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Literatures of Environmental Justice

OUT THERE/IN YOU


Special

thanks

to

Dr.

Krista Comer and Kevin MacDonnell support

and

for

their

guidance

throughout this project.


TAB OF CON

This publication is part of a project in completion of the Rice University course “Literatures of Environmental Justice” as instructed by Dr. Krista Comer in Spring 2017 and in accordance with the requirements for completion of a degree in English from Rice University. The work presented in this project is written, compiled, and designed by Cassandra Gibson unless otherwise stated. The zine is presented as a public gift to Rice University, Houston, and the world.

TRANS-CORPOREALITY In “Bodily Natures” 1 In Life: Scientific Modes

INHALE ABSORB INGEST

I

5 7 11 15


BLE

NTENTS TRACING TOXINS WORKS CITED 23

Photo credits Textual citations

24 II

19


IN BODILY NATURES

TRA COR REA 1


Trans-corporeality, as Alaimo defines it, “is a recognition not just that everything is interconnected but that humans are the very stuff of the material, emergent world” (20). How one approaches transcorporeal analyses, must be carefully purposeful. “The pursuit of selfknowledge,” says Alaimo, “which has been a personal, philosophical, psychological, or discursive matter, now extends into a rather ‘scientific’ investigation into the constitution of our coextensive environments” (20). Science alone does not have a solid framework for inquiry, nor does a purely theoretical, psychosocial examination of humanity provide a thorough means of trans-corporeal action. “Perhaps the only way to

truly oust the ghosts of biology and nature is, paradoxically, to endow them with flesh, to allow them to materialize more fully, and to attend to their precise materializations” (6). The work of transcorporeality, therefore, amends the immateriality of contemporary understandings of the human with the scientific materiality of the environment and the body. Neither can perform trans-corporeality effectively. Transcorporeality, or the study of the communication between body and nature, in which both have agency, must be transtheoretical. Combining theoretical approaches toward the work of trans-corporeality is a starting point for a complex environmental and social justice movement.

ANSRPOALITY 2


“POTENT ETHICAL

POSSIBILITIES EM

LITERAL CONTACT

HUMAN CORPO

MORE-THAN-HU

3


L AND POLITICAL

MERGE FROM THE

T ZONE BETWEEN

OREALITY AND

UMAN NATURE.” (Alaimo, 2)

4


IN LIFE: SCIENTIFIC MODES

5


“Chemical

and

example,

is

cellular

dramas

radiological

driven of

inward,

violence,

for

somatized

into

mutation

that—particu-

larly in the bodies of the poor—remain largely unobserved,

undiagnosed,

and

untreated.” (Nixon, 6)

6


Absorbing

oxygen

from

the

air

I

through

the

N

process

of

inhalation, the lungs bring oxygen into the bloodstream, which carries oxygen to the rest of the body. The cells of the body release

carbon

dioxide

as

they

use oxygen. This is carried back to the lungs by the veins. The carbon when

dioxide

the

lungs

leaves

the

exhale.

lungs

Most

of

the cells in the lungs are called epithelial cells. These line the airways and produce mucus, which lubricates and protects the lungs. The lungs are a pair of spongy, air-filled

organs

located

on

either side of the chest (thorax). The

trachea

(windpipe)

conducts

inhaled air into the lungs through its tubular branches, 7


H

A

L

E

called bronchi. The bronchi then divide into smaller and

smaller branches (bronchioles), finally becoming microscopic.

The bronchioles eventually end in

clusters of microscopic air sacs called

alveoli.

through

the

capillaries

Oxygen

alveoli, and

into

passes

into the

the

blood.

