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WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY 1

INTRODUCTION

4

1.1

ROLE OF CARBON IN STEEL

4

1.2

WELDABILITY OF STEELS

5

2 2.1

3

CRYSTAL STRUCTURE

7

SOLUBILITY OF CARBON

8

IRON - IRON CARBIDE PHASE DIAGRAM

9

3.1

AUSTENITE (γ)

10

3.2

FERRITE (α)

11

3.3

PERITECTIC

11

3.4 PEARLITE 3.4.1 PEARLITE GROWTH

12 13

3.5

PRO-EUTECTOID FERRITE

14

3.6

PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN LOW ALLOY STEELS

15

3.7

GRAIN GROWTH

16

3.8

NON-EQUILIBRIUM COOLING

17

3.9

MARTENSITE - EFFECT OF RAPID COOLING

18

3.10

4 4.1

BAINITE

19

TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAMS TIME TEMPERATURE TRANSFORMATION (TTT) DIAGRAMS

4.2 CONTINUOUS COOLING TRANSFORMATION (CCT) DIAGRAMS 4.2.1 CRITICAL COOLING RATES 4.2.2 DETERMINING CCT DIAGRAMS WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2

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4.3

EFFECT OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS

24

4.4

Ms and Mf TEMPERATURES

25

5

HARDENABILITY / WELDABILITY OF STEELS

26

5.1

CARBON EQUIVALENT (CE) & WELDABILITY

28

5.2

TEMPERING – EFFECTS OF REHEATING

29

5.3

SECONDARY HARDENING

30

6 6.1

HYDROGEN CRACKING RELATED TO WELDABILITY

32

LAMELLAR TEARING

34

7

REHEAT CRACKING IN THE HAZ

36

8

WELDING STEELS CONSIDERED DIFFICULT

38

8.1

PROCEDURAL CONSIDERATIONS

38

8.2

POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT (PWHT)

38

8.3 THE HEAT AFFECTED ZONE (HAZ) 8.3.1 LOSS OF TOUGHNESS IN THE HAZ

38 41

8.4 PREHEAT & CARBON EQUIVALENT 8.4.1 SEFERIAN GRAPH

41 42

9

SUMMARY

44

10 GENERAL ASPECTS CONCERNED WITH WEAR

45

PROTECTIVE COATINGS

45

11 SELECTING THE OPTIMUM WEAR RESISTANT SOLUTION

46

12 METHODS OF DEPOSITION

47

13 WELDING PROCEDURAL GUIDELINES

49

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13.1 13.1.1

BASE METAL CONSIDERATIONS WELDABILITY FACTORS

49 49

14 APPLICATION OF WEAR PROTECTIVE COATINGS

50

14.1

BASE METAL PREPARATION

50

14.2

PREHEAT

50

14.3

BUILD-UP

51

14.4

APPLICATION TECHNIQUE

51

14.5

COOLING PROCEDURE

51

14.6

FINISHING

51

15 WEAR PATTERNS AND PRODUCT SELECTION

52

15.1

WEAR PATTERNS FOR ABRASIVE AND IMPACT WEAR

52

15.2 15.2.1 15.2.2

WEAR PLATES AND GROUSER BARS WEAR PLATES GROUSER BARS (EG, BARS FOR REBUILDING WORN

60 60 60

16 SURFACING ALLOYS

62

16.1

CHROMIUM CARBIDE WEARFACING ALLOYS

62

16.2

WORK HARDENING ALLOYS (AUSTENITIC MANGANESE STEEL)

63

16.3

IRON BASED BUILD UP AND WEARFACING ALLOYS

64

16.4

TUNGSTEN CARBIDE WEARFACING ALLOYS

65

16.5

Ni BASED WEARFACING ALLOYS

66

17 GRADING OF WEAR RESISTANCE OF HARDFACING ALLOYS

67

18 METHODS OF WEAR PROTECTION - SUMMARY

68

19 REFERENCES

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WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY 1 INTRODUCTION Steels form the largest group of commercially important alloys for several reasons: ♦ The great abundance of iron in the earth’s crust ♦ The relative ease of extraction and low cost ♦ The wide range of properties that can be achieved as a result of solid state transformation such as alloying and heat treatment 1.1

ROLE OF CARBON IN STEEL

Steels are alloys of iron with generally less than 1% carbon plus a wide range of other elements. Some of these elements are added deliberately to impart special properties and others are impurities not completely removed (sometimes deliberately) during the steel making process. Elements may be present in solid solution or combined as intermetallic compounds with iron, carbon or other elements. Some elements, namely carbon, nitrogen, boron and hydrogen, form interstitial solutions with iron whereas others such as manganese and silicon form substitutional solutions. Beyond the limit of solubility these elements may also form intermetallic compounds with iron or other elements. Carbon has a major role in a steels mechanical properties and its intended use as illustrated in Figure 1. As the carbon concentration is increases carbon steel, in general, becomes stronger, harder but less ductile. This is an important factor when a steel is required to be welded by joining or surfacing.

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Figure 1

1.2

Role of Carbon in Steel

WELDABILITY OF STEELS

When considering a weld, the engineer is concerned with many factors such as design, physical properties, restraint, welding process, fitness-for-purpose etc., which can conveniently be summarized as the base materials “weldability”. Weldability can be defined as “the capacity of a metal to be welded under the fabrication conditions imposed into a specific, suitably designed structure, and to perform satisfactorily in the intended service.” Welding is one of the most important and versatile means of fabrication and joining available to industry. Plain carbon steels, high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels, quench and tempered (Q&T) steels, stainless steels, cast irons, as well as a great many non-ferrous alloys such as aluminium, nickel and copper are welded extensively. Welding is of great economic importance, because it is one of the most important tools available to engineers in his efforts to reduce production, fabrication and maintenance costs. A sound knowledge of what is meant by the word “weld” is essential to an understanding of both welding and weldability. A weld can be defined as a union between pieces of metal at faces rendered plastic or liquid by heat, or pressure, or both, with or without the use of filler metal. Welds in which melting occurs are the most common. The great majority of steels welded today consist of low to medium carbon WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2

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steel (less than 0.4%C).Practical experience over many years has proved that not all steels are welded with ease. For example, low carbon steels of less than 0.15%C can be easily welded by nearly all welding processes with generally high quality results. The welding of higher carbon steels or relatively thick sections may or may not require extra precaution. The degree of precaution necessary to obtain good quality welds in carbon and alloy steels varies considerably. The welding procedure has to take into consideration various factors so that the welding operation has minimal affect on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the base metal. The application of heat, generally considered essential in a welding operation, produces a variety of structural, thermal and mechanical effects on the base metal being welded and on the filler metal being added in making the weld. Effects include: ♦ Expansion and contraction (thermal stresses etc.) ♦ Metallurgical changes (grain growth etc.) ♦ Compositional changes (diffusion effects etc.) In the completed weld these effects may change the intended base metal characteristics such as strength, ductility, notch toughness and corrosion resistance. Additionally, the completed weld may include defects such as cracks, porosity, and inclusions in the base metal, heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal itself. These effects of welding on any given steel are minimized or eliminated through changes in the detailed welding techniques involved in producing the weld.

It is important to realize that the suitability of a repair weld on a component or structure for a specific service condition depends upon several factors: ♦ Original design of the structure, including welded joints ♦ The properties and characteristics of the base metal near to and away from the intended welds ♦ The properties and characteristics of the weld material ♦ Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) may not be possible As discussed, a steels weldability will be dependent upon many factors but the amount of carbon will be a principal factor. A steels weldability can be categorized by its carbon content as shown in Table 1.

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Table 1 Common Names and their Typical Uses for Carbon Steel

COMMON NAME

%C

TYPICAL USE

WELDABILITY

<0.15

TYPICAL HARDNESS 60 Rb

Low C steel

Sheet, strip, plate

Excellent

Mild Steel

0.15 – 0.30

90 Rb

Medium C Steel

0.30 – 0.50

25 Rc

High C Steel

0.50 – 1.00

40 Rc

Structural shapes, Good plate, bar Machine parts, tools Fair (preheat & postheat normally required; low H2 recommended) Springs, dies, rails Poor – Fair (preheat and post heat; low H2 recommended)

In order to understand the physical and chemical changes that occurs in steels when they are welded, a basic understanding of the metallurgy of steels is necessary.

2 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE Iron has the special property of existing in different crystallographic forms in the solid state. Below 910°C the structure is body-centred cubic (bcc). Between 910°C and 1390°C iron changes to a facecentred cubic (fcc) structure.

