GREY mATTER Grey matter is made up of neuronal cell bodies. The grey matter includes regions of the brain involved in muscle control, sensory perception such as seeing, hearing, memory, emotions, and speech.
Introduction Chapter 1: Perception: A youthâ€™s mind
P12 Case study: Body Image P13 Interactive activity
Chapter 2: Source of all influences P16 P18 P20 P24
Media Today Statistic Girls and Historical influences Boys and Historical influences
Chapter 3: Dire Results P31 Consequences of eating disorder P38 Consequences of complusive exercise P40 Consequences of steriods
Chapter 4: Mind over Matter
P48 Making peace with your own body P50 PG13
IDEAL BODY IMAGE IS IDEAL BECAUSE IT DOES NOT EXIST;
THE ACTION LIES IN THE GAP BETWEEN DESIRE AND GRATIFICATION
Introduction Awareness of body image and self-esteem issues has become a prevalent issue in today’s youth culture. “Body image” is a phrase used to describe someone’s perception of one’s looks, one’s perception of other people’s opinions about his or her looks, and how one feels about those perceptions. Body image is not based on fact, but on self-esteem. It’s a psychological perception, not a factual one. “Ideal” body image is the phrase used to refer to the body size determined by one’s cultural group to epitomize beauty and/or success in achievement of the optimum physical state as
defined by that group. Where do youths derive their perception of ideal body image? What are some of the factors that influence the perception of ideal body image as one develops along the life span? Most people have a fairly accurate and healthy body image. Most people are aware of their flaws, but not overly bothered by them. Most people are aware of the weight gain and loss of muscle tone that comes from a more sedentary lifestyle. And they’re aware of the weight loss and muscle tone that comes from a more active lifestyle. They have a pretty accurate perception of how others view them, and are ok with it.
PAGE 8 INTRODUCTION
Unfortunately, however, some people have grossly inaccurate perceptions of how they look and how others think they look. Though a person may be healthy, she may see herself as being overweight and unappealing, and may believe that others feel the same way about her. PAGE 9 INTRODUCTION
PER ERc 1.
R ept Cep
A youth’s mind A case study was carried out to find out the perception of youth’s on their body image, if whether there are differences or similarities shown. We gathered 10 youths, which consist of 5 girls and 5 boys, asking them to: 1.Draw each of their own perception of their own body image.
2. D raw each of their own perception of their “ideal” body image and state the reasons.
PAGE 12 CHAPTER 1: CASE STUDY
Activity: Draw your own perception of how you think you look, and your preception of your ideal look Compare your drawings with the ones in the booklet and see if you can spot any similarites or differences of your ideal look.
of All Influences PAGE 15 CHAPTER 2: SOURCE OF ALL INFLUENCES
Todayâ€™s media and advertisers play a big role in the development of teenagersâ€™ self-confidence and self esteem. Advertisers often emphasize sexuality and the importance of physical attractiveness in an attempt to sell products; researchers are concerned that this places undue pressure on youths to focus on their appearance. The impact of unrealistic body image is not just confined to females. Self-confidence issues adversely affect men and more specificity teenage boys as well. However, the media present the male and female body quite differently. Males tend to be portrayed as standard weight (usually slender and muscular), whereas females tend to be portrayed as underweight.
PAGE 16 CHAPTER 2: MEDIA TODAY
A STUDY HAS SHOWN: 1
THE AVERAGE YOUTHS TODAY, VIEW up to
By the THEY ARE
17,250,000 THEY HAVE RECEIVED OVER
COMMERCIAL MESSAGES THROUGH THE MEDIA
PAGE 18 CHAPTER 2: SOURCE OF ALL INFLUENCES
45% 23% of males in
of females and
OF COMMERCIALS HAVE DIRECT
THE HEALTHY WEIGHT RANGE THINK THEY ARE OVERWEIGHT
65% OF YOUTHS
HAVE THEIR OWN TV
STATEMENT OF BODY IMAGE AND BEAUTY WITH UNLIMITED ACCESS TO VIEW
influences THAT ARE LESS THAN HEALTHY
PAGE 19 CHAPTER 2: STATISTICS
Un Un Un Un Un Un Un UnATTAINABLE
DEAL M A G E”
Girls The role of mass media related to body dissatisfaction begins with young girls reading fashion magazines at the elementary school-age group. Pictures in magazines and articles on weight control along with dieting techniques directly impact the body shape beliefs of young girls.