It is carried to the heart and

then pumped throughout the body to

the tissues and organs. As oxygen is

going

carbon

into

dioxide

the

bloodstream,

passes

from

the

blood into the alveoli and then makes its journey out of the body. The

substances

become

the

in

substances

the

air

in

your

body. The substances in the air become the substance of

your body. The substances in your air become your body. 8


Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetonitrile Acetophenone 2-Acetylaminofluorene Acrolei Acrylamide Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Allyl chloride 4-Aminobiphenyl Aniline o-Anisidin Asbestos Benzene (including benzene from gasoline) Benzidine Benzotrichlorid Benzyl chloride Biphenyl Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) Bis(chloromethyl ether Bromoform 1,3-Butadiene Calcium cyanamide Caprolactam (See Modification Captan Carbaryl Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonyl sulfide Catecho Chloramben Chlordane Chlorine Chloroacetic acid 2-Chloroacetophenone Chlorobenzen Chlorobenzilate Chloroform Chloromethyl methyl ether Chloroprene Cresols/Cresyli acid (isomers and mixture) o-Cresol m-Cresol p-Cresol Cumene 2,4-D, salts an esters DDE Diazomethane Dibenzofurans 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane Dibutylphthalat 1,4-Dichlorobenzene(p) 3,3-Dichlorobenzidene Dichloroethyl ether (Bis(2-chloroethyl ether) 1,3-Dichloropropene Dichlorvos Diethanolamine N,N-Dimethylaniline Diethy sulfate 3,3-Dimethoxybenzidine Dimethyl aminoazobenzene 3,3’-Dimethyl benzidin Dimethyl carbamoyl chloride Dimethyl formamide 1,1-Dimethyl hydrazine Dimethyl phthalat Dimethyl sulfate 4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol, and salts 2,4-Dinitrophenol 2,4-Dinitrotoluen 1,4-Dioxane (1,4-Diethyleneoxide) 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine Epichlorohydrin (l-Chloro-2,3 epoxypropane) 1,2-Epoxybutane Ethyl acrylate Ethyl benzene Ethyl carbamate (Urethane Ethyl chloride (Chloroethane) Ethylene dibromide (Dibromoethane) Ethylene dichlorid (1,2-Dichloroethane) Ethylene glycol Ethylene imine (Aziridine) Ethylene oxid Ethylene thiourea Ethylidene dichloride (1,1-Dichloroethane) Formaldehyde Heptachlo Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorobutadiene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Hexachloroethan Hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate Hexamethylphosphoramide Hexane Hydrazine Hydrochlori acid Hydrogen fluoride (Hydrofluoric acid) Hydrogen sulfide (See Modification Hydroquinone Isophorone Lindane (all isomers) Maleic anhydride Methanol Methoxychlo Methyl bromide (Bromomethane) Methyl chloride (Chloromethane) Methyl chlorofor (1,1,1-Trichloroethane) Methyl ethyl ketone (2-Butanone) (See Modification) Methy hydrazine Methyl iodide (Iodomethane) Methyl isobutyl ketone (Hexone) Methy isocyanate Methyl methacrylate Methyl tert butyl ether 4,4-Methylene bis(2 chloroaniline) Methylene chloride (Dichloromethane) Methylene diphenyl diisocyanat (MDI) 4,4’-Methylenedianiline Naphthalene Nitrobenzene 4-Nitrobiphenyl 4-Nitropheno 2-Nitropropane N-Nitroso-N-methylurea N-Nitrosodimethylamine N-Nitrosomorpholin Parathion Pentachloronitrobenzene (Quintobenzene) Pentachlorophenol Pheno p-Phenylenediamine Phosgene Phosphine Phosphorus Phthalic anhydride Polychlorinate biphenyls (Aroclors) 1,3-Propane sultone beta-Propiolactone Propionaldehyd Propoxur (Baygon) Propylene dichloride (1,2-Dichloropropane) Propylene oxid 1,2-Propylenimine (2-Methyl aziridine) Quinoline Quinone Styrene Styrene oxid 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane Tetrachloroethylen (Perchloroethylene) Titanium tetrachloride Toluene 2,4-Toluene diamine 2,4-Toluen diisocyanate o-Toluidine Toxaphene (chlorinated camphene) 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzen 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol 2,4,6-Trichloropheno Triethylamine Trifluralin 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane Vinyl acetate Vinyl bromide Viny chloride Vinylidene chloride (1,1-Dichloroethylene) Xylenes (isomers and mixture o-Xylenes m-Xylenes p-Xylenes Antimony Compounds Arsenic Compounds (inorganic includin arsine) Beryllium Compounds Cadmium Compounds Chromium Compounds Cobalt Compound Coke Oven Emissions Cyanide Compounds 1 Glycol ethers 2 (See Modification) Lea Compounds Manganese Compounds Mercury Compounds Fine mineral fibers 3 Nickel Compound Polycyclic Organic Matter 4 Radionuclides (including radon) 5 Selenium Compound 9

EPA


in ne de l) n) ol ne ic nd te l) yl ne te ne 3e) de de or ne ic n) or rm yl yl 2te ol ne ol ed de de de ne ne ne ol yl e) ng ds ad ds ds

In San Francisco, the average infant will

exceed

the

EPA’s

lifetime

19days.

exposure to toxic air pollutants in

In Los Angeles, the average infant will

exceed

the

EPA’s

lifetime

12days. exposure to toxic air pollutants in

(St. Clair, 40)

10


Epidermis (outer layer). The outermost layer is the stratum corneum (carnified layer). This is the structure that determines the rate of absorption of substances through the epidermis. For example, a pesticide such as Malathion, which easily penetrates the stratum corneum, moves quickly through the other layers of the skin and is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream. DDT, another type of pesticide, does not easily penetrate the stratum corneum, so the rate of absorption is much slower. Dermis (inner layer). The inner layer of the skin is

sometimes referred to as the true skin. In animal hides, this is the layer that turns to leather when chemically processed. The dermis is the source of oxygen and of nutrients for the epidermis. The hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous (oil) glands are found in this layer. These structures play a limited role in the absorption of substances across the skin. Subcutaneous fatty tissue. This layer provides a cushion for the underlying structures and allows the skin to move to some extent.