Figure 2

Transformation of crystal structure for iron showing contraction occurring at 910°C.

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Figure 3

BCC Crystal Structure

Figure 4

FCC Crystal Structure

Above 1390째C and up to the melting point at 1534째C the structure reverts back to body-centred cubic form. These are known as allotropic forms of iron. The face-centred cubic form is a closepacked structure being more dense than the body-centred cubic form. Consequently iron will actually contract as it is heated above 910째C when the structure transformation takes place. 2.1

SOLUBILITY OF CARBON

The solubility of carbon in the bcc form of iron is very small, the maximum solubility being only about 0.02 wt.% at 723째C. Figure 5 shows there is negligible solubility of carbon in iron at ambient temperature (less than 0.0001 wt.%). Since steels nearly always have more carbon than this, the excess carbon is not in solution but present as the intermetallic compound iron-carbide Fe3C known as cementite. `

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Figure 5 Solubility of carbon in α (bcc) iron as a function of temperature

In contrast the fcc form of iron dissolves up to 2% carbon, well in excess of the usual carbon content of steels. A steel can therefore be heated to a temperature at which the structure changes from bcc to fcc and all the carbon goes into solution. The way in which carbon is obliged to redistribute itself upon cooling back below the transformation temperature is the origin of the wide range of properties achievable in steels.

3 IRON - IRON CARBIDE PHASE DIAGRAM Fundamental to a study of steel metallurgy is an understanding of the iron – iron carbide phase diagram. The diagram commonly studied is actually the metastable iron – iron carbide system. The true stable form of carbon is graphite, but except for cast irons this only occurs after prolonged heating. Since the carbon in steels is normally present as iron carbide, it is this system that is considered. Figure 7 shows the iron – iron carbide system up to 6 wt.% carbon. We will now consider several important features of this diagram.

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Figure 6

The iron-iron carbide equilibrium phase diagram

A eutectic is formed at 4.3% carbon. At 1147°C liquid of this composition will transform to two solid phases (austenite + cementite) on cooling. This region is important when discussing cast irons but is not relevant to steels.

3.1

AUSTENITE (γ)

This region in which iron is fcc, identified in Figures 7 and 8, dissolves up to 2% carbon. This phase is termed austenite or gamma phase. With no carbon present it begins at 910°C on heating but with 0.8% carbon it starts at 723°C. When a steel is heated into the austenite region all carbon and most other compounds dissolve to form a single phase (i.e. normalizing).

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Figure 7 The austenite region of the iron-iron carbide diagram showing maximum solubility of up to 2%C

FERRITE (α)

3.2

The region shown in Figure 9 where carbon is dissolved in bcc iron is very narrow, extending to only 0.02% carbon at 723°C. This phase is termed ferrite or alpha phase. Although the carbon content of ferrite is very low other elements may dissolve appreciably in it so ferrite cannot be considered as “pure iron”.

Figure 8

3.3

The ferrite region of the iron-iron carbide diagram

PERITECTIC

The region at the top left portion of the phase diagram enlarged in Figure 10 is where the iron reverts back to the bcc structure known as delta ferrite. Here again the solubility for carbon is low, only 0.1 wt.% at 1493°C. The part of the diagram at 0.16% carbon having the appearance of an inverted eutectoid is called a peritectic. At this point a two phase mixture of liquid and solid (austenite) transforms on cooling to a single phase solid of austenite. This portion of the phase diagram will not be discussed in detail, but it should be recognized since it has been invoked to explain various hot cracking phenomena in welding.

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Figure 9

3.4

Peretectic region of the iron-iron carbide diagram

PEARLITE

At 0.8% carbon and 723°C a eutectoid is formed as illustrated in Figure 11. This is similar to the eutectic transformation but involves a solid phase transforming into two different phases on cooling (ferrite and cementite). This eutectoid mixture is called pearlite. Figure 12 shows how the two phase constituents that make up pearlite are formed. Note that pearlite is only one of many phases that can be produced from ferrite and cementite (depending on cooling rate). Cementite (iron carbide) itself is very hard - about 1150 Hv â&#x20AC;&#x201C; but when mixed with the soft ferrite layers to form pearlite, the average hardness of pearlite is considerably less.

Figure 10

The eutectoid point on the iron-iron carbide diagram

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Figure 11

Schematic View of how pearlite is formed in an approx. 0.4%C steel

This region of the phase diagram (where carbon concentration is less than 0.8%) is of the most interest to a study of steels and their weldability which will be discussed in more detail later.

3.4.1

PEARLITE GROWTH

A steel with 0.8 wt.% carbon, it will be recalled, transforms on cooling through 723째C to the two phase eutectoid constituent pearlite. In pearlite the two phases ferrite and cementite are mixed closely together in fine layers. As the ferrite contains very little carbon while the cementite has 6.7%, carbon atoms must diffuse to the growing cementite plates as shown in Figure 13.

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Figure 12

Schematic View of different pearlite growth rates

The distance they can diffuse, and hence the spacing of the plates, depends on how fast the pearlite is growing. A fast growth rate means less time for diffusion and a finer pearlite results. Figure 14 shows a typical pearlite microstructure.

Figure 13

3.5

Typical Lamellar Appearance of Pearlite. Mag:X1500

PRO-EUTECTOID FERRITE

If the steel has less than 0.8 wt.% carbon (termed hypo-eutectoid steel) ferrite will be formed first from the austenite. The example in Figure 15 shows a steel of 0.4 wt.% carbon. This ferrite is called pro-eutectoid ferrite because it transforms first on cooling as illustrated in Figure 15. As transformation continues and the temperature drops, the remaining austenite becomes richer in carbon. At 723째C the steel comprises ferrite and the remaining austenite (which contains 0.8wt.% carbon). With further cooling, the austenite then transforms to pearlite producing a final structure in the steel of pro-eutectoid ferrite and pearlite.

Figure 14

Phase Transformation on Cooling a 0.4%C Steel

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The amounts of pro-eutectoid ferrite and pearlite can be estimated by application of the lever rule (see references for more detailed information). For a 0.4 wt.% carbon steel about 50% will be ferrite and 50% pearlite. Similarly a steel of more than 0.8 wt.% carbon (from 0.8 wt.% up to 1.8 wt.% carbon is termed hyper-eutectoid steel) first transforms to cementite (i.e. pro-eutectoid carbide) with the remaining austenite forming pearlite as shown in Figure 16.

Figure 15

3.6

Phase Transformation on Cooling a 1.2%C Steel

PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN LOW ALLOY STEELS

Figure 17 shows the appearance of a polished and etched section of an approximately 0.6wt.% carbon steel. You can see that the pro-eutectoid ferrite has formed initially at the austenite grain boundaries, nucleation taking place at several points around each austenite grain. Since each region of ferrite becomes an individual grain, its grain size will be very much smaller than that of the parent austenite. Ferrite continues to form and grow until the final transformation of remaining austenite to pearlite. The ferrite does not always appear as neat, equiaxed grains as shown in Figure 17, but can occur as long spikes from the grain boundaries or even nucleate within the austenite grain. This can occur quite markedly from the welding process due to the cooling rates imposed by the heat input (i.e. travel speed).

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Figure 16

Prior Austenite Boundaries Showing Pro-Eutectoid Ferrite

On reheating the steel the process reverses and the pearlite and ferrite grains transform back into single phase austenite to form completely new grains. The temperature required to get complete transformation depends on the carbon level as seen from the phase diagram (see Figures 7 and 15)and ranges from 910째C for zero carbon to 723째C for 0.8 wt.% carbon.

3.7

GRAIN GROWTH

Heating to higher temperatures than those necessary to get complete transformation causes the austenite grains to grow. The final size of the austenite grains depends not only on the temperature reached but also on the type of steel. Some steels containing small precipitates such as aluminium and vanadium nitride retain small grain size up to high temperatures. These are known as fine grained steels. Steels can be deliberately made as coarse grain or fine grain. Fine grained steels are tougher and are more commonly specified for most structural applications. The effect of austenizing temperature on grain size is shown in Figure 18. It shows that although grain growth is restricted in a fine grain steel, at a sufficiently high temperature the precipitates dissolve and the steel behaves as a coarse grain steel. Thus at sufficiently high temperature, grain growth can occur with subsequent loss of toughness. This is an important consideration in the HAZ associated with welding.