PAGE 20 CHAPTER 2: SOURCE OF ALL INFLUENCES
Promotion of false images in magazines that few women can obtain propels many young women into eating disorders and promotes an irrational fear of being fat. Many people don’t realize that those photos have gone through many touch ups and have been airbrushed to make the models look perfect. Teenagers striving to attain society’s unattainable ideal image will just end up increasing their feelings of inadequacy. Television is a big influence on youths as they are exposed to shows, which makes them feel like they need to look as thin as the actresses or models. Many actresses have endured hours of exercise and have deprived themselves of the proper nutrition in order to maintain a thin figure. Some even resort to plastic surgery, liposuction and breast implants. The average model weighs 23% less than the average female. Maintaining a weight that is 15% below the expected body weight fits the criteria for anorexia, so most models, according to medical standards, fit into the category of being anorexic.
Teens struggling with eating disorders need go no further than the computer to find support. But all too often, this is the wrong kind of help. “Pro-ana” websites, which are sites promoting anorexia as a lifestyle choice rather than a disorder, have flourished over the past few years. Using a search engine to type in “anorexia,” teenagers who are reaching out for a healthy supportive environment may find something very different. In spite of a ban on pro-ana websites by several large search engines, there are still hundreds that pop up. Offering how-to tips on purging, keys to disguising thinness or passing a weigh in, pro-thin quotes, and numerous images of emaciated models, these sites validate unhealthy behaviors. For teens teetering on the edge of recovery or spiraling downward into dangerous eating behaviors, they may reinforce the idea that it’s fine-even desirable-to have an eating disorder. Consequently, girls often have an unhealthy or inaccurate opinion about their bodies. Feeling pressure to be thin increases the likelihood of binge eating and bulimic symptoms. Certain personality traits have been considered as risk factors for developing an eating disorder. Perfectionism is the one most often linked to “a relentless pursuit of the thin ideal”.
PAGE 21 CHAPTER 2: GIRLS
HOW iT ALL STARTED P
lumpness was considered fashionable and erotic. From the Middle Ages, the “reproductive figure” was idealized by artists. Fleshiness and a full, rounded stomach were emphasized as a symbol of fertility. The female body was frequently represented with full, rounded hips and breasts. In the 1950s there was a significant move toward slimness, when the Hollywood movie industry and the fashion industries promoted large breasts (along with tiny waists and slim legs). Marilyn Monroe personified this trend. The trend for slimness became particularly acute in the 1960s, when the fashion model Twiggy became the role model for a generation of young women. She had a flat-chested, boyish figure, and weighed 96 lb. Slimness came to exemplify unconventionality, freedom, youthfulness, and a ticket to the “Jet-Set” life in 1960s Britain
Studies of the portrayal of the female body in the media have reliably found that models became thinner and thinner between the 1960s and 1980s. For example, models in Vogue magazine became gradually thinner, and even Playboy centerfolds became taller and leaner so that, although their breasts remained large, became slim and nearly hipless in the 1980s. In the 1980s, models were slim and looked physically fit, with lithe, toned bodies. The 1990s saw a departure from this trend with the emergence of “waif ” models with very thin body types, perhaps the most famous of these being Kate Moss who has a similar body shape to Twiggy. In the early 2000s, the extremely thin Western ideal has been maintained into the mid-decade. In addition, digital modification of images in magazines now means that virtually every fashion image is digitally modified. Susan Bordo notes that digital modification of images means that we are being educated to shift our perception of what a normal woman’s body looks like, so that we see our own bodies as wanting because they do not match an unrealistic, polished, slimmed, and smoothed ideal.
PAGE 22 CHAPTER 2: HISTORICAL INFLUENCES
Recip e Negat for i Body ve Imag e
“Desire for ore USCLE ASS”
Boys Many researchers point out that male youths are increasingly evaluated on their appearance and subjected to media images of the male ideal. Over the past 20 years, GI Joe has transformed from a fairly normal, average soldier’s body to a muscular extreme more akin to Arnold Schwarzenegger, unattainable for most men.