ABSORB 11


12


“Toxons with mutagenic and/or carcinogenic effects usually act via alterations of nucleic acids, expecially DNA... In view of the complex processes... it comes as no surprise that the clinical symptoms and signs of intoxications can vary greatly.� 13


(Renzoni et al., 200)

14


Digested “food� (which is referred to

rate at which

by other terms depending on its stage of

Assimilation

passage through the digestive system is

components/c

absorbed into the bodily fluids blood and

into the cell

lymph from the alimentary canal. Most

beverage has

of the absorption part of the digestive process occurs in the jejunum and the ileum of the small intestine. The small intestine is lined with minute fingerlike processes called villi that greatly increase its surface area, and hence the 15


INGEST

h absorption can take place.

n is the process by which

chemicals from food are taken

ls of the body - after the food/

s been digested and absorbed.

16


Ingesting contaminated water is one of the most significant exposure pathways for toxins. To estimate exposure to a contaminant from the ingestion of potable water, analyze the contaminants for the place such

of as

residence. the

climate

Site-specific

information,

in

exposure

which

the

is

occurring, will enable you to calculate a more accurate exposure dose. For example, if exposure doses are being calculated for a person in a more tropical climate, the intake rates may need to be increased because people in hotter climates tend to drink more water than the default value often used.

17


D = (C X IR X EF) / BW D = EXPOSURE DOSE (MG/KG/DAY) C = CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATION (MG/L) IR = INTAKE RATE OF CONTAMINATED WATER (L/DAY) EF = EXPOSURE FACTOR (UNITLESS) BW = BODY WEIGHT (KG) CDC

18


19

TR TO


“A ‘pie’ metaphor best illustrates these three sources of environmental scarcity: supply-induced scarcity, arising from a reduction in the quantity or quality of the resource, shrinks the size of the resource pie as a whole; demand-induced scarcity arising, for exaple, from growth in the number of people competing for the resource pie, causes the average size of each person’s slice of the pie to shrink; and structural scarcity, arising from unequal distribution, puts large slices in the hands of a few, thus diminishing the amount available for the rest.” (Homer-Dixon, 6)

RACING OXINS 20 I


“For if the past of slow violence

is

never

past,

so too the post is never fully

post:

industrial

particulates and effluents live on in the environmental elements

we

inhabit

and

in our very bodies, which epidemiologically and ecologically simple

are

never

our

contemporaries.�

(Nixon, 8)

21


22


WORKS C PHOTO CREDITS

Cover Zwillinger, Rhonda. Ms P. 1998. The Dispossessed: Living with Multiple Chemical Sensitivities. New York: The Dispossessed Project, 1998. Page 1 Brister, Susi. 613 Silky Straight in Swamp. 2013. Fantastic Habitat. Houston Center for Photography: Houston, TX. Page 5 Davies, Ellie. Stars 1. 2014. Stars. Houston Center for Photography: Houston, TX. Page 12 â&#x20AC;&#x153;Laboratory: Integument.â&#x20AC;? Laboratory 14, Integument.N.p., n.d. Web. 01 May 2017. <http://www.iupui. edu/~anatd502/Labs.f04/integument%20lab/index.htm>. Page 14 Zwillinger, Rhonda. Brucie. 1998. The Dispossessed: Living with Multiple Chemical Sensitivities. New York: The Dispossessed Project, 1998. Page 17 Zwillinger Rhonda. Randy H. 1998. The Dispossessed: Living with Multiple Chemical Sensitivities. New York: The Dispossessed Project, 1998. Page 19 Plageman, Laura. Green Hill, Washington. 2010. Response, Island. Houston Center for Photography: Houston, TX. Page 21-22 Brister, Susi. Neon Shag. 2014. Fantastic Habitat. Houston Center for Photography: Houston, TX.

23


CITED

TEXTUAL CITATIONS

Alaimo, Stacy. “Bodily Natures.” Bodily Natures: Science, Environment, and the Material Self. Bloomington (Ind.): Indiana UP, 2010. Print. “Appendix G: Calculating Exposure Doses.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 30 Nov. 2005. Web. 02 May 2017. Campbell, Neil A., Jane B. Reece, and Neil A. Campbell. Biology: a global approach. Boston: Pearson, 2015. Print. Homer-Dixon, Thomas, and Jessica Blitt, editors. Ecoviolence: Links Among Environment, Population, and Security. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1998. Print. “Initial List of Hazardous Air Pollutants with Modifications.” EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, 16 Mar. 2017. Web. 01 May 2017. Nixon, Rob. Slow Violence and the Environmentalism of the Poor. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2011. Print. Renzoni, Aristeo, and Niccolò Mattei, and Lorena Lari, and Maria Cristina Fossi, editors. Contaminants in the Environment: A Multidisciplinary Assessment of Risks to Man and Other Organisms. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers, 1994. Print. St. Clair, Jeffrey. Re Petrolia, CA: CounterPunch, 2008. Print.

24


Out There/In You

25


Cassandra Gibson 2017

Out There/In You  

Drawing on Stacy Alaimo’s theories of trans-corporeality and making the invisible into visible weapons of change, this project will attempt...

Out There/In You  

Drawing on Stacy Alaimo’s theories of trans-corporeality and making the invisible into visible weapons of change, this project will attempt...

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