Lavender-Flowers.jpg Cow Clicker Image: bogost.com Farmville Logo: gamerant.com Second Life Logo: http://www.imaging.sbes. vt.edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/secondlife_logo.jpg
pg 54: Diagram: Cat Callaghan Photo (left): http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/00/1/5/3/47717882360859717.jpg Photo (right): http://www.visualphotos.com/ photo/1x7844408/Colonial_sea_squirt_Didemnum_These_are_filter_F69-689071.jpg
pg 64-65: Boidsâ€™ Flocking Simulation: http://spacecollective.org/userdata/NHh1SOx7/1202318756/ Boids_poster.jpg Movement Simulation: Cat Callaghan
pg 68: All: Cat Callaghan pg 69: Photo (left): http://commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/Category:Rivers_of_Jakarta Photo (right): Cat Callaghan pg 70-71: Image: Cat Callaghan pg 74-81: All: Cat Callaghan
pg 57: Rhizofiltration Tree: Cat Callaghan
pg 60-61: All: Cat Callaghan
Appendix 2: Photo Citations
pg 58-59: Photo (left): http://lh6.ggpht.com/_yiiPzeRfNBQ/TJWv6z19M1I/AAAAAAAACMo/JyRIkty8p5o/070206_cemetery_1.jpg Photo (right): http://cdn5.wn.com/ph/ img/94/51/e4f30a8c6e678369cd100b20385dgrande.jpg Section: Cat Callaghan
pg 62-63: All: Cat Callaghan 83
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van Helmond, Arjan, and Stani Michiels. Jakarta Megapolis: Horizontal and vertical Observations. Amsterdam: valiz, 2005. Print.
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Primantia, Arientha. “Polluted River Puts Jakarta City Water at Risk”. Jakarta Globe, July 28, 2010. (http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/home/pollutedriver-puts-jakarta-city-water-at-risk/388162) “Indonesia.” Data. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://data.worldbank.org/country/ indonesia?display=map>. “Dutch-made Floating Bulldozers to Dredge City Canals.” The Jakarta Post. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2008/11/14/ dutchmade-floating-bulldozers-dredge-city-canals.html>. “Indonesia Facebook Statistics.” Socialbakers.com. Web. 14 May 2012. <http:// www.socialbakers.com/facebook-statistics/indonesia>.
Web Resources: “Greenmeme.” Â» Projects. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://greenmeme.com/projects/>. “Jakarta Rivers Still Filthy.” Home. Web. 18 Dec 2012. <http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/05/14/jakarta-rivers-still-filthy.html>.
“Dinas Tata Ruang DKI” Dinas Tata Ruang DKI. Web. 02 Nov 2011. <http://webgis.tatakota-jakartaku.net/>. “List of Hyperaccumulators.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 05 June 2012. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_hyperaccumulators>. “DIGITAL MEDIA ACROSS ASIA.” Search Results -. Web. 14 May 2012. <http:// comm215.wetpaint.com/page/Indonesia%3A Mobile Penetration>.
“State of Waste Management in South East Asia.” State of Waste Management in South East Asia. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/publica-
“Digital Media in Indonesia.” Digital Media Asia. Web. 14 May 2012. <https:// wiki.smu.edu.sg/digitalmediaasia/Digital_Media_in_Indonesia>. “Indonesia.” ReliefWeb. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://reliefweb.int/updates/ thumb?search=>. “Salingsilang.com.” Salingsilang.com. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://salingsilang.com/>.
Appendix 3: Bibliography