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Figure 17

3.8

Schematic Effect of Temperature on Grain Growth for Coarse and Fine Grained Steels

NON-EQUILIBRIUM COOLING

The phases and microstructures predicted by the iron â&#x20AC;&#x201C; iron carbide diagram occur in steels cooled very slowly. In addition the diagram assumes that carbon is the only alloying element present in the steel. With the addition of other common alloying elements such as manganese, silicon, nickel, titanium, molybdenum, chromium etc., the phase diagram can still be used except that it will be distorted and the lines may move to slightly different locations.

Figure 18

Effect of Various Element Additions on the Recrystallization Temperature

For example the presence of alloy elements changes the recrystallization (eutectoid) temperature as shown in Figure 19. In structural steels the concentration of alloys is generally quite small (austenitic manganese steels are an exception containing over 12 wt.% manganese) and the basic iron â&#x20AC;&#x201C; iron carbide phase diagram is not distorted very much from equilibrium conditions.

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3.9

MARTENSITE - EFFECT OF RAPID COOLING

The rate of cooling has a major effect on the types of microstructures formed and unless the steel cools slowly the iron â&#x20AC;&#x201C; iron carbide phase diagram cannot be used. The reason is that the transformation of austenite to pearlite requires the diffusion of carbon to the sites of growing carbon, a process which takes time. We saw how a faster cooling rate produced finer pearlite. With even faster cooling rates less time is available for diffusion and pearlite cannot form. Alternative microstructures form with their exact morphology depending on just how quickly the steel cools. In a water quench, for example, the cooling rate is so rapid there is no time for any diffusion, and the carbon remains trapped in the same place as it was in the austenite. A rapid quench cannot suppress the crystal structure change from fcc to bcc but the presence of trapped carbon in the bcc phase distorts it to a tetragonal shape, as indicated in Figure 20, rather than a true cubic structure. This is called martensite.

Figure 19

Schematic Transformation of Austenite (BCC) To Martensite (Tetragonal) With Increasing %C

The amount of carbon influences the amount of distortion in the crystal structure as shown in Figure 20. This in turn affects the hardness of the martensite as shown in Figure 22. Under the microscope as shown in Figure 21 martensite has the appearance of a mass of needles.

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Figure 20

Martensite Microstructure

Martensite can be very hard and brittle when it contains appreciable amounts of carbon. The hardness depends almost exclusively on the carbon content with other elements having little effect as illustrated in Figure 22.

Figure 21

Effect of Carbon and Alloying on the Hardness of Martensite

The formation of martensite can occur in the HAZ adjacent to a weld deposit due to the fast cooling rates imposed by the welding process. This is discussed in more detail in Section !!

3.10 BAINITE Intermediate between a rapid quench that produces martensite, and a slow cool producing pearlite, other constituents may form particularly in alloy steels. The most important of these is bainite.

Figure 22

Microstructure of lower bainite (X1000)

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Bainite is still a two phase mixture of ferrite and iron carbide but unlike the cementite plates in pearlite the carbide in bainite is spherical. Bainite formed above 300°C contains relatively coarse particles of the Fe3C form of iron carbide (cementite) and is termed upper bainite. When formed below 300°C bainite has a much finer structure with the carbides tending to form striations across the ferrite laths. This is termed lower bainite. The carbides in lower bainite are Fe2.4C known as epsilon (ε) carbide. Some steels in the bainitic condition may possess ductility and toughness superior to that shown by the same steel in the Q&T condition.

4 TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAMS Since the iron – iron carbide phase diagram is only valid for very slow cooling rates, alternative diagrams for determining the constituents present in a more rapidly cooled steel have been developed. There are two types: ♦ Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) curves where the steel sample is held at a constant temperature until transformation is complete. ♦ Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) curves where the steel sample is cooled from the austenitic region at different cooling rates. Although these diagrams are principally designed for the foundry metallurgist and heat treater etc., they are an excellent tool for use by welding engineers where fast cooling rates need to be evaluated near to the welded area.

4.1

TIME TEMPERATURE TRANSFORMATION (TTT) DIAGRAMS

Consider heating a sample of steel until it is fully austenitic then quenched to some temperature below the equilibrium transformation temperature as shown in Figure 24.

Figure 23

Schematic Representation of TTT

If we hold the steel at this temperature we find there is a delay before transformation begins and a further elapse of time while transformation takes place. The delay depends on the temperature at

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which the steel is held and we can plot this information on a diagram of temperature against time for a given steel composition.

Figure 24

Schematic TTT Curve for Carbon Steel

An example of such a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram for a carbon steel is shown in Figure 25. Note that at high temperatures (Figure 26) the steel transforms to pro-eutectoid ferrite followed by pearlite.

Figure 25

TTT Curve Illustrating High Temperature Transformation of Pro-Eutectoid Ferrite

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At lower temperatures less pronounced pro-eutectoid ferrite is formed and the pearlite is finer. At about 550째C the pearlite forms in the shortest time and there is no pro-eutectoid ferrite (Figure

27). Figure 26

TTT Curve Illustrating Pearlite Transformation

Cooling down to below this range (approximately 450째C) transformation to bainite occurs, taking a longer time for lower temperatures (Figure 28).

Figure 27

TTT Curve Illustrating Transformation to Bainite

At a sufficiently fast cooling down to low temperature martensite can begin to form (Figure 29). Note that it forms almost instantaneously and does not grow as a function of time. For each steel specification there is a fixed temperature Ms at which martensite starts to form and a fixed temperature Mf at which transformation is complete. The percentage of martensite formed therefore depends only on the temperature to which the steel is rapidly cooled c and not on how long it is held there. If the composition of the steel is known, the Ms temperature can be calculated

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(see Section !!!). Note that for some compositions the Mf temperature can be below ambient temperature.

Figure 28

4.2

TTT Curve Illustrating Martensite Formation

CONTINUOUS COOLING TRANSFORMATION (CCT) DIAGRAMS

Now consider the case of continuous cooling. We may superimpose a cooling curve on the TTT diagram as illustrated in Figure 30 in order to get an idea of what microstructures form, but it is more accurate to use a diagram established under continuous cooling conditions. The CCT diagram is slightly different from the TTT curve.

Figure 29

Cooling Curves Superimposed onto TTT Curve for Typical Carbon Steel

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4.2.1

CRITICAL COOLING RATES

You should note that in plain carbon steels bainite generally will not form during continuous cooling because of the shape of the TTT diagram. The bainite region is tucked under the pearlite area so a cooling curve either hits the pearlite curve or misses it completely as shown in Figure 30. At cooling rates fast enough to miss the nose of the curve martensite is formed. This is an important concept since the cooling rate at which martensite can form in a HAZ strongly influences the risk of cracking during welding and gives an indication of a steels â&#x20AC;&#x153;weldabilityâ&#x20AC;?. This will be discussed in more detail in Section 8.

4.2.2

DETERMINING CCT DIAGRAMS

The exact shape of a CCT curve depends on the chemistry of the steel and on the heating and cooling cycles. CCT diagrams are available for numerous carbon and alloy steels and if desired can even be established for specific weld metal.

4.3

EFFECT OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS

Alloy elements have significant effects on the shape of the CCT and TTT diagrams which allow different microstructures to be produced in alloy steels. Chromium and molybdenum, for example, shift the top (pearlite) part of the curve to the right i.e. to longer times, thus exposing the bainite region. Steels containing these elements such as 4135 can produce bainite on continuous

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cooling. Figure 30

CCT Curve for 4135 Steel

The entire TTT curve may also shift to the right with additions of certain elements (e.g. chromium, vanadium, molybdenum and others) to greater times allowing martensite to form at much slower cooling rates. This increases the “hardenability” of the steel, but also increases the risk of cracking from welding if proper precautions are not taken.

4.4

MS AND MF TEMPERATURES

The other notable effect of alloy element addition is to change the martensite start (Ms) and martensite finish (Mf) temperatures. Increasing the carbon content, for example, depresses the Ms to lower temperatures as shown in Figure 32.

Figure 31

Schematic Diagram Showing the Influence of %C on Martensitic Start Temperature

Other elements affect martensite formation and the combined affect can be approximated by the following equation: Ms (°C) = 550 – 350 ×%C - 40×%Mn - 35×%V - 20×%Cr - 17×%Ni -10×%Cu - 10×%Mo - 5×%W + 15×%Co + 30×%Al

As mentioned earlier, if the Mf is below ambient temperature, martensite transformation is not completed and the steel contains retained austenite. Note that since the product of various alloy element additions affects the Ms, we can affect a steels hardenability by using small quantities of several alloy elements rather than a large quantity of one element, for example, carbon. This is important when designing a steel for not only hardenability but also its weldability.