PAGE 24 CHAPTER 2: SOURCE OF ALL INFLUENCES
exercise capacity, physical performance, and responsiveness to training.
An example of the influence of television on the world’s perception of ideal body image was the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. Over 215 million viewers, more than 70% of the population, watched some part of the games. Because of the type of clothing worn, body size of the participants is readily apparent. Michael Phelps, the 8-time gold-medal winner in Men’s Swimming events at the 2008 Summer Olympics, is a role model for our youth. Just before the 2008 Summer Olympics, he was in the very active exercise category with a recommended caloric need intake of 4065 kcal/d. Just prior to the Olympics, it was reported that he exercised more than 30 hours per week. Ideal body image misperceptions can lead to the inappropriate use of restricted dietary intake, supplement and ergogenic aid use, or over exercising. Disordered eating behaviors are used to achieve an ideal body weight deemed necessary for success in certain sports. Muscle dysmorphia is a complex disorder that has many behaviors associated with acquiring and maintaining muscle mass. This desire for more muscle mass has coincided with an increase in the number of men experiencing eating disorders, using ergogenic aids, and suffering from body obsession. Ergogenic aids are products that purportedly boost one’s
Some researchers believe a substantial proportion of teenage boys are interested in increasing muscle tone and muscle size. A study published in the October 2005 issue of Psychology of Men and Masculinity by Linda Smolak and her colleagues, reported that between 7 and 11% of middle school boys have used steroids at some point to increase muscle size and tone; rates of steroid abuse by teen boys vary, but they are often reported to be higher than 3%. Exercising and strength training are not necessarily bad, but many psychologists are interpreting “muscle building” behaviour as an indicator of body dissatisfaction; in its severe form, this dissatisfaction could interfere with social or emotional functioning, and may lead to steroid use. Boys were interested in muscularity were also more likely to try muscle building. The food supplement and steroid users were similar to one another – both reported that they tended to compare their appearance to that of other boys. Steroid and food supplement users reported higher levels of depressive symptoms. Even though the majority of articles about body image have focused on the impact of media messages on girls, boys are also left with the belief that they don’t measure up to the media ideal.
PAGE 25 CHAPTER 2: BOYS
HOW iT ALL STARTED S
in Europe in the 1940s. In publicity photographs explicitly aimed at a female audience, the Hollywood idols were also portrayed semi clothed, in poses designed to flatter their muscularity. The 1980s and 1990s saw an increase in the objectification of the nude male body. Actors such as Dolph Lundgren exemplified the wellmuscled male ideal as portrayed in the popular media in the 1990s.
culptors in ancient Greece were keenly interested in the problems of representing the anatomy of the human figure in a realistic form, and that it was at this stage that lifelike male nudes started to appear. Men were often presented nude.
The 1990s were an important turning point, as the male body lost its originally homoerotic connotations, and advertisers felt happy to use the naked male torso in mainstream advertising to sell everything from ice cream to perfume and orange juice.
Idealization of the male body can also be found in the art of the Roman Empire, where the epitome of physical beauty for the Romans, who hated obesity and idealized slenderness in their paintings and sculpture, was the slim, muscular warrior.
Cosmetics companies came to realize that there was a gap in the market for male cosmetics, and that men need to be persuaded to buy them. They had to find a way of persuading men that itâ€™s actually macho to use a moisturizer and not fey to have a facial, hence the pictures of hunks splashing on the perfume.
In Renaissance art, too, the male body was traditionally presented nude, emulating the physique represented in classical Greek sculpture. This ideal (highly muscled and engaged in athletic pursuits) is echoed in images in the specialist bodybuilding magazines that emerged
The portrayal of idealized images of menâ€™s bodies in the media is likely to lead to increasing problems with self-image and body satisfaction in men. Their bodies increasingly define men, and that media representations of male bodies present a slender and muscular ideal linked with aspiration consumer goods aimed at men.
PAGE 26 CHAPTER 2: HISTORICAL INFLUENCES
Clearly, media pressure on men is different and less extreme than that on women, since men still tend to be judged in terms of achievements rather than looks. However, men are under increased pressure to conform to the muscular, well-toned, mesomorphic (medium-sized) shape, and increases in anabolic steroid use.
