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WORKSHO GPU I D E HARDWARE ANDINLAYS Bed bolt covers

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t CATCUTATING BOARD FEET NUMBER OFBOARD FEET ()F IN4 TINEAR FEET DIFFERENT SIZEBOARDS 1"x 12"x 12"= 1otandard board foot 1-by-3=lboardfoot

1-by-6=2boardfeet

1-by-12=4boardfeet

2-by-4 = 22/z board feet

2-by-6=4boardfeet

0rdering lumber bytheboard foot Because theboardfootisa unitof measurement that offersa standard wayof totaling thevolume of stock regardless of dimensions, it is commonly usedwhen dealing withlumber. Asshownat left,thestandard boardfootis equivalent to a piecethatis 1 inchthick, 12 inches wideand12 inches long.Tocalculate the pieceof wood, number of boardfeetin a particular multiply itsthreedimensions together. Thendivide theresult by I44 if thedimensions areall in inches, or by 12 if onedimension is expressed in feet.Forthe standard board, theformulais: I " x 7 2 "x 1 2 "+ 1 4 4= I ( o r1 "x 1 2 "x I ' = L 2= 7 ) . youwouldcalSoif youhadan8-foot-long 1-by-3, culatetheboardfeetasfollows: 1 x 3 x 8 + 12 = 2 (or 2 boardfeet).Otherexamples areshownin theillustration.Remember thatboardfeetarecalculated on thebasisof nominal ratherthanactualsizes.

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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

CLNSIC AMERICAN FURNTTURE

THE ART OF WOODWORKING

CIASSIC ANAERICAI FURNITURE

TIME-LIFE BOOKS ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA ST.REMYPRESS MONTREAL

r I I I THE ART OF WOODWORKING was produced by ST.REMYPRESS Publisher KennethWinchester President / ChiefExecutiveOfficer FernandLecoq President/ ChiefOperatingOfficer PierreL6veilld SeriesEditor SeriesArt Director SeniorEditor Editor Art Directors Designers

PierreHome-Douglas FrancineLemieux Marc Cassini Andrew Iones lean-PierreBourgeois,Michel Gigudre FrangoisDaxhelet,Jean-GuyDoiron FrangoisLongp16 PictureEditor ChristopherJackson Writers fohn Dowling, AdamVan Sertima Contr ibuting IlIustrators GillesBeauchemin,Michel Blais, RonaldDurepos,Michael Stockdale, JamesTh6rien Administrator NatalieWatanabe ProductionManager MichelleTurbide Coordinator DominiqueGagn6 SystemCoordinator Eric Beaulieu Photographer RobertChartier Indexer ChristineM. Jacobs Time-Life Booksis a division of Time Life Inc., a wholly owned subsidiaryof THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY

TIME-LIFEINC. President andCEO JohnM. Fahey

TIME-LIFEBOOKS President ManagingEditor Directorof Design Directorof Editorial Operations

JohnD. Hall RobertaConlan MichaelHentges EllenRobling

ConsuhingEditor Vice-Preside nt, BookProduction ProductionManager Manager Quality Assurance

fohn R. Sullivan Marjann Caldwell MarleneZack famesKing

THECONSUTIANTS

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JonArno is a consultant,cabinetmaker,and freelancewriter who livesin Tioy,Michigan. He conductsseminarson wood identificationand earlyAmericanfurnituredesign,and is the authorof TheWoodworkers VisualHandbook,publishedby RodalePress.

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CONTENTS 6 INTRODUCTION T2 CTASSICAMERICAN FURNITURE STYLES 22 PEMBROKETABLE 24 Anatomy of a Pembroketable 26 Making the leg-andrail assembly 30 Preparingthe siderails 4 I Making the drawer 43 Making the top

L04 QUEENANNE SECRETARY 106 Anatomy of a QueenAnne secretary 109 Making the deskunit 1 1 6 Making the drawers 1 1 9 Building the pigeonholeunit 12T Making the fall-front 1 3 0 Making the bookcase 1 3 5 Making the doors I4O GLOSSARY I42 INDEX

48 50 52 59 66

FOUR-POSTERBED Anatomyof a four-posterbed Tirrning the bedposts Making the end boards Pencilposts

70 WINDSOR CHAIR 72 Anatomy of a sack-back Windsor chair 74 Making the spindles 80 Making the bow and arm 84 Making the seat 88 Making the legs,arm posts, and stretchers 94 Assemblingthe chair 103 A milk paint finish

I44 ACKNOWTEDGMENTS

INTRODUCTION

Dr. Iohn Kassayon

WINDSOR FURNITURE deceptivelywell-engineered furniturestylewhosepartsareassembled mainly fromwoodensticks, Wndsorrepresents oneof history's mostinnovative and recognizable furnituredesigns. TheWindsorfamilyof furnitureconsists of stools, chairs, cradles, stands, andtables. Chairsarethelargest categorywith eightdifferent basicforms,suchascomb-backs, step-downs, andthesack-back version, whichis featured beginningon page70.Chairsalsospawned ninederivatives thatinclude rockingchairs, stools, writingarmchairs, andchild-sized chairs. Theoriginof Wndsorsisancienthistory.Theirantecedents canbeattributed to theEgyptians, wheretombdrawings of the18thDynastydepictworkmensittingon threeJegged hand-hewn stoolssocketed to a plankseat.Thereason for thename Wndsoris something of anenigma, but themostlogicalexplanation is thatthey werenamedduringthefirst decade of the 18thCenturyaftertheEnglishtown of Windsotwhosebeechtreesprovideda plentifrrlsupplyof rawmaterialfor legs andotherturnedparts. Windsorchairsimprovedon thetraditionaljoiner'schairsof theperiodby eliminatingtheneedto glue-upseatframes. In aWindsorchair,theseatis a solid plankservingasthefoundationfor thelegsandstretchers andfor thespindleback. Thatsimplicityandstrenghof designis no doubtoneof thekeysto thechair's undyingpopularityandlongevity. Windsorchairmakingstarted asa cottage industryin England duringthe1720s, but soonbecame animportantfactory-based operation, employing hundreds of workers, centered in thetownof HighWycombe. AlthoughthefirstWndsorsin Americawerechairsimportedfrom England,Philadelphia chairmakersalmost immediately capitalized on thispopularnewform of easilymadeseating. Their one-manshopsexpanded intolargefactories. Englishchairmakerstookadvantage properties of thephysical of differentwoods for differentcomponents of thechairs,usingashfor bentparts,beechfor turnings, andelmfor seats. TheirAmerican counterparts usedhickoryredoakor ashforbending,maplefor turnings,andpinefor seats. Windsors weretraditionallypaintedgreen, butothercolorssuchasblue,mustardandredwerealsoused.Thepaintconcealed the differentwoodcolorsandservedto protectthewoodoutdoors,whileconveying a unifyingwholeness to thepiece.ManyEnglishchairsweresimplydip stained. Nowretired,Dr.JohnKassay taughtfurnituredesign for 30yearsat San Francisco published StateUniversity. HisBookof Shaker Furniture, bythe University ofMassachussetts Press, isconsidered oneof theforemost reference preparing boolcs onShaker style.Heiscurrently a similarbookonWndsor publisher. the same He lives in SanBruno,Califurnia. furniturefor

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INTRODUCTION

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APPEALOF FEDE,RAL STYLE A s a graduatestudentat theWinterthurMuseumProgramin EarlyAmerican f\ Crliut., I wasprivilegedto work with the country'fpremierecollectionof of the stylesmostpopularwith Americanfurniture,includingthe bestexamples Evenin thissetting,though, today-QueenAnneandChippendale. cabinetmakers Empireeras.As of thelaterFederaland I wasalways drawnto theneoclassicalpieces curatorof the MarylandHistoricalSocietyin Baltimore17 yearslater,I am still studyingandwritingaboutthosewonderfulpiecesthat I foundsoappealing. Thispolitical from England. in Americabeganwith independence TheFederalera an changealsousheredin a newperiodin the arts.The Federalstylerepresented and Rococostyles.The promiestheticrevolutionoverthe popularChippendale carving,asymmetryin nentfeatures of the earlierperiods-florid,naturalistic in casefurniture-were all derivedfrom massiveness ornament,andarchitectural Federal furniturereplaced sources. ofhistoricalandcontemporary a hodgepodge with a clean,linearstylethat lookedbackto jllst onesource theseartisticexcesses of inspiration-AncientClassicism. designerRobertAdamintroducedthe The greatneoclassical architect/interior and GeorgeHepplewhite new styieto the Englishgentry,and ftrrnituredesigners ThomasSheratonpublishedhighlyinfluentialbooksthat popularizedits ancient motifs. GreekandRomandecorative "Hepplewhite" to as alsoreferred In theUnitedStates, thisnewstyle-sometimes "sheraton"-was Althougheachmetropolitheheightof fashionby themid-1790s. or style,therewerecertainbasic form of Federal its owndistinctive tanareadeveloped with attenarelightanddelicate, in general thatdefinedit. Thepieces characteristics areflat andlinear,relyingon geometsuchastaperedlegs.Surface uatedelements woodsto achieve themainesthetic ric patterns of veneerandbandingin contrasting stringingand pictorial is primarilyinlaidandpatterned effects. Ornamentation sources: columns, elementsarederivedfrom ancientclassical motifs.Decorative Americanmotif:thepatrileaves andvines,with onedistinctively shells, urns,swags, symbolof thenewnation. oticeagle, or Empiretaste, beganto evolveintoLateNeoclassical Byabout1810,Federalstyle Actualpieces of discoveries. whichwasevenmorecloselyinspiredby archaeological "klismos" andtripod stands chairs,banquetingcouches, ancientfurnituresuchas Not until the lB40sandtheadventof romantic by cabinetmakers. werereproduced in theAmericanhome. wasthetastefor theClassicalsuperseded Victorianrevivalstyles

GregoryWeidmanis Curatorof theMaryland homeofAmerica's in Baltimore, HistoricalSociety largestcollectionof Federal furniture.

INTRODUCTION

Norm Vandalexplains

QUEENANNE'S LINE OFBEAUTY probeautyisbornfrompleasing f nrnut.riulobjectssuchasfurniture,I believe I portionandtheharmonious relationship between curvedandstraightlines. Straightlinesimpartstructure, mass,andsolidity.Curvedlineslendmovement, elegance, andgrace. Tome,QueenAnne-style furniturepresents theperfectunion of straightandcurvedcomponents. Simplelines,gracefulcurves, unpretentious decoration, proportionall contributeto someof themostbeautiful anddelicate expressions in Americanfurniture. in theAmerican QueenAnneisa namegivento a styleof furniturefirstproduced Colonies in theearlyto mid l8th Century. Assigning periodsor historicalepochs to furniturestyles, however, issolelyusefulfor discussions abouttheirorigins.This stylesawonlyembryonic development duringthereignof QueenAnneherself, yet it remains immensely popularto thisday.Indeed, whileI amcertainlynotan 18th Centurycabinetmaker, mostof thepieces I'veproduced in myrural,one-man shop havebeenin thiselegant style,andtheyhaverangedfromfaithfulreproductions of periodpieces to modernadaptations. Whatarethehallmarks of Queen Annefurniture? Themostprominent feature is thecabrioleleg,a sculptured, three-dimensional formbasedonanimalmotifs.Other essential characteristics includethescrolled apronsoftables, pieces; chairsandcase thevase-shaped splatsof chairbacks; pediments thescrolled of highchests andsecretaries; thearch-panel doorsofsecretaries andcupboards; andtheshellcarvings on chaircrests, dressing tables, andothercase pieces. Virtuallyallof theseelements are "line dependent on thecurve,on theS-shaped so-called of beauty." In becoming familiarwith anystyleof furniture,youeventually recognize how styleis evolutionary, howit develops andchanges with theaccretion of newideas. All designisin constant flux at anyof itsstages. I takegreatpleasure in examining furniturefor vestiges of theQueenAnnestyle,bothin periodpieces andin new designs fromtheshopsof contemporary craftsmen. I don'task"IsthispieceQueen "What Anne?" butrather aretheQueen Annecharacteristics of thisparticular piece, anddo anyotherelements contribute to or conflictwith theeffective beautyof its design?" In thisway,theoldis constantly blended with thenew-a stockpot in the kitchenof ideas.

Norm Vandalbuildsreproduction furniture in his Roxbury,Vermontshopand teaches literatureat s nearbyhighschool. He is theauthoro/QueenAnne Furniture,publishedby TheThuntonPress.

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CLASSICAMERICANFURNITURESTYLES At{NE OUEEI{ Spanning mostof thefirsthalfof the 18thCentury, theQueen Anne stylewasbothinfluentialand original, characterized byrefined, flowinglineswithoutexcessive decoration. Inchairandtablemaking, thestylespawned an important innovation: thecabriole leg.Queen Annedesigns migrated to America afterbecoming wellestablished in England. Thestyleeventually f o u n da h o m ei n P h i l a d e l p ht ihae, colonies' mostimportant cabinetmakingcenter. AnnefurniQueen popular tureremained in America longafterit wassuperceded in England bytheearlyGeorgian style.

SECRETARY (page 1o4) A desk-bookcaae combination with a veneeredfall-front; featu rea d ovetailed cornere and drawera

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Lar6e braaa baak plate with bail

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AUEENANNE CHAIR

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CARDTAELE Top folda in half and aide raila foid inward to move leae cloeer to1ether

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Thehighboyaboveexemplifies theharmonybetyveen straight linesandfluid curvestypical of QueenAnne-style furniture

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CLASSICAMERICANFURNITURESTYLES

CHIPPENDALE CHINE1E CHIPPENDALE CHAIR Feat.ureda clean recLan4ularlook wlLhliqhlt 4eometrtc freLwork

NamedafterBritishmastercarver a n df r r r n i t r t rdee s i s n eTr h o m a s C h i p p e n d a lteh,i ss t y l ee m e r g e d i n t h e s e c o n dh a l fo f t h e 1 8 t h Century.It is oftenthoughtof as up withornaQueenAnnedressed m e n t a t i osnu c ha ss h e l cl a r v i n g s . piecrust intricate fretwork, edging, a n do t h e re l e m e n tosf r o c o c o r Chinese d e s i s n T h e s t v l ef l o u r i s h e di n t h e A m e r i c a n cabinetm a k i n gc e n t e r o s f B o s t o nN, e w Y o r kN , e w p o rat .n dP h r l a d e l p h i a , w i t he a c hc e n t e d r e v e l o p i ni g ts o w ns i g n a t u r eP.h i l a d e l p h i a C h i p p e n d aw l ea st h e m o s te x t r a v a g e n ti n i t s c a r v e dd e t a i lw , h i l ei n N e wY o r kt h e s t y l ew a sm o r e restrained l n. B o s t o nt ,h e b o m b e shapedchestwaspopular.Newport h e l p e dp o p u l a r r zaeu n i q u e l y A m e r i c a fno r m :t h e b l o c k - f r o n t . FeaLured a tilttnq top and l,ripod leqe

9ATINWOOD COMMODE Thebombbehape wao typtcal of I;he DoeLonoLyle

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Kosette pull thell carving

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ELOCK-FRONT CHE?T An Americanadaptton of the Chippendale atyle

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CLASSICAMERICAN FURNITURE STYLES

FEDERAT PTRIOD Afterthe Revolution, American furniture makersbeganto distance themselves fromBritishinfluence. Endeavoring to createa newstyle,theyturnedto the classical designs of ancient Greece and Rome.Forthis reason. Federal furniMore tureis oftencalled"Neoclassical." pieces austere thanChippendale, Federal typicallymimicked the linesandfeatures of antiquity, suchascolumns, animal claws,reeding, fluting,andthe lyre. Despite indepeneffortsto achieve dence,however, American cabinetmakersremained underBritishinfluence. Thedesigns of Englishmen George Hepplewhite andThomas Sheraton were widelycirculated andcopiedin America, although someNewWorlddesigners attempted to Americanize the British stylesby incorporating the eagleand otheroatrioticmotifs.

WORKTAELE Thou1hdelicate in appearance, the table waa solid enouqhto eupport a heavymarble top

CARDTAELE

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Designedtofit belowa recessed window theaptly namedwindow seat,lilcethe oneshownabove"wasa popularFederal period daign. Thecross-lattice pattern of theraisedendsis typicalof thebestknownFednal daigner,DuncanPhyfe.

Fluting

PHYFE ARMCHAIR Marked by a theraton-etyle reatanqular baak and deliaately croaaed back alata

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MIKROR iemple'ltke cr:lumns are typtcal ner:classt cal infiuenoes Hinged writing eurface

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PEMEROKE TABLE 2 2 ) Qaqe litr:t.apered t6:4e of i.lue 1,.a,ia a r a cha racf.erictl t: ai' i,.: r t1.i c h d eotq ner. G eo r4 c rl c c p| c.wlt tf t:.: lor aaaJ at.orede. f irt tiliqe.) leavaa oen r;a iroPPt:d dc,ivn

\ Taperedleg

)EYMOUKDE1K An AmencanadapLattonof Hepplewhtt.eand 5 herato n et.yleo

Braes feet

Tapered leg

CLASSICAMERICAN FURNITURESTYLE,S

AMERICAN COUNTRY/C()t()NIAt andunsophisUsinglocalwoodspecies methods, ticated construction colonial America's oioneers adaoted traditional country designs fromEngland to produce ns s i m p l ep, r a c t i c faul r n i t u rken o w a American Country. Although moresophisticated styles in prosperous supplanted thesedesigns prevailed colonial towns, rusticfurniture frontier. Withits ontheever-advancing durability, andeconomy, trasimplicity, d i t i o n aAlm e r i c aCno u n t rfyu r n i t u r e c o n t i n u et o s a p p e at lo 2 0 t h - C e n t u r y particularly f urniture makers, thoselivi n si n r u r aAl m e r i c a .

Four-poater bed (pase 4O) For qutckdieaeeembly, the bedpoatofeature round mortiee-and' tenona LhaLcan be taken aparL; the aide ratlaare attached to the poeLawif,hknockdown hardware

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An ingeniousresponse to cramped conditions, thechairtableshown aboveservesdoubleduty. With the tilted-uptopagainsta wall, thepiece canbeusedasa chair.Loweringthe top transformsit into a table.

Ladder-back chair Theeeat in the example ahownia madeof ruah, but cane,eplint,and canvaataPe qeata were also commonlyproduced

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CUPBOARD ANDHUTCH Variatione on thie de6qn werecommonly made in America between 1730and 1B4O

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Wrought-iron etrap hinge

Taverntable Lowrectan4ular or circular table with atretchere and t.urnedle7a

Trestle table A larqe tabletop eupported by le4e and a treat[e; tuak or prnnedtenonojotn le4ato the treetle, allowin4eaeydreaaeembly

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WINDS(1R TheWindsorchair(page70) is often withAmerican furniture classified Country joinery itssimpleandprecise because harken andfunctional elegance backto thecraftsmanship of a bygone era.But theWindsor is neither American norrural. Firstmadein late17th-Century England, it is oneof themostenduring andpopul a ro f a l l c h a i rd e s i g n T s .h eW i n d s o r f a m i l ya l s oi n c l u d esst o o l sc,r a d l e s , stands, andtables. A l t h o u gthh eW i n d s ocrh a i rh a s spawned countless variations, virtually feature a solidseat,which all versions anchors separate assemblies of turned legsanda spindle back.

9pindle

CONTINUOU9-ARM CHAIR Feat.ureaa einqlecontinuoua arm made of ateamed wood aupported by turned epindleeand arm poete

Braaing atiak

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Many of theelements of thecomb-back Wndsorchairshownabovewereriven andshaped from greenwood.Thechair wasmadeby North CarolinawoodworkerDrewLangsner.

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REGIONAL STYTES Liketheearlysettlers fromEngland, addedtheirowninfluence to thecatnewcomers to America fromother alogof earlyAmerican styles. Mixed partsof theworldbrought theirunique intotheblendwereNorthAmerican cabinetmaking traditions withthem. versions of national stylesbuiltin the Fromthe Dutchwhofounded New former French andSpanish colonies. Amsterdam to theZoarite Germans Thepieces shownherearea brief whosettled in 0hio,thenewarrivals sampling of regional styles. NEWMEXICANCHAIR Made bv 7paniah "Carpinier'oo," thia chatr reflecte both 9panieh and naLtveAmericaninfluencea; extenaivechip carvinq eerved to li4hten the lookof the heavy timber uaedin the a99empty.

Frame-and-panel aonatruation

FRENCH PROVINCIAL ARMOIRE A popularconLinental deei4nfound throu4hout Lheformer French colonieain America, particula rly Louieiana

ZOAR CHAIR A aimplecountry chair, baeedon modeleori4inally made rn Germany,Auetria and OERMANSAWBUCKTABLE A typical Oermandeai4nfound in manyreqionoof Fennoylvania:euch a eturdy deaiqn that.many 2OO-year-oldexampleoremainin uaablecondition

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CLASSICAMERICAN FURNITURE STYLES

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t SHAKER TheShakers werea ouritanical religious sectthatprospered in the 1 8 0 0 sm , a i n l iyn N e wE n g l a n d , NewYorkState,andthe Midwest. Theylivedin isolation fromsociety on self-suff icientfarms.Shaker furniture is practical, functional, andaustere-without extravaga nce or ornamentation-but attractive in i t ss i m p l i c i tS y .h a k edre s i g p nr i n ciplescontinue to insprre modern funiture makers.

ROCKINOCHAIR Hae eteam-bent rear le4aand aolid-woodrockers; the tape oeatinq ia availablern a variety of colora and patterne. Aleo made in a ladder-backvereion

BLANKET CHEST Foretonn4blanketa andqutlta

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LikeotherShakerpieces,thedropleaftableshownaboveowesits beautyto itscleanlinesand completedevotiontofunction.With its leavesextended, thetablecanseat people. When theentiresurfour is not needed, the leaves canbe face droppeddownand thetablestored compactlyup againstawaII. 5TEP?TOOL Aaaembled withthrough dovetatla,theae miniatepladdere enabled Shakere to reach the top ahelveaand dooraof floor-to- ceilin4 casework: three- and four-otep versionawerealao common

PIE'AFE Traditionally uaed to atore baked4ooda;the pierced-tin door panelakept the contents freah whilepreventinq verminfrom enterin4.Adjuotable ahelveaadded flexibility

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TheMission styleis anoffshoot of that theArtsandCraftsmovement to evolved in England asa reaction thestylistic excesses of theVictorian perrod in craftsandto thedecline manship caused bytheIndustrial Ledbydesigners like Revolution. American furniture Gustav Stickley, preindustrial work makers adopted functional, unmethods to create adorned f urniture.Mission-style joints,native pieces featured exposed (often woodspecies oak)anda genfurmorerusticlook.Mission erally n i t u r eg r e a t l iyn f l u e n c emda j o r architects suchasCharles andHenry Lloyd Wright Greene andFrank

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MI)9ION ARMCHAIR Ouatav )Lickley eoughLto create eimple,durableand comfortable furniture:Lhiopiece feat urea aLratqhtfo rward, rec' Liltneardeot7ne,expoeedjotnery and modeet materiale

OREENEAND GREENECHAIR Deoignedby CharleeOreeneaL the turn

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PEMBROKETABLE in a table-mounted routerto shape the hePembroke tableisthought Rule-joint edges ofthe top andleaves. I to haveoriginatedin themidintotheunderhinges arethenrecessed 18thGntury whenLadyPembroke theconsidesof thepanels to complete thegreatGeorgian commissioned in nection.Theleaves aresupported cabinetmaker andmastercarver their extendedpositionby fly rails ThomasChippendale to fashiona attached to thesiderailswith knuckle forher.Theexamsmallcasualtable joints(page32). plefeaturedin thischapter, howevfeaAnotherof thetable's functional er,hasmorein commonwith the turesisthedrawerthatslidesunderthe and neoclassical designs of Sheraton top. Perfectfor storingutensilsand American Federal furniture,which linens,thedrawerismadewith through flourishedin thefollowingcentuTheendgrainof thesidesis dovetails. lines Is gracefirl blend of straight ry. concealed by a falsefront, whichis Thelegsof thePembroke tablefeature sharply andgentlecurvescontrasts curvedto matchthecurvedrail at the stripsof dark banding,framed by withtheintricateandornaterocotable'sotherend. thin string inlay of a lighter wood. codesigns of Chippendale. In keepingwith thetable'sstraight versions of thispiece Theearliest lines,thelegsaresimplytapered on four sides wasat a premiumin most andelegant werebuilt at a timewhenspace 26).Narrowstripsof bandingnearthelegs'bottom homesandfurniturehadto occupyaslittleroomaspossible. (page touch. in a coupleof inge- ends(page27)adda decorative ThePembroke tablemeetsthischallenge Thejoineryusedto assemble thetableis sturdyandrelathat niousways.First,thetable'stopis flankedby twoleaves is needed and tivelysimple.Therailsarefixedto thelegswith blindmorcanberaisedup whentheentiretablesurface (page33),reinforced by woodencorner thenloweredwhenit is not,allowingthetableto bestored tise-and-tenoffi to the blocks.Thedrawerrailsattachto thelegswith twodifferent in acorneror hallway. Theleaves areattached compactly half-laps atthetopandtwin mortise-andtopwitha hingedjointknownasarulejoint.Asshownbegin- joints:dovetailed bitsareused tenoniointson thebottom. ningon page43,matching coveandround-over

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and maple Madefrom mahoganywith contrastingwalnut legs, the Pembroke table shown at left is inlayaroundthe piece with several useful an elegant offurniture features, includingdropleaves on thesidesand a drawerat oneend.

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ANATOMYOF A PEMBROKETABLE nyr he Pembroketable consistsof I threemainsections: a top,thelegand-railassembly, and a drawer.The top is attachedto a leafon eachside with a hingedrulejoint. Theedgesof the top areroundedoverandthe mat-

ing edgesof theleaves areshapedwith a matchingcove,forminga seamless joint when the leavesare in the up position.Theleaves aresupportedby fly railsthat swingout from the side rails on knucklejoints. As shown

opposite,thesejoints featureinterlocking fi.ngersfixed togetherby a woooenDrn. Eachsiderailismadeup of fourindividualboards. First,the knucklejoint betweenthe longoutersiderail piece

Kule-jointhinge

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Drawer oide runner Tnn '"r drawer rail

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Lon4outer oide ratl piece

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and the fly rail is cut and assembled. Then,the short outersiderail pieceis sawnto sizeand the stationarvDieces areface-elued to theinnersideiail.the is thenjoinedto thelegswith assembly Woodencorblindmortise-and-tenons.

nerblocksarescrewed to adjoiningrails at thebackendofthe tableto keepthe cornerssquare. The top is attachedto the railswith wood buttons,whichfeaturea lip that fits into a groovecut alongthe inside

edges ofthe rails;thebuttonsarescrewed to theunderside of thetoo.Asshownon page47,pocket holescanalsobe used. The dovetailed draweris supported flushwith by woodenrunnersscrewed thebottomedgeof thesiderails.

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LIST CUTTING ITEM

OUANTITY

THICKNESS

WIDTH

IENGTH

Gorner blocks

2

J

3"

3"

Dlawer:Flontandback

2

%'

z%',

1A'/a',

lront False

1

rv;'

2'/"',

r4,/;'

Sides

2

%r

2%',

18'

rails* Drawer

2

%'

3"

r6%'

Runners

2

31,

1'

2I'

Bottom

I

Y^'

t4'

17Y4'

Endrail*

1

4%',

3',

r6%'

Flyrails

2

1"

4%',

L0y,'

lnnersiderails*

2

1',

4%"

32',

Leaves

2

,/8,

10"

4t"

Legs

4

T%'

I%'

29Y4'

Shortoutersiderailpieces* longoutersiderailpieces*

2

1"

4%',

7t%'

2

1"

4%',

1.6%',

Top

1

v;'

20'

4T'

* N o t eD : i m e n s i oin sc l u dtee n o no r h a l f - l al pe n g t h s .

MAKING THE LEG-AND-RAILASSEMBLY tl" h. legsof a Pembroketablehavea l- delicatelook that beliestheir sturdiness.Theyaretapered,with a simple bandedinlay aroundeachleg about 3 inchesfrom thebottom.Thebandine includesa %-inch-wide dark strip-in this case,walnut-which contrasts with themahogany. A thin stripof maple framesthewalnut.On somePembroke tables,the inlay wasusedto mark the transitionto a second,steepertaper at the bottom of the leg.Traditionally, legswith a doubletaperweretaperedon the two insidefacesabovethe banding and on all four sidesbelowit. Theversionshownin thischapterfeatures a singletaperon eachface. Oncethesiderailsareassembled, they arejoinedto thelegswith mortise-andtenons(page33).So,too,istheendrail, but it must first be bandsawed into a curvedshapeto complement thecurved drawerfront at the oppositeendof the table(page36).Thedrawerrailsarefixed to thelegswith twin mortise-and-tenons and dovetailedhalf-laps(page34).

TAPERING THELEGS

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A fly rail holds up one of the leavesof the Pembroketableshownabove.The knucklejoint that attachestheJly rail to the siderail is designedto stoppivotirtg oncethefly rail opensto a 90" angle.A recesscarved into the curved edgeofthe lly rail providesa convenienthandhold.

Making a taperjig I C u ty o u rl e gb l a n ktso s i z er, e f e r r i nt ogt h ea n a t o mi yl l u s t r a t i o n p a g e 2 4 . M a r ka l i n ea l l a r o u neda c hb l a n k5 i n c h efsr o mt h et o pe n dt o d e f i n e t h es q u a r e section to whrch therailswillbejoined. Thenoutline a %-inch square onthebottom endof theblankto define thetaper. Tomakethecutonyourtablesaw,usea shopd ,a k i n igt l o n g earn dw i d e trh a nt h e m a d ej i g .C u tt h eb a s ef r o m% - i n cphl y w o o m blanks. Seta blankonthebase, aligning corresponding taperlinesat thetopandbott o mw i t ht h ee d g eo f t h eb a s eC. l a m tph eb l a n ki n p l a c ea n dp o s i t i ot nh eg u i d e blocks against it. Screw theguideblocks to thebase, thenfasten twotoggle clamps t o t h el o n g ebr l o c kP. r e stsh et o g g l cel a m pds o w nt o s e c u rteh eb l a n kt o t h ej i g , (above). tightening thenutsontheclamps witha wrench Remove thebarclamps.

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r) cuttingthefirsttaper thebladeandposition therip L eutttheedgeof thejig basewiththeblankagainst Tosupport fenceflushagainst theopposite edgeof thebase. theblankduringthecut, Taper thefirst mounttwofeatherboards to thesawtable,oneoneachsideof theblade. sureneither sideoftheblankbysliding thejigandworkpiece across thetable,making (Caution: guardremoved forclarity.) handis in linewiththe blade(above). Blade

theremaining tapers Q Cutting r.J Release clamps, turnthe thetoggle blankto theadjacent side,andreclamp it, thistimeusinga wedge between the partof longguideblockandthetapered forthecutyou theblankto compensate justmade.Markthe location of the on theguide broadendof thewedge blocksoyoucanreposition thewedge properly forthe remaining twocuts (above). Thentaperthesecond sideof the blank.Reoeat the orocess forthe r e m a i n i sn igd e s .