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5 HARDENABILITY / WELDABILITY OF STEELS

Figure 32 Correlation of CCT and TTT Diagrams With Jominy Hardenability Test Data for an 8630 Type Steel

The hardenability of steels can be determined by performing a Jominy end quench test. The alloy steel test specimen is a cylinder one inch diameter and four inches long, which is heated to the austenitic region (above 910째C) then placed in a fixture where it is quenched by water or brine impinging on one end. The fastest cooling rate occurs at the bar surface in contact with the water jet with progressively slower cooling rates being experienced away from the end. Thus the microstructure formed in the surface region could be martensitic with high hardness and the interior could be pearlitic with no hardening at all. The depth to which a steel hardens is a measure of its hardenability. If we add alloying elements that allows deeper hardening, then that steel is said to have higher hardenability. This is important, for example, when considering mechanical properties and weldability of such a steel. Hardness tests are commonly used on Jominy samples to determine that steels hardenability.

Figure 33 illustrates the TTT diagram for a common chrome-molybdenum steel (4137) with a Jominy end quench test superimposed. Thus the microstructure and hardness can be correlated on the one diagram. The cooling rate curves represent the same cooling rate conditions located along the Jominy endquench test bar. At the top of Figure 33, the measured hardness curve has been superimposed over WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2

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a schematic of the end-quenched bar. Four representative locations (A, B, C, D) along the bar have been related to the representative cooling curves(CCT) and isothermal transformation (TTT) curves. Thus location A on the bar experienced a fast cooling rate resulting in austenite transforming to martensite producing the high hardness indicated. Similar cooling rate effects need to be considered from a weldability viewpoint. The addition of alloying elements (for example Mo, Cr, Mn) to steel increases the hardenability by slowing down the rate of austenite transformation. The data is plotted as shown in Figure 34 for a 0.45%C steel with different alloying additions.

Figure 33

Typical End-Quench Curves for Several 0.45%C Low Alloy Steels

Several formulae have been developed which assign a contributing factor to each element addition and its effect on hardenability and conversely weldability. The maximum hardness attainable (and therefore its weldability characteristics) in carbon and low-alloy steels, however, is still almost exclusively dependent upon the carbon content.

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5.1

CARBON EQUIVALENT (CE) & WELDABILITY

Depth of hardening is not a relevant concept in a welding situation, but we are interested in the hardness produced at a given cooling rate or the critical cooling rate to produce a given hardness in the HAZ of a weld. There are several models that have been developed to calculate hardenability from a welding process. The simplest model is one in which the effects of individual alloying elements are added together (a linear model) to produce a carbon equivalent (CE) which in turn relates to a critical cooling rate to produce a given hardness. Figure 35 shows a reasonable correlation between the CE plotted against critical cooling rate from 540째C to give a hardness of 350Hv in the HAZ.

Figure 34

Linear Correlation of CE and Cooling Rate for a Fixed HAZ Hardness

Another linear model has been used to predict the hardness of the HAZ for different cooling rates in low alloy steels and is illustrated in Figure 36.

Hv@50deg/sec

1400

Hv@100deg/sec

1200

Hv@200deg/sec Hv@500deg/sec

Hv

1000 800 600 400 200 0 0.62 WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2

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0.82 CE

0.92

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Figure 35

Correlation of HAZ Hardness and CE as a Function of Cooling Rate

CE’s are used widely in industry as measures of weldability. Several different formulae have been developed and some are even incorporated into national codes and specifications. In general terms, other factors being equal, as the carbon content increases, so does the difficulty in weldability. In practice, this means generally using higher preheats until cracking and restraint problems are overcome. Using an engineering/analytical approach becomes very useful when confronted with unknown material compositions, and weld repairs can become challenging where reverse engineering must be utilized to develop a repair procedure. The engineering approach may involve evaluating composition, hardenability, service conditions, size, restraint conditions, and PWHT feasibility. One of the popular methods for determining weldability is to review the hardenability of the base material. As discussed earlier the CE formula(s) have been developed as a convenient method of normalizing the chemical composition of a material into a single number to indicate its hardenability. Review of the literature indicates no less than a dozen different formulas have been developed. One of the most commonly used formulas for calculating the CE is the IIW formula (shown in Figure 36): CE = C +

Mn Cr + Mo + V Ni + Cu + + 6 5 15

It must be stated that low carbon steel and carbon – manganese steels generally behave in a predictable manner and are successfully welded with preheat and PWHT criteria outlined in codes such as AWS D1.1, Structural Welding Code – Steel. The CE is not usually evaluated on these materials. Medium carbon, HSLA, and Q&T Steels, however, present different challenges where consideration of CE, restraint, hydrogen control, PWHT not practicable, weld filler chemistry mismatch, weld heat input etc. can be critical to successful repair welding. These factors can be summed up as a materials weldability, and it is these factors that will be considered in Section 8.

5.2

TEMPERING – EFFECTS OF REHEATING

As discussed earlier martensite produced in a quenched steel is hard and brittle and in most cases the steel is unusable in that form. The toughness may be improved by a process of tempering. This involves reheating the steel to below the transformation temperature (723°C), holding for a period of time, then cooling to ambient temperature as illustrated in Figure 37. During tempering the carbon trapped as an interstitial in the martensitic tetragonal structure is released. Carbon atoms diffuse and precipitate as small carbides. With enough time and at sufficiently high temperatures cementite (Fe3C) forms, not as plates as in pearlite, but as spherical particles. This microstructure is known as bainite(see section 3.9).

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Figure 36

TTT Curve illustrating Q&T process to form Bainite

Improvement in toughness is accompanied by a loss of hardness which is a function of both temperature and time (however temperature is more effective â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the higher the temperature the faster the tempering transformation as illustrated in Figure 37). The temperatures typically selected for post weld heat treating or stress relieving welded steel are generally high enough to cause rapid tempering of the HAZ. 5.3

SECONDARY HARDENING

In some steels containing specific alloy elements tempering may actually cause an increase in hardness as the tempering temperature is raised as shown in Figure 38. This is known as secondary hardening and is caused by strong carbide forming elements such as molybdenum, chromium, and tungsten combining with carbon to form alloy carbide precipitates in certain temperature ranges. This behavior of secondary hardening is put to good use in the tempering of tool steels such as high speed tool steels. When considering a weld repair on such steels, the preheat and interpass temperatures is normally selected at a temperature below the secondary(or tempering) temperature, particularly if PWHT is not practical.

Figure 37

Alloying Effect on Secondary Hardening

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6 HYDROGEN CRACKING RELATED TO WELDABILITY Hydrogen can embrittle a steel at both elevated and ambient temperatures. The term hot cracking is used to signify that cracking has occurred at elevated temperature while cold cracking is used to generally signify cracking in low alloy steel at ambient temperature. It was during World War 2 that it was realized that hydrogen dissolved in weld metal was one of the causes of cold cracking in low alloy steel welded joints (i.e. the catastrophic failure of the welded Liberty ships). These failures led to the development of low hydrogen electrodes which made possible successful welding of the alloy steels used today. Hydrogen pickup is derived from hydrogen containing chemical compounds that are dissociated in the arc column. They can originate, for example, from contamination on the workpiece or from moisture in the welding flux. It is the hydrogen sourced from electrode coatings or fluxes which is the most important. Electrode coatings consist of minerals, organic matter, ferro-alloys, and iron powder bonded with, for example, bentonite (a clay) and sodium silicate. The electrodes are baked after coating, and the higher the baking temperature the lower the final moisture content of the coating. Some electrode coatings may pick up moisture if exposed at ambient conditions (basic coated electrodes). Where hydrogen cracking is a risk, special flux coatings are used to maintain low hydrogen content. In practice, welding specifications stipulate the allowable moisture content. It is, however, important to note that the method or welding procedure adopted as well as the type of electrode flux used can affect the hydrogen content in a weld or HAZ. With hot cracking, embrittlement occurs in carbon and low alloy steels by a chemical reaction occurring between hydrogen and carbides which causes irreversible damage – either decarburization or cracking or both. Of much greater importance in welding is hydrogen entrapped in the weld or HAZ causing embrittlement. Hydrogen cracking can subsequently occur at some later time (sometimes days) once a weld repair is complete, generally at service temperatures between – 100°C and 200°C. This embrittlement is due to physical interactions between hydrogen and the crystal lattice structure of the steel and is reversible by removal of hydrogen by stress relieving allowing the ductility of the steel to revert back to normal. Hydrogen cracking can occur in either the weld metal, HAZ, or base metal and be either transverse or longitudinal to the weld axis. The level of preheat or other precautions necessary to avoid cracking will depend on which region is the more sensitive. In carbon - manganese medium strength steels the HAZ is usually the more critical region and weld metal rarely causes a problem. Cracking due to dissolved hydrogen is now thought to occur by decohesion. Where there is a defect, discontinuity or pre - existing crack and a tensile stress applied, hydrogen is considered to diffuse preferentially to the region of greatest strain i.e. near to the stress concentration such as near a crack tip. The presence of a relatively large concentration of hydrogen reduces the cohesive energy of the crystal lattice structure to the extent that fracture occurs at or near the stress concentrator. This view is consistent with observations that cracking can occur slowly (the crack velocity being dependent on the diffusion rate of hydrogen) and is quite often discontinuous. In welding, the region most susceptible to hydrogen cracking is that which is hardened to the highest degree (areas where the welding residual stresses is greatest) although regions of coarse grain growth can be a contributing factor. The most crack-sensitive microstructure is high carbon martensite. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2