Negative body image is characterized by unpleasant feelings such as shame, anxiety, and self-consciousness about one’s body. There is a primary importance placed on physical characteristics, and often there are significant attempts to change one’s body through exercise, dieting, supplements, or cosmetic surgery. People with negative body image often have a distorted perception of their own size and shape. For both sexes, this may mean perceiving one’s body as larger and flabbier than it is in reality. It interfere with your daily functioning, then they may be part of a body image disturbance. Left untreated, negative body image can increase your risk of developing an eating disorder, depression, anxiety, social isolation, and other problems.
PAGE 30 CHAPTER 3: DIRE RESULTS
Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results Dire results
One of the many downfalls of eating disorders in young people is that adolescents often think they’re invincible. This is partially due to the very real physiological fact that a teenager’s brain isn’t fully developed yet. In particular, the part of the brain that links actions with consequences is still gathering information to support the fact that there are consequences.
PAGE 33 CHAPTER 3: CONSEQUENCES OF EATING DISORDER
x ArexivA r e nv0sA o n
In Anorexia Nervosa many of the health problems are caused by state of starvation. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies, electrolyte disturbances, dehydration and fainting episodes, and the loss of muscle mass occur often. The body tries to compensate in part by lower resting and total metabolism, and through hormone changes such as decreased thyroid and insulin. Changes are often found in hair and skin including dry scaly skin, fine, soft hair, brittle hair and nails, and yellow discoloration. Slow heart rate, decreased blood pressure and lower body temperature are frequently encountered. A slowing of the gastrointestinal tract may cause abdominal pain, bloating and chronic constipation. Rapid weight loss causes amenorrhea and a deficiency of estrogen. This combined with poor dietary intake of calcium results in osteopenia and significantly increased risk of bone fractures. As the body starve, the muscles are starved. The heart is a muscle and consequently can begin to deteriorate, and heart failure induces fatality. Low levels of sodium, zinc, potassium and calcium, can also cause abnormal heart rhythms. Sudden death due to abnormal heart rhythms caused by electrolyte and mineral disturbances may occur. The blood producing bone marrow is also injured. Anemia and low white blood cell counts correlate with the amount of weight lost and result in increased risk of bleeding and decreased ability to fight infections.
PAGE 35 CHAPTER 3: CONSEQUENCES OF EATING DISORDER
L U B m i l A i mr e n o v r a s o
In Bulima Nervosa, teens consume large quantities of food in binges, and they try to compensate by inducing vomiting, fasting, and abusing laxatives and diuretics. Bulimics frequently experience muscle cramps, heartburn, fatigue, bloody diarrhea, fainting episodes, dizziness and abdominal pain. Calluses may form over the backs of the hands from repeatedly inducing vomiting. Dental enamel erosions caused by stomach acid occur on the upper teeth. Recurring bouts of vomiting cause dehydration and disturbances in electrolytes. This is made worse when bulimics take laxatives and diuretics or consume excessive quantities of water to curb hunger pangs. The resulting electrolyte abnormalities can cause fatal abnormalities in heart rhythm to occur. Gastrointestinal problems may become life threatening. Retching can cause tears in the esophagus, gastrointestinal bleeding, and ulcers. Sometimes bulimics use a medicine, Ipecac, to cause vomiting. Ipecac itself damages heart and skeletal muscle. When used chronically it can result in heart and muscle weakness and death.
PAGE 36 CHAPTER 3: CONSEQUENCES OF EATING DISORDER
KEEP CALM KEEP CALM KEEP CALM
And exercise And exercise
Compulsive exercise There is a fine line between healthy exercise and compulsive exercising, but the difference is best explained by mind set. While healthy exercising is done for both pleasure and health benefits, compulsive exercising is done primarily to feel a sense of control over life. In adhering to a rigorous and inflexible workout schedule, those with compulsive exercise problems are able to cope with anxiety or low self-esteem.Exercise begins to become increasingly extreme, to control life rather than being a part of life. In fact, if injury, illness, or poor weather conditions cancel a workout, irritability, guilt or anxiety often result. There is no exact definition of how much exercise is too much, but compulsive exercisers work out at least two and often more times a day. This amount of exercise can causephysical and psychological harm such as: 1. Damage to tendons, ligaments, bones &joints 2. Chronic fatigue or exhaustion 3.Destruction of muscle mass, especially if nutritional intake is inadequate
4.Loss of periods for girls and potential for premature bone loss 5. S tress to the heart 6.Anxiety and depression
PAGE 39 CHAPTER 3: CONSEQUENCES OF COMPLUSIVE EXERCISE
Steroid Abuse Anabolic steroid abuse has been associated with a wide range of adverse side effects, ranging from some that are physically unattractive, such as acne and breast development in maleâ€™s body, to others that are life threatening, such as heart attacks and liver cancer. Most are reversible if the abuser stops taking the drugs, but some are permanent. Most data on the long-term effects of anabolic steroids on humans come from case reports rather than formal epidemiological studies. From the case reports, the incidence of life-threatening effects appears to be low, but serious adverse effects may be under-recognized or under-reported. Data from animal studies seem to support this possibility.