INTAY BANDING INSTALLING ONTHELEGS 'l

Setting uptheroutertable I T oc u td a d o eisn t h el e g sf o r i n l a y banding ona router table,install a Tq-inch straight bit in a routerandmountthetool in a table.Adjustthecutterfora /a-inchdeepcut.Next,attachanextension board To ensure to the mitergauge. thatthe dadoes areparallel to theendsof theleg, themitergaugemustbesetto theappropriateangle.Holdthetapered partof the legf lushagainst themitergaugeextenofa try s i o nw h i l eb u t t i n g t h eh a n d l e portion. square against the leg'ssquare Adjustthemitergauge sothemiterbaris (/eff). parallel to thebladeof thesquare

27

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)

1

r) Routing thedadoes Z. Position the legagainst the miter gauge extension sothe bottomendis 3%oinchto therightof thebit.Toensure allthedadoes willbealigned, butta stop blockagainst theendof thelegandclamp it to theextension. Tocutthefirstdado, holdthelegflushagainst theextension andstopblock,andfeedthelegandmiter gauge across thetableintothebit.Turn theblankto theadjacent sideandrepeat (/eff). to routtheremaining dadoes

)

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Gluing thebanding Usinga hardwood darker thanthe pieceof banding leg,cuta rectangular for evei'y dado.Sawthebanding sothegrain willbeparallel withthegrainof theleg whenthepieces aregluedin place; they shouldbethesamewidthasthedadoes, butabout%inchlonger ood3/rc inchthick. glueontwopieces Spread of banding, set themin dadoes onopposite sidesof the l e ga n ds e c u rteh e mi n p l a c ew i t ha C clamp(righil.Oncethe adhesive has c u r e dr,e m o vteh ec l a m pa n dt r i mt h e endsofthebanding flushwiththelegby running theadjoining dadoes across the router tableagain asin step2. Gluebandingintothesedadoes, thensandthebandingflushwiththe legsurface.

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,'//' ;,

Kerfing thelegsforthestringing Toaccentuate the inlaybanding onthe legs,installnarrow stripsof woodcalled stringing between thebanding andtheleg.Formaximum effect,choose a species that is lighterthan you thewoodyouhaveselected forthetable.Usingthe sameprocedure followed in step2, cutslotsforthestringing along theedges of thebanding-but this time,witha%-inchupcutspiralstraight bit in therouter. Cutalltheslotsat thebottom slnis edgeof thebanding first,thenreposition thestopblockto routtheremaininp

thestringing f, Installing r.,l Makethestringing from%-inchthick,%-inch widewoodstrips. Usinga b a c k s aiw na mini-mite b ro x( l i k et h e k i n du s e di n d o l l h o u s e - b u i l dci nugt ) , thestrips to fit in theslots. Cutandfit onepieceat a time,mitering theends at 45'. Applyglueto thepiece,insertit intoitsslothbove)and tapit intoplace w i t ha w o o d em n a l l e tO . n c ea l l t h e stringing is installed andtheadhesive hascured, sandthepieces f lushwith the legsurfaces.

Insteadof beingcut to fit into a dado in a leg,the commercialinlay veneersshownat left areglued to the sidesof a taperedlegblank.

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PREPARING THE SIDERAILS

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MAKING THE SIDE RAILS

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joints theknuckle 1l Marking -

I B u t tt h e m a t i n ge n d so f t h e f l y r a i l a n dt h e l o n go u t e rs i d er a i l p i e c et o g e t h e r . m a k i n gs u r et h e b o a r de d g e sa r e a l i g n e d .U s er e f e r e n c e l e t t e r st o l a b e l t h e p i e c e st ,h e nm a r ka s h o u l d el irn eo n e a c hb o a r da b o u t1 i n c hf r o mt h e i rm a t i n ge n d s ;u s ea t r y s q u a r et o e n s u r et h e linesareperpendicular to the boardedges T o c o m p l e t teh e j o i n to u t l i n eu, s ea t a p e measure t o d i v i d et h e b o a r d si n t o f i v e e q u a ls e g m e n tasc r o s st h e i rw i d t h ,c r e a t i n ga g r i do f f i n g e r sa n d n o t c h e o s nthe boardends.Markthe wastesections-or n o t c h e s - w i t hX s ( r i g h t )s o t h e f l y r a i l w i l l h a v et h r e en o t c h e a s n dt h e m a t i n s

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nipnp turn nntnhpc

t

r) Sawing thefingers L To cutthefingers at theendof thefly railonyourbandsaw,startbysawing out thewasteat bothedges of thepiecewith twointersecting cuts.Toclearthewaste between thef ingers, nibble at it withthe b l a d ep, i v o t i nt gh ep i e c ea s n e c e s s a r y to avoidcuttingintothe fingers(left). Onceall thefingers arecut,test-fit the jointandmakeanynecessary adjustments w i t ha c h i s e l .

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PEMBROKETABLE

thepinholes Q Drilling joints, r./ Assemble eachof theknuckle thenmarkthecenter of thefingers onthe topedgeof the longrailpiece.Borethe pinonyourdrillpress. holeforthewooden I n s t aal l % - i n cbhi ti n t h em a c h i naen d c l a m pa b a c k u p a n etlo t h et a b l eS . et t h eb o a r dosnt h ep a n e la, l i g n i nt gh e centermarkdirectly under thebit.Clamp a boardagainst thebackfaceof thestock, thensecure rt to thebackuo oanelasa fence.Drillrightthrough thestock(/eff,). lf the bit is notlongenough to penetrate to theotheredgeof theboards, turnthe s t o co kvea r n dc o m o l e tteh e h o l ef r o m t h eo t h esr i d e .

joints Fine-tuning theknuckle lf theshoulders andfingers of theknuckle wereleft lornts s q u a r et ,h e f l y r a i l sw o u l db i n da g a i n stth e s i d er a i l sw h e nt h e y , a r ka l i n eo n t h e w e r ee x t e n d e dT.o p e r m i t h e j o i n t st o p i v o t m p i e c ep a r a l l et lo t h e i n s i d ef a c eo f e a c hf l y r a i la n d s i d er a i l s h o u l d elri n ea n d o f f s e t% i n c hf r o mi t . C l a m po n ef l y r a i l inside-face up on a worksurfacewith a backupboardbetween t h e r a i la n dt h e t a b l e .S t a r tb y u s i n ga c h i s e l t h es a m ew i d t ha s t h e f i n g e r sa n d n o t c h e st o r o u n do v e rt h e e n d o f t h e f i n g e r s . T h e np o s i t i o tnh e t i p o f t h e c h i s e b l l a d eo n t h e o f f s e tl i n e ,c e n t e r e do n a n o t c h ,a n g l i n gt h e t o o ls o t h e c u t w i l l e n d a t t h e o r i g i n aslh o u l d el irn e .H o l d i ntgh ec h r s ewl i t ho n eh a n dt,a p i t w i t h a w o o d e nm a l l e t o b e v etl h e s h o u l d e rR. e p e afto r t h e remaining notches(right).Beuelthe notchesthe samewayon t h e l o n gr a i lp i e c e b, u t l e a v et h e f i n g e r s q u a r e .

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Cutting thefly railsto lengh R e f etro t h ea n a t o mi vl l u s t r a t i o n (page24)to marktheS-shaped cutting lineonthef ly rails,thendesignate the wastewithXs.Feedthestockacross the certain bandsawtablebbovd,making n e i t h ehra n di s i n l i n ew i t ht h eb l a d e . Makematching cutsonthemating ends of theshortouterrailpieces, ensuring t h a tt h e r ew i l l b ea s u f ifc i e n t llya r g e gap-about% inch-between theiwo boards fora handhold.

Routing fingerrecesses in thefly rails pivoting Tofacilitate intotheunderside thefly rails,cutfingerrecesses of their curved ends.Install a piloted covebit in a router, mountthetoolin a table,andsetthe cutting depthat %inch.Toprovide a bearing surface fortherails,fashion a fenceforthe stockto rideagainst ontheinfeed sideof thetableanda guardforthebit froma plywoodblockandclearacrylic. Attachtheguardandfencetogether andclampthemto thetable.Press thestockagainst thepilotbearing asyoufeedeachrailacross thetable maketherecess about4 inches longandcenter it ontherail'scurved end. bbove);

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upthesiderails ] Gluing joints, insert/ Assemble theknuckle inglengths of %-inch dowelintotheholes through thefingers, andcuttheinnerside r a i lp i e c etso l e n g t hF. o re a c hs i d er a i l , glueonthecontacting spread surfaces of theboards andclamptheouterrailpieces t o t h e i n n e r a i l ;d o n o ta p p l ya n yg l u e o n t h ef l y r a i ls i n c ei t m u s tb ef r e et o pivot.Makesureto leavea %-inchgap between thefly railandthe shortouter siderailpiece. Alternate theclamps across thetopandbottomedgesof theassemb l y ,s p a c i ntgh e m3 t o 4 i n c h e as p a r t . Tighten theclampsevenly(right)until adhesive squeezes outof thejoints.

r t t thor| outer eide rail piece

)z

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Cutting therailtenons Thenextstepin making therailsis to cutthetenons that w i l l f j t i n t ot h e l e gm o r t i s e S s .t a r b t yd r i l l i n a g t e s tm o r t i s e (page 3 7 ) ,t h e no u t l i n e t h et e n o n os nt h ee n d so f t h er a i l s , usingthetestmortise asa guide.Cutthetenons onyourtable sawfittedwitha dadohead;adjustthewidthof the headto 3,4 slightlymorethanthetenonlength-about inch.Setthecuttingheight at onethird thestockthickness. Attach anauxiliary fenceto thesaw'sripfenceandanextension boardto themiter gauge. Toposition thefence, aligntheshoulder lineontherail

withthedadoheadandbuttthefenceagainst theendof the board. Feed therailfacedown,holding thestockflushagainst thefenceandthemitergauge extension. Turntherailoverand repeat thecutontheothersidebbove), fittingthetenonin the t e s tm o r t i saen dr a i s i ntgh eb l a d eus n t i tl h ef i t i s s n u gC . ut tenoncheeks at theotherendandreoeat foreachsideand endrail.Next,fliptherailonedgeandadjust thebladeheight t o t r i mt h et e n o ntso w i d t hA. g a i nt ,e s t h et e n o nu n t i li t f i t s snugly in thetrialmortise. Preparing therailsforthetop Q you J Onceallthetenons arefinished, willneedto cuta groove along theinside faceof therailsto accommodate thewood buttons thatwillsecure thetabletoo in place. Leave thedadoheadonyourtable saw,adjustitswidthto %inch,andset jnch.Position thecutting height at aboul% t h ef e n c ea b o u t % i n c hf r o mt h eb l a d e s . Feedtherailsintothedadoheadinsidefacedownandwiththetopedgepressed against thefence(left).Alsocuta groove in t h ee n dr a i lb l a n ka t t h i st i m e T . h i sw i l l e n s u rteh a ta l lt h eg r o o v easr ei d e n t i c a l . (Caution: Bladeguardremoved forclarity.)

t PEMBROKETABLE

PREPARING THEDRAWER RAILSANDENDRAIL 'l

Cutting thetopdrawerrail I C u tt h e t o p d r a w erra i lt o l e n g t ht,h e n o u t l i n et h e d o v e t a i l ehda l f - l a otsh a t w i l l . 1 o i tnh e e n d so f t h e r a i l t o t h e f r o n t l e g s o f t h e t a b l e .O f f s e t h e o u t l i n et o w a r dt h e il ill b a c ke d g eo f t h e r a i ls o t h e d o v e t a w b e c e n t e r eodn t h e l e gw h e nt h e r a i l ' sb a c k e d g ei s f l u s hw i t ht h e b a c kf a c eo f t h e l e g ( s t e p2 ) . C u t o u t t h e d o v e t a i l so n y o u r b a n ds a w ,m a k i n gt w o i n t e r s e c t i ncgu t s a l o n ge a c he d g eo f t h e o u t l i n e s( / e f f ) . T h e n u s ey o u rt a b l es a wf i t t e d w i t h a d a d oh e a dt o c u t a w a yo n e - h a ltfh e t h i c k n e s so f t h e d o v e t a i lfsr o mt h e i rb o t t o m Iace (inset).

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Cutting thedovetail sockets in thelegs in a bench vise Secure a frontlegupright a n du s eo n eo f t h ed o v e t a i l ehda l f - l a p s y o uc u t i n s t e p1 t o o u t l i n teh em a t i n g s o c k eot n t h e l e g ' st o ne n d .M a k es u r e t h et o ne n do f t h el e si s f l u s hw i t ht h e therouter base benchtop; thiswrllsupport plateasyoucutthesocket. Alsoensure is butted against thatthedovetail shoulder t h ei n s i d e d g eo f t h el e ga n dt h er a i l ' s backedgeis f lushwiththe backfaceof t h el e ga sy o um a r kt h el i n e sI.n s t a al l / " - i n c hu p c u t - s p i rsat rl a i g hbti t i n t oa router thecutting depthto the andadjust Routthesocket thickness of thedovetail. withinthemarked outline, thensquare the corners andpareto thelinewithstraight a n ds k e wc h i s e l sa ,sn e e d e d R.e p e at ot cutthesocketin theotherfrontleg(right).

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twintenons in n<' Cuttins

r-,1 the bottomdlawerrail T h e b o t t o md r a w e r a i l i s j o i n e dt o t h e l e g sw i t h t w i n m o r t i s e - a n d - t e nj ooinn t s . C u tt h e t e n o n sa t t h e e n d so f t h e r a i lo n y o u rt a b l es a w .I n s t a lal d a d oh e a d% i n c h w i d e ,t h e ns e t u p a t e n o n i njgi g i n t h e m i t e rs l o t .M a r ka t w i nt e n o na t e a c he n d o f t h e r a i la n ds e tt h e c u t t r n gh e i g h at t % i n c h .L a yo u t t h e t e n o n ss o t h e b a c k edgesof the railand legwill align(step4). C l a m pt h e r a i le n d - u pi n t h e j i g , p l a c i n g a s h i m b e t w e e nt h e t w o t o p r e v e ntth e d a d oh e a df r o mc o n t a c t i nt gh e j i g .S h i f t t h e j i g s i d e w a ytso a l i g no n eo f t h e t e n o n m a r k sw i t ht h e d a d oh e a d T . o m a k et h e c u t , p u s ht h e j i g f o r w a r df ,e e d i n g the s t o c ki n t ot h e b l a d e sS . h i f tt h e j i g t o l i n e u p t h e d a d oh e a dw i t h t h e w a s t e a d l o i n i ntgh e t w i nt e n o n sm , a k i n gs e v e r a l p a s s e su n t i l y o u h a v ec l e a r e da w a yt h e excesswood (right).Repeatthe cut at t h e o t h e re n d o f t h e r a i l .

0utlining thedouble mortises inthelegs S e t o n eo f t h e l e g si n s i d e - f a cuep o n a w o r ks u r f a c et,h e n p l a c et h e b o t t o m d r a w erra i lo n i t , a l i g n i ntgh e b a c ke d g e o f t h e r a i lw i t ht h e l e g ' sb a c kf a c e .W i t h t h e e n do f t h e r a i la t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e h e i g h ot n t h e l e g ,o u t l i n et h e t w i n t e n o n s w i t ha p e n c i l( l e f t ) .P r e p a rteh e e n d r a i l @ a g e3 6 ) a n d d r i l lo u t t h e r a i lm o r t i s e s i n t h e l e g s( p a g e3 7 ) b e f o r ec h i s e l i ntgh e doublemortisesin the legs(page3&.

35

t PEMBROKETABLE

thecurved faceoftheendrail f, Cutting r-,f Outline thecurved outside faceof theendrailontheedges sothelegswillextend %inchbeyond therailwhenthetableis a s s e m b l eTdh.e ns, t a n d i nagt t h es i d eo f t h eb a n ds a wt a b l e , justto thewaste settheraildownonedge. Aligntheblade side of thecuttinglinenearthecenter andholdthetwoendsto feed handis in Iinewith thestockacross thetable;makesureneither piecefallsaway, theblade. Onceonewaste turntherailoverand cut the opposite end(right).

Veneering theendrail r n dr a i l w a m l f y o ue s a d ef r o mg l u e d - uspt o c ky,o um a y needto applya pieceof veneer faceto conceal to theoutside anyglueslinesthatmightbevisible. Follow thesameproced u r e sy o uw o u l du s eo nt h ef a l l - f r o notf a s l a n t - t odpe s k . patternandsetup a vacuumpress(page123). Maketheveneer F o rt h em o d esl h o w ni n , s e rt th eh o s ei n t ot h en i p p l e i nt h e bottomof the pressbag.Thenplacetheplatenin thebagand i n t ot h ep l a t e snl e e v e s l i d et h en i p p l e S.e t h ee n dr a i lo na worksurface, applytheglue,andlaytheveneer ontherail. Place a pieceof waxpaperovertheveneer, restthecaulontop, andplacetheassembly atoptheplaten. Sealthebag,turnon thepumpandleave theassembly underpressure fortherecpresses ommended lengthof |ime(below). Mostvacuum will pressure shutoffwhentheappropriate hasbeenreached,

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TABLE PE,MBROKE

ANDRAILS GLUING UPTHELEGS inthelegs therailmortises 1t 0utlining -

I U s eo n eo f t h e r a i lt e n o n sy o uc u t ( p a g ej 3 ) t o o u t l i n et h e l e n g t ha n dw i d t h nf ihe mnriisoc

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o f t h e t e n o nf l u s ha g a i n stth e i n s i d e f a c eo f o n eo f t h e l e g s ;m a k es u r et h a t d i t ht h e t h et o pe d g eo f t h e r a i li s a l i g n e w t o p e n do f t h e l e g .M a r kt h e l e n g t ho f t h e e i d t h ,h o l d m o r t i s eT.o o u t l i n et h e m o r t i s w t h p p d o p n f i h p t p n n n f l r r c . h: s : i n s t t h c

i n s i o ef a c eo f t h e l e ga n d m a r kt h ec h e e k s of the tenon(rtght).ExIendthe linesalong i n t h e i l l u s t r a t i oans d o t t h ef a c e( s h o w n t e d l r n e s )R. e p e afto r t h e r e m a i n i nsgi d e a n de n d r a i lm o r t i s e sR. e m e m b et hr a t t h e o u t s i d ef a c eo f t h e l e g ss h o u l de x t e n d b e y o n dt h e e n d r a i lb y a b o u t' l i n c h .

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r ) D r i l l i ntgh er a i lm o r t i s ei sn t h el e g s / , , g a c h i n ea s s h o w n 4 - U s ea m o r t i s r nm o r i n s t a l l am o r t i s i nagt t a c h m e on nt y o u r drill nrcqs Clamn nnc nf lhp lcqsto thc

f e n c ec e n t c r i nt ph e m o r t i soeu t l i n eu n d e r t h ec h i s eal n db i t .A d l u stth ed r r l l r ndge p t h t o % i n c h m o r et h a nt h e t e n o nl e n g t h . M a k ea c u t a t e a c he n d o f t h e m o r t i s e h e f o r ed r i l l i n po r r tt h e w a s t ei n b e t w e e n ( l e f t ) R e o e atth e n r o c e d u rteo c u t t h e r e m a i n i nm go r t i s e s .

37

PEMBROKETABLE

thedoublemortises for the bottomdrawerrail n Chiselins r - , f C l a m pa l e gi n s i d e - f a cuep t o a w o r ks u r f a c eT. h e n ,s t a r t i n ga t o n ee n do f t h e d o u b l em o r t i s o e u t l i n eh, o l da m o r t i s i n g c h i s e sl q u a r et o t h e i n s i d ef a c eo f t h e l e ga n ds t r i k et h e h a n d l e with a woodenmallel(left).Usea chiselthe samewidthas the m o r t i s easn d b e s u r et h a tt h e b e v e l e sdi d ei s f a c i n gt h e w a s t e . C o n t i n um e a k i n gc u t sa t i n t e r v a losf a b o u t% i n c h u n t i ly o u r e a c ht h e o t h e re n do f t h e o u t l i n eU . s et h e c h i s etl o l e v e o r ut ) .h o po u 1t h e r e m a i n i n g t h e w a s t et o t h e r e q u i r ed e p t h( a b o v eC d o u b l em o r t i s etsh e s a m ew a y .T e s t - f itth e j o i n t sa n dw i d e no r d e e p e nt h e m o r t i s ew s i t h t h e c h i s e l a, s r e q u i r e d .

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Gluinethe legsto the siderails T e s t - a s s e m bt hl ee l e g sa n ds i d er a i l s , f i n e - t u n i nagn yi l l - f i t t i njgo i n t sw i t ha c h i s e l ,i f n e c e s s a rS y .a n da n ys u r f a c e s t h a t w i l l b e d i f f i c u l t o a c c e s so n c et h e glue t a b l ei s a s s e m b l e N d .e x t s. p r e a d o n t h e c o n t a c t i n sg u r f a c e sb e t w e e n one o f t h e s i d er a i l sa n di t sc o r r e s p o n d ilnegg s , t h e nf i t t h e j o i n t st o g e t h e rt a , p p i n gt h e m n i t h a w o o d e nm a l l e t , i n t of i n a lp o s i t i o w i f r e q u i r e dU. s et w o b a rc l a m p st o s e c u r e t h e l o i n t sA . l i g n i ntgh e b a r sw i t ht h es i d e r a i l ,l a yt h e a s s e m b loy n i t s s i d eo n a w o r ks u r f a c ew i t h o n ec l a m pu n d e rt h e r a i la n do n eo n t o p . P r o pt h e t a p e r e dp o r t i o n o f t h e l e g so n w o o db l o c k st o k e e p

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w i t h w o o dp a d s t, i g h t e nt h e c l a m p se v e n l y u n t i la t h i ng l u eb e a ds q u e e z eosu to f the joints0ight).Repeatfor the remaining s i d er a i la n d l e g s .

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rails theendrailanddrawer f, Gluing thelegsto thesiderailshas r,/ Oncethegluebonding f latona cured, remove theclamps andsettheassemblies facingup.Test-fit worksurface withtheirmortises and,if jointsanddoanyrequired necessary, anyillJitting correct glueonthecontacting sanding. Spread surfaces between railsandthelegs, thenfit thebottom theendanddrawer railandendrailintooneof thesiderailassemblies drawer (above). Position assembly ontop theotherleg-and-rail fit the andsettheframework upright onthefloor.Finally, topdrawer railintoplaceandclamptheassembly GtepO.

Installing theclamps thejointsbetween the Usethreebarclamps to secure endanddrawer railsandthelegs.Protecting thestockwith w o o dp a d si,n s t a o l l n ec l a m pa l o n g t h ee n dr a i la n dt w o morealong thedrawer rails.Tocheckwhether theassembly is square, measure thediagonals between opposite corners (/eff). immediately aftertightening theclamps Theyshould is out-of-square. Tocorrect beequal;if not,theassembly installa barclampacross the longer of the theproblem, t w od i a g o n aT l si .g h t etnh i sc l a m pa l i t t l ea t a t i m e ,m e a suring asyougountilthetwodiagonals areequal.

39

PEMBROKETABLE

I /

Making thecorner blocks Attach a t r i a n g u l caor r n ebr l o c kt o

e a c hi o i n tb e t w e etnh c e n d r a i la n d t h e s i d er a i l s t; hr sw i l l r e i n f o r cteh e b a c kc o r n e r so f t h e t a b l ea n dk e e pi t s q u a r eT. o f i t t h e b l o c k si n t ot h e t a b l ec o r n e r sm, a k ea 4 5 " m i t e rc u t a t e a c he n do f t h e b l o c k s a n d m a r kf o u rp o i n t so n t h e l o n ge d g e . t w o n e a re a c he n d . N e x t ,b o r ep o c k e t h o l e st h r o u g ht h e b l o c k sf o r t h e s c r e w s t h a tw i l ls e c u r teh e mt o t h e r a i l s I. n s t a lal F o r s t n ebri t i n y o u rd r i l lp r e s sa n d Z,-inch c l a m pa b a c k u pp a n etl o t h e m a c h i n e t a b l e .S e c u r e t h e b l o c ki n a h a n d s c r e w a n d d r i l la s h a l l o wh o l et o r e c e s tsh e s c r e wh e a d R . e p o s i t i ot h n e b l o c kt o b o r e t h e n e x th o l e t, h e nt u r nt h e b l o c ka r o u n d i n t h e h a n d s c r etw o d r i l lt h e h o l e sn e a r s i t ha t h e o t h e re n d .R e p e atth e p r o c e sw s m a l l ebr r a d - p o i nbti t t o b o r ec l e a r a n c e . i n a l l yw, r t ht h e b l o c kt o p h o l e s( / e f f )F f a c ed o w no n t h e t a b l e ,d r i l la c o u n t e r b o r e dh o l et h r o u g ht h e m i d d l eo f t h e s u r f a c et :h r sh o l ew r l le n a b l ey o ut o f a s t e n t o t h e b l o c kt o t h e t a b l et o p .

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t lnstalling thecorner blocks S n r p : d o l r r pn n i h o n n n i : r ' i i n o c r r r -

f a c e sb e t w e e tnh e f i r s t b l o c ka n dt h e r a i l s h, o l dt h e b l o c ki n p o s i t i oang a i n s t . epeat t h e r a i l sa n d s c r e wi t i n p l a c e R for the secondblock(rrght).

40

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MAKINGTHEDRAWER f) uild thedrawerfor your Pembroke D tubl. as you would for a Queen AnnesecretaryQage116)usingthrough UseZ-inch dovetailsto join the pieces. plywoodfor the drawerbottom. The Pembroke tabledraweralsogetsa false front which is curvedto match the shapeof the endrail anddrawerrails. To install the drawer,start by fastening runnersto the side rails, as shownbelow.Slidethe drawerinto its openingand clampon the falsefront, then tracethe curveofthe top drawer rail ontothetopedgeof thefilsefront (page42) and cut the profile of the front. You can applywax to the runnersto help the drawerride smoothly asit is openedandclosed.

table Supported by runnersfastenedto thesiderails,thePembroke with throughdovetails.Thefalse drawershownaboveis assembled front curvesto matchtheprofileof theendrail and drawerrails.

THEFRAME REINFORCING runners thedrawer 1l lnstallins I S i z et h ed r a w erru n n e r sc ,u t t i n g thanthedrawthema fewincheslonger theedges er. Drillthreeholesthrough oneholeneareach of eachone,locating e n da n do n ea t t h em i d d l eH. o l d i nagn thesiderail edgeof therunner against andoneendagainst the bottomdrawer rail,screwit in place(left).Thetopface b ef l u s hw i t ht h e o f t h er u n n esrh o u l d rail. toofaceof thebottomdrawer

PEMBROKETABLE

r) Sawing thecurueofthefalsefront I gtaethedrawer intoits opening t n t h et a b l ea n dc l a m ot h ef a l s ef r o n t blankto thedrawer front.Holding the position, drawer at itsfullyclosed use a pencilto tracetheprofile of thetop drawer railontothetopedgeof the blank(lefil.Cutthe curveof the false frontonthe bandsawasyoudid the e n dr a i la n dg l u ev e n e et o r t h ef r o n t face,if desired(page36).

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t thefalsefront ? lnstalling \ - t W i t ht h ed r a w esrt i l li n t h et a b l e , glueon thecontacting spread surfaces between thedrawer frontandthefalse f rontandclampthetwotogether, using woodpadsto protectthe stock(right). T i g h t et nh ec l a m pesv e n luyn t i l ag l u e beadsqueezes outof thejoint.

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MAKINGTHETOP With the sidesdown, the top of the Pembroke table appears to be circular. Once the leavesare raised,however, the top's distinctive shape, with elliptical endsqnd sides,becomesapparent. Similar - shaped t abletops w ere used on Federal-period card tables. The leavesare hinged on a rule joint, which is shapedon the router table. Once thejoint is completedand the hinges located, the curved profile of the leavesis cut on the band saw.

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theedgesofthetabletop 1 Routing withtheedgeto be depthin at leasttwopasses. Asyoumakethecut,press the I Clampthetabletop to a worksurface Fora off thesurface. Installa pilotedround-over bit pilotagainst thestockthroughout thepass(above). shaped extending finish,makeyourfinalpassa slowandshallow one. depthto allowyouto reach thefinal smooth bitandadjust thecutting

43

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t r) Routing the covein the leaves L l n s t a l la p i l o t e dc o v eb i t i n t h e r o u t ea r n d m o u n t h e t o o li n a t a b l e . A l i g nt h e f e n c ew i t ht h e b i t p i l o tb e a r i n g s ot h e w i d t ho f c u t w i l l e q u a o l n e - h a lt fh e c u t t e rd i a m e t e rC. l a m pa f e a t h e r b o atrod t h e f e n c eo n t h e i n f e e ds i d eo f t h e b i t t o h o l dt h e w o r k p i e cfel a t a g a i n stth e r o u t e r t a b l e .S e tt h e d e p t ho f c u t s h a l l o wt o start;makeseveralpassesto reachyour f i n a ld e p t hg r a d u a l l yF.e e dt h e l e a fi n t o t h e b i t , p r e s s i ntgh e e d g eo f t h e w o r k piecefirmlyagainstthe fence(left).After e a c hp a s s t, e s t - f i t h e p i e c e su n t i lt h et o p a n dt h e l e a fm e s hw i t h a v e r vs l i s h ts a n betweenthe two.

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Attaching theleaves to thetop J o i nt h e l e a v e st o t h e t o p b y i n s t a l l i n gr u l e - j o i nhti n g e so n t h e u n d e r s i doef t h e n i e c e sS . e tt h e t o n a n d l e a v e fsa c e d o w no n a w o r ks u r f a c et,h e n m a r kl i n e s a l o n gt h e s h a p e de d g e so f t h e t o p i n l i n e w i t h t h e s t a r to f e a c hr o u n d - o v ecru t , k n o w na s t h e f i l l e t ( i n s e t ) I. n s t a l lt h r e e h i n g e sf o r e a c hl e a :f o n e i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e j o i n ta n d o n e 5 i n c h e sf r o me a c h e n d .W r t ha p a p e rs h i m i n s e r t e db e t w e e n t h e l e a fa n dt o p , p o s i t i o n a h i n g el e a f a g a i n stth e t o p a n dt h e o t h e ra g a i n stth e l e a fa t e a c hh i n g el o c a t i osno t h e p i n i s alignew d i t h t h e f i l l e t l i n e ,t h e no u t l i n e t h e h i n g eC . h i s eol u t t h e m o r t i s e su,s i n g a w i d e r - b l a dteo o l t o c u t t h e m o r t i s e s f o r h i n g el e a v e sa n d a n a r r o w ecrh i s e lt o c u t t h e s l o t sf o r t h e p i n s ( r i g h t ) .S c r e w

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0utlining theprofile ofthetop E n l a r gteh e g r i ds h o w ni n t h e i n s e t e c u t t i n gp a t t e r nf o r s h a p i n g to produca t h e p r o f i l eo f t h et o p ;o n es q u a r e q u a l s 2 i n c h e sT. r a c et h e p a t t e r no n t oa p i e c e o f % - i n c hp l y w o o od r h a r d b o a radn d c u t o u tt h et e m p l a t e o n y o u rb a n ds a w . Thensetthe top face-down on a work surface a n de x t e n dt h e l e a v e sM. a r ka l i n ed o w nt h e m i d d l eo f t h e t o p a n d p o s i t i o tnh e t e m p l a t eo n i t ; a l i g nt h e s t r ai s h te d s en f t h e n a t t e r nw i t ht h e c e n t e r l i naen dt h e a d j o i n i ncgu r v e d e d g ew i t ht h e e n do f t h e t o p . U s ea p e n -

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cil fn trarp tho nrrrvod nrnfilp nn ihe tnn

R e p e aat t t h e r e m a i n i ncgo r n e r (sa b o v e ) .

Cutting theprofileof thetop f, r-,/ Unscrew the leavesfromthe top and u s ey o u rb a n ds a wt o c u t t h e c u r v e dp r o f i l e i n t oe a c ho f t h e t h r e ep i e c e sC. u tj u s t to the wastesideof yourcuttingline (left), f e e d i n gt h e s t o c kw i t h b o t hh a n d sa n d y o u rf i n g e r sc l e a ro f t h e b l a d e . keeping S a n dt h e c u t e d g e st o t h e l i n e .