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Hot or cold cracking in the weld metal or HAZ depends on the same fundamental factors as in the base metal, i.e. hydrogen content, microstructure and residual stress. In practice the controlling variables are usually strength, hydrogen content, restraint, stress concentrations, and heat input.

Figure 38

Minimizing Heat Input by Multi-Pass Welding

In single pass welds and root runs of multiple pass welds the root pass may provide a stress concentration which can lead to longitudinal cracks in the weld metal. High dilution of the root run (high heat input) can often result in a harder weld bead more likely to crack (this is commonly seen in such applications as pipeline welding). Figure 40 illustrates the physical appearance of hydrogen cracking in welds.

Figure 39 Schematic View of Typical Weld Cracks

Figure 40 Cracking Caused By Lack Of Fusion in Weld

In Figure 41 the crack has initiated at the root of the weld where a lack of fusion can be seen. The crack has then traveled through the HAZ mainly in the coarse grained region. In heavy multiple – pass welds cracking will generally be transverse to the weld direction, sometimes running through the weld itself since the maximum cooling rate is along the weld axis. Many HSLA steels in critical repair situations where PWHT is impracticable are welded using a filler metal of good toughness and ductility and in such cases the HAZ may be more crack sensitive. The risk of hydrogen-induced cold cracking in the weld can be minimized by: ♦ Reducing hydrogen pick-up (low hydrogen flux chemistries) ♦ Maintaining a low carbon content ♦ Avoiding excessive restraint ♦ Control of welding procedures (preheat; heat input; PWHT etc.) ♦ Developing a non-sensitive weld microstructure WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2

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In carbon or carbon-manganese steels (i.e., those with steep hardening curves as shown in Figure 35!!) welding conditions can be selected to avoid the cooling rates at which martensite is produced. This could include preheat; high heat input welding; slow cooling etc. In low alloy steels or those where a hard HAZ cannot be avoided, other steps must be taken to prevent cracks. These often involve applying preheat and interpass temperatures to allow the diffusion of hydrogen out of the weld metal. Figure 43 shows that quite moderate temperatures are highly effective in removing hydrogen.

Figure 41

Effect of Moderate Postheat on Hydrogen Content in a Cooled Weld

The freedom of selecting a suitable welding solution is sometimes limited. The solution must be practicable and economic. Further constraints may be applied by the job such as base metal condition, size, location, PWHT not practicable, equipment availability etc. In such cases, the welding engineer may need to consider the steels CE and Ms temperature by referring to its TTT and CCT curves in providing a weld procedure.

6.1

LAMELLAR TEARING

Lamellar tearing is a form of cracking that occurs in the base metal of a weldment due to the combination of high localized stress and low ductility of the base metal. It is associated with regions under severe restraint, for example, tee and corner joints; heavy sections etc.

Figure 42

Example of Lamellar Tearing from Welding

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The cracks appear close to or a few millimetres away from the HAZ at right angles to the weld interface as shown in Figure 44. In HSLA steels that form martensite in the HAZ, hydrogen induced cold cracking will generally form preferentially, but in plain carbon steels of low hardenability, hydrogen increases the susceptibility to lamellar tearing quite markedly due to HAZ stresses. There is no correlation between heat input and the incidence of lamellar tearing, but in the presence of hydrogen a low heat input might tip the balance towards hydrogen cracking because of a lack of time for hydrogen to dissipate away from the weld area. Lamellar tearing may, in principle, be avoided by: ♦ Design modification ♦ Buttering weld runs and temper bead welding ♦ Control of welding procedures (preheat; heat input; PWHT etc.)

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7 REHEAT CRACKING IN THE HAZ During PWHT, stress relief treatment, or during service at elevated temperature ( generally higher than 400°C) reheat cracking may occur in the HAZ of welds in alloy steel. Cracking is due to the combined effects of embrittlement and strain. At elevated temperature, precipitation occurs within the HAZ grains but not at the grain boundaries, where there is a denuded zone. Consequently, the interior of the grain is relatively hard and the boundary region relatively soft. When the residual welding strain relaxes, the deformation is concentrated at the weld boundaries. If the degree of strain exceeds the ductility of the grain boundary regions, cracking will take place. Cracks are intergranular and follow the prior austenite boundaries. They may start at high stress points such as the toe of welds, an unfused root run, or may be sub-surface. Cracking can also occur in highly restrained joints such as in very heavy components. Factors that contribute to reheat cracking are: ♦ Susceptible alloy chemistry ♦ Susceptible HAZ microstructure ♦ High level of triaxial residual strain ♦ Temperature in the strain relaxation (creep) range Most alloy steels suffer some degree of embrittlement in the coarse-grained region of the HAZ when heated at elevated temperatures (e.g. 600°C). Elements that promote such embrittlement are Cr, Cu, Mo, B, V, Nb, and Ti. Molybdenum-vanadium and molybdenum-boron steels are particularly susceptible especially if the vanadium content is over 0.1%. The relative effect of the various elements has been expressed quantitatively in one formula due to Ito:

Psr = Cr + Cu + 2Mo + 10V + 7Nb + Ti – 2

When Psr is ≥ 0 stress relief or reheat cracks may occur.

This formula does not work for low carbon(<0.1%C) or high chromium (>1.5%Cr), these steels being resistant to reheat cracking. The use of low heat-input processes (MMAW or GMAW) and a weld metal of high yield strength and a high degree of toughness are important benefits. Reheat cracks may also form: ♦ When welding dissimilar steels due to differential thermal expansion coefficients WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2

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♦ At elevated service temperature and high stress loading Reheat cracking can be avoided by: ♦ Proper base metal selection (using the Ito formula) ♦ Designing to minimize restraint (eliminate stress concentrators etc.) ♦ Using low heat input weld process ♦ Use higher preheat/interpass temperature ♦ PWHT after part-welded

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8 WELDING STEELS CONSIDERED DIFFICULT Welding of HSLA and Q&T steels may pose several problems and a careful study of the steel and its intended application is necessary before specifying a welding procedure. Sometimes welding is required after the steel has been heat treated i.e. Q&T making it almost impossible to achieve uniform properties across the welded joint. In such cases it is preferable to carry out the welding prior to the Q&T operation. The weld metal in this case must be selected to have matching chemical properties so that as near as possible, uniform properties are achieved after the Q&T heat treatment. To the maintenance engineer this is sometimes not possible to carry out for several reasons such as size, in situ, economics etc. In these cases, the weld metal and repair procedure have to be carefully considered to ensure, as near as possible, matching mechanical properties are obtained (or superior) with HAZ hardness taken into account.

8.1

PROCEDURAL CONSIDERATIONS

To prevent martensite from forming during welding, sufficient preheat must be applied to the component to hold it above the Ms temperature until welding is complete. All deposited weld metal and the HAZ remain austenitic during the welding operation and transform together on cooling to produce a uniform structure. In applying this approach the TTT diagram for the steel can be studied to determine the preheat temperature, the maximum allowable time for completion of welding, and the cooling rate required. The preheat and interpass temperatures thus selected must also be below the tempering temperature of the base metal in order to maintain its mechanical properties. The weld metal selected must provide adequate strength and toughness and, if necessary, without the benefit of a subsequent PWHT.