PAGE 41 CHAPTER 3: CONSEQUENCES OF STEROIDS
Hor Mus mo cAr NAl culo dio Sys skel vAs tem etAl cul lar SYst sys stem
Steroid abuse disrupts the normal production of hormones in the body, causing both reversible and irreversible changes. Changes that can be reversed include reduced sperm production and shrinking of the testicles. Irreversible changes include malepattern baldness and breast development (gynecomastia). In one study of male bodybuilders, more than half had testicular atrophy,and more than half had gynecomastia. Gynecomastia is thought to occur due to the disruption of normal hormone balance. With the continued administration of steroids, some of these effects are irreversible. Rising levels of testosterone and other sex hormones normally trigger the growth spurt that occurs during puberty and adolescence. Subsequently, when these hormones reach certain levels, they signal the bones to stop growing, locking a person into his or her maximum height. Steroid abuse has been associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including heart attacks and strokes, even in athletes younger than 30. Steroids contribute to the development of CVD, partly by changing the levels of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol in the blood. Steroids, particularly the oral types, increase the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and decrease the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). High LDL and low HDL levels increase the risk of atherosclerosis, a condition in which fatty substances are deposited inside arteries and disrupt blood flow. If blood is prevented from reaching the heart, the result can be a heart attack. If blood is prevented from reaching the brain, the result can be a stroke. Steroids also increase the risk that blood clots will form in blood vessels, potentially disrupting blood flow and damaging the heart muscle so that it does not pump blood effectively.
PAGE 43 CHAPTER 3: CONSEQUENCES OF STEROIDS
MIND MIND OVER M AT T E R
4. Being a teenager is a time of major change. Besides the obvious changes in size and shape, teens are faced with how they feel about themselves. Body image influences behavior, self-esteem, and our psyche. When we feel bad about our body, our satisfaction and mood plummets.
If we are constantly trying to push, reshape or remake our bodies, our sense of self becomes unhealthy. We lose confidence in our abilities. Itâ€™s not uncommon for people who think poorly of their bodies to have problems in other areas of their lives, including sexuality, careers and relationships.
How you see yourself affects every part of your life. High self-esteem makes for a happier life. It allows you to be your own person and not have others define you. Self esteem, self confidence and self-respect are all related. Self-esteem is also defined as the judgments people makes about themselves and is affected by self confidence and respect. Having self-confidence means believing in our ability to take action and meet our goals. Self-respect is the degree to which we believe we deserve to be happy, have rewarding relationships and stand up for our rights and values. All these factors affect whether or not we will have a healthy body image.
with your body
1 Fight fAtism
2 3 Fight the Diet Accepting DownfAll Genetics
Work on accepting people of all sizes and shapes. This will help you appreciate your own body. It may be useful to create a list of people who you admire that do not have “perfect” bodies, does their appearance affect how you feel about them? It is also important to remember that society’s standards have changed significantly over the last 50 years.
98% of all dieters gain the weight back in five years. Studies also show that 20-25% of dieters progress to a partial or fullblown eating disorder. Dieting only helps you lose your self-esteem and energy. Dieting also creates mood swings and feelings of hopelessness. If you feel pressure to lose weight, talk to a friend or loved one or seek professional help.
PAGE 48 CHAPTER 4: MIND OVER MATTER
It is critical to remember that many aspects of your body cannot be changed. Genetics does play a role in your body and your genes determine 25% to 70% of your body. While there are many aspects of our bodies we cannot change, you can change or modify your beliefs and attitudes, which influence the way you feel about yourself.