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45

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PEMBROKE TABLE

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llitlljlllil llii{llJ tilJljljllililijillliliJlli iltilllilljJjlliillJlJjJ 5HO7Tt? Uoingoteel tabletop faetenere Commercial eleelIableNopfaotenere worklikewoodbutf,one:They are ecrewedto LheIoV from underneath a n d g r i pa q r o o v ec u Xa l o n q l h e ineideface of Ihe raile.Secauee fasNeners commercial arethinner Lhe than lippedwoodbutLons, qroove does noNhaveLo be cuL wilh a dado blade

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(pa4e33):you can uoea etandardsaw bladeor a Lhree-winq ololLi n4 c utt er in a table-mounled router. enattrc nrnncr f-e n a, ', - t o n , make ihe qroovea liLile

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Installing thetop A to the tablerails L,f Thetop is fastened with woodbuttons:screwed to the top, t h e b u t t o n sf e a t u r el r p st h a t f i t i n t o grooves cut intothe rails(page33), prov i d i n ga s e c u r ec o n n e c t i ownh i l ea l l o w i n gf o r w o o dm o v e m e nR t . e i n s t atlhl e r u l e - j o i nhti n g e si n t h e t o p a n d l e a v e s , and placethe top facedownon a work surface.Makea buttonfor every6 inches of rail lenglh (pageJ33,).Spacing t h e ma b o u t6 i n c h e sa p a r ta n d l e a v i n a g % - r n c hg a p b e t w e e ni h e b o t t o mo f t h e g r o o v easn dt h e l i p p e de n d so f t h e b u t tons,screwthe buttonsin place(above). 0 n c ea l l t h e b u t t o n sa r ea t t a c h e dd,r i v e a s c r e wt h r o u g he a c hc o r n e b r l o c ki n t o t h et o p .

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P()CKET.HOLE JIG Youcanusepocketholeswith screws asan alternative to wood buttons forattaching a tabletop to thesideandendrails. Theholes are drilledat an angle,anda pocketholejig (left,tofl, shop-built from plywood, %-inch makes simplework o f b o r i n tgh e h o l e so n y o u rd r i l l press.Forthejig, screwthetwo sidesof thecradle together to form a n L . T h e nc u t a 9 0 ' w e d g e from eachsupport bracket sothatthe widesideof thecradle willsitat an angleof about15"fromthevertical. Screwthe brackets to thejig base andgluethecradleto ihe brackets. Tousethejig,seata railin the c r a d lw e i t ht h es i d et h a tw i l lb e drilled facingup.Drilltheholesin twostepswithtwodifferent bits:Use a Forstner bittwicethediameter of thescrewheads fortheentrance holesanda brad-point bit slightly larger thanthediameter of thescrew (Thelarger shanks fortheexitholes. brad-point bitallows forwoodexpansionandcontraction.) To beginthe process, installthe b r a d - p o ibnitt a n d ,w i t ht h ed r i l l pressoff, lowerthe bit withthe feedlever,thenposition thejig andworkpiece to centerthe bottomedgeof theworkpiece on the bi| (inset). Clampthejig to the tableandreplace the brad-point bit withthe Forstner bit. F e e dt h e b i t s l o w l tyo d r i l lt h e holesjustdeepenough to recess thescrewheads. Then,installthe brad-point bit andborethrough the workpiece to complete the pocket holes(/eft,bottom).

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FOIIR-POSTERBED

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't T t ,' | h. four-posterbedis a dramatic I and imposingpieceof furniture that descends from the canooybedsof the Byzantineand medieval'periods. Once,onlyheadsof familiescouldoccupy a bedwith a full canopy;otherscontentedthemselves with half-canopybeds, or unadornedbeds. Theuseofa canopied bed,then,was a mark certainly of status,but it alsoconveyedsomepracticalbenefitsaswell. The heavilyquilted draperythat hung from the frameworkof boardscalled testersprovidedprivacy,a rare commoditvin a daywhenbedroomsserved asfamilyliving andentertainingspaces. Thefoldsof fabricalsoshutout the cold Twosections of a bedpostare winterdraftsthat werecommonand.in beingfitted togetherwith a long summer,the drapeswerereplacedby mortise-and-tenon knownasa tang joint. Locatedto coincidewith decoralight nettingto keepinsectsat bay. Statusand utility aside,Americans tiveelements on theposts,thejoints havealwayssimplylikedthe look of the arevirtuallyinvisible.Thisoneis four-poster. In its undrapedform, the notgluedtogether, but assembled stylehasbeenan Americanfavoritefor dry so the bedcan beeasilydisasalmost200years. sembled and transDorted.

asmuchas3 inchesthick.Boxsprings, however, couldbelaidon narrowcleats fastened to theinsideof therails,sothe railsthemselves couldbereduced to a mereI inchthick,astheyaretoday. Themostprominenifeature of the well bedareitsfourposts, eachstanding feet over6 tall.Giventhe36-inchcapacityof thetypicallathe, turningthepbsts prospect. canseem tobeanintimidating page But,asshownon 50,youcandivide eachpostintofourmanageable segments Byintroducandturn themseparately. ing decorative elements likebeadsand covesadjacent to the joint linesthe breaks arenot noticeable andtheoosts appear to besolidturnings. Likemostbeds,theonefeatured in thischapter hasrailsthatareattached to thepostswithknockdown hardware for quickdisassembly. Youcanusebayonetbrackets(page63)thathookthe railsontothepostsor bedbolts(page59) to drawtherailsandpoststogether by means of a boltandtappednut.Since Theonlyrealchange in four-poster thepostsaregluedto theheadboard and relatively recently, withtheadvent design occurred ofboxsprings footboard, allbutoneof thetangjointsconnecting thepostsegBefore, andspringmattresses. a mattress wasplaceddirectly mentstogether areleftdry.Thisallowsthepoststo betaken onaplatformof ropestretched tightlybetween thebedrails.To apartwithout compromising thebed's structure. Withthetesters resistthetensionof thecords,therailshadto bequitestoutin placeon theposts,thewholeassembly isveryrigid.

Whethertheyaregracedby a canopyof hanging draperyor left bare,theuprightsand testers of a Themahoganybed four-posterbedareimpressive. shownat left alsofeaturesa sunriseheadboard.

49

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BED ANATOMYOF A FOUR-POSTER

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Poat Turnedin four indivtdualeectione connecLedby tan4 jointe; vaee aectionaare qluedLoqeLher,but other tanq jointa are left.dry for dieaooembly.Gluedto end rarl and to either headboardor foot' board;joined to aide rarla with knockdownhardware.Hole ia drilled inLo top end to accept Lenonat bottom end of finial

I

Side tester (paqe 65) 1"x1%"x 86". Keataon top end of poot: has halflap at each end Lhat acceptaa matchtn7cut in end teetera. Holedrilled through eachend for tenon at bottom end offinial

I Headboard (pase61) 1"x213/o"x5B"; tenona at both endeare qlued f,o Poe'e

Footboard 1"x 11%" x 58": tenon at eachend ia qlued into a poet morDige

t I I I I I

t

Tenon(page 59) 3/a"x 1%"x 3"; 7lued int;o morLiaern poot

Cleat (page 62) 1"x 1%"x BO". )uppor-to box epringand mattreaa; faatened to inaideface of atde ratle flush with boLtomedqe

I

I I I I I I

End tester '1" x 1%"x 63". FiLaover aide teatera with half-tapathat are not qlued,but drilledand held in place by tenon at bottom end offinial

t

r

End rail '1" x 5%"x 58"; haa a Lenonat each end whichis gluedto poot

Bayonet braaket Qaqe 63) 9ecurea side ratle to poete

1ide-rail 1"x5'/r'xBO"; joined to poete wrth knockdownhardware for easy dieaeeembly

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

t t

FOUR-POSTER BED

I I

t

FINIAT-TESTER-BEDPtlST ASSEMBTY Finial ienon; t/o"diameter

I I I I I I I

End tester

AITERilATE DESIGN: PE1{CIt POST (page 66)

FOOTBOARD P(IST Finial

(pase57) A

Ll ) T

Vaae

.=:

t t I

t I

Top vaae eection; 3/+"diameter mortiae

t I I I I I I I I I I I

ATTERNATIVE FINIAT DESIGNS

3" Tan6joint, @ase56)

13/o"

II 12"

Urn finial

Z3/^tl

Pommel (pase 52)

.-l

I

16v" Acorn finial

3 % "x 3 % ' !

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f

6%"

TURNINGTHE BEDPOSTS urningthebedposts of a four-poster I bedmayappearto be a daunting challenge, but theprojectis manageable ifbrokendowninto itscomponentparts. Thedesignof thepostsis simple;each onecomprises onlya fewrecurringelements,suchaspommels,beads,vases,

f

Thepommel,or bottomsection,of a is turnedwith the four-posterbedpost helpof a storypoleand calipers. A story polecanseryeasa shop-made turning guide.Cutfrom a stripof plywood,it includes keydimensions and diometersaswellqsthelocationof decorative elements likebeads. A Frenchcurveis a gooddesigntoolfor drawingon the pole.Thecalipersareusedto checkthe sizeof theblanksasturningproceeds.

and tenons.Seethe anatomyillustrationson page51for detailsof theposts' diameters andthelocations of thevariouselements. Each6-foot-longpost is turnedin four individualsections, allowingfor the 36-inchlimit of most lathes.Sincethe sectionsareioinedbv tangjoints,remember to allowfor the 2-inch-long tenonswhencuttingyour blanksto length. Althoughthebottomsections ofthe footboardandheadboard oostsaredifferent,thefourpostsareotherwise identical.To helpkeepthem uniform,turn theirmatchingsections oneafteranother,ratherthanproducingan entirepost beforemovingon to thenextone.Start with the bottom sections(below),and moveup,turningthevasesections(page 55) next and the fintals(page57)last.

MAKING THEPOMMET SECTI()NS ?ommel

, Lowerpommelhne

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'l

Defining thepommels I C u tt h ef o u rp o m m e l - s e c tbi loann ktso s i z et,h e no u t l i n e the pommels-the transitions between theturnedandsquare segments of the posts.Setthestockon a worksurface and c l a m pt h ep i e c etso g e t h ewri t ht h e i re n d sa l i g n esdoy o uc a n m a r ka l lt h ep o m m e al st t h es a m et i m e A . l t h o u gt h eu p p e r pommels postsarehigher onthe headboard thanonthefootboardposts, the lowerpommels areat thesameheighton all fourpieces. Holding theedgeof a carpenter's square against

theoutside of theblanks, runa pencilalongthearmto mark (above, thelowerpommels /eff).Mountoneof theblanks between centers onyourlatheandadjust themachine's speed to slow.Starting about%inchoutside thelowerpommel line, turna V-groove intothecorners of theblankwitha skewchisel (above, right).Deepen thegroove untilit runscompletely around theworkpiece. Toavoidkickback, cutwiththepoint of thebladewiththebevelrubbing against thestock.

52

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I

t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

t I

BED FOUR-POSTE,R

r) Shaping thepommel . a ^ Z - O n c ey o u h a v ef i n i s h e dt h e V - g r o o v e . , t t i n gw i t ht h e l o n g w i d e ni t g r a d u a l l cy u p o i n to f t h e c h i s e lp o i n t e df o r w a r dR . oll t h e c h i s e fl r o ms i d et o s i d ew h i l er a i s i n s t h e h a n d l es o t h e b e v ecl o n t r n u e s r u b b i n ga g a i n stth e e d g e so f t h e g r o o v e w a l l sa s y o u c u t t h e m ( l e f t ) .T u r n o f f t h e l a t h ea f t e re a c hc u t t o c h e c kt h e s h a n e o f t h ep o m m e l . ' ' ' b .

. -

partofthepost Turning thecylindrical Onno tho nnmmpl Y " " " " " '

rq finichod

rrsc:

na<l (ahnvc

rnrrohins-nrrisnrroo

t o t u r n t h e c y l i n d r i c ap lo r t i o n o f t h e p o s tb e l o wt h e p o m m e l . H o l d i n gt h e g o u g ew i t ha n o v e r h a ngdr i p ,b r a c ei t o n t h e t o o l r e s t .C u tv e r yl i g h t l yi n t ot h e b l a n k m , a k i n gs u r et h e b e v e il s r u b b i n ga g a i n stth e s t o c ka n d m o v i n gt h e g o u g es m o o t h lay l o n g t h e t o o lr e s t A s t h e p o u p eb e p i n rso r r n d r nt hs e c o r n e rosf t h e

lpff)

mzkp crrnnpqqivplv dponpr

L^ n 2 q ^ ^ ^ d^ rl ^u-l ^l B + Lllc r*-)c)

b l a n k ,r a i s i n g t h e h a n d l eo f t h e t o o ls l i g h t l yw i t h e a c hp a s s , u n t i lt h e e d g e sa r ec o m p l e t e lryo u n d e d a n dy o uh a v ea c y l i n d e r . Adjusthe position o f t h e t o o l r e s ta s y o u p r o g r e st so k e e pi t c l o s et o t h e b l a n ka n d p e r i o d i c a lcl yh e c kt h e d i a m e t eor f t h e bottomsegmentof the postwith calipers(above,ilghil.

53

F O U RP O S T E R BED

I I I I I I I I I I I I

t

Turning thebead U s ea p e n c i tl o o u t l i n et h e b e a d b e t w e etnh e l o w e rp o m m eal n dc y l i n d r i n:l

cpnfinn n u rf tLhr rpL n p vnJsL t,

+h^-

-^r,^

Llltrll llldnU

-

d

V - c u ta t e a c hl i n ew i t h a s k e wc h i s e l . S w i t c ht o a s p i n d l eg o u g et o f i n i s ht h e b e a d .B e g i n n i nagt t h e c e n t e r - o rh i g h e s t p o i n t o f t h e b e a d ,h o l dt h e g o u g e f l a t a n d p e r p e n d i c u ltaort h e p o s ts o i t s b e v e il s r u b b i n gR . a i s et h e h a n d l ea n d m a k ea d o w n h i lcl u t - w o r k i n gf r o ma h r g hp o r n t o a l o wp o i n t - r o t a t i n tgh e t o o l i n t h e d i r e c t i o no f t h e c u t a n d a n g l i n g t h eh a n d l ea w a y( a b o v d . f h e g o u g es h o u l df i n i s ht h e c u t r e s t i n g on i t s s i d e .R e p e afto r t h e o t h e rs i d eo f t h e b e a da, n g l i n a g n dr o l l i n tgh et o o li n t h e o p p o s i tder r e c t i o nR. o u n dt h e s h o u l d e r s o f t h e b e a db y b l e n d i n g i t i n t ot h e t u r n i n g .O n c et h e b e a di s f i n i s h e dc.o n t i n u e t u r n i n gt h e b o t t o ms e g m e not f t h e p o s t u n t i lr t h a st h e s h a p es h o w no n p a g e 5 ' ] . R e n e atth e n r o c e stso t u r n b e a d s a t t h e u p p e rp o m m elli n ea n df o r b o t h p o m m e los f t h e r e m a i n i npgo s t s .

jllifiltfiijittltrtltilfiiifii]fiIjfillilll ttiltllllljtuljlllJfillfii1

t

Using preeetcalipero 7inceyouareIurninqthe variouE -

'... . jl j opeedup f,he . \.. N ?roce6sby adjue|inqoeVaralecalipere \ for eachteature of Ihe blanks.ForIhe Iurninqehown at righl,onepairie adjusledfor the thickerparLof Ihe cylindrical eeq' menl,anolheris selfor lhe beadbelowit,

\if,

and a third io adjueLedfor Nhenarrow seclion near the bottom of Nheworkpiece,Thiswill save

youthe lroubleof coniinuallyreadjuetinq a oinqlepair of calipero.To avoidconfueinqlheeetlings,attach a numbered sLrioof LaoeLo eachinsNrumenl.

54

t I

1HO?TI? secttons of lhe bedVooboto differenLdiamelero,you can

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I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

FOURPOSTERBED

THEVASESECTI()NS TURNING cuts sizinq 1t Makins -

sf I 0 n c et h e l o w e rp o m m esl e c t i o n o t h e f o r r rn o s t sa r ed o n e t. u r nt o t h e v a s e cpniinnc.

nnc.l h2s thrpp

v2qp qtro-

m e n t s o: n ea t t h e t o p o f t h e p o m m esl e c t i o n a n dt w o m o r ea b o v ei t . A l t h o u g thh e b o t t o m m o sotn e i s t h e w i d e s ta n d t h e n e x to n er r ni s l o n p e s t h e v a s e sa r eo t h e r w i s ei d e n t i c aaln d h a v es i m i l a cr o n t n r r r sT h e va l s nf e a t r r r ae t e n o na t t h e g ortise atthe b o t t o me n da n da m a t c h i n m tnn

Tn nrndrrep e v:sp

irrrn iho qpompni

i n t oa c y l i n d e (r p a g e5 3 ) ,t h e nm a k ea s e r i e so f s i z i n gc u t sw i t h a p a r t i n gt o o l . H o l d i ntgh e p a r t i n tgo o lw i t ha n u n d e r h a n d s r i n p d o p - r r n n n t h. p- t. n- , nl r -I v^ )^1 +, l- d^l ;) ^c ^ +L lLl ^t r

h a n dl e s l i g h t l sy o t h e b l a d ec u t si n t ot h e c y l i n d e rC. o n t i n uteo r a i s et h e h a n d l eu n t i l tho eut rp:ehcc

ihp rpnrrirpd d'onlh (lpft)

E a c hc u t s h o u l dp e n e t r a tteo t h e f i n i s h e d diamotpr nf thp nnct :t th:t

nnint

nhpek

y o u rp r o g r e swsi t h c a l i p e r p s eriodically. T w i s t h e t o o ls l i g h t l yf r o ms i d et o s i d ea s y o um a k et h ec u t t o m i n i m i zfer i c t i o na n d t o p r e v e ntth e b l a d ef r o mj a m m i n g .

t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

F:r'h

Planing thevasesmooth r) Roughing outthevase . a ^

a l l t h e s i z i n gc u t s .u s ea r o u g h i n g Z - O n c ey o ur a v ef i n i s h e d g o u g et o c l e a ro u t t h e w a s t eb e t w e e nc u t s .F o l l o wt h e s a m e p r o c e d u ryeo uw o u l du s et o t u r n a c y l i n d e rh, o l d r n tgh e t o o l s o r k i n ign a d o w n h i d l li r e c w i t ha n o v e r h a ngdr i pa n da l w a yw t i o nt o a v o i dt e a r o u (t a b o v e J) .o i n i n gt h e s i z i n gc u t sw i l l c r e a t e a t a p e ra l o n gt h e l e n g t lo' f t h e w o r k p i e c eU.s ea s p i n d l eg o u g e t o r o u n do v e rt h e e n d so f t h e v a s e .

55

. o l d i n teh et o o lw i t h U s ea s k e wc h i s etlo s m o o t h t h ev a s eH a n u n d e r h a ngdr i pa n dw i t ht h e l a t h et u r n e do f f ,s e tt h e b l a d eo n thetoolrestsothat its longpointis abovethe blankand its bevel i s i n c l i n e idn t h ed i r e c t i oonf t h ec u t ;t h i si s a b o u 6 t 5 " t o t h ea x i s o f t h ew o o d S . w i t c ho n t h e l a t h ea n dr a i s et h e h a n d l es l i g h t l y , bringing the cuttingedgeof thechiselintocontactwiththe stock. lettrngits bevelrub; Movethe bladealongthe tool rest(above), . h ec e n t e r d o n o ta l l o wt h e h e e lo r l o n gp o i n td i g i n t ot h ew o o dT o f t h ec u t t i n ge d g es h o u l dp r o d u cae s e r i e os f t h i ns h a v i n g s .

FOUR_POSTER BET)

MAKING THETANG J()INTS thetenons 1t Turnins -

I O r c ey o uh a v et r r n e da l l t h ev a s e si .t i s t r m et o p ' o d u c et 1 er a n gj o r n t sS. r a r b ty t. -r r" "" 'nb i nl ep n o n as l l h en n l t o m e r d so f L h e t i r u nq e n , a r a l ev : s e < o r - i i n n 5a n d I n i a l b a f k .

M a r kt h et e n o ns h o u l d e2r r n c h efsr o mt h e e n do f t l ^ ew o r k p , eecb y l ^ o l idr g a p e r c a g a i n st ht es p i n nn g b l a n kT. h e n h, o l d i n g a p a r t i n tgo o lw i t ha n u n d e r h a ngdr p , m a k ea s e " i eos' s i zr p c r . t st o d e f i n e the gougeto tenon(pzgp55). Usea ,oughing c l e a ro r t t h e w a s t eb e t w e e trh e c u t s .A s t h et e n o nb e g i n tso t a k es h a p ep, e ro d i c a l i y c h e c kt w i t l ^c a i p e r ss, t o p p i nw g l ^ e nt h e t e n o ni s I i n c hi n d i a m e t eFr .i n a l l yu,s ea s k e wc h i s e[l o r n d e r c utLh es h o u l d esrl r g h t l y ;t h i sw i l e n s u r teh a tt h e b o t t o me n d so f t h ev a s es e c to n ss i t f l u s ho n t h es e c t i o n s b e l o ww i t h o uwt o b b l i n gH. o l dt h ec h i s e l edge-up s o i t s l o n gp o r n ta n d b e v e al r e a l i g n ew d i t ht h es h o u l d el irn e ,T h e ns l o w l y rarse a n dt w i s t h e h a n d l es,l i c i n g deeper i n r ot l - es l - o u l d ears t l e c u t t r r ge d g ea p n r o a c n e' \se l e n o t ( r t p h l J . i

I I I I I I I t I I I I I I I

r t t

' r r b r i ! /

I I I I I I I

r ) B o r i n tgh em o r t i s e s Z . R . r o u . t h e b l a n ka n d t o o l r e s t ,a n d a d j u s t h e l a t h et o t s s l o w e sst p e e d l. V o u n a t l - i n c hd r r l lb r t i n a J a c o bcsh u c k a n da t t a c ht h e c h u c kt o t h e l a t h et a i s t o c k l.V o u ntth et e n o n e n do f t h e b a n ki n t h e h e a d s t o cakn ds l i d et h et a i l s t o cakl o n s

I I t h e b e du n t i t h e b i t m e e t st h e c e n t e o r f t h e w o r k pe c e .T h e n t u r no n t h e l a t h ea n dt u r nt h e h a n d w h e teol a d v a n cteh e t a i l s t o c ks o t h e b i t b o r e ss t r a i g hitn t ot h e e n do f t h e b l a n k( a b o v e ) ; h p s r r r pl n h n l n t h e w o r k n i p r ^ p . , t p a d v :ttn p < , t a rni f t n p n r' v yn r r o ru :L lr vr rn n

,56

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BED FOUR-POSTER

TUR N I N TG H EF I NIA T S thefinials 1I Shaoins

I T h ef i n i a l sa t t h et o p o f t h e b e d p o s t s c o m b i n ev a s e sa n d b e a d sA. f t e rt u r n i n g t h e s ee l e m e n t ss,e p a r a tteh e t o p e n do f t h e f i n i a lf r o m t h e w a s t ew o o du s e dt o h o l dt h e b l a n kb e t w e e cne n t e r sT. o a v o i d m a r r i n gt h e f i n i a l ' sr o u n d e d t o p , u s ea s k e wc h i s e lt o p a r to f f t h e w o r k p i e c e . H o l d i ntgh et o o lw i t ha n u n d e r h a ngdr i p , tf m a k ea s l i c i n g c u t w i t ht h e l o n gp o i n o t h e b l a d ea s y o uw o u l dr o u n da p o m m e l @age53).Makea seriesof deeperV-cuts (right).Beforethe finishedturningbreaks l o o s ef r o mt h e w a s t es, u p p o ritt w i t ho n e f r e eh a n d ,k e e p i n ygo u rf i n g e r sw e l lc l e a r o f t h e t o o l r e s ta n d b e i n gc a r e f unl o tt o g r i pt h es p i n n i nw gorkpiece.

t t I I t

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r) Smoothing thefinial L f o remoue anytool marksleft on the f i n i a l sb yt h es k e wc h i s e ls, a n dt h e i rs u r f a c e ss m o o t hY . o uc a n d o t h e j o b b y h a n d ,s e c u r i ntgh e s t o c ki n a b e n c hv i s e a n d u s i n ga s a n d i n gb l o c k .B u t a d i s k s a n d e lri k et h e o n es h o w na t l e f tw i l l m a k eq u i c kw o r ko f t h e t a s k .H o l d i n g t h e f i n i a lo n t h e s a n d i n tga b l e e , a s ei t i n t ot h e d i s ka t a n a n g l eo f a b o u t4 5 " . Applying l i g h tp r e s s u r e r o, t a t et h e f i n i a l u n t i li t i s s m o o t h .

FOUR-POSTER BED

PREPARING THEPOSTS FOR THEENDBOARDS ANDRAILS 'l

Laying outthemonises I Thebedoosts areioined to theend b o a r dasn di a i l sw i t ht l i n o m o r t i s e - a n d tenons. Toensure thatall themortises l i n eu p ,m a r kt h e mo nt h ep o s t isn a s i n glesetup. Clamp theposts together with theirendsaligned andplacetheassemblyona worksurface. Holding theedge of a carpenter's square against thestock, m a r ko n o n ep o s ta t a t i m e .M a r kt h e mortise length-3 i nches-across the pommel; posthasthree eachheadboard mortises, including twofortheheadboard andonefortheendrail,whileeachfootboardposthastwo-oneforthefootboard andonefortherail,Next,markthemortisewidth-% inch;centerthe mortise outline onthepommels. Usethesquare to alignall themortise lengthmarks(/eff).

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r) Drilling themortises 1 youcancutthemortises in theoosts byhandwitha chisel andmallet, or usea routerf ittedwitha mortising bit.Butconsidering thedepthof themortises-1% inches-ahollow chiselmortiser, likethe oneshownat rightor a drillpress with a m o r t i s i nagt t a c h m e nwti,l ld ot h ej o b mostquickly andaccurately, Setupthe m a c h i nfeo l l o w i nt g h em a n u f a c t u r e r ' s directions. Forthemortiser shown, install a s/e-inch bit andplaceoneof theposts onthetable,centering a mortise outline underthecutter.Buttthefenceagainst thestockandadjustthe hold-down to youto secure thepostwhilestillallowing slidetheworkpiece freely along thefence. M a k ea c u ta t e a c he n do f t h eo u t l i n e , thena series of staggered cutsin between (right)Io complete themortise.

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MAKINGTHEENDBOARDS rl*1 he sunrisemotif of the headboard I featuredin this chapteris a popular in AmericanCountry design,particularly furniture.rv\hatever designyou choose, in making however, theprimarychallenge the endboardsfor a bed is cuttingthe piecessymmetrically. Theboardsaretoo on the unwieldyto do thejob accurately bandsaw.Youwillbe muchbetteroff shapingtheboardswith a routerguidedby templates, asshownstartingon page61. Whenthetimecomesto gluetheend boardsand railsto the bedposts(page 64),lry to enlistthe aid of an assistant or hvo to help you maneuverthe stock andthesixlongbarclampsyouwill need. Formaximumflexibilityat glue-up,use whiteglueratherthanyellowadhesive;

it takeslongerto set,allowingmoretime for adjustment afterit hasbeenapplied. Jointhe siderailsto the postswith commercial bayonetbrackets(page63) are or bedbolts(photo,right).Bedbolts stronger,but thebracketsaresimplerto installand comeapartwith only a few mallettaps.

Tofacilitatedisassembly, are bedposts usuallyanachedto thesiderailswith knockdown hardware, suchasthebed boltshownat right.Theboltextends throughthepostinto therail and is threadedinto a crossdowelinstalled in therail. Theboltheadis concealed by an embossed brasscover.

THETEN()NS CUTTING

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Sawing thetenoncheeks in theendboards andrails I Youcancutthetenoncheeks witha router or a radialarmsaw.lf youdothejobona table saw,asshownhere,youwill needto setup an auxiliary table orworkwitha helper to keepthelongworkpieces steady asyou feedthemacross thetable.Startbyinstalling a dadoheadon it to itswidest setting. Attach a highauxilthesaw,adjusting iaryfenceandan extension boardto themitergauge. Holda carpenter's square against thefenceandextension to ensure thattheyareperpendicular to eachotherandadjustthemiter (above, gauge, if necessary /eft).Setthecuttingheightat about%inchandmakea cutacross eachfaceof a scrapboard

asthickastheendboards andrails.Test-fit thetenonin one of thepostmortises, raising thedadoheadandmaking addiuntilthefit is snug.0ncethe blade tionalcuts,asnecessary, heightis set,position thefencefora ll,-inch-wide cut and c l a m oa f e a t h e r b o at or dt h ef e n c ea b o v teh ed a d oh e a d . H o l d i ntgh ew o r k p i e cf leu s ha g a i n st h t ef e n c ea n dm i t e r gauge extension, andflatonthetable,feedit intotheblades Thenshiftthestockawayfrom to definethetenonshoulder. passto thefencebythewidthof thekerfandmakeanother waste. Turntheworkpiece overto cutthe cleartheremaining right). cheekonthe otherside(above,

t FOUR-POSTER BED

r) Markingtheedgesof thetenons L O n c ea l l t h e t e n o nc h e e k sh a v eb e e n c u t , m a r kt h et e n o n se' d g e su, s i n gt h e i r p o s tm o r t i s eass a g u i d e O . utline single t e n o n so n t h e e n dr a i l sa n df o o t b o a r dt h; e h e a d b o a rsdh, o w na t r i g h t ,h a st w ot e n o n s . S e tt h e p o s to n a w o r ks u r f a c ew i t h i t s m o r t i s efsa c i n pr r na n d o o s i t i otnh e m a t i n gp i e c eo n t o p ,a l i g n i ntgh ee n do f t h e b o a r dw i t ht h e m o r t i s e sT.h e nl i n eu p t h e b l a d eo f a c o m b i n a t r os n quarw e i t ho n e e n do f a m o r t i s ae n d ,h o l d i n tgh e h a n d l e o f t h e s q u a r ea g a i n stth e e n do f t h et e n o n a n dt h et i p o f t h e b l a d ea g a i n stth es h o u l d e r ,m a r kt h e t e n o ne d g ea c r o s tsh e c h e e k . u t l i n teh e r e m a i n i nt e w i t ha p e n c i lO gnon edgesthe sameway tight), markingthe wastewith Xs as yougo.

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Finishing thetenons C l e a trh e w a s t ea d j o i n i ntgh e e d g e so f t h et e n o n su s i n ga r o u t e fri t t e dw i t ha b o t t o m - p i l o tfel u ds h - t r i m m i n bg r t .C l a m p t h e s t o c kt o a w o r ks u r f a c ea n d a l i g nt h e c u t t e rw i t ht h e e d g e o f a t e n o n .T h e nb u t t a s t o pb l o c ka g a i n stth e r o u t e b r a s ep l a t e a n dc l a m pi t t o t h e w o r k p i e c el f. t h e r ei s a s e c o n dt e n o no n t h e s a m ee n d o f t h e s t o c k a , s i n t h e h e a d b o a r cd l,a m pa s e c o n d s t o pb l o c kt o p r e v e ntth e r o u t e fr r o mc u t t i n gi n t ot h e t e n o n .

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W i t ht h e t o o l ' sb a s ep l a t ef l a t o n t h e w o r k p i e c ae n d f l u s h a g a i n st th e s t o pb l o c k e, a s et h e b i t i n t ot h e s t o c ku n t i lt h e p i l o t b e a r i n gr e a c h e tsh e t e n o ns h o u l d e rF. e e dt h e r o u t e r a l o n gt h e e n do f t h e b o a r ds, t o p p i n g w h e nt h e b a s ep l a t ec o n t a c t sa s e c o n ds t o pb l o c k( i n s e t o) r t h e b i t r e a c h e tsh e e d g e o f t h e w o r k p i e c (ea b o v e )C. l e a nu p t h e e d g e so f t h e t e n o n w i t ha c h i s e l .