8.2

POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT (PWHT)

It is common practice to apply a PWHT or stress relief to temper the welded joint and soften the HAZ. Additionally PWHT removes hydrogen and lowers residual stresses imposed by the service conditions and the welding operation. In the case of a Q&T steel the PWHT must not be higher than the original tempering temperature otherwise a loss of physical properties such as strength could occur dropping it below specification. To reduce the risk of cracking the PWHT may be carried out immediately after welding is completed without letting the component cool down or carried out several times during the weld repair which can be costly. As discussed previously, it may be impractical to carry out PWHT. The weld repair procedure needs to be carefully considered to minimize the possibility of cracking in service by ensuring that the welded component has â&#x20AC;&#x153;fitness-for-purposeâ&#x20AC;?.

8.3

THE HEAT AFFECTED ZONE (HAZ)

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75mm

The HAZ undergoes a complete thermal cycle which determines the microstructure. Grain growth is an important factor in the HAZ and the weld. In the HAZ of a coarse grained steel there is a wide region where grain growth has occurred but in a fine grained steel, grain growth is resisted except in the narrow region immediately adjacent to the weld fusion boundary where temperatures are very high. Fig.7.10 shows an example of grain growth in a welded joint.

Figure 43

Macrosection of High Input Weld Showing Coarse Grain Size

The type of microstructure formed in the coarse-grained region of a steel depends upon: ♦ The carbon content ♦ The alloy content ♦ The time at elevated temperature ♦ The cooling rate For any given steel, the greater the weld heat input the longer the time spent above the grain coarsening temperature of the steel, and the coarser the grain size. Steels containing grain refining additions such as titanium, vanadium, niobium, and aluminium are exceptions in that a fine HAZ grain size may be achieved right up to the fusion boundary. Titanium nitride is very stable and may not completely dissolve in the HAZ even at the temperatures immediately adjacent to the fusion boundary. This can be advantageous with high heat input welds such as submerged arc welding. Figure 44 illustrates four welds in a carbon steel that have been welded with different heat inputs.

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Figure 44

Correlation of Heat Input and HAZ Hardness

Alongside each weld the HAZ transforms to a microstructure dependent on the cooling rate of that weld. For higher heat input welds, the cooling rate will be slower. In Figure !!, for the small rapidly cooled welds, martensite is formed. For the large, slowly cooled welds the HAZ structure is pearlite. The hardness of the HAZ is much higher in those welds in which martensite is present as illustrated. Adjacent to the weld the base metal undergoes various changes according to peak temperature and cooling rate experienced at various locations away from the weld joint. Close to the fusion zone the peak temperature will be high enough to cause complete transformation to austenite and some grain growth.

Figure 45

Effect of Welding on Grain growth Relative to the Iron â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Iron Carbide Phase Diagram

At some distance away from the fusion zone the temperature is not sufficient to cause any microstructural changes although other effects such as strain aging (plastic deformation) may occur. In between a range of mixed structures may be observed as illustrated in Fig.38.

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The austenite grain size in the HAZ is controlled mainly by the weld heat input1 but it is also influenced by the shape of the fusion zone.

8.3.1

LOSS OF TOUGHNESS IN THE HAZ

The microstructure itself may have an effect on the crack sensitivity or toughness in the HAZ. Certain factors are known to lower the toughness of the HAZ: ♦ Grain size – An increasing austenite grain size in the HAZ is likely to result in lower toughness. Grain size is determined largely by heat input and base metal chemistry. ♦ Heat Input – An increasing heat input caused by welding amperage; arc process; weaving etc. can result in lower toughness. Indeed some high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels specify heat input requirements for weld joining. ♦ Precipitation Hardening – From the presence of micro-alloy elements. Again precipitation is encouraged by high heat input because of the longer times at high temperatures and the slower cooling rates. ♦ Plastic Deformation – The contraction of a cooling weld may cause plastic deformation in certain parts of the HAZ, particularly around any residing defects (such as nitrogen, sulfides etc.), with consequent loss of toughness. ♦ Post weld heat treatment (stress relief) of micro-alloyed steel can cause a considerable amount of precipitation of fine carbides with a substantial decrease in toughness in the HAZ.

In practical terms, restrictions on heat input may mean some welding processes such as electroslag, submerged arc, and flux-cored arc cannot be used. Other restrictions such as preheat; interpass temperature; and width of weave would need to be considered also.

8.4

PREHEAT & CARBON EQUIVALENT

The preheat temperature required depends on the susceptibility of the HAZ to hydrogen cracking, and much research has been done to find compositional formulae to indicate this. One formula for calculating the preheat for welding of structural low alloy steels is given below: CE = C +

HeatInput WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2

Mn Cr + Mo + V Ni + Cu + + 6 5 15

=

V × A × 1000 mm / sec

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( )

PTEMP o C = 350 (CE − 0.25)

PREHEAT TEMPERATURE FOR LOW ALLOY STEELS ONLY 350

P(TEMP)

300 250 200 150 100 50

1

0. 9 0. 95

0. 8 0. 85

0. 7 0. 75

0. 6 0. 65

0. 5 0. 55

0. 4 0. 45

0. 3 0. 35

0. 25

0

CE

Figure 46

8.4.1

Preheat Temperature as a Function of CE

SEFERIAN GRAPH

The Seferian graph shown in Fig. 43 takes into account CE, and restraint in calculating preheat.

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9 SUMMARY Modern structural steels with their demands for strength, toughness, and good welding behavior have evolved to depend less on carbon content as a strengthening agent and more on fine grain size and precipitation hardening. This has meant that welding (specifically weld repair) procedures may now have to utilize consumables which meet stringent property requirements as well as avoiding cracking and other defects during welding.

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10 GENERAL ASPECTS CONCERNED WITH WEAR PROTECTIVE COATINGS There are a series of questions that must be asked when approaching the subject of wear surfacing. The main ones being: ♦ Cause and Type of Wear? ♦ Base Metal? ♦ Area/Thickness? ♦ Facilities Available? ♦ Preheat? (Depends upon the base metal and its thickness) These are perhaps the five most obvious questions that must be asked and answered. There is also the question of suiting the wear resistant alloy to practical aspects and to give optimum economic reward. For example if the wearing parts of a machine are replaced only every month it is unsatisfactory to increase wearing life to six weeks as this does not correspond to the shutdown time. In this case it will be necessary to select an alloy that doubles the working life as a minimum requirement to the present situation. Conversely if a machine is to be replaced in two months time, it is pointless using a wear resistant alloy that would increase working life by 12 months. The function of a wear resistant alloy is to provide a more wear resistant surface to the type of wear being experienced by the base metal. The wear resistant alloy can also often be applied in such a manner as to physically entrap the wearing media thus giving a situation where the wearing media is itself the wear protection overlay. For the wear protective alloy to offer optimum protection, its selection must be based on the type or wear and/or wearing media. The size of the wearing media will also affect the type of wear, for example large rocks will produce more impact, and where applicable spacing of the pattern in which the wear resistant alloy is applied.

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11 SELECTING THE OPTIMUM WEAR RESISTANT SOLUTION Assess mode of failure or wear type(s) WHAT NEXT? Establish the Facts Properties of Deposit? - thick - work hardening - heat resistant What are the Service Conditions? What is Causing the Wear? What is the Desired Life? What is the Present Solution? Method of Application - Stick - Wire - Powder - Epoxy - Compatibility? Base Metal Considerations - Susceptibility to cracking - Compatible with wear facing solution - Pre/post heat treatment? - Dimensions/location of component. What are the metallurgical implications of wear surfacing? Welding Skills/Availability - Process available - Operator skill required - Time for repair Is the Solution Cost Effective? Evaluate Prior Experience - E+C CADB/TeroLink

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12 METHODS OF DEPOSITION For convenience, selection of wear facing type can be divided into two families. (1) Fusion surfacing - e.g. arc welding. (2) Non-fusion surfacing - e.g. ceramic sprayed coating.

Typical Characteristics Of Fusion Coatings

Process

Dilution

Thickness mm

Deposition Rate kg/hr

Typical Uses

MMAW

15-30%

3

1-4

Quick, easy and local repairs.

GTAW

5-10%

1.5-5

<2

High quality; low dilution

GMAW

15-30%

2-4

3-6

Faster than MMAW; no slag.