4 Emotions Are Skin Deep It is important to discover the emotions and feelings that underlie your negative body image. The statement “I feel fat” is never really about fat, even if you are overweight. When we do not know how to deal with our feelings we turn to our bodies and blame our bodies for our feelings. Every time you say, “I’m fat” you are betraying your body, and you are betraying and ignoring your underlying feelings. Remember that “fat” is never a feeling; it’s avoidance of feelings.
5 Question MessAges PortrAyed in the MediA The media sends powerful messages to audience about the acceptability (or unacceptability) of their bodies. Now that we know that many of the images presented in the media have been computer enhanced and airbrushed. It is important to start to question images in the media and question why people should feel compelled to “live up” to these unrealistic standards of beauty and thinness.
6 7 Body Befriend Misperception Your Body Research reveals that as much as 1/4 of your self-esteem is the result of how positive or negative your body image is. People with eating disorders often exhibit unequivocal body image misperception, which they misperceive the size of part, or the entire body. This distortion is real and it is not due to “fat,” but to the illness. Judge your size according the opinions of trusted others until you can trust your new and more accurate self-perceptions.
PAGE 49 CHAPTER 4: MAKING PEACE WITH YOUR BODY
It is important to combat negative body image because it can lead to depression, shyness, social anxiety and self-consciousness in intimate relationships. It is time to stop judging bodies harshly and learn to appreciate their inner being, soul, and spirit. Start to recognize you do not have to compare yourself to others or in the media. Begin to challenge images presented in the media and realize that your worth does not depend on how closely you fit these unrealistic images.
Parents may inadvertently and unwittingly contribute to their child’s body image issues. Disparaging or critical parental messages sent to a child about his or her appearance may create or reinforce body image concerns, as well as a lack of self-acceptance, poor self-esteem, and food fears and obsessions. When parents harbor unresolved weight-related and body image issues of their own, these issues may be passed down to children as a legacy, from generation to generation. One study showed that anorexic mothers raised children who by age five whined more, demonstrated eating problems, and manifested signs of depression. Children learn best by example, overhearing their parents complain about their own weight and need to diet, watching them restrict food or exercise excessively. Kids are quick to pick up on the signals of parents who skip meals, purchase and eat only light or fat-free foods, or who do not consider it a priority to prepare and provide three meals a day and to sit down to eat them together with their family. When parents do not actively refute poor values or misconceptions in their children, they may find that they are perpetuating and reinforcing them; if they fail to actively negate the child’s belief that popularity and peer acceptance is as important as learning and academic achievement, the child’s own worst fears and misconceptions are realized and validated. If not part of the solution, parents are in danger of becoming part of the problem
PAGE 50 CHAPTER 4: MIND OVER MATTER
1 Examine your own relationship with food and body image
2 Limit excessive media exposure when possible
Your kids will notice your eating habits starting at a very young age. If you are not leading a healthy lifestyle or are unhappy with your own body, consider seeking help from a Registered Dietitian or other health professional.
As a parent, you have the power to restrict the time your children spend in front of the computer or television. Enjoy engaging activities instead: go for a walk, read together, teach your kids how to cook or simply hang out with friends.
3 Create and promote confidenceboosting routines at home Use positive words relating to your body. Create a non-judgmental atmosphere where your kids can openly discuss issues and concerns without fear of criticism. This will encourage your kids to come to you for advice and information rather than various media sources.
PAGE 51 CHAPTER 4: PG13
4 Positively reinforce healthy habits early and often Praise your children for trying a new vegetable, brushing their teeth after dinner, or recycling extra paper. Teach your kids the significance of these healthpromoting activities. Let them know how their decisions will help them today.
“WE BOW DOWN BEFORE NO MAN” YOU ARE NOT A MISTAKE. YOU ARE NOT A PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED. BUT YOU WON’T DISCOVER THIS UNTIL YOU ARE WILLING TO STOP BANGING YOUR HEAD AGAINST THE WALL OF SHAMING AND CAGING AND FEARING YOURSELF.
“NO ONE CAN MAKE you FEEL inferior
SPECIAL THANKS TO DAVID LEE PUBLISHED BY CASSANDRA SOH
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