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THEENDBOARDS SHAPING theendboard templates 1 Making profiles I Shape thecurved of theheadandfootboards witha routerguidedby t e m p l a t e sM. a k et h et e m p l a t ef sr o m plywood, %-inch tracing thecontours of theboards'top edges, as illustrated on page51, on theplywood. Butinstead of producing templates thatspanthefullend boards, markonlyone-half the patterns o n t h ei e m p l a t efsr,o mo n ee n dt o t h e m i d d l en; o to n l yw i l lt h et e m p l a t ebse easier to maneuver, butbyusinga single pattern to outlinebothhalves of each youwillensure board, thattheyaresymmetrical. Cuteachpattern one-half as l o n ga st h ee n db o a r dp, l u sa b o u 1 t2 inches. Onbothsidesof thetemplate, markoneendof theendboard, thenthe pattern middle, andtracethecurved in between. Cutthe pattern on yourband s a w t, h e ns m o o t thh ec u t e d g eu, s i n ga (righilor a sanding spindle sander block.

r") Marking theendboard stock L Setthestockface-uo on a worksurf a c ea n dm a r kt h e m i d d l eo n t h et o p e d g eT. h e nc l a m pt h et e m p l a toen t o p , a l i g n i ntgh ee n dm a r kw i t ht h ee n do f theworkpiece andthetwomiddlemarks. R u na p e n c ial l o n g t h ec u te d g eo f t h e template to outlinethe pattern on the endboardstock(/eft).Thenturnthetemplateoverandrepeat theprocess to mark theotherhalfof theworkorece.

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theendboards Q Shaping onyourbandsaw, r.,l Cuttheendboards leaving about1/sinchof wastealongthe and cuttinglines.Reclamp theworkpiece asin step2, to a worksurface template e n s u r i ntgh a tt h ee d g et o b e s h a p e d e x t e n dosf f t h et a b l eb y a f e wi n c h e s . bit in flush-trimming Install a top-piloted yourrouter, adjusting thecuttingdepth willbelevelwiththe sothepilotbearing t e m o l a taen dt h ec u t t ew r i l lt r i mt h e at one entireedgeof thestock.Starting flaton holdtherouter endof theboard, t h et e m o l a taen de a s et h eb i t i n t ot h e contacts thepatstockuniilthebearing along the tern.Thenfeedthetoolsteadily thedirection of bit edge,moving against against rotation andpressing thebearing (right). Onceyoureachthe thetemplate s t, o pt h ec u t .T u r n e n do f t h et e m p l a t e r n dc l a m pi t t o t h e t h et e m p l a toev e a thenrepeat otherhalfof theendboard, Smooth theedges thetrimmingprocess. sandpaper. of thestockwith12O-grit

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PREPARING THESIDERAILS

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t0 therails hookplates 1 Fastening thesiderailsto w i t ht h ee n do f t h er a i l ,h o l di t i n p o s i t i oann dt a pi t w i t ha I lf youareusingbayonet brackets to attach malletto markthe baseof the hooks on thewood.Holdthe theposts, startbyfixinga hookplateto theendsof therails. to theendgrainof therailandcutrecesschiselperpendicular center a plateontheend,and Clamp a railtoa worksurface, Thenscrewtheplateto therail,makt h eo u t l i n e esforthe hooks(above). o u t l i niet w i t ha p e n c iTl .h e nc h i s eal m o r t i swei t h i n plate plate will is flush ing sure that the hooks bepointing down. 0nce the a depth equal to the thickness. to

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r) Fastening catchplates to theposts L me placement of thecatchplates on thebedposts determines theheight ofthe mattress; thebottom of theboxspringis customarily 8r/zinches above thef loor.lt is alsocrucial to locate theplates sothe inside facesof therailshugtheedges of theboxspring; fora 60-inch-wide box spring/mattress setin a bedof thedimensionsprovided on page50, centrethe plateontheedgeof thepost.Markthe edges of therailonthepostandoutline thecatchplateon the post?ighil,cenrailmarks. teringit between Chisel the platemortise asyoudid in step2, then h o l dt h eh a r d w airnep o s i t i oann do u t l i n e t h eh o o ko p e n i n gosnt h es t o c kU . s ea chiselandmalletto cut recesses in the postforthehooks, thenscrew thecatch olateto theoost.

t) Fastenins thecleats to thesiderails <'

r . , l 0 n c e a l l t h e b a v o n ebt r a c k e t a sre i n s t a l l e dc,u t t h e c l e a t st h a tw i l l s u p p o r t t h e b o xs p r i n gt o t h e l e n g t ho f t h e s i d e r a i l s .S p r e a dg l u eo n t h e c o n t a c t i nsgu r f a c e sb e t w e etnh e s i d er a i la n dc l e a t t, h e n c l a m pt h e c l e a ta l o n gt h e i n s i d ef a c e o f t h e r a i l ,f l u s hw i t ht h e b o t t o me d g e ; m a k es u r et h e e n d so f t h e t w o p i e c e s a r e a l i g n e dN. e x t d , r i l lp i l o th o l e st h r o u g h t h e c l e a ta n d i n t ot h e r a i l ,s t a r t i n g 2 inche s i n f r o mt h e e n d sa n d s p a c i n g the r e m a i n i nhgo l e s8 i n c h e sa p a r t F . inally, drivea screwinto eachhole (lefil,

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ANDENDB()ARDS GLUING UPTHEBEDPOSTS 'l

Gluingthe bedpost vase I sections together A l t h o u g thh e j o i n t sc o n n e c t i ntgh e p o m m e l s e c t i o nas n df i n i a l so f t h e p o s t st o t h e v a s es e c t i o nasr en o tg l u e d t, h e t a n g j o i n t sb e t w e etnh e v a s es e c t i o n m s u s tb e g l u e dt o g i v et h e p o s t sa d e q u a t rer g r d i t y . S o r e a da d h e s i voen t h e t e n o na n d i n t h e m o r t i s eo f t h e t a n gj o i n ta n do n t h e c o n t a c t i n gs u r f a c ebs e t w e e tnh e t w o p i e c e s , t h e ns e c u r et h e m i n a b a rc l a m p ,p r o t e c t i n gt h e s t o c kw i t h w o o dp a d s .l f t h e p o s t b e g i n st o d i s t o r at s y o ut i g h t e nt h e c l a m p , r e p o s i t i oi nt i n t h e j a w su n t i li t r e m a i n s straight.Keeptightening(right)unlil a g l u eb e a ds q u e e z eosu t o f t h e j o i n t .

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t r) Gluingthe poststo the endboards L S e t t h ee n d b o a r d sw i t ht h e i rr e s p e c t i v ee n dr a i l sa n d p o s t so n a w o r ks u r f a c e , a n dt e s t -ift t h e m o r t i s e - a n d - t e nj ooinn t s b e t w e etnh e m .U s ea c h i s e tl o p a r ea w a y w o o df r o ma n yr l l -rft t r n g l o r n t sA. p p l yg l u e t o t h e c o n t a c t i n sgu r f a c e o sf the posts a n de n db o a r das n dr a i l sa, n du s ea n o n marring dead-bloh wa m m etro t a p t h e j o i n t st o g e t h e ri f. n e c e s s a rSy e. c u r e the ^r--^^ ^. n ri eu nu ou sJ uv rvirt Lh i lfr nu rur rr lr nu ni loE p n l; p^ ^t r L p lolllp) UI q , h n r i p r pioht h:r e l:mns rrcpd in nairs

a s s h o w na t l e f t .P o s i t i otnw oc l a m p s a c r o s st h e e n d b o a r ds o t h e h a n d l e - e n d j a w sr e s ta g a i n sot p p o s i t e p o s t sa n d t h e +^ir ^+^^^ ^t +L^ ^r^*^^ tdil Jtup) ur L|tr Ltdttp5

n- ,v o_ r, l a n

Prntor.i

t h e p o s t sw i t hw o o dp a d sc u t a s l o n ga n d w i d ea s t h e p o m m e sl e c t i o n su: s e p l y w o o dp a d st o p r o t e c t h e f a c e so f t h e ^-f, L^^-!^ ^^f, -^ir^ Ti:hipn trru uudru> dilu rdilJ. rrb...-.. nnp of ihp

c l a m p su n t i lt h e t a i l s t o p sm a k ec o n t a c t . R e p e awt i t ht w o m o r ec l a m p sa c r o s tsh e e n dr a i l a n dp a r t i a l lt yi g h t e na l l f o u r c l a m p st,h e nt u r nt h e a s s e m b loyv e ra n d i n s t a ltlh e r e m a i n i nfgo u rc l a m p sT. i g h t e n a l l t h e c l a m p s( l e f t )u n l i la t h i n g l u eb e a d s o r e e z eos r t o f t h e i o i n t s .

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FOUR-POSTER BED

MAKING ANDINSTALLING THETESTERS theendsofthetesters 1 Notching I Oncethebedposts, endboards, and r a i l sa r eg l u e du p a n da s s e m b l ei tdi,s timeto preDare thetesters thatconnect thetopendsof theposts. Useyourtable s a wt o c u t t h e h a l f - l a pt sh a tj o i nt h e testers, lnstalla dadohead,adjusting it to itsmaximum width,andsetthecutting h e i g hat t o n e - h atlhf es i o c kt h i c k n e s s . Screwan extension boardto the miter p a r r s eP.o s i t i ot n h er i nf e n c ef o ra w i d t h of cut equalto thewidthof thetesters, t h e nc u t e a c hh a l f - l a ipn t w op a s s e s . S t a r tb ya l i g n i ntgh ee n do f t h e b o a r d withthedadoheadand,holding theedge of thetesterflushagainst themitergauge e x t e n s i ofne,e dt h es t o c ki n t ot h ec u t . passthesameway,but Makethesecond withtheendof the boardflushasainst Ihefence(right).

Miter 4au4e exLengion

thetesters O Installing L Borea holethroush thecenter of each half-lap at theendoflhetesters, usrng yourdrillpress f ittedwitha bitthesame d i a m e t earst h ef i n i a tl e n o n s% i n c h . To prevent tearout, borethe holesin two steps:Startbydrillinghalfway through thestock,thenturnthetesteroverand c o m p l e th e eh o l ef r o mt h eo t h esr i d e . (Youcanalsoassemble thetesters and d r i l lt h et w oh o l e a s t t h es a m et i m ew i t h a p o r t a bdl er i l lT. h i sw i l le n s u rteh a t h e holeslineup perfectly.) Install thetesters at onecorner of thebedat a time.Sliothe f i n i atl e n o nt h r o u gthh eh o l ei n t h ee n d testerand,holding thesidetesterover (left),fit thetenonthrough the bedpost itsholeintothemortise in theoost.

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PENCILPOSTS known hetapered octagonal bedpost, I asa pencilpost,is a popularalternativeto theturnedversionfeaturedin the previoussection.Insteadof being shaoedin individualsectionsthat are pencilpostsaremade then assembled, from a singlelengthof solidor facegluedlumber-first taperedon ajointer (page67)andthenby hand (page68). To avoidtearoutasyou shapetheposts, makeyour blanksfrom 3/,-inch-thick stockwith straightgrain;if you choose to glueup thinnerboardsto makeup the blanks,makesurethe wood grain of theoieces runsin thesamedirection. Shapingthe octagonalsectionsof of designand the postsis a challenge

f

execution.The bevelsthat createthe octagonmust be laid out so the eight sidesareequalasthe posttapersfrom baseto tip. Althoughthelayoutmethod shown below is straightforward,it demandsprecisedrafting.

With its solid, squarebasegiving way to an octagonalsectionthat gradually tapersto a narrow tip, the pencil post shown at right offersboth strengthand refinement.The curved bevelsthat mark the transition between the squareand octagonalsegments are known as lamb's tongues.

POSTS MAKING PENCIL

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thetapers 1 0utlining through eachof itsfourcorners. Then,with I Fora bedofthedimensions shown on page50,marka line square thatpasses pencil from ruler, draw a second square whose corners meet forthestartof thetaperall around theblank20 inches the a and (inseil. where lines intersect fhe octagonal theoctagonal taperonthecenter of thecircleandcenter bottom end.Thenoutline willbecut byfirsttapering of a lYq-inch square ontheend shape thestockto thedimensions thetopend.Startbycentering you planing parallel side.Extend thesidesof the thefirstsquare drew,thenby thecorners of that withsides to thestock's Mark andhorizon- square downto theremaining sidesof thesecond square. square to theedges of thestock,thendrawvertical pencil andlongstraightedge to extend tal linesthrough thecenter, eachbisecting thesquare's sides. thefirstcutsbyusinga Nextusea comDass to drawa circlefromthecenterof the thetaperlinesfromtheendto thestartline(above).

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r) Setting upandstarting thetaper L nn easywayto taperthe postsis witha jointer. Setthe machine fora shallow cutandposition thefenceto expose only Forthisoperation, about4 inches ofthecutterhead. alsoadjust t h eg u a r d o u to f t h ew a yT. h e nh, o l d i ntgh eb l a n ka g a i n st ht e

f e n c e a l i s nt h e t a n e rs t a r tl i n ew i t ht h e f r o n to f t h e o u t f e e d tableT . o s t a r te a c hp a s sc, a r e f u l llyo w e trh e b l a n ko n t ot h e c u t ). ake terhead w h i l eh o l d i n gi t f i r m l ya g a i n stth e f e n c e( a b o v e M s u r eb o t hh a n d sa r eo v e rt h e i n f e e ds i d eo f t h e t a b l e .

Tapering the posts Q r - , 1 F e e dt h e l e s a c r o s st h e c u t t e r h e a d w i t ha p u s hb l o c k ,p r e s s i ndgo w no n t h e t r a i l i n ge n do f t h e s t o c kw h i l eh o l d i n gi t flushagainstthe fence(/eft).Keepyour l e f th a n da w a yf r o mt h e c u t t e r h e a dM. a k e s s n e c e s s a ruyn t i l y o u a s m a n yp a s s e a h a v et r i m m e dt h e s t o c kt o t h e t a p e ro u t l i n e ,r e p e a t i ntgh e p r o c e stso s h a p et h e r e m a i n i nfga c e s l. f y o u rm a r k i n gasr ec o r r e c t ,y o us h o u l dm a k et h e s a m en u m b e r o f p a s s eosn e a c hs i d e .C l e a nu p t h e t a p e r a t t h e s t a r tl i n eu s i n sa b e l ts a n d e r .

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BEVELING TAPERS

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'l Laying outthebevels I Toformtheoctagon, bevelthecorners of thesquare taper. Thebevelis already outlined ontheendof eachpost,butit mustalsobemarked Taking onthesidesof thestock. thedimenpoststock, sionsfroma pieceof full-size anddrawing onscrap plywood, outlinesquares asyoudid in stepI (above, left). yourmeasurement-equal Transfer to thebevelwidth-tothe

post,measuring fromeachcorner of thesquare to eitherside. Thenusea pencilanda longstraightedge to connect each pointontheoctagon markwithitscorresponding drawnat the . n c ea l l e i g hbt e v elli n e sa r em a r k e d , t o pe n do f e a c hp o s tO joining drawa curved lamb's tongue at eachcorner, thebevel markswiththetaperstartlinehbove,right).

Roughing outthebevels Tosecure theoosts. usethreewood notches intoan blocks. CutV-shaoed edgeof eachone,thenplacetwoof the blocksundertheworkpiece to support it andclamponeontop between theother twoof theblocks two:oosition around the portion square of the post.Thenusea portion drawknife to shapethetapered of thepostsintooctagons, beveling onecorn e ra t a t i m e .H o l d i ntgh ed r a w k n iof en thestockbevel-side down,pullthetool toward thetopendof thepost(righil.fhe depthof cutdepends on howmuchyou tilt thehandles; thelower theangle, the shallower thecut.Takea lightshaving, following always thewoodgrain.

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thebevels Q Smoothing r-,f Onceall the bevels havebeencut, toflatten t h ee i g h t u s ea b e n c hp l a n e Adjust sidesof theposts'tapered section. thetoolto a verylightcutandworkfrom thetaperstartlinetoward thepost's top (righil.fo auoid endto levelthesurface tearout, workwiththewoodgrain.Repositiontheoostin thewoodblocks asnecsides. essary to f latten theremaining

Shaping thelamb's tongue Tocomplete thepencilposts, switch b a c kt o t h ed r a w k n i b f er i n gt h el a m b ' s Workasyou tongues to theirfinalshape. didin step5, smoothing outthetransition between thetongues andthebevellines (left).Onceyouarefinished draw-knifing, smooth thesurface using a sanding block.

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\AINDSORCHAIR T I

n. Windsorchairis a incontrasts. study Origi-

the seat at whateverangles suit its user.All of the chair's parts are joined with round mortise-and-tenons-afairly simplejoint to produce.Some woodworkerscontend that one of the benefitsof making a Windsor chair with green lumber is that you can take of the hygroscopic, advantage moisture-absorbing characor By ter of wood. dryrngthe leg tenonsprior to assembly and "wet" morfitting them into tisesin theseat,a snugjoint will becomeeventighter.Oncethe joint is assembled, the tenon will absorbmoisturefrom the woodsurroundingthemortise, swellingthetenonandshrink-

nallydesigned asan artless furnishing,it is now consideredto be a sophisticated of modernchairmakexample ing.Thesimpleelements of a Windsor-the sculptedseat legs, and the hand-shaped stretchers, arm posts,and spindles-beliethe precise engineering required to assembleit. Anddespiteitsrelatively lightweight components, the Windsorchairis verystrong Thetop of a Windsorchairseatis traditionally anddurable. Firstmadein ruralsouthsculptedby hand. With shapingtoolslike Windsorchairs thespokeshave, inshave,and drawknife,it is ernEngland, possibleto customize theseatfor its user. cameto NorthAmericain the Perhaps mid-18thCentury. as choose instead to useseaOtherchairmakers design andunsophisticated construction, ingthemortise. aresultof itspractical pioneerhome- sonedwoodfor theseat,whichwill belesslikelyto crackasit with America's thestylequicklyflourished Thejointsin the the dries,andreinforce thejoineryin otherways. Thefoundation of allWndsorchairs-whether steaders. with chairfeatured in thischapteraregluedandmanyof themversion featured in thischapter, thecomb-back sack-back joints-are furtherstrengthened by type-is thesolid- suchastheleg-to-seat its highbackest,or thecontinuous-arm "green"(or inserted in kerfscutin theendof thetenons. freshlyfelled) wedges woodseat.Traditionally cutfroma A finaladvantage of buildinga Windsorchairis thatthe log,theWindsor's seatrepresented animportantinnovation canbedonewith handtools.Althoughthelegs in chairmaking.In earlierstyles, thebackof thechairwasan entireprocess canbeturnedonalathe(page89),theycanalso of thelegs.Thismeantthattherearlegshadto be andstretchers extension (page a drawknife withthespindles-using seating andwereattached to the beshaped-along bentto providecomfortable (page joinery. horse 7B).Theseatcanbe 76)andashop-built shaving complex seatframewith relatively (page84),thenshaved andadzed to itsfinThelegsof a Windsorchairarenotbent.Instead, theback cutwithabowsaw ishedshape. anchored separately to andlegassemblies areindependent,

Thesack-back Windsorchairshownat left wasfinishedwith milk paint, a traditionalfinishfor AmericanCountryfurniture.,fuailablein powdered milk paint reflects form and mixedwith waterto a paint-likeconsistency, thesimplicityof the Windsorchair;it is bestappliedby brush.

7T

ANATOMYOF A SACK-BACKWINDSORCHAIR anyof the round mortise-andtenonjointsthathold a Windsor chairtogetherarereinforcedby wedges. As the illustrationat right shows,the top endofthe legs,armposts,andspindlesareallkerfedprior to assembly;the wedgesthat fill the kerfsexpandthe tenons,ensuringthat theyfit snuglyin theirmortises. Buta Windsorchairis morethanthe sumof its parts.Forstrengthandcomfort, it alsorelieson the interactionof The legsand its variousassemblies. for example,work against stretchers, eachotherto supportthe weightof its with its bow, user.The backassembly, functionsin a similar arm,andspindles, manner.Thelegssplayout to the sides and arerakedforwardandbackwardprovidinga broad,stablebasefor the chair.As with all enduringdesignsthe seatis tilted back slightly,making the chairmorecomfortable. The threeviewsof the sack-back on page73 provide Wndsor presented spacings, you with the criticalangles, and dimensions.More dimensions appearin the cuttinglist belowand throughoutthechapterwhereeachpart of thechairis made. As you prepareyour stock,keepin mind that you will not be ableto cut someof thepartsto theirfinishedlength Thespinuntil youbeginfinalassembly. dles,for example,shouldall be left at their maximum possiblelength-22 inches-until youhavebentthearmand against thespindles bow,andtest-fitted them.In thesameway,sizethestretchers only after test-fittingthe blanks betweenthe legs.

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t I I I I I LIST CUTTING

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PIECE

OTY.

THICKNESS

Arm Armposts

I

%'

Bow

2 I

Legs

4

Seat Longspindles spindles Small

1 7

Middle stretcher Sidestretchers

2',

W.ORDIAM 2',

44',

IYo'

11',

%u

ARr

!3/o'

17' 20'

16' 3/ou

22',

4

3At

1

T%'

II%' 17'

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Side view

Front view

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Top view

thort apindlee apacedequally betweenlon1 opindleand arm poet

1ocketa in arm for lonq apindlee apaced 2'/o incheoapart

MAKING THE SPINDLES indsorchairmakingstartswith a freshlycut log. Becausegreen

woodis swollenandlubricated with moisture, it iseasy to cleave andbend.It isalsolessworkto shape. Splittingwood fromalogoffersotheradvantages. First,

it is stronger, because thebreakfollows thewoodfibersratherthanshearing them,asa sawmilldoes.And second, woodseasons betterif it isshaoed while stillgreen. A chairspindle, foiexample, will season morequicklyandbe less

proneto cracking thana board,which maycupor check. Ifyou haveaccess to a woodlot,you canfellyourowntreesusinga chainsaw. youmaybeableto obtain Otherwise, greenlogsfroma sawmill,a localfirewood supplier,or your local roads Youcanmakean entire department. chairfromhardwoods likehickorywhite ash,or oak;butmanywoodworkers also usesoftwoods suchaspoplarandpine for theseat,whichareeasierto shape with handtools. Theprocess described onthefollowing pagesfor riving,or splitting,a log into spindleblanlscanalsobeusedto producearm,leg,andstretcher blanks.

Oncea loghasbeencut into manageablelengths,it is time to split it. Driving an iron wedgeinto theendof thelogwith a sledgehammer, asshown at left,will separate thewoodftbers alongthegrain. Weareyeprotection whenyou strikemetalagainstmetal.

PREPARING THESPINDLE BLANKS a boltintoquarters 1 Splifting I Onceyouhavefelleda logand trimmedoff the branches, sawit into workable lengths, calledbolts.Forbest results, usea chainsaw.Splittheboltsin hall (photo,abovd,usinga sledgehammerandironwedges; wearsafetygoggles throughout theoperation. Tocleave the halves intoquarters, standthe pieceup, markthe centeron the endanddrivea wedgeintothe mark.Continue driving thewedgetighl untilthe boltsplits.

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Rivinga quarterboltintoblanks h a v es p l i ta b o l ti n t oq u a r t e r sr i,v ee a c hp i e c ei n t o I Onceyou s p i n d l eb l a n k sO. u t l i n e t h e b l a n k so n t h ee n do f t h e b o l ta n ds p l i t iI (above,left),thenrivethe blankswith a froeand a f roeclub m a d ef r o ma n 1 B - i n c hl e n g t ho f d e n s eh a r d w o o sdu, c ha s m a p l e ,

-) Debarkins theblanks <.

h i c k o r yd, o g w o oodr e l m . H o l d i n g t h e f r o ei n o n eh a n dw i t ht h e bladeoffsetfromtheoutline,strikethe bladewiththe club (above, ilghil.fwislthe froebackandforth,anddriveit in deeper.0nce t h e w a s t eb r e a k so f f, r e p e atto m a k et h e r e m a i n i ncgu t s .

r - J R e m o v eb a r kf r o my o u rb l a n k su s i n ga d r a w k n i f o en a i n b o t hh a n d sw i t ht h e b e v e dl o w n ,p u l l t h et o o lt o w a r dy o u h o r s e( p a g e/ B ) . S e c u r e s h o p - b u i sl th a v i n g t h e w o r k p i e cbea r k t o s h a v eo f f t h e b a r k( a b o v e )T. u r nt h e p i e c ea r o u n dt o d e b a r k s i d eu p u n d e rt h e h o r s e 'csr o s s b aTr .h e n ,h o l d i n gt h e d r a w k n i f e t h e o t h e re n d .

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SHAPING THESPINDLES ANATOMY OFSPINDLE -/,." dta. +i

i

)/

l: ' ) i

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Rough-shaping thespindles I Secure a s p i n d l eb l a n ki n y o u rs h a v r nhgo r s ea n d u s ea d r a w k n i fteo s h a p e t h e s t o c ki n t oa t a p e r e dc y l i n d e rF. o rb e s tr e s u l t st,h e g r o w t hr i n g so n t h e e n d g r a i no f t h e b l a n ks h o u l db e r o u g h lvye r t i c aS l . t a r tb y s q u a r i nagn ds i z i n gt h e b l a n k . Holding t h e d r a w k n i foen t h e b l a n kb e v esl i d ed o w n ,p u l lt h e t o o lt o w a r dy o u , a l w a y sf o l l o w i n tgh e g r a i n( a b o v e )K. e yd i m e n s i o nasn d d i a m e t e rfso r t h e s e v e n l o n gs p i n d l eas n df o u rs h o r ts p i n d l eyso u n e e df o r a c h a i ra r ep r o v i d eidn t h e i l l u s t r a t i oant l e f t .T u r nt h e b l a n ke n d - f o r - e nadn d r e p o s i t i oi nt i n t h e s h a v i n g h o r s ef r e q u e n t lsyo y o uc a ns h a p ei t u n i f o r m l yP. e r i o d i c a cl l hy e c kt h e p i e c e ' s k e yd i a m e t e rwsi t hc a l i p e ros r a s h o p - m a dgea u g el i k et h e o n es h o w no n p a g e7 7 . ( l f y o up r e f e ry, o uc a nt u r nt h e s p i n d l e o sn a lathea , s s h o w no n p a g e8 9 . )

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r) Evening outthe spindles L O n c ea l l t h e s p r n d l eas r er o u n d e d a n dt a p e r e du, s ea s p o k e s h a vt oee v e no u t t h e i rs u r f a c e sA. d j u s t h e s p o k e s h a vf oer a v e r ys h a l l o w c u t . H a n d l et h e t o o la s y o u d r dt h e d r a w k n i f ea,l w a y sw o r k i n gw i t h t h e g r a i n( a b o v ea)n d r e p o s i t r o n i tnhge w o r k p i e c ea s n e c e s s a rF y .o r mt h e t e n o n sa t t h e b o t t o me n d so f t h e s p i n d l e w s i t ha k n i f e , r e f e r r i ntgo t h e a n a t o m yi l l u s t r a t i oonp p o s r t e .

jiiilIi ffi dr{il ffi tulil tiJill, iiiji\$ ,u{lr,itrjdi d, 1HO?Tt?

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ShoV-madesizinggau6e // A ehog-made oizingqauge -'// alloweyouto meaeure trhe diamelersof chaireVindleeae youohapethem. Soreholesinlo a wood ecrap,eizingLhemaccordinq to NhesVindleo' keydiameters. Dnlla '/,.,-inch-diameLer holeinto the qaugeLo -/

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checkNhetenon aI Lhe boLLomend of Lhe e p i n d l e ea, n d a 7 / , , - i n c h - d i a m e t h ea r l ef o r t h e f , o Ve n d o f l h e o p i n d l e s . Y o cua n a l s o c h e c ka k e y d i a m e l e r a l o n gL h e l e n q l h o f t h e e p i n d l e ob y b o r i n q a h o l et h r o u g h L h e q a u q ea n d e l i p p i n gI h e b l a n k introf,he hole.Ihe blankis lhe correcl diamet,erwhen iL j a m e i n N h eh o l ea I L h e a p p r o p r i a t ep o i n l a l o n qi t o l e n g f , h .

S m o o t h i nt hges p i n d l e s Q r - . 1 U s ea h a n ds c r a p etro g i v et h e s p i n d l e sa s m o o t hf i n i s h G . r a s p i ntgh et h i c k e n d o f t h e s p i n d l ei n o n eh a n da n d , bracing t h e t h i n e n do n a w o r ks u r f a c e , u s ey o u ro t h e rh a n dt o d r a wt h e s c r a p e r . o r kr n t h e a l o n gt h e s u r f a c e( a b o v e )W d r r e c t i o on f t h e p r a r na n d r o t a t et h e spindle f r e q u e n ttl oy k e e pi t u n i f o r m .

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t Eridge 2" x 10"x 35"

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t

Eench 3"x10"x72"

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t t

Foot bar

Erace 1'1"x3'/2"x13" Pivoting lag bolt

Leg 2"x4"x19/2"

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A SHAVIilG HORSE Theshaving horsegripsstocksecurely in placewhileit isshaped withdrawknivesandspokeshaves. Simpleto horse features build,thetypicalshaving a bench, an inclined bridge, anda pivBystepping otingarmassembly. down ontheassembly's footbar,youcanlock yourworkpiece in position between the bridgeandtheassembly's crossbar. To buildtheversion shownabove, with bench, which canbe start the from half log 10 12 inches hewn a to in diameter, from rough orcutto length 3-by-10lumber. Makethelengthof the benchto suityourneeds. Next,cut the legsfrom2-by-4 stockandattachthemto the bench

joints,reinforced T half-lap withangled byscrewsandbracestighil. CutIhe twobracestrom2-by-4stockto fit between the leg'soutside edgesand screwthemto the legs.To bevelthe of the legssotheysit flat and bottoms level,settheshaving horse on a flat surfaceandbutta squareboardup against all foursidesof eachlegto markcuttinglinesaroundthem(page 79, above,/eft).Sawthe bottomsof the legsflat,thencutthetopsof the legsflushwiththebench. Next,sawtheriserandthebridge to size;therisershouldbecut andbevis inclined eledsothatthebridge at an angleof about15'to thebench. Locate the riserabout30 inchesfromthe

backof thebenchandscrewit in place fromunderneath. Thenscrewthebridge to the riser(page79, above,right)and thefrontof thebridge io the bench.

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N e x tb, u i l dt h ep i v o t i nagr m .T h e bly.Cutdadoes in thefootbarto match a s s e m b cl yo n s i s tosf t w oa r m s a, thenotches in thearms,fit thepieces notchedcrossbar,anda footbar together, andreinforce thejointswith (right)Thecrossbar is joinedto the screws. Withthefootbarattached. slio armswiththrough roundmortise and thearmassembly undertheshaving tenons, whilea bridlejointconnecis horseandscrewit in placewiththe thefootbarto thearms.Cutthearms from2-by-4stockandboretwocountersunk holes through eachoneforlag PIVOTINGARMAS?EMELY screws. Makeadditional holes through the armsaboveandbelowthe f irst soyouwill beableto adlustthe positionof the assembly laterto accommodate thrcker stock.To oreoare the armsfor the bars,cut a roundmortisethrough themat thetopendand a notchat the bottom. Next,cut thecrossbarto length, making it about3 inches longer than width the of the bench.Cutround in bothendsanda V-shaped tenons notchin themiddleof thebottom edge to holdyourstock.Setthecrossbar asidefor now.Next,cut thefootbar, m a k i n igt s l e n g t h t w i c et h a to f t h e crossbar to provide anoctagonal-shaped footrestoneachsideof thearmassem-

79

lagscrews. Donottightenthescrews immediately; leave themloose enough soyoucanslipthecrossbar in place. Do notglueor screwit, butleavethebar freeto pivot.Onceit isconnected to the arms,f inishtightening thelagscrews.