FCAW

15-30%

2-4

3-8

Similar to GMAW but no gas or flux required. On-site use.

SAW

15-40%

3-5

5-30

Automated; heavy sections.

PTAW

2-10%

2-4

1-5

High quality; low dilution. Automated.

Check compatibility of process with deposit requirements. - base metal, etc. - type of wear.

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Typical Characteristics Of Non-Fusion Coatings

Process

Dilution

Thickness (mm)

Deposition Rate (kg/hr)

Typical Uses

Flame Spray n/a

<3

1.0-20

Zn/Al corrosion protection.

HVOF

n/a

<3

1.0-10

W2C/Co composites.

Arc Spray - Wire

n/a n/a

2-5

1.0-20

Shaft, journal reclamation.

n/a

0.1-1.5

0.5-5

High quality, ceramics, Aerospace industry.

- Plasma

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13 WELDING PROCEDURAL GUIDELINES Choose

- Surfacing consumable - Welding process

WHAT NEXT?

13.1 BASE METAL CONSIDERATIONS

Recognize potential problems such as: HAZ embrittlement Loss of strength hardness in Q&T steels Reduction in corrosion resistance Porosity generation from base metal chemistry Contraction cracking Consequence of fracture Locate specification Spark analysis Component function

13.1.1

Weldability Factors

Other factors for consideration: Cost Weldability of base metal Preheat Postheat Base metal properties

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14 APPLICATION OF WEAR PROTECTIVE COATINGS Once the wear resistant alloy type and process have been selected, see Section 7, the method of application needs evaluation. Included in this is the preparation of the base metal.

14.1 BASE METAL PREPARATION

The preparation will depend upon the condition of the base metal. If the component has not previously been wear protected, only slight mechanical cleaning may be necessary. Alternatively, previously cracked and damaged â&#x20AC;&#x153;hardfacingâ&#x20AC;? may be present, which should be removed by grinding, gouging, etc. depending upon extent. If the old hardfacing is left on and covered, this may cause chipping of the deposit while in service. All sharp corners and edges should be radiused, if that area is to be surfaced.

14.2 PREHEAT

This will depend upon the type, (e.g. never preheat 13% manganese steel), and thickness of the base metal, i.e. if the part is large there is a greater heat sink effect therefore more likelihood of hardening and crack susceptibility of the heat affected zone, therefore preheat is advisable. Preheat will also depend upon available facilities and if a highly alloyed buttering layer is used which reduces (although not usually eliminates) the need for preheat. Preheating carbon steels is usually based on the Carbon Equivalent When to Preheat

CE

Weldability

Preheat

Postheat

<0.45 0.45-0.60 >0.6

Good Fair Care

Optional 150-250oC >250oC

Optional Preferable Necessary

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14.3

BUILD-UP

The extent of the build up will vary. In some instances where a lot of build up is required, (e.g. earth moving tracks), grouser bars are welded onto the track as it is usually easier, quicker, and more economical than rebuilding with arc welding (grouser bar may be wear faced). In other cases, build up layer(s) may be necessary prior to a layer(s) of the harder abrasion resistant alloy, which should usually be limited to three layers maximum or in some cases only one layer. If more than this is deposited cracking or spalling may occur. A buttering layer of a highly alloyed electrode may sometimes be necessary with harder more highly alloyed base metals to tolerate the dilution without cracking.

14.4

APPLICATION TECHNIQUE

See Section 10 - Wear Patterns.

14.5

COOLING PROCEDURE

If the base metal is hardenable the part should be cooled slowly after welding to avoid cracking.

14.6

FINISHING

In certain wear systems, surface finish can affect wear life. With frictional/adhesive wear the smoother the surface the better the wear life. With erosive wear, certain investigators have reported an increase in wear life with smoother surface finishes. In corrosive environments, a smooth surface eliminates the possibility of differential aeration which results in accelerated attack.

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15

WEAR PATTERNS AND PRODUCT SELECTION

It is often advantageous to apply a wear protective coating in a pattern or in a selected area rather than covering the whole part with the alloy because: (I) It can be deposited in less time. (ii) A wear pattern can encourage entrapment of the wearing media and thus act as a wear protective coating or it may encourage easy flow of material across the face of the part. and (iii) It may encourage a self sharpening action, (see later). Wear patterns are normally associated with abrasion, impact or abrasive/impact wear and only these conditions will be considered.

15.1 WEAR PATTERNS FOR ABRASIVE AND IMPACT WEAR

The type of wear patterns used is dependent upon the type and size of the wearing media and to some extent the base material. The patterns must either prevent contact from the wearing media with the base metal by itself providing the barrier, or it must encourage the wear media to become entrapped inside the pattern thus preventing further contact with the base metal. Let us consider the type of wearing media and then suggest possible wear patterns. Large Particle Wear, i.e. rocks. It is not possible to entrap rocks in a wear pattern to provide protection. Therefore we must consider either complete coverage of the base metal to prevent contact, or lines of wear facing material suitably spaced to prevent contact.

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The recommended type of wear pattern is to deposit weld material resistant to impact (and usually abrasion) in parallel lines to the flow of material. The rocks will then ride along the weld deposit and will not come in contact with the base, i.e.

Direction of Flow

There are variations of this type of pattern to increase deposition coverage, e.g. â&#x20AC;&#x153;speed dashâ&#x20AC;?.

Direction of Flow

An important aspect is the correct spacing of the weld deposits. The lines of the weld metal must be sufficiently close as to prevent the ingress of wear between them. The weld deposit must also be resistant to impact and abrasion.

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Fine Particle Wear, e.g. sand, earth, etc. With this type of wear it is normally possible to employ a wear pattern to entrap the wearing media. A recommended wear pattern is weld beads across the direction of flow of material.

Direction of Flow

The spacing between the weld beads will be dependent upon the size of the wearing media and the amount of moisture present in the material. A “wet” wearing media will compact and become entrapped between the wear pattern more easily than a “dry” wearing media. If the material does not become entrapped in between the wear pattern then the benefit of the wear protective overlay is largely wasted. With this type of wear a material to resist severe abrasion is required. Large and Fine Particle Wear, e.g. rocks and sand. This is the most commonly experienced wearing media in the open cast mining industry ⇒ a mixture of fine earth, sand, stone, etc. and varying sizes of rock. The recommended wear pattern is a mixture of that needed to resist fine particle wear and large particle wear, this being a “diamond” “waffle” or “crosshatch” configuration.

Direction of Flow

The fine wearing media should become entrapped in the pattern with only parts of the wearfacing exposed. THE SPACING MUST BE SMALL ENOUGH TO ENCOURAGE ENTRAPMENT WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2

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This technique is well highlighted in the picture below:

However, the wear pattern is often applied incorrectly as shown below:

The spacing of the pattern is too large and material has not become entrapped over the whole surface, only in isolated areas. The solution here is to reapply a wear protective coating but with a smaller spacing, e.g. 2 inch square “waffle”.

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To protect the lip of the bucket it is recommended to completely cover with weld beads at right angles to the direction of flow.

Direction of Flow

With a mixture of fine and large particle wearing media a weld protective overlay to resist abrasion and impact is required. “QUICK DOT” PATTERN This is a method of covering a large surface fairly rapidly and with a minimum of heat input (particularly advantageous with 12-14% manganese steel).

The “quick dot” pattern is usually used either to prevent contact of the wearing media or to encourage entrapment of the wearing media by placing inside a “crosshatch” pattern. If the quick dot pattern is used to prevent contact it must be placed closely together and not as shown below:

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BUCKET/DIGGER TEETH Taking bucket/digger teeth as an example of a typical wear protective coating application, it can be used to show the importance of not only which â&#x20AC;&#x153;wear patternâ&#x20AC;? to use but also where the pattern should be applied. With conditions of abrasion only, such as moving sand/earth it is generally accepted that a wear pattern at right angles to the direction of flow is optimum and encourages entrapment between the weld beads. Spacing must be close enough to encourage entrapment, typically 25-50cms. SAND (Fine)

With impact conditions which occur when moving large rocks, a wear pattern parallel to the direction of flow is recommended so that the rock rolls along the weld beads and does not come in contact with the teeth. The spacing will depend upon the size of the rocks.