Lag screw

MAKING THE BOW AND ARM -l- h. arm and bow of the sack-back I Windsoranchorthechair'sbackrest,tying the spindlesinto a strong and comfortablestructure.The graceful curvesofboth piecesareachieved that throughsteambending,a process part maywell be the most challenging of makingthe chair. of woodThetwo essential elements steamingarea steamgeneratorand an Theversionshownin enclosedsteamer. on page thephotoat right anddescribed

from ABSpipe.Besure 83is shop-made longerthanthebow to makethesteamer and arm,and sealit tightlyto keepthe steamfrom escaping.Includea small drain hole at one end and olacethe to steameron a slightincline,however, allowthe condensed steamto run out. Ifyou areusinga gas-powered steam

source,it is safestto do your steaming outside,If you areusinggreenwood, l5 to 20 minutesof steamingshould makethe piecesufficientlypliableto bend arounda form. Air-driedlumIt berrequirestwiceasmuchsteaming. will takeabout one weekfor a bent pieceof l-inch-thickstockto dry.

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The arm of a sack-backWindsorchair is extractedfrom a steamingjig with a pair of tongs. The steamingprocess leavesthe wood pliable for about a minute-long enough to bend thepiece around a form. Becauseof the intense heatproduced, always wear work gloves when handling steamedwood.

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ANATOMY OFA BOWANDARM

r 22" (from end to middle)

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',,>,,

dia.

,

l

t 22'/r" (from end to mtddte)

t %" dia.

t

80

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WINDSORCHAIR

PREPARING THESTOCK thebowandarm 1I Squarine I

D r a w k n i fteh e b o wa n da r m r o u g h ltyo

c,izp (naop

74)

lhon

rrc.p: hon.h

nlanp

to scuare t h eo i e c ea s n df l a t t e nt h e i rs i d e s . Secure t h e b l a n kb e t w e e b n e n c hd o g so n y o u rw o r k b e n c hS.t a r t i n g a t o n ee n d o f t h e s t o c k g. u i d et h e p l a n ea c r o s tsh e s u r f a c et o t h e o t h e re n d :k e e pt h e s o l eo f t h e t o o lf l a t o n t h e w o r k p i e caen da p p l ym o d eratedownwardpressure(right).Planethe a r mu n t i li t i s I b y I i n c h e sf ;o rt h e b o w . r e f e rt o t h e a n a t o m iyl l u s t r a t i oonp p o s i t e .

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r ) S h a p i ntgh eb o wi n t oa c y l i n d e r L Secu,ethe b o wb l a n ki n y o u rs h a v i n g h o r s ea n ds t a r t s h a p i ntgh e p i e c ew i t ha d r a w k n i f e B.r a c i ntgh e e n do f t h e s t o c ka g a i n syt o u rc h e s t d , r a w k n i fteh e b l a n ki n t oa c y l i n d e r ( l e f t )w ; o r kw i t ht h e w o o dg r a i nt h r o u g h o uAt .s s h o w ni n t h e diagram o p p o s i t em, a k et h e f i n a ld i a m e t eor f t h e b o wI i n c h ; i t s h o u l dt a p e rd o w nt o I i n c hs t a r t i n ga b o u tB i n c h e sf r o m e a c he n d .A s y o uw o r ko n t h et h i n n eer n do f t h ew o r k p i e c e , r e p o s i t i otnh e b l a n ki n t h e s h a v i n g h o r s es o t h a t l e s ss t o c k f r o m e x t e n do sut u n d e rt h e c r o s s b a S r .w i t c ht o a s p o k e s h a v e to givethe bowa smoothersurfacetinish (above), handlingit a s y o ud i d t h e d r a w k n i f e .

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BENDING JIG

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B u i l d i nag b e n d i njgi g I B u i l da b e n d i ntgi g l i k et h eo n es h o w n at leftto bendthe bowand arm of a sackb a c kW i n d s ocr h a i r .C u t t w o p i e c e so f %-inchplywoodto the desiredcurveof the b o wa n d a r m ,t h e ns c r e wt h e m t o g e t h e r t o m a k et h e f o r m .M o u n t h e f o r mo n a % - i n c hp l y w o o d b a s ea n d m a r kt h e c e n t e r o f t h e f o r mn e a ri t s t o p e d g e T . h e nc u t t h e s t o pb l o c kf r o m h a r d w o oadn d s c r e w i t t o t h e h a s e a n d h o r et h e t w o Z - i n c h d i a m e t edr o w e lh o l e si n t ot h e b a s e T . he s p a c eb e t w e e nt h e b l o c ka n dd o w e l sa n d t h e f o r ms h o u l de q u a tl h e t h i c k n e sosf t h e w o r k p i e cpel u st h e w e d g e su s e dt o qc.rrrp it in nlanp

Fin:llv

nron:ro tho

d o w e l sa n d w e d g e st,h e nc l a m pt h e b a s e to a worksurface.

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Securing thebowaround theform O n c et h e w o r k p i e chea sb e e ns u f fi c i e n t l ys t e a m e dr.e m o v e i t f r o mt h e s t e a m e(rp a g e8 0 ) a n dp l a c ei t o n t h e b e n d i n g 1ig. A l i g nt h e m i d d l eo f t h e b o ww i t ht h e c e n t e rm a r ko n t h e f o r m a n d c l a m pt h e s t o c kt o t h e m i d d l eo f t h e f o r mb y t a p p i n g w e d g e si n p l a c e .P u l lo n ee n d o f t h e w o r k p i e cteo w a r dt h e f o r mf i r m l ya n d s t e a d i l yu n t i l i t c o n t a c t st h e s i d eo f t h e f o r m . Insera t d o w e li n t ot h e h o l ei n t h e b a s ea n d t a p i n a w e d g e t o s e c u r et h e b o wi n p l a c e .R e p e afto r t h e o t h e rs i d eo f t h e . o r kq u i c k l yt o c o m p l e t teh e b e n d . w o r k p i e c e( a b o v e )W

Maintaining thebendwithstring T i ea l e n g t ho f s t r i n gt i g h t l yb e t w e etnh e e n d so f t h e b o w ( a b o v e ) a nbde g i ns t e a m i n tgh e a r m .0 n c et h e a r m i s r e a d y f o r b e n d i n gy, o uc a n r e m o v e t h e b o wa n d b e n dt h e a r m a s i n s t e p2 . T h es t r i n gw i l l k e e pt h e b o wb e n tu n t i l i t d r i e s .

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PIPE STEAMER A SHOP-MADE anddurable wood An economical liketheoneshownbelow steamer from2-by-4s and canbefashioned 4 - i n c h - d i a m eAt B e rSp i p ea n df i t features support tings,Thedevice racksinsidethe pipeanda removablecapat eachendforeasyaccess. is a watercanconThesteamsource bya lengthof nected to thesteamer plastichose:thewaterin the can cooker. is heated bya propane-fired (Thissetupshould onlybeusedoutThesteamsource should doors). cap. havea removable, screw-type startwitha Tobuildthesteamer, lenghof schedule 80 ABSpipelonger thanthebowandarm.Cutit in half both of holes through anddrilla series pipehalves to accommodate %-inch machine boltsandnuts zinc-coated

(DETAIL) STEAM 1OUKCEFTTTING y?u'

7[aeLtc hoae to Iteamer

couplinq

Theseboltswillsupport asshown. it to prevent woodinsidethesteamer water.(The fromlyingin condensed theboltsfrom zinccoating willprevent Drillthe holes staining thewood). thecenterline of thepipeto below provide roomforthewood.Install the washers bolts,usingsteelandrubber Kemovableend cap

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aaa cooker

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Kubber 1aokeL

seal. onbothsides to makeanairtight of thepipeto an Nowgluebothhalves Drilla %-inch drain ABST connector. moisture holeat oneendto release pressure. Thengluea andexcess pipecutfrom1%-inch ABS connector pipeto thespouiof theT connector. Next,cut a lengthof plastichose to the thatwillconnect thesteamer for watercan;thef ittingsrequired thewatercanendareshownabove. (Thefittingsforthesteamer endof except thatan thehoseareidentical, ABSendcapis usedinstead of the watercancap;theendcapisglued pipe.) andscrewed to theconnector Makesurethef ittingsareairtight. Lastly,builda 2-by-4frameto supportthesteamer. Naila smallsupport will blockat oneendsothesteamer andtheexcess restona slightincline waterwillrunoutof thedrainhole. conTo usethesteamer, carefully nectthe gascooker to a propane tank.Fillthe watercan,attachthe capandhoseto it, andsetthecanon end thecooker. Secure theremovable lightthecooker, capsonthesteamer, buildup steam. andletthesteamer (Caution: or Donot let the steamer pressurized.) steamsourcebecome

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MAKINGTHE SEAT rla he seatof a sack-back Windsor I chairisbestcut from a singleplank. As shownin thephoto at left,theblank is roughedout by hand with a frame sawor bowsaw.Then the seatis given its basicshapeusinga varietyof hand tools-the edgesareroundedoverby a drawknife(page85),the top surfaceis scooDedout with an adze and an inshave(page86),andsomefinaltouchesareetchedwith a veiner(page87).

Thefinal stepis to boremortisesinto the seatfor the legs,spindles,and arm posts(page90).Asshownin the anatomv illustrationbelow.the arm oost mortises arethelargest: %inchin diameter;thelegmortisesare%inchin diameter,while the spindlemortisesmust bit. be drilledwith a %-inch-diameter Referto the diagram for the seat's dimensionsand for the location and spacingof the mortises.

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A framesawcutsa Windsorchair seatblankfrom a pineplank. Theblankwill beshapedlater with a varietyof hand tools.It couldalsobecut on a bandsaw.

t

i i<-13/a"

'IDEVIEW 16"

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THESEAT SHAPING 0utliningthetopsurfaceof theseat 1 I S a wy o u rs e a tb l a n kf r o ma p i e c eo f 2-inchlhick pine(page84), thenoutline out. Startby markthe areato be scooped i n gt h e c e n t e ro f t h e b l a n k ' sf r o n te d g e . N e x t ,m a r ka l i n e2 k i n c h e si n f r o me a c h s i d eo f t h e b l a n kt;h e l i n e ss h o u l db e p a r allelto the frontedgeand4% inchesaway f r o mi t . D r a wa c u r v e dl i n et h a tj o i n st h e t w os i d em a r k sa n dp a r a l l e ltsh e s i d e sa n d backedgeof the blank (lefil. Finally,draw t w o c u r v e dl i n e st h a t c o n n e ctth e s i d e m a r k sa n d t h e c e n t e rm a r ka t t h e f r o n t e d g eo f t h e b l a n k t; h e s el i n e si n d i c a t e w h e r et h e t o p s u r f a c eo f t h e s e a ts l o p e s towardthe frontedgeand are represented b y t h e d o t t e dl i n e si n t h e i l l u s t r a t r o n .

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r) Rounding overtheblank L Clu^otheblankin a viseandusea drawknife to roundover thecircumference of theblankand itsedges. Tobegin, smooth f ei t ht h eg r a i n r o u n do v e ri t su n d e r s i dpeu, l l i n tgh ed r a w k n iw (above, lf you /eff);repositton theblankin theviseasnecessary.

it gradually, rather a knotin thewood,cutaround encounter with stroke. Then usethe to hack through it a single thantrying along the front form flat lip on the top surface drawknife to the 40' right). cut at about edgeof theblank,angling the bbove,

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WINDSOR CHAIR

n<' Dishins outtheseat

r . , l O n c et h e c i r c u m f e r e n coef t h e s e a t h a sb e e ns h a p e d r, o u g ho u t t h e w a s t e f r o mt h e t o p s u r f a c eu s i n ga g u t t e ra d z e . W e a r i n gs t e e l - t o e db o o t s ,s t e po n t h e e d g e so f t h e b l a n kt o h o l di t s t e a d ya n d c h o po u t t h e s i t t i n ga r e af r o mo n es i d eo f the outlineto the other(lefil.f ry to cuI w i t ht h e g r a i n ,u s i n gs h o r ts t r o k e sM . ake s u r ey o u rf e e ta r en o t i n t h e p a t ho f t h e b l a d eC . ontinuu e n t i ly o u h a v ec u t a b o u t % i n c hd e e pi n t h e c e n t e ro f t h e s e a tw i t h a g r a d u asl l o p ef r o mt h e c e n t e ru p t o t h e s i d e sa n df r o n ta n d b a c ke d s e s .

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Smoothing theseat Securethe seatbetweentwo bench d o g so n y o u rw o r k b e n c hp,r o t e c t i ntgh e s i d e sw i t h w o o dp a d s .S t a r tw i t h a n i n s h a vteo s m o o t ht h e r o u g hs u r f a c el e f t b yt h e a d z e W . o r k i n fgr o mo n es i d eo f t h e t o ps u r f a c e t o t h e o t h e r ,h o l dt h e i n s h a v e w i t h b o t hh a n d sa n d p u l l i t t o w a r dy o u ; alwaysfollowthe grain(righil.Usea convexspokeshave, or travisher, to refinethe smoothness of the seat(photo.page7 l).

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thelip f, Shaping r-,f Thelip at thefrontedgeof theseat . orking h a sa s l i g h d t o w n w a rbde v e lW on onesideof theseat'sfrontedgeat a o c u tt h e l r a w k n i ft e t i m e ,u s ea s m a l d the comfort, lip (right).Formaximum o u tD o r t r a n s i t i obne t w e et nh ed i s h e d be should tionof theseatandthebevels be Thesameshould smooth andgradual. between thebevels trueof thetransition thecircumferandthef latsection around thelip smoothing enceof theseat.Finish witha sookeshave.

Carving thechannel U s ea % - i n c vhe i n etro c a r v et h e c h a n -

nelthatseparates theseat'sscooped-out fromtheflatsection around topsurface (left).Thisis a decoits circumference to sharpen the rativegroove designed t r a n s i t i obne t w e et n h ec u r v e a d n df l a t oortions of theseat.

I I POSTS,AND MAKINGTHELEGS,ARM STRETCHERS I I tlt h. legs,stretchers, guideto producethe turnings.Referto andarm postsof I aWndsorchaircanbeshaoed with theillustrationbelowfor dimensions. and I a drawknife,but manywoodworkers usecalipersto checkkeydiametersas work with a latheinstead,usinga story thework progresses. Startby turningthe I polefor eachcomponenl(page52)asa legsand the arm posts.But beforeyou you haveto bore canturn thestretchers. I the leg mortisesin the seatand test-fit A handbracefixed with a spoonbit thelegsin place.By measuringtheexact I boresa mortisein onesidestretcher distancebetweenthelegswith the chair of a sack-backWindsor chair.The test-assembled, the stretcherscan be I mortisewill housea tenonof the sizedwith precision. Themortisemust The tenonsthat join the pieces middlestretcher. I you beangled;a spoonbit enables together-at thetop endsof thelegs,the to start drilling theholestraight bottomsof the arm posts,and at both I the inch before tilting the endsof the stretcheri-are taperedto for first'/ lock the tenonsinto their mortises. toolto thecorrectangle. I

t ANATOMY OFTHELEGS, ARMPOSTS, ANDSTRETCHERS LEG

MIDDLE 5TRETCHER

ARMPO9T

SIDE STRETCHER

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Note: All dimeneione are dia meters, etaept where apeaified ao length.

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TURNING THELEGSANDARMPOSTS 'l Shaping thelegsandarmposts I

I l V o u nitn e b l a r k b e t w e e cne n t e r so n y o u rl a t h ea n d u s ea r o u g h r nggo u g et o p r o d u cteh et u r n i n gR. e f etro t h e a n a t o ' m y i l l u s t r a t i oonp p o s i t feo r t h e l o c a t i o n s a n dd i a m e t e rosf d e c o r a t i veel e m e n t lsi k e h e a n sa n dc n v p qO n c ev o ua r es a t i s f i e d w i t ht r e t u r n r n g s' sh a p ef.o r mt h et a p e r e d . r I e n o na t t h e a p p r o p r i a Leen d ( r i g h r )O , s s h o w nt,h et e n o ns h o u l db e t h e l e g sa 2 , / i n c h e sl o n g t, a p e r i n fgr o m 1 i n c ht o , / ' n c h i n d i a m e t e rM . a k et h e a r m p o s t f r o m / , ,I o t e n o n s1 i n c h l o n g ,t a p e r i n g / , l n c hi n d i a m e t e F r .r n a l l yt u, r na s h a L I n wp r o o v e o n e a c hl p st o i n d i c a t e the will l o c a t i o no f t h e s t r e t c h e r tsh; i sg r o o v e d o ub l ea s a d e c o r a t i veel e m e n t . | u

U v v l J .

v | | ! v ,

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r ) S m o o t h i nt hget u r n i n g s Z R . r o u . t h e r o o lr e s ta n d f o l d a n i e c eo f 8 0 - s r i ts a n d n a o ei nr t h i r d st o p r e v e nt th e p a p e frr o ms l i p p i n gS. w i t c h o n t h e l a t h ea n d h o l dt h e p a p e ra g a i n s t t h e t u r n i n gW . o r kw i t ht h e g r a i na l o n g thp lpnorh nf ihp nipco:c

mrrnh 2q nnq-

s i h l e/ i e f l ) b e i n pc a r e f r rni o t t o r o r , n d o v e rt h e d e c o r a t i veel e m e n t os n t h e cJ Lt n u 'i uopn Un L 'k\ . s

q:ndino

n upr rr iU^Uf l, L; ^c l^l iy l p

, , +L U^ ^ - ^

Prs-

v e n tb u r n r n tgh e w o o d W . o r kw i t h p r o , o r o q q i v o l v f,i ,n,p, r, ,n : n p r c r * Y - , - . i t o p p l n gw n e n you reach224 griL

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TUR N I NTG H EST E T C H E R S 'l l

Marking thelegandspindle -

I mortises on theseat B e f o r ey o u c a n t u r n t h e s t r e t c h e r sy,o u n e e dt o b o r et h e l e g m o r t i s e si n t ot h e s e a t ,t e s t - f i t h e l e g si n t h e m o r t i s e sa,n d m e a s u rteh e d i s t a n c ebse t w e e tnh e l e g s . S t a r tb y m a k i n ga t e m p l a t eo f t h e s e a t f r o m l - i n c h h a r d b o a r dr e, f e r r i ntgo t h e a n a t o m yi l l u s t r a t i oonn p a g e8 4 f o r t h e d i m e n s i o nosf t h e s e a ta s w e l la st h e l o c a t i o n a n d s i z eo f t h e l e ga n ds p i n d l em o r t i s e s .D r i l la h o l et h r o u g ht h e t e m p l a t ea t e a c hm o r t i s em a r k ,t h e ns e tt h e s e a to n a w o r ks u r f a c ep, o s i t i o n t h e t e m p l a t ea t o p it, and marktheholes(right).

t I I r) Drilling thelegmortises t ^ ,

4 , - C l a m pt h e s e a td o w na n df i t a h a n d b r a c ew i t ha s p o o nb i t t h e s a m ed i a m e t e r a st h e s m a l le n do f t h e l e gt e n o n sU . s ea straightedg ae n da s l i d i n gb e v e l t oh e l p y o ud r i l lt h ec o m p o u n d - a nhgol el e sT. h i s w i l l e n a b l et h e l e g st o s p l a yo u t f r o mt h e s i d eo f t h e s e a ta t t h e p r o p ear n g l ea n d be angled-or raked-towardthe frontor b a c ko f t h e c h a i r .P o s i t i otnh e s t r a i g h t pdsp anrnqq fhc cp:f ai tf _ _ _ ._ . . , t ec o r r e csl p t a y a n g l eo f 1 0 5 " ,o r 1 5 ' f r o mt h e p e r p e n d i c u l a r( p a g eB ) . f h e n a d j u s t h e s l i d i n g b e v etlo t h e r e q u i r e rda k ea n g l ew , h i c hi s I 0 0 " f o r t h e f r o n tl e p sa n d I I 5 " f o r t h e r e a rl e s s .o r l 0 o a n d? 5 ' f r o mv e r t i c a l . P o s i t i otnh e s l i d i n gb e v e l o nt h e s t r a i g h t e d s e T h e n c e n t e trh p h i t o n t h e m o r t i s e m a r ka n db e g i nd r i l l i n gk,e e p i ntgh e h a n d l t h e s t r a i g h t e d gaen dt h e b r a c ep a r a l l et o b i t l i n e du p w i t ht h e s l o p eo f t h e b e v e l (lef). Repeatthe procedureto borethe r e m a i n i nlge gm o r t i s e s .

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Tapering thelegmortises O n c ea l l t h e l e gm o r t i s ehs a v eb e e n d r i l l e d r. e m o v teh e s p o o nb i t a n d i n s t a l l a t a p e r e dr e a m e rT. h i sd e v i c ew i l l g i v e t h e l e g m o r t i s e sa t a p e r e ds h a p et h a t m a t c h e st h e c o n i c asl h a p eo f t h e l e g t e n o n s l,o c k i n gt h e l e g st o t h e s e a t . S e c u r et h e s e a ti n a v i s e ,t h e nt a p e r e a c hl e gm o r t i s es, t e a d y i ntgh e h a n d Periodbraceagainstyourchest(above). i c a l l yt e s t -ift t h e l e g si n t h e i rm o r t i s e s , r e a m i ntgh e h o l e su n t i lt h e f i t i s s n u g .

thesplayandrakeofthelegs ,{ Checking r+ Testjitthefrontlessin theirmortises a n dc h e c kw h e t h et hr e i rs p l a ya n dr a k e Tohelpyougauge the angles areuniform. across rakeangle,placea straightedge t h el e g st;h eb o a r ds h o u l db e p e r f e c t l y lavol /lpff)

Roncaf

fnr the ro:r

looc

lf

a n yo f t h e a n g l e sa r eo f f s l i g h t l yy, o u c a nc o m D e n s aftoer m i n o ri n a c c u r a c i e s w h e nt h e t i m e c o m e st o t u r n a n d i n s t a l l thp circinhcrs

(naoe \Fvbv

Q2)

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t f, Sizingthe sidestretchers .-,1 Set the seat-and-leg assembly on a worksurfaceand meaf r o n ta n d r e a rl e g so n o n es i d e s u r et h e d i s t a n c eb e t w e e tnh e (above), your grooves measure with the stretcher aligning tape y o ut u r n e di n s t e p1 . R e p e aot n t h e o t h e rs i d eo f t h e s e a t .T o t h e l o n g eor f t h e t w o m e a s u r e m e nat sd,d 1 %i n c h e sf o r t h e t e n o n sa t e a c he n da n da n a d d r t i o n a %l i n c ht o h o l dt h e l e g s i n t e n s i o nw h e nt h e c h a i ri s a s s e m b l e dB.y s i z i n gb o t hs t r e t c h r e a s u r e m e nt ht ,e r a k ea n g l eo f t h e e r sa c c o r d i ntgo t h e l o n g e m t w o l e g sw i l le q u a l i z e .

thesidestretchers fi Turning

a n dm o u not n e \ , f C u tt h es i d es t r e t c h ebrl a n ktso l e n g t h your piece between centers on lathe. Shape the witha roughinggouge, referring to theanatomy illustratron on page88 for keydiameters. Finish byturning thetenons at theendswitha gouge(above). sprndle Repeat fortheothersidestretcher.

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Turningandsizingthe middlestretcher I / S i n c et h e m i d d l ea n ds i d es t r e t c h e r s a r ea s s e m b l ebde f o r eb e i n gg l u e dt o t h e l e g s ,y o uc a n n o td e t e r m i n teh e l e n g t ho f t h e m i d d l es t r e t c h ebr y m e a s u r e m e n t . I n s t e a dc, a l c u l a t e i t s l e n g t hS . t a r tb y c u t t i n g a b l a n ks e v e r ai ln c h e sl o n g etrh a n y o u n e e da n dt u r n i t o n y o u rl a t h e ;u s e . o t h e i l l u s t r a t i oonn p a g e8 8 a s a g u i d e T d e t e r m i nteh e s t r e t c h e r l' e s n g t hs, e c u r ei t i n a v i s ea n dm a r ki t s m i d d l eT. h e nm e a s u r et h e d i s t a n c ebse t w e e tnh e f r o n tl e g s a n dt h e nt h e r e a rl e g sa, l i g n i nygo u rt a p e w i t ht h e t u r n e ds t r e t c h egrr o o v e sa;d dt h e r e s u l t st o g e t h ear n d d i v i d eb y t w o .A d d another2/, inchesfor the tenonsand % i n c ht o p r o v i dteh e p r o p ear m o u not f t e n s i o n .A d j u s at s e to f c a l i p e rtso o n e - h a l f y o u rg r a n dt o t a la n dm a r ko f f t h i sd i s t a n c e fromthe centermarkto eachend (right). C u tt h e s t r e t c h et ro l e n g t ha n dt u r n a t e n o na t e a c he n d .

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Drilling themiddle stretcher mortises inthesidestretchers Todetermine theangle of themortises to b ed r i l l e di n t h es i d es t r e t c h efrosrt h e youhaveto measure middlestretcher, the angleformedbythelegsat onecorner of t h ec h a i rO . n c et h em i d d l e s t r e t c h ei sr ready,placea straightedge onthework surface alongonefrontandrearlegof the c h a i ra, n da n o t h earl o n gt h ef r o n tl e g s . Adjust a sliding bevel to theangle formed bythetwoboards(left).Secure theside stretchers in a viseandboreeachhole w i t ht h e h a n db r a c ea n ds o o o nb i t (nhnfn t r , e . v t

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Assembling thestretchers Q gluein themortises J Spread in theside s t r e t c h ear sn do nt h em i d d l es t r e t c h e r t e n o n sI .n s e rt th et e n o n isn t ot h e i rm o r tisesandpress the pieces f rrmlytogethe r b yh a n dT. h e nh, o l d i ntgh em i d d l e f irmly,tapthebackof theside stretcher stretcher mortise witha dead-blow hamm e rt o s e a t h et e n o nf u l l yi n t h e m o r tise(right). Turntheassembly overand repeat theprocedure. Makesuretheside stretchers arebothaligned in thesame planes. vertical andhorizontal

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THE CHAIR ASSEMBLING aregluedto i\ lthoughthestretchers A thelegsandthelegsaregluedto the steps,theseprocedures seatin separate in quicksuccession mustbe completed for the chairto be symmetricalandwell To makeglue-upgo easier, balanced. test-fitall thejointsandcorrectanyillfitting ones,then labelthe legsbefore applyinganyglueto thepieces.

Oncethelegsarefixedto theseat,the top ends of the legs are kerfed and wedges areinsertedinto thecutsto reinforcethejoints (page96).Thearm posts areinstallednext,thenthearm is setin place,fastenedto the arm postswith The final round mortise-and-tenons. areinstallingthe stepsof the assembly spindlesand thebow (page9B).

TOTHESEAT ANDSTRETCHERS THELEGS GLUING

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havebeenglued Oncethestretchers to the legsand the legsfixed to the seat,it is time to trim the legsto the shown samelength.Thetechnique aboveinvolvescuttingfour wood blocksfrom a singleboard,then notchingoneof themtofit arounda Ieg.Placetheblockaroundthefirst Iegto becut, then,holdingtheleg firmly with onehand,cut it to length with aflush-cuttingsaw.Oncethe first legis trimmed,removethe notched blockand replaceit with Position oneof theremainingblocks. the notchedpiecearoundthenext legandcut it. Continuein thesame wayuntil all four legsarecut.

mortises in thelegs thestretchel 1 Drilling posrtion on the Iegsand thesidestretchers I Witfrthechairtest-assembled, onein a vise. thelegsfromtheseatandsecure Thenremove marktheirlocations. mortises Because thelegsarerakedto thefrontandbackof thechair,thestretcher to angle, referring bevelto thecorrect Adjusta sliding in thelegsmustbeangled. illustration on page73. Forthefrontlegstheangleis 15"fromthe theanatomy settheslida spoonbit in a handbrace, rearlegs,it is 20".Install vertical;forthe withthebevelbladeasyou andkeepthebracealigned ingbevelonthebenchtop, drilleachmortisebbove),

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r) Gluing upthelegsandstretchers L IestliI the lessandstretchers t o g e t h etrh, e ns p r e a gd l u eo n t h e s t r e t c h et er n o n a s n di n t h e i rc o r r e sponding mortises in thelegs. Working ona flatsurface, fit thepieces together; u s ea d e a d - b l ohwa m m et o r s e at h e (above). tenons f ullyin the mortises

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thelegsto theseat Q Gluing r-,1Sincethe legtenons will protrude beyond thetopsurface of theseatwhen youdrivethemintotheirmortises, set theseatupsidedownonwoodblockson yourworksurface. Fitthelegsintotheir mortises byhand,thenf inishthejobwith the dead-blow hammer(left).

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forwedges thelegtenons 1l Kerling -t in theseatarewedged, Thelegtenons thatthe tightening thejointsandensuring t e n o nw s i l ln o tl o o s e nK.e r tf h et e n o n s a f irmerchiselwitha hammer; bystriking theseat,orient theslots to avoidsplitting s ot h e ya r ep e r p e n d i c utloatrh eg r a i n of theseattighil. Cutthe kerfsto a depth thetopof theseat. slightly below

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f, Tappingin thetenonwedges r-,1 Cut hardwood wedsesto f it intothe k e r f s ;m a k et h e m t h e - s a m ew i d t h a s t e n o n sb, u t a f e w i n c h e sl o n g e ra, n d n o t h i c k e rt h a n Y oi n c h a t t h e b r o a de n d . Coatthe wedges withglueanddrivethem i n t ot h e s l o t sa s f a r a s t h e yw i l l g ow i t ha hammer(below).Let the glueset,then trim the wedgesevenwith the end of the t e n o n su s i n ga f l u s h - c u t t i nsga w .N e x t , u s ea w i d e ,s h a l l o wc a r v i n gg o u g et o of s l i c et h e t e n o n sf l u s hw i t ht h e s u r f a c e the seat;strikethe gougewith a wooden m a l l e t( i n s e t )F. i n a l l yt,r i m t h e l e g st o the samelength(photo,page94),

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INSTALLING THEARM

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thearmpost 1 Marking I mortises onthearm Install thearmposts asyoudidthelegs, (page referring to theanatomy illustration 73)forIheangles at whichtheposts splay outto thesidesandraketo thefrontof t h es e a tD . r i l tl h ec o m p o u n d - a nmgol er tisesforthepostsin theseat,thensetthe o o s t si n o l a c eO. n c et h ea d h e s i vhea s s e t ,p o s i t i ot nh ea r mo nt h ep o s t sa n d m a r kt h el o c a t i oonf t h ep o s t e n o nos n thearm(left).f,Aake suretherewill be at leastY,inchof solidstockall around t h e h o l e sr;e p o s i t i ot hnea r ma n dt h e posts,if necessary.

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r) Boring themortises forthearmposts L Clamo thearmto a worksurface with a b a c k ub p o a r du n d etrh es t o c kt o p r e venttearout. Toguideyouasyoudrillthe mortises in thearm,adjusta slidingbevel to thesamerakeangleusedto bore thearmpostmortise in theseat.Usinga handbrace fittedwitha spoonbit,start d r i l l i ntgh em o r t i swei t ht h et o o la t a 9 0 " angle T .h e nt i l t t h eb r a c e t o t h es u r f a c e b a c kk, e e p i nigt a l i g n ew d i t ht h eb e v e l bladeto control therakeangle(right); Ihe splayanglecanbeeyeballed byreferring to thearmpost.Oncebothmortises are bored, taperthemasyoudidthelegmortisesin theseat(nase91). \rsbe

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I NS T AL L T I NHGES P IN D L E S 'l

spindle Marking thecenter I location onthearm D r i ltlh es p i n d lm e o r t i s ei nst h es e a ta; l l theseholesareat 90"to theseatsurface. and Thenfit thearmontothearmoosts intoitsmortise insert thecenter spindle of thearm in theseat.Adjust theposition p o s t sa n da r m ,i f n e c e s s a u r yn,t i lt h e Thenholdtng is symmetrical. assembly against thearm,mark thecenter spindle its location onthetopface(right).

r) Marking theremaining L spindle locations Adjusta setof calipersto thedistance e n dt h e b e t w e etnh ec e n t esr o i n d l a adjacentones(page73) andmarktheir for Repeat locations onthearm(below). s .a r kt h e t h er e m a i n i nl ogn gs p i n d l eM them sothegapbetween shortspindles andthearmoostsiseoual.

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WINDSOR CHAIR

thespindle Q Boring r-J mortises in thearm Clampthearmto a worksurface, centeri n ga b a c k u b p o a r du n d etrh eh o l ey o u w i l lb ed r i l l i n gA.l s oi n s t a al l s p o o b n i ti n a h a n db r a c a e n da s m a l l c l a moont h e e d g e os f t h es t o c ki n l i n ew i t ht h eh o l e markto prevent thewoodfromsplitting a sy o ud r i l l A . d j u sat s l i d i n bg e v et lo t h e placeit backward slantof thespindles, o nt h et a b l ea, n da l i g nt h eb i tw i t ht h e bevelbladeto borethe holes(rueht).

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Gluing thearmposts and spindles totheseat S l i pt h es p i n d l ei sn t ot h e i rm o r t i s ei ns thearm.Thebottom endsof thespindles should b ea l i g n esdo9 t o 1 0 i n c h eos f eachlongspindle extends above thearm; shave thespindles to improve thef it, if necessary. Next,gluethearmpoststo the seat.Spread someadhesive onthespindletenons andin theirseatmortises, and onthetopendsof thearmpostsandin inthearm,thenfit thespintheirmortises dleassembly ontotheseat(/eft).Usea dead-blow hammer to tapthearmbetween e a c ho f t h es p i n d l et o s s e a t h es p i n d l e andarmoosttenons fullvin theirmortises.

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andshoftspindles thearmposts f, Wedging r.,/ Thetooendsof theshortspindles andbothendsof thearm postsarewedged withthechairrightin theirmortises. Starting and sideup,chiselkerfsintothetopendsof theshortspindles making thecutsperpendicular to thewoodgrainof the armposts, arm,thentapa wedgeintoeachcuI(left);followthesameproce96).furnthechairoverand dureusedfortheleglenons(page endsof thearmposts repeai to wedge thetenons at thebottom flushwiththeseatsurface. Trimthewedges andtenons hbove).

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INSTALTING THEBOW thebowendsonthearm 1l Markine I Position thebowonthearmandsoinbelow thearmby dlessoitsendsextend Tohold on bothsides. thesameamount whileyoumarkits location thebowsteady o nt h ea r m ,t h r e a di t i n a n do u to f t h e (right). Drilla holeat each spindles point,centering marked thebit between thp pdooc nf thp arm

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holes(page9l) to ensure a snugfit.

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r) Boring thecenter spindle Z- mortise through thebow M a r kt h el o c a t i oonf t h ec e n t esrp i n d l e onthebow,thendrilla holeat yourmark, usinga handbraceandspoonbiI (right). Angletheholeto matchtheslantof the s o i nlde .

mortises theremaining spindle Q Drilling r-J Referring illustration to theanatomy anda setof on page73, usea pencil c a l i p e tr os m a r kd r i l l i npgo i n tosnt h e (below). spindles bowfortheremaining T h e nd r i l tl h eh o l e s .

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Gluingthe bowto thearmandspindles gluein thespindle Spread mortises in thebowandin themortises forthebow in thearm,Fitthebowin position, tapping downalongitslenghwitha malletto seat the piecefully(ilghil.Installwedges in thetopendsof thespindles, repeating the p r o c e d uu r es e df o rt h es h o r st p i n d l e s @age100. Makesurethekerfsareperpendicular to thegrainofthebow.Trimthe wedges andspindles f lushwiththebow.

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Wedging the endsof the bow f, r . , l O n c et h e g l u es e c u r i n tgh e b o wh a s c u r e d f, i n i s ha s s e m b l i nt g h e c h a i rb y w e d g i n gt h e e n d so f t h e b o w .S e tt h e c h a i ru p s i d ed o w no n a w o r ks u r f a c e , clamping d o w nt h e a r ms o t h e e n d so f t h e b o we x t e n do f f t h e t a b l eb y a f e w i n c h e sT. h e nk e r ft h e e n d so f t h e b o w a n d g l u e i n w e d g e st,a p p i n gi n e a c h o n e w i t h a h a m m e r( b e l o w ) .

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AMILKPAINT FINISH rl- he traditionalfinishfor Windsor I chairsis milk paint,whichis thin enoughto allowwood grainto show through.Youcanbuythepaintin powderedform and mix it with wateror makeyour own by followingthe recipe presentedbelow.The blend provided wasusedin colonialtimesasan interior wall paint,whichyieldeda flat,lusoiled,or terlessfinishthatcanbestained, waxedoncethe surfaceis dry. To prosheen,eggwhiteican ducea semigloss be addedto the recipe.Their usehasa longtraditionin painting;eggtempera paintswereusedby someof the great masters. Renaissance Theabilityof milk paintto produce a finishthat is both durableand moisis somewhatof a mystery, ture-resistant but it is known that a chemicalreaction

occursbetweenthelacticacidin the milk and the lime,which is a base;lime is not simply addedasa thickener.Skim milk isusedbecause thefat in wholemilk reducinterferes with thecuringprocess, ing the paint'sdurability.Buttermilkor weretrathewheyfrom cheese-making for wholemilk. ditionalsubstitutes

A milkpaintfinishis beingbrushed Windsorchair. ontoa sack-back Thetransparency of milk paint, comparedto otherpaints,alongwith its tendencyto varyslightlyin hueacross thehanda surface,complements sculpted contoursof theWindsorchair. Thedarkgreenshownat right is a traditionalcolorfor Windsors.

A MILKPAINT FINISH PREPARING

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Combining andapplying theingredients of Paris. Testthe painton a scrappieceand andpour3 addmoreplaster To makeaboul2 quartsof milkpaint,weargloves (above). the hueof thefinish,addmorecoloring. Sprinkle 2 ounces let it dry.Todeepen cupsof skimmilkintoa container frequentLetthepaintsitfor t hour,thenbrushit on,stirring Thenstirin limeintothemilkandmixfor3 minutes. of slaked pig- ly.Sincemilkpaintraises thegrainof thewood,sandthesurAddcoloring, suchasartist's of plaster of Paris. 16 ounces finish.Adda thin layer coatsfora smooth usedforcoloring cement, or powdered facelightlybetween mentsor earthpigments thef inish. shellac, oil,orwaxto protect c h a l kl i k et h ek i n du s e di n c h a l kl i n e sT. ot h i c k etnh es o l u t i o n , of varnish,

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A]\TNESE,CRETARY QTIE,EN

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-l- h. secretary, of the Anotherusefi.rl component and a bookcase deskis thelockablelid. Thissafel- slant-top deskcombination, guards thecontents ofthe pigeonin BiitainandAmericain evolved holes,whileprovidinga quickway the18thGnturyandhasbeenpopto hideclutterbehindthefall-front. ulareversince.By settinga bookBoth the deskand bookcase caseatop a slant-topdesk,the derivemuchof theirstrenghfrom embodies thecloserelasecretary half-blinddovetails. Cuttingthese booksandwrittionshipbetween jointsby hand(page109)is timebooks ing.Until the19thCentury, but well worth the consuming, andsometimes werean expensive thehand-crafted effort,considering rarecommodityto be treasured. youwill obtain.The appearance A secretary offeredanidealwayto drawers canbemadewiththrough keepa preciouscollectionsafely jig dovetails cutwith a commercial Theweightof thefall-front in thesecretary onlyanarm'sreach behindglass, 116),and theend fea- shownaboveis borneby a pair of supportscalled andarouter(page TheQueenAnneversion away. turedin thischapterismoreelegant Iopers.In thedownposition,thefront becomes grainof thetailshiddenwith false fronts.Youcanalsousehalf-blind a leather-Iined writing surface.Theremovable thanthestolidfurniturethathallpigeonhole dovetails to attachthedrawerfronts, unit issetatopthedeskunit. but it is markedthe 17thCentury, therebydispensing with falsefronts. lessornatethansomeof theincarappliedto thefall-front(page121)addsa decsecretaries. Theveneer it, suchasChippendale-style nationsthatfollowed thefocusof theentirepiece. The orativeflairto thedesk,becoming usefulfeatures. Thedeskhalfof thepiecehasseveral veneer, but shownopposite usesbookmatched to become a largewriting Thesecretary veneered fall-frontcanbelowered "pigeonhole" Thisnetworkof optionsareshownonpage124.Ifyou planto otherattractive unit. andrevealthe surface consider buyinga vacuumpress(page servedasa primitive do a lot ofveneering, anddrawers dividers,compartments, portable, 124);otherwise, veneerpress(page125). usea shop-made precursor laptopcomputers. Completely to today's ofthe base(page128)and Thedesignandconstruction clerksin bygonedaysto taketheirofficesand theunit enabled but the informationwith themwhentraveling.Youcanadaptthe crownmolding(page134)mayappearcomplicated, presented and methods arenotdifficultto master pigeonhole designshownon page108,addingor removing time-tested woodmovetheinevitable more areimportantto accommodate theirspacing, or incorporating compartments, adjusting mentatthesewlnerablelocations. to fit yourneeds. drawers

Madefrom mahoganywith a clearlacquerfinish, the shownat left marrieselegance QueenAnnesecretary a slant-topdeskwith a bookusefulness, crowning with pieceoffurniture. to create a single, striking case

ANATOMYOF A QUE,ENANNE,SECRETARY DESK UNIT

ToP Jotned Lo eidee wiLh half-blind dovetaile

109)

Top of drawer seation Front edqe to hin4ed to fall-fronL: ende ftt tnto qroove in carcaee etdee

Eack panel Ftl,etnto rabbetecut alonqback ed7eeof carcaaepanele

Duet frame (page 112) 9upporLe drawer. AaEembled wtth plaLe jotnta; etde ptecee fiL tnT,oqrooveg tn carcaoe aideo

Drawer divider Aaeembledand fixed to dustframe below

Loper (page 115) 9upporte fall-front when tn down poeitron. Dowel4lued tnLo tnatdeface altdea tn elot in loper houeinq: ptecejotned Lo fronL end with eltdinq doveLail conceale end qrain

Loper houeing Featuree slot Lhat. qutdee loper; t.op edqe ftte tnto qroove tn underetde of drawer eectton Lop

9ide Joined to top and bottom with halfblind dovetailo

Leather inlay

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t Fall-front (page 122) Hin4ed Lo Lop of drawer eecLion;servee ao wntin4 eufface in down poetLton.0utetde face ie veneered;tneide face featurea leaLher inlay

Ease (pase 12o) Eottom JoinedLo aideewil,h half'blinddovetatla

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Layered base

molding

Eracket feet Olued1,o moltiinq

False front Olued Lo drawer front

Drawerbottom FiLgtnto 7rooveern front, back, and eidee

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QUEENANNE SECRETARY

, hemajorcompoucuts of theQueen . Annesecretary areshorvr.r in exploclThemostelabedforrr in thissection. oratepart-the deskrmit (poge106) is lvith drawers, essentially a carcase a f-allfi'ontandanopening fbr thepigeonhole unit.All thecornerjointsfbr thecarc.lse, thebookcase, anclthedrarvers aredovetailed.Thedrarvels aresupported b,vdust fl'arresattaclieclto thesicles. Toallorvfor nrlrlcln"ror,etr-tent in asa resultof changes

huuridity,the framesareglLred to the sidesonlynearthefront;screu,s driven throughelongated holesreinforce this Thefall-frontisflxedto the connection. Toease thestrain unitu,ithbutthinges. on thehingeswhenthefall-frontis let down,a pairof boards,callediopers, slideout to providesupport. (below)is Thebookcase anothersolwithshelves, id-panel cal'case a backpanel,andcrownmolding.Theshelves are

ToP AtLachedLo bookcaee wiLhwoodbutLone

(page130) BO0KCASE

Layered crown moldinq (page Ea) Eack rail TenoneaL endsftt tnLamorLteeetn etdee.Face i a n r n - r o 1 r . na r r n r y m n 4 a fe w o o d b u f t o n o f o r Lop; boLLom edge te rabbeted for back panel

-S5 fl

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ftrll,vadjustable; the,vsiton pinsthatcan be inserted at anyheightin the sides. Theglass doorsthatgracethebookcase anclprotectits contentsarehingedto thesidepanels. Thepigeonhole unit (pnge108)is a ll ith threedrau,ers srrallercarcase anda series of i,ertical dividels. Theunit rests atopthedralversection of thedesk,lvith stripsof moldingconcealing the gap betleen thetrvo.

\$f-;-

Eack panel FitE tnLorabbeLecuLalong backed7eoor carcabppaiet, Front facing rail Frovidea baEe for moldin4; joined to sidea with plaLejointe

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Shelf eupporE Ftte tnto aleevetneerted in hole dnlbd in etde panel

BOOKCASE GLASS D00R(page135)

door frame

9ide Jotned to baltltam with half'blrnd doveLaile

Bottom rail Gluedto backed7eof bottom panel;Lop edqete rab' beLedfor backpanel Eottom JotnedLo eideewiLh half'blinddovetatle

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Rail TenoneaL ende fit. int.o ettle morLteee

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Drawer Aaaembledwith rabbeta at front and dadoeaat back; bottom

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CUTTING LIST

1 Molding frameback

3t

1 Panel

3,6 LO/4 29'l

2 lVlolding framesides

3/

2 Rails

% 2 % 1 4

6 Bracketfeet

%

2 Stiles

lo

33X

2%

BUREAU: Carcase 17% 38 10,a 33)6

/o

1 Top

% 3/4 17U 33rA

I BackPanel

/4

32Y' 37Y, LT\A 32\A

1 Writingsurface

/,

2 Lopers

lo

2 Loperhousings

lo

33/o 17 331 17

6 Dustframestiles

lo

2

32y,

6 Dustframerails

2

1 Crossrail

% 31

4

1 Drawerdivider

lo

2

1 Muntin

/

0

2

3

3 Drawerbacks

)

1

2

8rl. 3 8

3A

4t5/a 15%

6 Drawersides

)lz '

3 1 2

8% 8 8

4\5/a 17

3 Bottoms

ta

75'A 16rt

B00KCASE: Carcase

2 Upperdrawerbottoms

5 i5

2 Sides

3/o

8%

35/4

2 Middlefrontandback

% 3l

5t'la

32%

I Top

3l

lr%

38

5t'/ro 17

1 Bottom

32rA

6

I Frontfacingrail

% 3A

8Y,

3A -/4

2 Middle sides 1 Middlefalsefront 2 Lowerfrontand back

32V

3Yo 33

6t5Au 3231"

I Backrail

%

3

31tt

3A

6t5/ta 17

I BottomRail

%

2

31rl

l3v,

1 Lowerfalsefront

3A

2 Drawerbottoms

Y^

7 33% 3r% 16h

1 Molding framefront

r3y,

% ,a

15%

BUREAU: Shallow Drawer

5

2 Frontand back

%

31Va 29\A

2 Sides

%

311ls 17

2 Molding sides 1 Backpanel

1 Falsefront

%

3%

B00KGASE: Doors

74

28% 16'i

I8%

1 Drawerbottom BUREAU: Pigeonhole Unit

2 Molding basesides

19',4

1 Molding framefront

%

3

\lz

3A

35/o

2

3t/"

3 Drawerfronts

2 Upperfalsefronts

',4 /o 3/o 3 ,l 3

1 Moldingbasefront

lX

0 r7'l 8

3/

35%

2 M o l d i nsgi d e s

9y,

'lz

3

4 Uppersides

,a

%

Bn

6 Arches

2 2 3

2 Lowersides

BUREAU: Base 1 Molding front

2 Drawersupports

,l

BUREAU: DeepDrawers 4 Upperfrontandback

2 Sides 1 Bottom

w

w

W BUREAU: FallFront

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4

29%

2 Topand bottom

2

81n

32tt

B Dividers andsides

v

8Y,

10%

r08

2 Molding framesides 1 Molding front(builtup)

2

3

6

b

2

11

r%

l%

3531

IU y^

1Y4 10% 29y, 323/o

4 Rails

"4 31

1 Glass-stop molding 2 Glasspanes

% % r 9 2 ',4 l2'/* 275A

4 Stiles

2

31%

2

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MAKINGTHE DESKUNIT rla he carcases of the deskunit and I bookcase form the two main parts In keepingwith thetwin of the secretary. requirementsof elegance and usefulness, with one of both piecesareassembled themostattractive-andsturdy-joints availableto the woodworker:the halfblind dovetail.The stepsshownbelow and on the following pagesfeaturethe connectionbetweenthe too and sides of the deskunit; but the sime proceduresapplyto thejoints at thebottom of the both the deskand bookcaseunits. Oncethe dovetailshavebeencut,you canmoveon to makingthe dustframes (page112)andtheloperhousings. The (page113)and carcase is thenassembled A platejoinercutsa slotin thestileof a dustframe;a stopblockdampedin placeholds the back panelis nailedin place(page theworkpiece squareto thetool.A woodbiscuitandgluewill beaddedto thesemicir115).Thefinal step,oncethe gluehas cularcut and thenfitted into a matingslotin a rail. Quickandeasyto make,the joint will bestrongandinvisible,enablingtheframeto supporta drawer. resulting cured,is installingthe lopers.

CUTTING HALF.BtIND D()VETAILS

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thepinsinthesides 1 Marking you gluedupthepanels I Once have and cutthemto therightsize,marktheiroutsidefaceswithanX.Secure oneof theside panels upright in a vise,thenseta cutting gauge to abouttwo-thirds thethickness of thesidesandmarka lineacross theendto indicate theendof thetails.Thelineshould becloser to theoutside face thantheinside of thepanel.Adjustthecuttinggauge to the stockthickness andscribe a lineontheinside faceof thesideio marktheshoulder line of thetails.Next,usea dovetail square to outline thepinsontheendsof theside; thewidepartof thepinsshouldbeonthe insidefaceof thepanel(/eft).Thereareno pins, strictguidelines forspacing dovetail butforstockof thedimensions orovided on page108,I%-inchevenly pinswith spaced %-inch tailsanda half-pin at eachedge joint. willmakefora strong andattractive Tocomplete themarking, extend thelines onthepanelendto theshoulder lineon its insideface.Markthewastesections withXsasyougo.

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QUE,ENANNE SECRE,TARY

r) Cutting the pins L L e a u i n g t hsei d ep a n e li n t h e v i s e , c u t a l o n gt h e e d g e so f t h e p i n sw i t ha dovetailsaw(lef), workingyourwayfrom l d g et o t h e o t h e r (. S o m ew o o d o n ep a n e e w o r k e rp s r e f e tro c u t a l l t h e r i g h t - h a n d dd g e s . ) e d g e sf i r s t ,t h e na l l t h e l e f t - h a n e H o l dt h e p a n e sl t e a d ya n da l i g nt h e s a w b l a d ej u s tt o t h e w a s t es i d eo f t h e c u t t i n g l i n e ;a n g l et h e s a wt o w a r dt h e w a s t et o a v o i dc u t t i n gi n t ot h e p i n s .U s es m o o t h , e v e ns t r o k e sa, l l o w i n tgh e s a wt o c u t o n t h e p u s hs t r o k eC . o n t i n uteh e c u t j u s tt o t h e s h o u l d elri n e ,t h e nr e p e atto s a wt h e p i n sa t t h eo t h e re n do f t h e p a n e l .

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outthewaste a< Chiseline

r J S e tt h e p a n e li n s i d e - f a cuep o n a w o r ks u f a c ea n dc l a m p a g u i d eb o a r dt o i t , a l r g n r n igt s e d g ew i t ht h e w a s t es i d eo f t h e s h o u l d elri n e .S t a r t i n g a t o n ee d g eo f t h e s t o c k ,h o l dt h e f l a t s i d eo f a c h i s eal g a i n st th eg u i d eb l o c k ; t h e b l a d es h o u l db e n o w i d e rt h a nt h e n a r r o w e spta r to f t h e w a s t es e c t i o nW . i t ht h e c h i s e lp e r p e n d i c u ltaort h e f a c eo f t h e b o a r ds, t r i k et h e h a n d l e w i t h a w o o d e nm a l l e t m , a k i n ga t / e - i n c h - d eceupt i n t ot h e ) .h e nh o l dt h e c h i s e lb e v e u w a s l e( a b o v e T l p a n ds q u a r et o t h e e n do f t h e b o a r da b o u tt / si n c hb e l o wt h e t o p s u r f a c e a n dp e e l

. ontinuu a w a ya t h i n l a y e ro f w a s t eC e n t i ly o ur e a c ht h e s c r i b e d s i t ht h e l i n eo n t h e e n do f t h e b o a r dt,h e nr e p e atth e p r o c e sw r e m a i n i nw g a s t es e c t i o n sP. a r ea w a ya n ye x c e s w s a s t ef r o m b e t w e etnh e p i n s ,c o m p l e t i nw g o r ko n o n ew a s t es e c t i o nb e f o r e m o v i n gt o t h e n e x t .P r e s st h e f l a t s i d eo f t h e c h i s e a l g a i n stth e b o t t o mo f t h e s e c t i o n w i t ht h e t h u m bo f y o u rl e f t h a n d ;w i t h y o u rr i g h th a n d p , u s ht h e c h i s etlo w a r d t h e s h o u l d el irn e ,s h a v ing awaythe lastsliversof waste(insef).Thenpareawayany w a s t ef r o mt h e s i d e so f t h e p i n s .

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QUEIIN ANNIl SECRETARY

Laying outthetails S e tt h e t o o o a n e o l u t s i d e - f a cdeo w n o n t h ew o r ks u r f a c ae n ds c r i b ea s h o u l d e r i n et h e t h i c k n e sosf t h e s t o c kf r o mt h e ond nf thp urnrknipnp Spnrrro : qrdp nan-

el n a handscrew t h,e nh o l dt h e p a n e l t o p - e n d o w nw i t hi t s i n s r d e f a c ea l i g n e d w i t ht h e l i n eo n t h et o p p a n e l l.V a k i ncge r t a i nt l a t t h e s t r a i g het d s e so f t h e b o a r d s a r ef l u s h ,c l a m pt h e h a n d s c r et w othe b e n c h .O u t l i n e t h e t a i l sw i t ha p e n c i l ( r t g h t ) . I h eenx t e n dt h e l i n e so n L h ep a n e i e n du s i n ga t r y s q u a r eM. a r ka l l t h ew a s t e s e c t i o nw i t h X s .

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Makingandgluingupthedustframes L C u t t h ep i e c e so f t h e d u s tf r a m e st o l e n g t ha n dd r i l le l o n g a t esdc r e wh o l e si n t h e r n dw i d e rt h a n e n d b o a r d st;o a l l o wf o r w o o dm o v e m e ntth, e h o l e ss h o u l db e l o n g e a sides. t h e s h a n k so f t h e f a s t e n e ryso uw i l l u s et o a t t a c ht h e f r a m e st o t h e c a r c a s e S a n da n yf r a m es u r f a c etsh a tw i l l b e d i f f i c u l t o r e a c ha f t e rg l u eu p .C u ta p l a t ej o i n t (photo,page109)at eachcornerof the frames,assemble the jointswith woodbiscuits a n dg l u e ,t h e ns e c u r teh e mw i t hb a rc l a m p sa, l i g n i n tgh e b a r sw i t ht h e e n dp i e c e sa n d protecting the stockwith woodpadshbovd. Makesurethe frontend pieceis recessed b y a n a m o u ne t q u a tl o t h e d e p t ho f t h e d a d o e ys o uc u t i n s t e p1 . W h e nm a k i n gt h e d u s tf r a m ef o r t h et w o n a r r o w edrr a w e r si n , c l u d et h e c r o s sr a i l ( p a g eJ 0 6 ) .

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l n dt o p N e x t .r o u tg r o o v eisn t ot h e u n d e r s r doef t h e t o p p a n e a f a c en f t h e r r n n e r m o ds u t s tf r a m et o a c c o m m o d a l h ee l o n e r h n r r q r n pSsn r e a bp d' l" r" r e"r ' n r h es l o t sa n dp r o o v e tsn. e nf i t t h e d r r s ft r a m e st o g e t h e u r .s i n sc l a r n n lso s e c r r r e ' hder a w e r . "otecr d i v i d e rt,h e l o p e rh o u s i n g sa .n dt h e f r a m e si n p l a c e P t h e s t o c kw i t hw o o dp a d sa n d u s ea t r y s q u a r et o c h e c kt h a t iho:c.c.pmhlv ic c.nrr:rp /shnvp

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g ea s s e m b l y a C l a m p i nt h r . J C r t t h e b a c kp a n e tl o f i t i n t ot h er a b b e l si n L h ec a r c a saen ds e ti t i n p l a c et:h e p a n ew l i l lh e i pk e e pt h ea s s e m b sl yq u a r e a s y o ut i g h t e nt h e c l a m p sP . r o t e c t i nt g he s t o c kw i t h l o n gw o o dp a d s i, n s t a lflo u r c a m p sa c r o s tsh e f r o n to f t h e a s s e m b l y ; snd a l i g nt h e b a r sw i t ht h e d u s tf r a m e a t o p p a n e ol f t h e d r a w eur n i t .R e p e atth e n r o . e sa q c r o s lsh e h a c ko f t n ec a r c a s e ( r i g h t )I.o a p p l yp r e s s u rteo t h e c e n t e ro f +h^ +^^ ^-^^t L rtr LUp pcrq,.

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Attaching thetopand bottom ofthedeskunit T e s t - f itth e d o v e t a i lj so r n r n tgh e t o p a n d b c t t o mp a n e l so f t h e d e s ku n i t t o t h e s i d e sc: o r r e cat n yo v e r l yL i g njto r r t sb y p a r i n ga w a yw a s t ew o o dw i t ha c h i s e. T h e n s n r e a d q l r r p o n i h p r - n n t : r ^ t i n o. , rr r f , a n p ,<a, n d

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INSTALLING THEL()PERS Fittingthe lopersin place l V l a kleo p e rb l a n k sa sy o ud i d t h e h o u s i n g s ( p a g el J 3 ) , g l u r n ga l o n g - g r a p i ni e c et o t h ef r o n te n dw i t ha s l i d i n g d o v e t a iTl .h e n s l i d ey o u rb l a n k si n t ot h e r rs l o t sb e t w e e n t h e h o u s i n gasn dt h e s i d ep a n e l sa. n c m a r kt h e mf l u s hw i t ht h e f r o n te d g eo f t h e l f t h e d ' a w e rL , n i ta: l s om a r k t o p p a n eo t h e l o c a t i o on f t h e h o u s i n sgl o t so n t h e l o p e r sC. u tt h e l o p e r tso l e n g t ha n dd r i l la d o w ehl o l ei n t oe a c ho n ei n l i n ew i t ht h e s l o to u t l i n el;o c a t et h e h o l es o t h e f r o n t e d g eo f t h e f a l l - f r o nwt i l l p r o l e cat b o u 2 l t o 3 i n c h e sb e y o n d t h e l o p e rw h e ni t i s . u tt h e d o w e l s1 l f u l l ye x t e n d e (dl e f t ) C i n c h e sl o n g t, h e ns p r e a dg l u ei n t h e d o w e l h n l e cS l i d pl h e r n n e rIsn l ot h e i rs l o t sa n d

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MAKING THE DRAWERS Thedeskunit drawersareassembled with throughdovetails,thena falsefront isgluedto thedrawerfront to conceal theendgrain of the taik. Thechamfer cut aroundtheperimeterof thefake front shownaboverecallsthetraditional practiceofbevelingtheendsand edges of veneered drawerfronts,whichpreventedtheveneerfrom beingtorn off whenthedrawerwasopenedand closed.

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thethrough dovetail ioints 1 Routing partsto fit theiropenings sideswillmatch.Installa top-piloted dovetail bit in the in thedeskunit, drawer I Sizethedrawer thetoolalongthetopof the withdovetails, cuttingthepinsin thefront routerandcutthetailsbyfeeding thenjointheboards Tocutthe template andmoving thebit in andoutof thejig'sslots(aboue, andthetailsin thesides. andbackof thedrawer, jig against thesidesof theslot witha routerandthe shownabove, screwthepin- left).Keepthe bit pilotpressed dovetails Repeat to routthetailsat theotherendof theboard boards, thensecure oneof throughout. andtail-board templates to backup (drawer sides.Thenusethecompleted tailsto endup in a benchvise.Protectingandrntheotherdrawer thetailboards sides) frontsandbacks. Secure a pin to thework- outline thepinsonthedrawer thestockwitha woodpad,clampthetailtemplate piecesotheunderside template to theboard is buttedagainst the boardin thevise,clampthepin-board of thetemplate andsecure thestopblock overtheoutline, Alsoclampa stopblockagainst oneedgeof withtheslotsaligned endof the board. right). sidesotheiailsat theotherendandin theother in place.Routthe pinswitha straightbiI (above, thedrawer

116

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r) Preparing the drawers L torbottompanels T h e b o t t o mo f e a c hd e s ku n i t d r a w efri t s i n t oa g r o o v ea l o n gt h e i n s i d eo f t h e d r a w e rD . r yf i t t h e p a r t st o g e i h e rt.h e n ge c l a m pt h e u n i ts e c u r e l yp ,r o t e c t i nt h the s t o c kw i t h w o o dp a d sa n d a l i g n i n g c l a m pb a r sw i t ht h e f r o n ta n d b a c k .F i t a routew r i t h a p i l o t e dt h r e e - w i nsgl o t t i n g c u t t e ra n d m o u n t h e t o o lt n a t a b l e . A dj u s tr h e b r t h e r g htto c u l t h eg r o o v e / , i n c hf r o mt l ' e d r a w e r ' b s o t t o me d g e . Qei iho

d'rzutar riohl qidp rrn nn thp t:hlp

a n d ,s t a r t i n ag t t h e m i d d l eo f o n es i d e , f e e dt t e s t o c ki n t ot h e c u t t e ra g a i n stth e d i ' e c t r oonf b i t r o t a t r o nK.e e pn g t h e p i t o t b u t t e da g a i n stth e w o r k p i e c e , bearrng (right).Continue feedthe drawerclockwise p v o t i n gt h e d r a w e ' o n t h et a b l eu n l i ly o u r e t u r nt o t h e s t a r t i n gp o i n t .U s ev e n e e r e d plywood f o r t h e b o t t o ma n dc u t t h e p a n e l t o f i t t h eo p e n i n g .