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ROCKS (Large)

COMBINATION

With conditions of fine and large particle wear a combination of the two patterns is recommended, i.e. the diamond, cross-hatch or waffle pattern. As shown on the above examples, the “quick-dot” pattern can be used in a variety of wear conditions and is often easier and quicker to deposit particularly on vertical faces. SHOULD ALL OF THE TOOTH BE COATED? If the entire surface of the tooth is covered with wear protective coating, the nose of the tooth will eventually wear on all faces resulting in a blunt tooth, reducing the working efficiency. ALL

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If only the bottom surface of the tooth is coated the top will wear until there is insufficient support for the base which will then break. BOTTOM ONLY

The generally accepted technique is to coat only the Top and Sides, such that the base will preferentially wear (but not excessively) and maintain the correct profile for its digging action. TOP SIDES

This self sharpening action can be applied to many industrial components working in abrasion and abrasion/impact conditions.

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15.2 WEAR PLATES AND GROUSER BARS

15.2.1

Wear Plates

This method of wear protection is sometimes suitable for covering large areas that are exposed to abrasion and abrasion/impact. There are two main types of wear plates: (I)

Weldable grades of wear plate - these can be welded into a suitable wear pattern

(II)

Welded wear resistant plates that are covered on one side with a wear resistant overlay - has only to be welded in position (generally using low hydrogen mild steel).

There are various factors to be taken into consideration when choosing between wear plates and a weld protective overlay. ♦ Type of wear. ♦ Increased weight of the bucket/shovel, etc. using wear plates can cause more strain on the equipment and decreased pay load. ♦ Adaptability, welded plates are usually large and not suitable for covering smaller areas or radiused surfaces. ♦ Availability? ♦ Cost, welded wear plates are usually fairly expensive.

15.2.2 Grouser bars (e.g., bars for rebuilding worn EARTH-MOVING TRACKS).

From the Manufacturers - The bars are normally made from medium carbon steel, e.g. EN8 (similar to 1335, a 0.35%C, 1% Mn steel) and then induction hardened to create a more abrasion resistant surface. New bars generally should not be welded as welding onto the hardened layer can cause cracking. Using Locally Available Steel - Use EN8 bar which is tough but weldable and then apply a wear resistant alloy.

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The EN8 bar should be welded to the track using an electrode designed for welding dissimilar steels and then coated with a wear resistant alloy that is resistant to pressure and abrasion, (see Sections 12 and 13).

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16 SURFACING ALLOYS 16.1 CHROMIUM CARBIDE WEARFACING ALLOYS

Manual Chromium Carbide Arc Electrodes (MMAW)

Hardness

Key Characteristics

Features

57-60 Rc

Fine to medium particle abrasion

Can use contact welding

57-60 Rc

Abrasion/compression/impact

Smooth deposit

Semi Automatic Welding (FCAW)

Hardness

Key Characteristics

Features

55-60 Rc

High resistance to abrasion

High hardness with one pass

55-60 Rc

Impact/abrasion/erosion

Excellent weldability

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16.2

WORK HARDENING ALLOYS

(AUSTENITIC MANGANESE STEEL)

Manual Metal Arc Electrodes (MMAW)

Hardness

Key Characteristics

Features

10-15 Rc

Austenitic deposit with high crack resistance

Can be flame cut; machinable

work hardens: 45-50 Rc

Semi Automatic Welding (FCAW)

Hardness

Key Characteristics

Features

20-25 Rc

High resistance to cracking

Machinable

work hardens: 45-50 Rc

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16.3 IRON BASED BUILD UP AND WEARFACING ALLOYS

Manual Metal Arc Electrodes (MMAW)

Hardness

Key Characteristics

Features

28-32 Rc

Resistance to deformation and severe impact; build up

Machinable and economic and cushion layer

50-55 Rc

Crack resistant

Multi-pass build up

58-62 Rc

For edge retention, high temperature oxidation. Ultra hard homogeneous deposits.

Heat treatable

60-65 Rc

Fine particle abrasion with only one pass

High hardness

58-62 Rc

Abrasion/erosion

Minimum dilution

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16.4 TUNGSTEN CARBIDE WEARFACING ALLOYS

Manual Metal Arc Electrodes (MMAW)

Hardness

Key Characteristics

Features

68-72 Rc

Homogeneous deposit. High hardness in one pass.

High resistance to abrasion.

Torch Brazing/Welding Alloys

Hardness

Key Characteristics

Features

matrix: 200BHN carbide: 89-91 Ra

Excellent cutting properties along with abrasion/impact resistance

Low bonding temperature, Good wettability

Extreme abrasion self fluxed and easily deposited

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16.5 NI BASED WEARFACING ALLOYS Manual Metal Arc Electrodes (MMAW)

Hardness

Key Characteristics

Features

15-35Rc

Impact, heat and corrosion resistance

Hot toughness

Torch Brazing/Welding Alloys

Hardness

Key Characteristics

Features

55-62 Rc

Non magnetic deposits for wear due to friction and/or corrosion

Low bonding temperature; can also be used with GTAW

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17 GRADING OF WEAR RESISTANCE OF HARDFACING ALLOYS TYPE

FEATURE

TYPICAL APPLICATIONS

1.

Tungsten Carbide Composites

Utmost abrasion resistance and moderate impact resistance

Sand mixer blades; oil-well fishing tools; rock drills; tool joints; dry cement pump screws; ripper tynes; pugmill knives; ditcher teeth; coal cutter bits and picks; beaters; post-hole auger teeth; churn drills, etc.

2.

Chromium Carbide Austenitic Irons

Excellent abrasion resistance. High impact and oxidation resistance.

Dredge buckets and lips; shovel and dragline teeth; crusher jaws, mantles and rolls; bulldozer cutting edges and end plates; muller pan tyres and pathways; impact breaker blow bars; hammers; ball mill liners; tractor grousers; agricultural implements; augers; rolling mill guides; pump.

3.

Martensitic Irons

Excellent abrasion resistance. Medium to fair impact and oxidation resistance.

Similar to chromium carbide austenitic irons but not in cases where high impact resistance is required.

4.

Cobalt Base Alloys

High to medium abrasion and impact resistance. Excellent hot hardness; corrosion and oxidation resistance.

Hot and cold shear blades; metal and wood cutting tools; dies; valves and valve seats; dishing; flanging; forming and trimming dies; tap-hole augers; coke pusher shoes; expeller worms; guillotine, sugarcane and mower blades; pump sleeves and shafts; cams and tappets.

5.

Nickel Base Alloys

Medium abrasion and high impact resistance. Excellent hot hardness; corrosion and oxidation resistance.

Valve bodies, stems and seats; pump parts, flanges and couplings; drawing, hot trimming and punching dies; acidresistant scrapers, etc.

6.

Martensitic Steels

Medium abrasion and impact resistance.

Shovel track rollers, idlers and driving tumblers; tractor idler wheels, rollers, track links and sprockets, etc.; rolling mill rolls; wheel treads and tyres; clutch parts; guillotine blades; punches; shears; dies, etc.

7.

Pearlitic Steels

Fair abrasion resistance and high impact resistance.

Tractor idler wheels, rollers, track links and sprockets; shovel track rollers, idlers and driving tumblers; bulldozer arm trunnions; carbon steel rails; reclaiming of worn steel parts (other than austenitic steels) prior to hardfacing.

8.

Austenitic Steels (Manganese and Stainless)

Fair abrasion resistance. Excellent impact resistance. Work harden under some conditions.

Dredge driving tumblers; austenitic manganese steel rail points and crossings; digger teeth subject to extreme shock; reclaiming of worn austenitic manganese steel parts, e.g. crusher jaws, mantles, rolls, etc., prior to hardfacing.

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18

METHODS OF WEAR PROTECTION - SUMMARY

Essentially, wear surfacing involves placing a barrier between the wearing media and the wearing part. There are various methods of doing this and by far the most common is the use of surface modification. When considering exposed working surfaces and the type of wear, the alternative solution is to change the surface so making it more wear resistant. Basic methods of modifying the surfaces include: ♦ By changing the metallurgical composition and/or characteristics, e.g. quenching and tempering of hardenable alloys. ♦ By changing the condition of the wearing media. ♦ Physical separation by the use of “wear plates”. ♦ Physical separation by the use of “wear protective overlays”.

IMPORTANT For optimum increase in wear life and economic benefit the wear protection should be undertaken in most cases when the part is new or after slight wear.

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19 REFERENCES Below is a brief list of additional sources of information that you may find valuable . Metallurgy for Engineers Physical Metallurgy for Engineers Weldability of Steels Welding Handbook, 7th Ed., Vol. 4, AWS Metals Handbook, 10th Ed., Vol. 6, ASM

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