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Gluina g n dc l a m p i ntgh ed r a w e r s Q r - J F o rg t u eL r p m . a k ef o u "w o o dp a d sa s l o n pa s t h e h e r s hot ' t h e d r a w e rasn dc u t s m a l ln o t c h e si n t h e p a d ss o t h e yo n l y . preaa d t h i n ,e v e nl a y c o n t a ctth et a r l sS e r o f g l u eo n a I t h ec o n t a c t r nsgu r f a c e s . t h e na s s e m b lteh e d r a w e r as n d i n s t a l l t w o b a rc l a m p sa c r o s tsh e p r n b o a r d s . T i p h t e tnh ec l a . n n as l i t t l ea t a t i m eu n t : l ^r -r,,^ -nilppzps - ^-^il -*^,,^r d >llldll dlllUUllL Ul Bluc JgueuaeJ

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Chamfering the endsandedgesof thefalsefronts I C u tt h e f a l s ef r o n t st o f i t t h e d r a w eor p e n i n gisn t h e d e s k u n i t ,s u b t r a c t i n}g4 'i,n c hf r o mt h e l e n g t ha n dw i d t h .T o c h a m f e r t h e p e r i m e t eorf t h e f a l s ef r o n t s i,n s t a lal p i l o t e d4 5 " c h a m f e r i n gb i t i n a r o u t ea r n d m o u n t h e t o o l i n a t a b l e .A l i g nt h e f e n c ew i t ht h e b i t ' sp i l o tb e a r i n g a n da d j u s t h e h e i g h o t f the b i t t o c u t a l l b u t l . i n c ho f t h e f a l s ef r o n t ' se n d sa n de d g e s . C l a m pt w o f e a t h e r b o a rtdost h e f e n c e o , n eo n e a c hs i d eo f t h e b i t , t o s u p p o rtth e s t o c k .( l n t h e i l l u s t r a t i oanb o v et,h e f e a t h e r boardon the outfeedsideoJlhe-fencehasbeenremovedfor c l a r i t y .T) o r e d u c et e a r o u tc, h a m f etrh e e n d sb e f o r et h e s i d e s . F e e dt h e w o r k p i e caec r o s tsh e t a b l ew i t ha p u s hs t i c k ,u s i n g yourleft handto pressthe stockagainstthe fence(above).

r) Positioning thefalsefronts L Seteachdrawerface-upon a worksurfaceanddrivetwo b r a d si n t ot h e d r a w efrr o n t ,l e a v i n tgh e i rh e a d sp r o t r u d i n g . M a k es u r et h e b r a d sa r en o t l o c a t e d w h e r et h e d r a w e pr u l l w i l l b e i n s t a l l e dt h, e ns n i po f f t h e h e a d sa n d i n s t a ltl h e d r a w e irn t h e d e s ku n i t .C a r e f u l lpyo s i t i o tnh e f a l s ef r o n to v e r t h e d r a w e (r a b o v e ) . 0 n cyeo ua r es a t i sife dw i t ht h e p l a c e m e n t , p r e s sf i r m l y ;t h e p o i n t e de n d so f t h e b r a d sw i l l p u n c hi m p r e s s r o n si n t ot h e b a c ko f t h e f a l s ef r o n t .

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r n Gluinson thefalsefronts r - . 1 R e m o v et h e d r a w e ra n d s p r e a da thinlayeo r f g l u eo n t h e b a c ko f t h e f a l s ef r o n t .P l a c et h e f r o n ti n p o s i t i o n , w i t ht h e t w o b r a d sr n t h e i ri m p r e s s i o n s . Hnld the asspmhlv tnocther rrsinoh:r

c l a m p sa l o n gt h e t o p e d g eo f t h e f r o n t a n dd e e p - t h r o a t C e dc l a m p sa l o n gt h e h o t t o me d s e .n r o t e ctth e s t o c kw i t hw o o d p a d sw h e r en e c e s s a rTyi.g h t e nt h e c l a m p s e v e n l yu n t i lt h e r ea r en o g a p sb e t w e e n the falsefrontand Ihe drawer(rtghD.

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BUILDINGTHE PIGEONHOLEUNIT unit is madetofit Thepigeonhole betweenthetopsof thedeskand drawer Moldingcanbe sections of thesecretary. place gapbetween hide the in to tacked at left. You carcases, as shown thetwo omit the molding, leavingthe canalso pigeonholeunit removable.

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THEUNIT MAKING thearches 1 Rough-cutting illustration to theanatomy I Referring unit (page10&, ouIof the pigeonhole ona piece linetheshape of thearches plywood, cut it out,andsmooth of %-inch thatyou to fashion a template theedges jie will useto makea routing btep 2). assembling thejig,usethetemBefore plateto outlinesixcopies of theshapeon yourarchstock.Cutoutthearches to linesusing within%inchof yourcutting the bandsaw.To keepthe bladefrom of bindingin the kerfs,makea series release cutsthrough thewaste,stopping %inchfromthe lines.Thensawalongthe theworkwastesideof the lines,feeding piecewithbothhands(righ).I'liake sure handis in linewiththeblade. thatneither

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t I I r) Shaping thearches jig, prepare C- to complete the routing a guidepiecewitha tablein linewith,andalmost touching, thebit.Totrimthe n o t c ht o f i t t h ea r c hb l a n k s y ocuu t i n s t e p1 , a n df a s t e ni t arches to finalshape, holdthejigwithbothhands andpress to theiemplate, centering the notchoverthearchoutline. thetemplate at oneendof thearchpattern against thepivot Screwtwotoggleclamps to theguidepieceandsecure the bar.Thenpivotthejig andblankintothebit.Oncethetemfirstblankto thejig. Next,installa top-piloted flush-cutting platecontacts the pilotbearing, shapethearchbyguiding the bit in yourrouter, mountthetoolin a table,andadjustthe cutteralongit, starting pressed withthebearing against one bit heightsothe pilotbearing will rideagainst thetemplate. endof thepattern, ridingit along thetemplate, andstopping pivotbarto the whenit contacts To complete thesetup,clampa picket-shaped the opposite end(above).

Gluing uptheunit Cutthepartsof thepigeonhole unit to sizeandprepare themforassembly. In thetopandbottom, cut dadoes forthe dividers andrabbets forthesides;in the middletwodividers, cut dadoes forthe glueonthecondrawer supports. Spread tactingsurfaces andclamptheassembly securely; reinforce thejointswithfinishing nails.Makesixcurved clamping blocks to f it in the middlecurves of thearches. Whentheunitis ready, remove theclamps andapplyadhesive to thestraight edges of thearches, thenclampthemto theunit, usingthecurved clamping blocks to dis(left).Refertributethepressure squarely ringto the anatomy(pagel08),make threedrawers forthepigeonhole unit,rabbeting thedrawer frontsforthesidesand dadoing thesidesforthebacks. Attacha pullto eachdrawer front.

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MAKING THE FALL-FRONT Once theframe for thefall-front has been assembledand hinged to the deskunit, the leather top can beglued to the inside face. The leather should be cut slightly larger than the recess.Usecontactcement, hide glue, or thick wallpaperpaste to anach the material to the surface.Trim it to sizewith a craft knife, then smooth it down with a hand roller, as shown at left. The leathershould be treatedwith glycerine saddlesoaDoncea year.

PREPARING THEFRAME

theframeedges 1 Shaping to thefence,oneon andclamptwofeatherboards I C u tt h ef o u rf r a m ep i e c efso rt h ef a l l - f r o fnrto ma s i n g l e pilotbearing Feedthestock theworkpiece. eachsideof thebit,to support making thesecuts,shapeoneedgeof the board. Butbefore finishing thepasswitha pushstick.(lnthe mount facedown(above), 45'chamfering bitin yourrouter, board. Install a piloted thefeatherboard ontheoutfeed sideof thefencehas theheight ofthebitsoit willcuta illustration, thetoolin a table, andadjust forclarity.) beenremoved bevelintothestock.Alienthefencewiththebit %-inch-wide

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t r) Preparing theframeforthepanel panelsitsin a groove L me fall-front cutaround theinside edges of theframe. Install a piloted three-wing slotting cutter in therouter andalignthefencewiththe bit'spilotbearing. Adjust thebit height so thetopedgeof thecutteris centered on theedgeof thestock.Sincethegroove willhaveto accommodate boththeoanel gluedto it,youwillneed andtheveneer at leasttwopasses to routa sufficiently widegroove. Feed thestockasin step1, r r d r ntgh eu n c h a m f e reeddg ea l o n g the f e n c ef;i n i s ht h ep a s sw i t ha p u s hs t i c k . Thenturnovertheworkpiece andrepeat (right). to widenthegroove Now,cutthe fourframepieces to length, mitering the panelis ready, ends.Oncetheveneered theframewillbeassembled usingplate joints.(Thef inished frame, along withthe panel, veneered isshown on page104.)

A VARIETY OFVENEERED PANETS

5lip matah Often ueed to dramatic effecL; reduceedietortion cauoed by liqht refraction problemowhen book-matchin4

End-to-end A mirror-imagepattern featurin4 flat-cut veneerewiLh promtnent landacape fi4 ure

Eook match A repeatinqpathern in whichadjoining eheetoof veneerappear1;oradiate from the joint; bef,ween Lhem, likethe paqeoof an openbook

Eutt-and-book match CommonlyuaedwiLhbutt, crol;ch, and etump veneerato create an unfoldin4. circuIa r effecL

Herringbone Veneerfiqure runo diaqonallyoff each eheeL,creaLinn

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PANEL MAKING THEVENEERED pattern theveneer 1l Creatins -

I C o v etrh e o u t s i d e f a c eo f t h e f u l l J r o n t p a n ew l i t hv e n e e rY. o uc a n b u yr e a d y matched s h e e t sa n dg l u et h e md o w na s - i s y o r m a k e o u ro w nm a t c h r, e f e r r i ntgo o n e o f t h e p a t t e r n si l l u s t r a t e d o n p a g eI 2 2 ; featuredin this chapteruses the secretary mka t c h T . o a p p l ym o r e a butt-and-boo t h a no n es h e e o t f v e n e etro a p a n efl a c e with a veneerpress(page124),Iapethe sheetstogetherandgluethem downas a u n i t .S t a r tb y a l i g n i n tgh e s h e e t se d g et o e d g eo n a w o r ks u r f a c eg,o o d - s i duep ,t o p r o d u ca e v i s u a l l iyn t e r e s t i npga t t e r nT. h e combined l e n g t ha n dw i d t ho f t h e v e n e e r s h o u l de q u atl h ed i m e n s i o n o sf t h e p a n e l . 0nce you havea satisfactory arrangement, tapethe sheetstogetherusingveneer Iape (left).

press Setting upa vacuum F e a t u r i nags e a l e dv a c u u mb a ga n da 5 - c f m( c u b i cf e e t p e r m i n u t e v) a c u u m p u m p ,t h e p r e s ss h o w ni n s t e p3 c a n e x e r tp r e s s u rger e a t etrh a n 1 , 0 0 0p o u n d s persquarefoot.The pressworksby withd r a w i n gm o s to f t h e a i r f r o mt h e b a g :t h e r e s u l t i nogu t s i d ea i r p r e s s u rsee c u r etsh e v e n e e rT. o s e t u p t h e p r e s sc, u t t h e p l a t e n a n d c a u lt o t h e s a m es i z ea s y o u rs u b s t r a t ep a n e lt i g h ) . f h e p l a t e ns h o u l db e m a d ef r o mm e d i u m - d e n sfi it by e r b o a rodr p a r t i c l e b o aar d t l e a s t% i n c ht h i c k .C u t t h e c a u lf r o ma n yt y p eo f m a n u f a c t u r e d b o a r d( o t h e trh a np l y w o o da)t l e a s t% r n c h t h i c k .T o p r e p a rteh e p l a t e nr, o u n do v e r i t s c o r n e rtso a v o i dt e a r i n gt h e b a g ,t h e n c u t a g r i do f g r o o v e Is i n c hd e e pa n d w i d ea c r o s si t s s u r f a c es, p a c e d4 t o 6 i n c h e sa p a r t .F i n a l l yb, o r ea ' l ' - i n c hh o l e 2 i n c h e sf r o mo n ee n do f t h e p l a t e na n d i t s e d g e sS centereb detween . l i pt h e sleeve s u p p l i e dw i t h t h e p r e s si n t ot h e holeT . h es l e e v e w i l l e n s u r ea t i g h tc o n nection w r t ht h e v a c u u mh o s e .

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Veneerins the nanel r - , 1 U s et h e v a c u u mp r e s st o g l u et h e v e n e e d r o w nt o t h e p a n e l ,f o l l o w i n tgh e m a n u f a c t u r e ri 'nss t r u c t i o n sF.o rt h e m o d e l s h o w n ,i n s e r t h e h o s ei n t ot h e n i p p l ei n t h e b o t t o mo f t h e p r e s sb a g .T h e np l a c et h e p l a t e ni n t h e b a ga n ds l i d et h e n i p p l e i n t ot h e p l a t e ns l e e v eS. e tt h e s u b s t r a tpea n e lo n a w o r k c r r r f : n p : n n l v t h p o l r r o e n d l a v t h o v, o- n , ,p-o-r , t.a-ny e - s r ouep 0 n

t h e s u b s t r a t eP. l a c ea p i e c eo f w a x p a p e ro v e rt h e v e n e e r , r e s tt h e c a u lo n t o p ,a n d p l a c et h e a s s e m b layt o pt h e p l a t e n . S e a lt h e b a g ,t u r no n t h e p u m pa n d l e a v et h e a s s e m b luyn d e r . ost p r e s s u rfeo r t h e r e c o m m e n d el de n g t ho f t i m e ( a b o y e )M s i l l a u t o m a t i c a lsl yh u to f f w h e nt h e a p p r o v a c u u mp r e s s ew p r i a t eo r e s s u r e h a sb e e nr e a c h e d .

Assembling thefall-front Oncetheveneer hasbeensecured, remove t h e t a p ea n dg e n t l ys a n ds u r f a c e s t h a t w i l l b e d i f f i c u l t o r e a c ha f t e rt h e f r a m ei s g l u e dt o g e t h e rR. e a d yt h e f r a m e piecesfor platejoints (page109), applyi n gt h e g l u ea n d w o o db i s c u i t sa t t h e m i t e r e de n do f t h e b o a r d sD . on o ti n s e r t l r o o v e st h; e a n ya d h e s i vien t h e p a n e g p a n e lm u s t b e f r e et o m o v e .T o p r e v e n t t h e w o o db i s c u i t sf r o m e x p a n d i n b gefore e v e r y t h i nigs p u t t o g e t h e ra, s s e m b lteh e f r a m ea s q u i c k l ya s p o s s i b l ef i,t t i n gt h e f ramespiecesto the panel (right).V,'lilh w o o dp a d sp r o t e c t i ntgh e f r a m e ,s e c u r e t h e p l a t ej o i n t sw i t h b a rc l a m p s .

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VENEER PRESS hardwood, and Madefromplywood, pressscrews, sixf-inch-long theinexpensive press veneer shop-built shown below willworkaswellasa commercialmodel. Thedimensions orovided i n t h ei l l u s t r a t i w o ni l ly i e l da p r e s s c a p a b loef v e n e e r i npga n e lus pt o 1 6 b y2 9 %i n c h e s . Startbycuttingtherailsandstiles fromhardwood. Borethreeequidistantholesthrough themiddleof each toprail,sized slightly larger thanthe diameter of the oressscrewcollars jointherails youwillbeusing. Next, frames. andstilesintotworectangular

into Theoress in theillustration isassem- collars, thentapping thecollars bledwithopenmortise-and-tenon theholesin thetoprailsfromunderjoints(inset),butthroughdovetails n e a t hS. l i ot h et h r e a d esde c t i o n s joinery canalsobeused.Whichever intothecollars andreattach themto youuse,reinforce method eachjoint theswivelheads. To usethe press, withglueandthreescrews. applytheglue Nowcutthepieces forthebaseand andlaytheveneer tape-side up on caulto size.Botharemadefromtwo thesubstrate. Settheoanelonthe pieces plywood face-glued baseof thepress, veneered-face down of %-inch Toassemble witha stripof waxpaperbetween andscrewed together. andthebase.Starting in the press, setthetwoframes ontheir theveneer sidesona worksurface andscrew the the middleof the panelto prevent baseto thebottomrails,drivrng the adhesive frombecoming trapped, fasteners fromthebottomof therails. t i g h t e n t h ep r e s cs l a m p os n ea t a Attachthepressscrews to thetoprails timeuntila thingluebeadsqueezes removing outfromunder by the swivelheadsand theoanel.

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1tile 1/,"x3"x12"

Open mortiaeana-tenon JotnE

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ATTACHING THEFALL-FRONT T()THEDESKUNIT thehinsemortises 1I Makins I

U s ey o u rt a b l es a wt o c r , ra - i n c h -

w i d c r : h h p t ( n a p p 5 Q ) a l n n o t h p c . i d p qn f

. e g i rw i t ha s h a l t o w L h ef r a m e B d e p t ho f c u t . i n c r e a s i nt hgeo e p t hb y i n c nw i t h e a c hn a s sl n t i l t h e f a l l - f r o n tb' so t t o m e d g ei s i n c ha b o v et h et o p o f t h e d r a w e r u n i tw h e nt h ef a l l - f r o ni ts i n p o s i t i o n . 0 n c ey o ua r es a t i si fe dw i t ht h e f i t , l a yt h e f a l f r o n tv e n e e r - f a cdeo w no r t h e l o p e r sa n d b u t t t h e b o t t o me d g ea g a i n s t t h e t o o o f t h e d r a w esr e c t i o nP. o s i t ' o n a n do u t l i n et h e t h r e eh i n g e o snthe ^;^^^^^^;^ +L^ -;t:t^ prtrLq)-uilg iltItc ililuutv

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n e a rt h es r d e s c e n t e r i ntgh eh i n g ep r no n t h e s e a mb e t w e etnh ef a l l J r o nat n dt h e c a r c a s eT.o c u t t h e h i n g em o r t i s e s . instaa l l , 1 - i n csht r a i g hbti t i n y o u r o u t e r . s e tt h e c u t t i n gd e p t ht o t h e h i n g el e a f t h i c k n e s sa ,n dc u t o u tt h ew a s t ei n s i d et h e o u t l i n eU. s ea c h i s e la. c a r v i nggo u g ea. n o a woodenmalletto pareto the line (left). T e s lf i l I n e h i n p e si n t h e i rm o r t i s easn d u s et h ec h r s etro d e e p e n o r w r d e na n yo f +h^

Attaching thefall-front to thedeskunit ! Z - S e tt h e h i n g e sn t h e r "n o r t i s e sr nt h e d e s ku n i ta n dm a r kt h es c r e wh o l e st,h e n r p hinop lpavpc. d r r l l n , l n t h n l e s z n d q c r e r , t\ h

i n p l a c el.e a v i ntgh ef a s t e n e a r s i t t l el o o s e . M a r kt h ed r r l l r ndge p t ho n t h ed r i l lb l t b y w " a p pn g a s t r i po f m a s k i n tga p ea r o u ' r d ir. Next,extendthe lopersandsetthe fal f r o n rt r p o s i t i o ns .l r p p , ntgh ef r e eh i n g e l e a v eisn t ot h e i rm o r t i s e sM. a r kt h es c r e w h o l e sd, r i l lp i l o th o l e sa, n ds c r e wt h e h r n g etso t h ef a l l - f r o ntth, e nf i n i s ht i g h t e n inga I the screws(right).lf youareusing brassscrews.be carefulrot to overtighten t h e mo r t h e yw r l lb r e a kl.t i s a g o o di d e at o d r i v ei n a s t a n d a rw d o o ds c r e wf i " s tr o t a p t h ep i l o th o l e .

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INSTALLING THEFALL-FR()NT L()CK

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0utlining thelockfaceplate -

I O p e nt h e f a l l - f r o nt to i t s d o w np o s i t i o na n dp l a c et h e l o c kf a c ed o w no n t h e t o p f r a m ep i e c es o t h e k e ys h a f tw i l l b e c e n t e r eb d e t w e etnh e s l d e st;h e l o c k s h o u l da l s ob e f l u s hw r t ht h et o p e d g eo f t h e p a n e l l. f t h e k e ys h a f ti s o f f - c e n t ear ,s i s t h e c a s ew r t ht h e l o c ks h o w ny, o uw i l l n e e dt o u s ea t a p em e a s u raen da t r y s q u a r et o m a r kt h e m i d d l eo f t h e f a l l - f r o n t and alignthe keyshaftwith iI (left).Drill t h e h o l ef o r t h e k e ys h a f ta n d i n s e rtth e s h a f t h r o u g ht h e h o l e .O n c et h e l o c ki s p r o p e r lpyo s i t i o n e tdr,a c et h e o u t l i n eo f t h e l o c kf a c e p l a t et h, e ne x t e n dt h e l i n e s o n t ot h e t o n e d c eo f t h e f a l l - f r o n t .

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Routing the lockmortise L S t a r tb y u s r n ga c h i s e tl o c u t a s h a l l o wm o r t i s ef o r t h e f a c e p l a tlei p i n t h et o pe d g eo f t h e f a l l - f r o nN t . e x t i, n s t a lal s t r a i g hbt i t i n y o u rr o u t e rs, e tt h e c u t t i n gd e p t ht o t h e f a c e p l a t et hi c k n e s sa,n dc u t a m o r t i sw e i t hi n t h e m a r k e d outline. I J s et h e c h r s etlo s c r . a rteh e. n r n e r q a r d n a r et n t h e l i n e T o c u t t h e m o r t i s ef o r t h e l o c kh o u s i n gm , e a s u rteh e d r s t a n c e --^r^r^ ^-! -..-:h o l u r p p n l h o p d o p c n, f, f.h, p, rr-a c e p r a4 l e1 0+I nL -e Lr O usrng 4 ,1 0l r a n s f e r y o u rm e a s u r e m etnot t h e m o r t i s eT. h e nJ S ea c a r v , n g ) .e s t -i ft t h e l o c ki n t h e g o u g et o c u t t h e f i n a lm o r t i s e( a b o v e T c a v i t ya n du s et h e c i i s e lo r g o u g et o d e e p e o n r w i c e na r y o f t h e m o r t i s e si f, n e c e s s a rF y .i n a l l ys, c r e wt h e l o c ki n p l a c e .

-) Installins thestrikenlate <'

J F i t t h e k e yi n t ot h e l o c k .T o l o c a t et h e s t r i k ep l a t ef o r t h e b o l t ,t u r nt h e k e yt o e x t e n dt h e b o l ta n d u s ea p e n c i tl o c o a t t h e e n do f t h e b o l tw i t hg r a p h i t eR. e t r a ctth e b o l ta n ds w i n g t h e f a l l ' f r o ntto t h e c l o s e dp o s i t i o nE. x t e n dt h e b o l ta g a i n stth e u n d e r s i doef t h e c a r c a steo p t o m a r ki t s l o c a t i o nA. l s oe x t e n d l n d m a r ki t s s i d e s t h e b o l ta g a i n stth e e d g eo f t h e t o p p a n e a o n t h e t n n ( a h n v e )P o s i t i o tnh e s t r i k en l a t eo n t h e c a r c a s e l a r k sO t o p ,c e n t e r i ni gt s o p e n i n og n t h e p e n c im . u t l i n teh e p l a t e t, h e nc u t a s h a l l o wr e c e s fso r i t a n da d e e p em r o r t i s ef o r t h e b o l t .F i n a l l ym , a r kt h e p l a t e ' ss c r e wh o l e sb, o r ea p i l o t h o l ea t e a c hm a r k ,a n df a s t e nt h e p l a t ei n p o s i t i o n .

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Thebonomofthe desk secretary's unit sitson a base supportedby bracketfeetat each corner.Thebottom edgesofthe carcase areconcealedby molding whichis attachedto the base,but notglued to thecarcase.This allowsthepanels of thedeskunit to movewith changes inhumiditywithout damaging themolding.

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R o u t i ntgh em o l d i n g 1 I C u ta b o a r dl o n g ear n dw i d e rt h a ny o u sf molding. w i l l n e e df o r t h et h r e ep i e c e o l n s t a l la R o m a no g e eb i t ( i n s e t )i n y o u r r o u t ea r n d m o u n t h e t o o li n a t a b l e .A l i g n t h e b i t ' sp i l o tb e a r i n g w i t ht h e f e n c ea n d a d j u s t h e c u t t i n gh e i g h t o l e a v ea f l a t l i p n o m o r et h a n% i n c ht h i c ko n t h e e d g e of the stockabovethe molding.Mounttwo f e a t h e r b o a rodns t h e f e n c ea n d o n eo n t h e t a b l et o s e c u r et h e w o r k p i e c e( l.n t h r s illustration t h, e f e a t h e r b o a or dn t h e o u t f e e ds i d eo f t h e f e n c eh a sb e e nr e m o v e d f o r c l a r i t y .T ) u r no n t h e t o o l a n d f e e d ihp c.innk lriohf I f n r-nmnlptp thp n:c.s

m o v et o t h e o u t f e e ds i d eo f t h e t a b l ea n d p u l lt h e s t o c kt h r o u g ht h e e n do f t h e c u t . M a k es e v e r apl a s s e si ,n c r e a s i nt g h ew i d t h o f c u t % i n c ha t a t i m e .R i pt h e m o l d i n g s t r i p sf r o mt h e b o a r do n y o u rt a b l es a w , t h e nc u t t h e mt o l e n g t hm . i t e r i n gb o t h e n d so f t h e f r o n tp i e c ea n dt h e f r o n te n d o f t h e s i d ep i e c e s .

r) Gluinu g pt h eb a s e L C u t t h er a i l so f t h e m o l d r n fgr a m ea n d m o l d i n gb a s et o l e n g t hm , itering b o t he n d s o f t h e f r o n tp i e c e sa n dt h e f r o n te n do f t h es i d en i e c e s . n mtiht e b a c kr a i lf o rt h e b a s eJ. o i nt h e c o r n e r os f t h e f r a m e sw i t h p l a t ej o i n t s( p a g e1 0 9 ) a n d c l a m pt h e m a s y o ud i d t h e d u s tf r a m e s( p a g e1 1 2 ) . N e x tg, l u et h e m o l d i n g b a s et o t h e u n d e r sideof the frameso the sidesof the base e x t e n db e y o n d t h e f r a m eb y a b o u t1 i n c h . Thencut the bracket feeton yourbandsaw. S p r e a dg l u eo n t h e c o n t a c t i nsgu r f a c e s b e t w e e tnh e m o l d i n gp i e c e st,h e b r a c k e t f e e t ,a n dt h e m o l d i n gb a s et.h e nf i t t h e p i e c e st o g e t h ear n dc l a m pt h e a s s e m b l y , protecting the stockwith woodpads(left). O n c et h e a d h e s i vhea sc u r e d ,r e m o v e the ^t^-^^ Lrdilrp5

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P l a c ea s l e e v eo n t h e e n do f t h e p u n c h a n dp u s hi t f i r m l yi n t oo n eo f t h e h o l e s i n a s i d en a n e l( a h o v p )l n s e r a t sleeve y o u i n t oe a c hh o l e d r r l l e d . 0 n cyeo u h a v er r s t a l l e d a l l t h e s l e e v e sr ,n s e r t s h e l fs r r n n o r il ns l ot h es l e e v east e a c r s h e l fl o c a t i o n( i n s e t ) .

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ASSEMBTING THECARCASE upthesides, bottom, andrails 1 Gluing pieces I Cuttheremaining of thebookcasecarcase to size-the bottom,the rails,andthe backpanel.Next,sawa rabbet alongthebackedges of thesides andbottom forthebackpanel. Cutblind tenonsat bothendsof the backrail (page 59 anddrilla matching mortise(page58) o n t h e i n s i d ef a c eo f e a c hs i d ep a n e l . Witha platejoiner,makeslotsfor biscuits in thefrontandbottom rails,andmating onesin thesides. Usehalf-blind dovetails (page109)Iojointhesidesto thebottom of thebookcase, cuttingthe pinsin the sidesandthetailsin the bottom. Then glueon the contacting spread surfaces of all thepieces, inserting woodbiscuits whereappropriate, andf it themtogether. Protecting the stockwithwoodpads, installtwobarclampsacross eachside, positioning theclampjawsonthefrontand backrails,theninstall twomoreclamps across the backandbottomrails.Tighten (left)untila thinglue theclampsevenly beadsqueezes outof thejoints.Finally, nailthebackpanel(page115)in place.

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r) Routing a groove forthetoppanel L to attachthetop panelto thebookcaseusingwoodbuttons, asshownin t h i ss e c t i o ny,o uw i l l n e e dt o r o u ta groove forthe buttons alongthetopof thecarcase. Fityourrouterwitha piloted three-wing slotting cutterandsetthe tool'scuttingdepthto locatethegroove aboulYzinchbelowthe top edgeof the guide carcase. Starting nearonecorner, the routeralongthe top edge(right). Movethetoolin a clockwise direction, keeping the baseplateflatandthe bit's pilotbearing pressed against thestock.

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Making thebuttons c u t o f f t h e b u t t o n sa b o u tI I i n c h e sf r o mt h e e n d s( i n s e f ,T) .o m a k eh o l e si n t h e b u t t o nfso r i n s t a l l a t i ouns, ea n L - s h a p ecdo r n e r ^-^ j i g f a s h i o n efdr o ma s c r a po f I - i n c h p l y w o o a : c i n o p h n : r d . m : L p t n p i h i c k n p c q n f t h p s r n a k e- lful o' I- r +L ^U r1fi,l ^t r E d n dt w o p i e c e so f OP . l a m pt h ej r gt o y o u rd r i l lp r e s st a b l ea n ds t e a d tyh e b u t oetweerLnebottonof the grooveand Lie top edgeof the carcase. w o o dC e t e a c he n do f t h e n a d ef r o ms c r a pw o o d .D r i l t h r o u g ht h e t o n sw i t ha h o l d - d o wm l e s sI i n c h .C u ta r a b b etto f r t t h eg r o o v a s n t h e u n r a b b e t epdo r t i o nos f t h e b u t t o n s( a b o v e ) . b o a r dt,h e nr i p t h e b o a r dr n t o1 - r n c hs t r i p so n y o u rb a n ds a wa n d c e n t e r o Vn, rinrill nppd tn n l : n p , ru u i n n d h r t t n n e v p n r 6 i n r - h p s a l n n o t h p P'uuu

t n n p c p e n f ' h e c a r c . : s eC r r ts e v p r a l h v - l - i n r : hb l t r o n s f r o m

Attaching thetop C l t h e b o o k c a steo p t o s i z e ,t h e . t s h a n ei t s e n d sa r d e d g e so n a r o u t e r I a b l e( p a g eJ J 8 ) , u s r n ga d e c o r a t t v e m o l d i n gb r t .S e it h e t o p o u t s i d e - f a c e e n dp o s i t i o n tie d o w no n a w o r ks u r { a c a c a r c a soen l o n . F i t t h e r a b b e t eedn do f a w o o db u t t o ni n t ot h e g r o o v ei n o n eo f t h e s i d en a n e l a s n di r s e r ta n o t l e r r t ot h e p r o o v ier t h e b a c kr a i la b o u 6 t inches a w a yD . r i l la p i o t h o l et h r o u g thh eh o l e i r t i e b u t t o ra n di r t o t h et o p .L h e ns c r e w a lt h e b u t t o n si n p a c e ( l e f t ) l,e a v i n g r n c hg a pb e t w e etrn e l i p p e de n d so f t h e b u t t o n sa n dt h e b o t t o no f t h e g r o o v e . I n s t al t h e r e m a r n r nbgu t t o n ss.o a c ; n g t h e me v e r y6 i n c h e s .

QUEENANNE SECRETARY

MAKING ANDINSTALLING CR()WN MOLDING 'l t

Making themolding andattaching theframe -

I F i x e dt o t h e u n d e r s i doef t h e b o o k c a steo p a n d f l u s h a g a i n stth e c a r c a s et h , e c r o w nm o l d i n gc o n s i s tos f t h r e el a y e r s ( i n s e t )C. u tt h e m o l d i n gf r a m ep i e c e st o l e n g t hm , i t e r i n gb o t h e n d so f t h e f r o n tp i e c ea n dt h e f r o n te n d o f e a c hs i d ep i e c e . C r e a t teh e b u i l t - u p m o l d i no g n t h e r o u t etra b l ea sy o ud i dt h e b a s em o l d i n g( p a g e1 2 9 ) ,u s i n gt w o d i f f e r e not g e eb i t sf o r t h e narrow a n dw i d e rp i e c e sC. u tt h e m o l d i n gt o l e n g t hm , itering t h e p i e c e as sy o ud i d t h ef r a m eS . t a r tb y i n s t a l l i nt g h em o l d i n g f r a m eF . o rt h e s i d ep i e c e sd,r i l la n e l o n g a t ehdo l et h r o u g e ha c h b o a r dn e a rt h e s t r a i g het n d ;t o a l l o wf o r w o o dm o v e m e nst ,p r e a d g l u eo n o n l yt h e f i r s t2 i n c h e so f t h e t o p f a c ea t t h e m i t e r e d e n d .N o w ,s e tt h e b o o k c a st eo p - d o w o n n a w o r ks u r f a c e and positioo n n es i d ep i e c eo n t h e u n d e r s i doef t h e t o p . i n s t a l al b a rc l a m pt o s e c u r et h e m i t e r e de n d a n d d r i v ea w o o ds c r e w t h r o u g ht h e e l o n g a t ehdo l ea n d i n t ot h e t o p t o f i x t h e b a c ke n d ( l e f t ) .R e p e afIo r t h e o t h e rs i d e ,t h e ni n s t a ltl h e f r o n tp i e c e s p r e a d i nggl u ea l o n gi t s e n t i r el e n g t h .

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t r ) A p p l y i ntgh em o l d i n g f - l l e c r o w nn o d r n gr sf a s t e n e tdo t h e b o o k c a sien t w os t e p s : T h ew i d e rs t r i p sa r ea t t a c h e fdi r s t ,f o l l o w e d b yt h e n a r r o w e r p i e c e so n t o p .S p r e a da t h i n l a y e ro f g l u eo n t h e b o t t o mf a c eo f t h e w i d e rs t r , p s t, a k n g c a r en o l L og e t a n yg l u eo n t h e e d g e s s i n c et h e m o l d t n sg h o u l do n l yb e f i x e dt o t h e m o l d i n fgr a m e , a n d n o tt o t h e c a r c a s eS. e tt h e s t r i p so n t h e m o l d i n gf r a m e , e d g e sf l u s ha g a i n stth e b o o k c a s em, a k i n gs u r et h a tt h e m i t e r e d e n d sb u t tt o g e t h ecr l e a n l yb e f o r ec l a m p i n g t h e m o l d i n gi n p l a c eO . n c et h e a d h e s i vhea sc u r e dr, e m o vteh ec l a m p sa n d r e p e a t h e p r o c e s fso r t h e n a r r o w em r o l d i n gs t l p s ( r i g h t ) . C u t t i n gw o o dp a d sw i t h c o n v e xc u r v e sm a t c h i n tgh e c o n c a v e p r o ifl e o f t h e m o l d i n w g i i l n o to n l yp r o t e ct th es t o c k b, u ta l s o h e r pd i s t r r b u ct e, a n p i n gp r e s s u reev e n l y .

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An escutcheon isfastenedto oneof the shownat left.On doorsof thebookcase are thispiece,thekeyand escutcheons purelydecorative. Thedoorsareactually catches heldshutbyspringJoaded on the inside installed facesof thestiles bottom of the doors. nearthe

DOORS MAKING FRAME.AND.PANEL

thetenonin therails 1 Gutting on the doorsof the bookcase in a testmortise(step4), thenrepeatthe process I Startmaking theframe-and-panel bycuttingblindtenonsat theendsof all therails.To dothe otherendof the boardandontheotherrailshbove,left).To jobon yourtablesaw,installa dadoheadslightly setthecuttingheightat about% widerthan cutthetenonshoulders, the mitergauge woodfenceandnotchit inch.Then,withtherailfaceflushagainst Attachan auxiliary thetenonlength. thefence,feedtheworkpiece andtheendbuttedagainst by raising thedadoheadintoit. Setthewidthof cut equal thecut on the intothe blades. Turntherailoverandrepeat to thetenonlengthandadjustthecuttingheightto about right).Cutthe restof the tenonshoulders therailflush otherside(above, of thestock.Holding one-third thethickness molding ontheinsideedges integrated against the mitergaugeandthefence,feedthestockface- thesameway.Fashion Turnthe board of the doorframeson a routertable(page129) usinga pilotdownintothe blades to cut onetenoncheek. e d m o l d i nbgi t . overandmakethesamecut on theotherside.Checkforf it

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r) Preparing therailsforglueup Z- me corners of thetenonshoulders mustbe mitered to mateproperly with thestiles. Remove theauxiliary fence from thetablesawfenceandinstall a crosscut or combination blade. Settheblade angle to 45",makea testcut in a scrapboard, andchecktheresult witha combination s q u a r eA.d j u stth ef e n c ep o s i t i oann d b l a d eh e i g hst ot h ec u t i s a sw i d ea n d d e e pa st h ew i d t ho f t h ee d g em o l d i n g . (Thebladeteethshouldjustprotrude beyond thetenonshoulder.) Tomakethe cuts,holdthepieceflushagainst thefence andmitergaugeasyoufeedit edgedown i n t ot h eb l a d eR . e p e at ht ec u t so nt h e endsof eachmolded edgeof theremainingrails(left).

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Notching thestiles L e a v et h e t a b l es a wb l a d ea n g l e da t 4 5 " , m e a s u rteh e w i d t h the45" cut andeachendof thestilewitha bandsaw(above,

of eachrail,andmarka lineonthemolded edgeof itsmating stilea conesponding distance fromtheend.Cutintothemolded edgeat theline,making certain thatthecutwillnotmarthe faceof thestile.Sliceoff mostof thestripof molding between

/eff).Smooth thecutedgeusingthetablesaw.Leaving therip fencein place, holdthestileflushagainst themitergauge, and slidethestockbackandforthacross the blade(above, righD. Repeat theprocess forallthestiles.

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mortises inthestiles Cutting youcutinstep1 Useoneofthetenons a s a g u i d et o o u t l i n i n gt h e m o r t i s eos n ihp pdops of thp stiles pacipr

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t o f a c ew i t ht h e i re n d sa l i g n e dI.n s t a lal mortisina g t t a c h m e notn y o u rd r i l l p r e s s a n dc l a m po n es t i l et o t h e f e n c e c, e n t e r i n gt h e m o r t i s o e u t l i n eu n d e tr h e c h i s e l a n d b i t . M a k et h e d r i l l i n gd e p t hl . i n c h ; a k ea c u t a t m o r et h a nt h e t e n o nl e n g t hm e a c he n do f t h e m o r t i s eb e f o r eb o r i n go u t t h e w a s t ei n b e t w e e n( / e f t ) .R e p e at h e p r o c e d u rteo c u t t h e r e m a i n i n m g ortises.

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Gluingupthe doors f, r - , 1T e s t - a s s e m btl he e d o o r sa n d u s ea c h i s e lt o p a r ea w a y s o m ew o o df r o m a n y o v e r l yt i g h t j o i n t .O n c ey o u a r es a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e f i t , s a n da n ys u r f a c etsh a t w i l l b e d i f fi c u l tt o r e a c h g l u eo n a l l t h e w h e nt h e d o o r sh a v eb e e ng l u e du p ,a n ds p r e a d

c o n t a c t i nsgu r f a c eosf t h e l o i n t s R . e a s s e m btlhee d o o r sa n ds e t e a c ho n eo n t w o b a rc l a m p sa, l i g n i n g t h e b a r sw i t h t h e r a i l s . U s i n gw o o dp a d st o p r o t e c t h e s t o c k ,t r g h t e nt h e c l a m p s ( a b o v eu) n t i la t h i n g l u eb e a ds q u e e z eosu t o f t h e j o i n t s .

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I INSTALLING THED()ORS 'l I

Preparing thedoors forglass

I C i a s sp a n e l sl i e i n r a b b e tasn da r e h e l di n p l a c eb y t h i ns t r i p so f m o l d i n g . C l a m po n ed o o rf r a m et o a w o r ks u r f a c e , t h e ni n s t a lal p i l o t e d - i n c hr a b b e t i nbgr r i r y o u rr o u t e ' a n o s e tt h e d e p t ho f c u tt o t h ec o m b i n etdh i c k n e sos' t h e g l a s sa n d t h e m o d r n g .H o l dt h e t o o lf i r m l yw i t h b o t hh a n d sw h i l er e s t r ntgh e b a s ep l a t e o r t h ef r a m en e a ro 1 ec o r n e rt,n e ng u i d e the hit into lhp insidpedsp of lhp dnnr

M o v et h e r o u t e cr o c k w i s ae l o n gt h e e d g e si / e I l ) ,k e e p i n g r h e p i l o tb e a r i n g p r e s s eadg a i n st th es t o c kS . q u a r teh ec o r n e r sw i t ha c h r s eal n da w o o d e n mallet. R e p e af to rt h e s e c o n d o o r .

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t I r ) M a k i n gt h em o l d i n g L C u ta o o a r dl o n g etrh a ny o l w i l l n e e d f o r t h e m o l d i n gt ,h e ni n s t a lal : / , - i n c i c o v eb i t i n y o u rr o u t e ra n d m o u n t h e t o o l i n a t a b l eA . l i g nt h e b i t b e a r i nw g i t ht h e f e n c ea n d a d j u s t h e c u t t e rh e i g h t o s h a n et h e b o t t n mr - n r n eO" f L h es t o c k . M o u na t f e a t h e r b o aorndt h et a b l ei n l i n e w i t ht h e b i t t o s e c u r et h e s t o c kd u r i n g t h e c u t .T u r no n t h e t o o la n df e e dt h e s t o c k f, i n i s h r ntgh e p a s sw i t ha p u s h s t i c k .S h a p et h e o t h e re d g eo f t h e b o a r d . r pt h e m o l d i n g t h e s a m ew a y ( r r g h t )R f r o mt h e s t o c ko n t h e t a b l es a wa n dc u t t h e m o l d i n tgo l e n g t hm , i t e r i ntgh e e n d s a t 4 5 ' C u La n df i r o n ep i e c ea t a t i m e .

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QUEENANNE SECRETARY

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-) Installins thedoorcatches <

r . J B e f o r ei n s t a lnr g t l ' e g a s s .m o u n t h e d o o r so n t h e b o o k c a s ea , t t a c h i ntgh e mw i t h h l n g e st h e s a m ew a yy o uf a s t e n etdh e f a l l - f r o ntto t h e d e s ku n t ( p a g e1 2 6 ) .f t i s e a s i etro i n s t a ltlh e s i t h o ut h e g l a s si n p l a c eT. h eb a l lc a t c h e s h o w n d o o rc a t c h e w a b o v ef e a t u r ea c a t c hf a s t e n etdo t h e b o t t o mp a n eol f t h e b o o k c a s ea n da s t r i k eo l a t es c r e w e tdo t h e i n s i d ef a c eo f t h e d o o r t h es t r i k e s t e s ;t w o s p r i n g - i o a d b ea d l l si n t h e c a t c hc a p t u r e p a t ew h e nt h e d o o ri s c l o s e dA. s s e m b lteh e c a t c h e sh, o l do n e

i n p o s i to n a g a i n sitt s d o o rs t i l e ,t h e nm o v ei t t o w a r dt h e b a c k n a n ehl v i n c r a n dm a r kt h es c r e wh o l e sD. r r lal n i l o th o l ea t . e p e atth e m a r k i n g e a c hm a r ka n ds c r e wt h e c a t c hi n p l a c e R (above, process for the othercatch.To install left) andfastening i L w i t ht h e c a t c h ,a n d t h e s t r i k ep l a t e i. n s e r itt s s c r e w se,n g a g e s r l .r n a r kr m p r e s s ' o trsn c o s et n e d o o r t: h e t i p so f t h e s c r e w w t h e d o o rs t r l e .D r r l la p i l o th o l ea t e a c hm a r ka n df a s t e nt h e c t r r k o n l : t p t n t n p d n n r . P\ C^ ^p g^o^t + +l U^l - +L lLl g^ U^ L+I hC^l - ^p ltO^L, g^ (t rau hv vnwv, p rt it tot ht Ll )

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GLOSSARY A-B-C.D Adze: An ax-like tool with a curved blade used to carve out concave surfaces,such aschair seats. Auxiliaryfencs A wooden attachment screwedto the rip fence of a table saw or other machine,to prevent damage to the metal fence. Basemolding: A decorativeframe made from molded stock that supports the bottom ofa desk. Bead: A rounded, convex shapecut in wood, usually for decorationi seecove. Bending form: A jig used to bend steamedwood. Bookmatching: In veneering,a decorative pattern in which successive veneers cut from the samelog are arrangedsideby-sideso as to mirror eachother's image like pagesof an open book. Bow: The curved upper rail of a sackback Windsor chair. Brad-point bit: A drill bit featuring a sharpenedcenterpointand two cutting spurs on its circumference;produces cleanerholesthan a twist bit and does not tend to skateon the surfacewhen starting a hole. Carcase:A pieceof furniture with a boxlike construction;madefrom solidpanels. Caul: Used in veneering or gluing up carcases,a board placed between clamps and the workpiece to distribute clamping pressure. Chamfer: A bevel cut along the edge of a workpiece.

Clearancehole: A hole bored in a workpieceto allow free passage of the shankof a screw. Corner block A triangular block of wood screwedto an inside corner of a table'sleg-and-railassemblyto reinforce and squarethe joint. Counterbore: To drill a hole so the head of a screwor bolt will sit below the wood surfaceand be concealedwith a wood plug. Countersink: To drill a hole so the head of a screwwill lie flush with or slightly below the wood surface. Cove:A concavedecorativeprofile cut in wood, usuallyalong an edge;seebead. Crown or cornice molding: Molding attachedto the top of a pieceof furniture. Cuttinglist A list of the dimensionsof the lumber neededfor a specificproject. Dado.:A rectangularchannel cut into a worKplece. Dovetailed halfJap joint: Used for joining the top drawer rail of a table to the legs;the half-lap at the end ofthe rail is cut in a dovetail shapeto lock the joint in tension. Dovetail joint: A method of joinery using interlocking pins and tails; the name derivesfrom the distinctive shape cut into the endsofthe joining boards. Drop-leaf tabls A table with a narrow top and hinged leavesthat fold down when not in use. Dust frame: A flat frame used to support deskdrawers.

CheelcIn a mortise-and-tenonjoint, that part of the tenon parallelto the wood grain and perpendicularto the shoulder.

E-F.G-H-I-I Escutcheon:A metal plate installed around a keyholefor decoration and protectionof the surroundingwood. Falsefront A pieceof wood installed over a drawer front, usuallyto conceal the end grain ofthe sides. Featherboard:A board with thin, flexi"feathers" ble fingersor along one end, clamped to the fenceor table of a stationary tool to hold the workpiece securely. Fillet In a rule joint, the short, flat surface at the top ofthe rounded-overportion of the joint; the pins of the rule-joint hingesare alignedwith the fillet. Finial: An ornament-usually turned or carved-projecting from the upper cornersof a pieceof furniture. Flyrail A short wood piecethat swings out from a table side rail to support a drop leaf. Froe: An L-shapedtool with a beveled blade that is struck by a club to rive, or split,greenwood. Glass-stopmolding: Decorativestrips of wood usedto hold a pane of glassin placein a door. Green wood: Freshlycut, unseasonedwood. Half-blind dovetail: Similar to the through dovetailjoint, exceptthat the pins are not cut through the entire thicknessof the workpiece,thus concealingthe end grain of the tail boards. Inlay A decorativestrip of metal, hardwood or marquetry that is glued in a groove cut into a workpiece.

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K-r-M-N-O-P-Q Kerf, A cut madein wood by a sawblade. Kickback The tendencyof a workpiece to be thrown back in the direction of the saw operator by a moving blade or cutter on a woodworking machine or tool. Knuckle joint: A joint consistingof interlocking fingersfixed togetherby a wooden pin; enablesa fly rail to pivot awayfrom a table side rail. Lamb's tongue: On a pencil-postbed, the shapeat the bottom ofthe octagonal portion ofa bedpost. Loper: On a slant-top desk,a board that slidesout of a housing to support the fall-front in the horizontal position. Mortise-and-tenon joint A joinery technique in which a projectingtenon on one board fits into a mortise on another. Mortise: A rectangular,round, or oval hole cut into a pieceof wood to receive a matching tenon. Neoclassicism:An l8th-Century design movement inspired by the estheticprinciplesof classicalGreeceand Rome. Pigeonhole: A framework of small dividers and drawersin a desk:sometimes removable. Pilot bearing: A cylindrical metal collar either aboveor below the router bit's cutting edgethat rides along the workpieceor a template,guiding the bit during a cut. Pilot hole: A hole bored into a workpiece to accommodatea nail shaft or the threadedpart of a screw;usually slightly smallerthan the fastenerdiameter.The hole guidesthe fastenerand preventssplitting.

Pocket holq An angledhole bored into the faceof a workpieceand exiting from its top edge.

Steambending: The techniqueofsoftening wood for bending by subjectingit to steamand heat,and then bending it around a curved form.

Pommet A rounded shoulderproduced on the lathe;servesto separatesquare and cylindrical sectionsof a workpiece.

Stile: The vertical member of a frameand-panelassembly;seerail.

R.S Rabbet A steplike cut in the edgeor end of a board; usually forms part of a joint.

Stopped dado: A dado that stops before crossing the full width or thickness of a workpiece.

RaiL A board running alongthe bottom edgeof a tabletopto which the legscan be attached;also,the horizontal member of a frame and panelassembly;seestile.

Substrate:A piece of plyr,voodor solid wood used as the foundation for veneeror leatherthat coversthe surfaceof a desktop.

Rake angle: The angleat which a chair leg or post deviatesfrom the vertical when viewed from the side of the chair: see splayangle.

T-U-V.W.X.Y-Z

Reveal:The gap betweenthe outside surfacesofa table rail and the adjoining legs;servesa decorativepurpose.

Tenon: A protrusion from the end of a board that fits into a mortise.

Riving: The techniqueof splitting wood from a freshly felled Iog with a sledgehammer and wedgesto separatethe wood along the fibers. Rule joint A pivoting joint commonly usedin dropJeaf tables;featuresmating concaveand convexprofiles cut into the edgesofthe tableleafandtop. Shoulder: In a mortise-and-tenonjoint, the part ofthe tenon perpendicularto the cheek.In a dovetailjoint, the valleys betweenthe pins or tails. Sliding dovetail joint A joinery method in which a dovetailedslide on one oiece fits into a matchinggroovein the oiher. Splay angle The angleat which a chair leg or post deviatesfrom the vertical when viewedfrom the front of the chair: seerake angle.

Template A pattern cut from plywood, hardwood, or particleboard used to produce multiple copiesof a part.

Tester: A light framework that joins the tops ofthe bedpostsin a four-posterbed, often usedto hang a canopyor drapery. Through dovetail joint A method of joining wood at the cornersby means of interlocking pins and tails,both cut through the thicknessof the workpiece. Travishen A type ofspokeshavedesigned for smoothing concavesurfaces. Urn: A decorativeelementturned in spindle work; often part of a finial. Veneer: A thin layer of decorative wood usedto dressuD a more common speciesofwood. Wood button: A small, square-shaped block with a rabbet at one end that is used to securethe top of a piece of furniture. Wood movemenfi The shrinking or swelling of wood in reaction to changes in relative humidity.

Plate joint A method of joining using oval wafersof compressedwood that fit into slotscut in mating boards.

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INDEX in italicsindicatean Pagereferences illustration of subjectmatter.Page references in bold indicatea Build It Yourselfproject.

Cutting lists Pembroketables,25 Secretaries, 108 Windsor chafts,72

A-B.C Adzes,backendpaper Americancountry/colonialstyles, 16-19 SeealsoFour-posterbeds;Shaker style;Windsor chairs Armoires,19 Arts and craftstables,21 Beds.SeeFour-posterbeds Bendingjigs,82 Biscuitjoints, 109 Blanketchests,20 Block-frontchests,l3 Board feet,front endpaper Bookcases. SeeSecretaries Build It Yourself Pipesteamers,83 Pocket-holejigs,47 Shavinghorses,78-79 Veneerpresses, 125 Cabriolelegs,12 Card tables,12, 14 Chairs Americancountry/colonial,16,18 Chippendale,l3 Federalperiod, 14 Missionstyle,2l QueenAnne,12 Shaker,20 SeealsoWindsorchairs Chair tables,16 Chests Chippendale,13 Shaker,20 ChineseChippendalestyle,I3 Chippendale, Thomas,23 Chippendalestyle,13 Commodes Chippendale,13 Continuous-armchairs.18 Cornercupboards,17 Crown molding, 134 Cupboards Americancountry/colonial,17,19 Piesafes,20

D-E-F Desks Federalperiod,15 Mission style,2l SeealsoSecretaries Drop-leaf tables,20 135,front endpaper Escutcheons, Federalperiod style,14-15 SeealsoPembroketables Finishes Milk paint, 70, 103 Four-posterbeds,16,48-50 Canopies,49 End boards,59-62,64 Gluing up,64 Posts,51,52-56,64 finials,51,57 mortises.58 pencilposts,66-69 tang joints,49,56 Siderails,62-63 Testers, 51,65 Tools,52 usingpresetcalipers (ShopTip), 54 Frame-and-panel construction doors,135-1i9 Glass-panel Frenchprovincialarmoires,19 Furniture styles Americancountry/colonial,16-19 four-posterbeds,48-69 Windsorchairs,70-103 Chippendale,l3 Federalperiod, 14-15 Pembroketables,15,22-47 Mission style,21 QueenAnne,12 secretaries. 104-139 Shaker,20 G-H Germansawbucktables,19 Greene,Charles Chairs,2l Greeneand Greenechairs,2l Half-blinddovetails.109-1 11

r Hardware,fr ont endpaper Bedbolts,59 Escutcheons, 135 Locks,127 Highboys QueenAnne,12 Hutches Americancountry/coloniaI, 17 I-I-K lnlays,front endpaper veneers.29 Commercial Pembroketables,27-29 Inshaves,backendpaper Iigs Bendingjigs,82 Drill presspocket-holejigs,47 Routers,119-120 Shop-madeshelf-drillingj igs (ShopTip), 131 Shop-madesizinggaugesfor spindles(ShopTip), 77 Tablesawtaper jigs,26 Ioinery Half-blind dovetails,109-1I 1 Knucklejoints,25,30-31 Platejoints,109 Rulejoints, 43 Tangjoints,49,56 Throughdovetailjoints, l16 Kassay, lohn,6-7 Keyed-tenon stools,l6 Knucklejoints,25,30-i1 L-M-N.O Ladder-back chairs.l6 Langsner,Drew Windsorchair,18 Locks 127 Secretaries, Logs Splitting,74 Lumber Board feet,front endpaper SeealsoCutting lists Milk paint, 70, 103 Mirrors Federalperiod,15 Missionstyle,21 Neoclassical style.SeeFederal periodstyle New Mexicanchairs,19 Oval-backchairs,l8

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P-Q Paint,70, 103 Pembroketables,15,22-25 Cornerblocks,40 Cutting lists,25 Drawersr23r 4l falsefronts, 42 runners,4l Endrais,34-36 drawerrarls,34,35 veneer,36 Gluing up,37-40 Joints knucklejoints,25,30-31 rail-to-leg,25 Leaves, 23,44-45 Legs,23,26-27 doublemortises,35 dovetailsockets,34 inlay,27-29 rail mortises,37,i8 Siderails,30-33 fly rails,32 tenons,33 Tops,43-46 rule joints, 43 using steeltabletopfasteners (ShopTip),46 Phyfe,Duncan, 14 Phyfearmchairs,14 Piesafes,20 Pipesteamers,83 Platejoints,109 QueenAnne style,I l, 12 SeealsoSecretaries R-S.T-U Riving greenwood,,74-75 Rocki-n[chairs Mission styLe,2l Shaker,20 Roll-topdesks,2I Rulejoints,43 Sack-back Windsorchairs. SeeWindsorchairs Sawbucktables,l9 Secretaries, 12,104-105 Bookcases, 107 assembly, 132-133 crown molding, 134 doors,135-139 shelving,130-131 shop-madeshelf-drillingjigs (ShopTip), r31

Cuttinglists,108 Deskunits, 106,109 assembly, 113-115 bases,128-129 drawers.116-118 dustframes.I 12 fall-fronts,105,121- 124,126-127 half-blinddovetails,109-1 11 leathertops,121 locks,127 lopers,l15 platejoints, 109 throughdovetailjoints, Jl6 veneer,105,122-124,125 |oinery,105,109-I 11, 116 Pigeonholeunits, 105,119-120 14,18 Settees, Seymourdesks,l5 Shakerstyle,20 Sharpening, backendpaper Shavinghorses,78-79 Shelves Bookcases, 130-131 shop-madeshelf-drillingjigs (ShopTip), l3l ShopTips,46,54,77, 131 Spindles Shop-madesizinggauges (ShopTip),7Z SeealsoWindsorchairs Spokeshaves, backendpaper Steambending,S0 Bendingjigs,82 Pipesteamers,83 Stickley,Gustav,2l Stickleyrocking chairs,21 Stools Americancountry/colonial,16 Shaker,20 Styles.SeeFurniture styles Tables Americancountry/colonial,16,17 Chippendale,13 Federalperiod, 14-15 Germansawbuck,19 Mission style,2l QueenAnne,12 Shaker,20 Tangjoints,49,56 Thverntables,17 Teatables,l3

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Through dovetailjoints, 116 Tools Adzes,backendpaper Inshaves,backendpaper Sharpening, backendpaper Spokeshaves, backendpaper Turning bedposts,52 usingpresetcalipers(Shop Tip),54 Vacuumpresses, 36, 123-124 Trestletables,I Z

v-w-x-Y-z Vacuumpresses, 36,123-124 Vandal,Norm, l0-11 Veneers lnlays,29 Patterns,122 Vacuumpresses, 36,123-124 Veneerpresses, 125 Weidman,Gregory,8-9 Window seats,14 Windsorchairs,18,70-73 Arms,80-82 posts,88-89,97 spindlemortises,98-99 Bows,80-82, 100-102 Cutting lists,72 Gluingup, 94,95-96,99,102 Legs,88-89 splayand rakeangles,73,91 stretchermortises,94 stretchers, 88,92-93 trimming,94 Milk paint, 70, 103 Seats,7l,84-87 legmortises,90-9I Spindles blanks,74-75 installing,98-102 shaping,T6-77 shop-madesizinggauges (ShopTip),7Z Wood Board feet,fr ont endpaper Green.74-75 SeealsoCutting lists Zoar chairs.19

ACKNOWTEDGMENTS Theeditorswishto thank thefollowing CLASSICAMERICAN FURNITURESTYLES Winterthur Museum,Winterthur, DE PEMBROKETABLE AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; Albert Constantineand SonInc.,Bronx,NY; AmericanTool Cos., Lincoln, NE; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; CMT Tools, Oldsmar,FL; Delta InternationalMachineryiPorter-Cable, Guelph,Ont.; GreatNeckSawMfrs. Inc. (BuckBros.Division), Millbury, MA; LesRealisationsLoeven-Morcel,Montreal, Que.;Sears,Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; StanleyTools,Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,Ont.; Vacuum PressingSystemsInc., Brunswick,ME; WainbeeLtd., Pointe Claire,Que./DE-STA-CO, Troy, MI; The Woodworker'sStore,Rogers,MN FOUR-POSTERBED AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln,NE; CMT Tools,Oldsmar,FL; Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, Guelph,Ont.; GreatNeck SawMfrs. Inc. (Buck Bros. Masse,Montreal,Que.;PackardWoodworks,Tryon, NC; RecordTools, DMsion), Millbury, MA; Jean-Pierre Inc.,Pickering,Ont.; RyobiAmericaCorp.,Anderson,SC;Sears,Roebuckand Co.,Chicago,IL; Stanley WV Tools,Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT; WoodcraftSupplyCorp.,Parkersburg, WINDSORCHAIR AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Anglo-AmericanEnterprisesCorp., Somerdale,NJ; Mike Dunbar, Portsmouth,NH; GreatNeck SawMfrs. Inc. (Buck Bros.Division), Millbury, MA; Drew Langsner, Marshall,NC; LeeValleyTools,Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; Olde Mill CabinetShoppe,York, PA; StanleyTools, Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT QUEENANNESECRETARY AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Albert Constantineand Son Inc., Bronx, NY; AmericanTool Cos., Lincoln,NE; CMT Tools,Oldsmar,FL; DeltaInternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, Guelph,Ont.; GreatNeckSawMfrs. Inc. (BuckBros.Division),Millbury, MA; David Keller,Petaluma,CA; LeeValleyTools, Ltd. Ottawa,Ont.; LesRealisations Loeven-Morcel, Montreal,Que.;Sears,Roebuckand Co.,Chicago,IL; Steiner-Lamello A.G. Switzerland/Colonial SawCo., Kingston,MA; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,Ont.; Inc.,Brunswick,ME; WainbeeLtd.,PointeClaire,Que./DE-STA-CO, Troy, MI VacuumPressing Systems Thefollowingpersonsalsoassisted in thepreparationof this book: LorraineDord, SylvieGirard, SolangeLaberge,GenevidveMonette,David Simon.

PICTURE CREDITS Cover RobertChartier 6,7 Ron Levine 8,9TomWolff 10,11RobertHolmes 14,16Courtesyof The HenryFrancisdu PontWintherthurMuseum 18 Martin Fox

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W O R K S H OGPU I D E SHARPENING SP()KESHAVES

Sharpening thebladeof a woodenspokeshave R e m o vteh e b l a d ef r o mt h e h a n d l eb y p i n c h i n g t h e t a n g st h a t p r o t r u dteh r o u g h t h e h a n d l ea n dp u s h i n tgh e md o w n w a r dF.o rs h a r p e n i ntgh,e b l a d ei s h e l dw i t h the tangsfacingdown.To preventthe tangsfromcatchingon yourworksurface, setyoursharpening stoneatopa woodblockto provide the necessary clearance. H o l d i n tgh e b l a d eb yt h e t a n g ss, e ti t s b e v efll a to n t h e s t o n eB . e c a u steh e b l a d e i s l o n g etrh a nt h e w i d t ho f y o u rs t o n e h , o l dt h e c u t t i n ge d g ed i a g o n a l a l ys y o u s l i d et h e b e v e bl a c ka n df o r t ho n t h e s t o n e R . e p e awt i t ht h e b l a d ea n g l e dt h e o t h e rw a y .R e p e aat g a i nw i t h t h e b l a d eh e l ds t r a i g hbt b o v e ) . 0 n c e t h es h a r p e n i n g i s c o m p l e t et u , r nt h e b l a d eo v e ra n d h o n et h e f l a t s i d et o r e m o v teh e b u r r f o r m e db y t h e s h a r p e n i npgr o c e s s .

Honing thebladeof a metalspokeshave To removethe bladefromthe spokeshave, l o o s e tnh es c r e wi n t h e m i d d l eo f t h e h a n d l e . Set up a benchstoneon a worksurface;a w a t e r - l u b r i c a tdeida m o n ds t o n ei s s h o w n a b o v eI.n s t a l l t h e b l a d ei n a c o m m e r c i a l h o n i n gg u i d e .L u b r i c a t teh e s t o n ew i t h w a t e ra n dt h e n ,h o l d i n tgh e h o n i n gg u i d e , s l i d et h e b l a d eb a c ka n d f o r t hf r o me n dt o e n da l o n gt h e s h a r p e n i nsgu r f a c eA. p p l y m o d e r a tper e s s u rwei t ht h e b e v etlo u c h i n g t h e s t o n eT. h e nr a i s et h e a n g l eo f t h e b l a d e a f e wd e g r e easn dc o n t i n u eu n t i ly o uf o r ma s e c o n d a rbye v e l - o rm i c r o b e v e l .

SHARPENING ANINSHAVE

H o n i na gni n s h a v e C l a m pt h e i n s h a vteo a w o r ks u r f a c seo t h ec u t t i n ge d g ei s f a c i n gu p ,a s s h o w n above.Usea slipstone to honethe edge.Startwith a rough-grit stoneand progress t o a f i n e ro n e .W o r kw i t ha c i r c u l am r o t i o nu n t i la u n i f o r ms h i n ed e v e l o posn t h e b l a d eG . i v et h e f l a ts i d eo f t h e b l a d ea f e ws t r o k etso r e m o v a e n yb u r r .O n c et h e b l a d ei s s h a r pp, o l i s ht h e b e v ew l r t ha l e a t h esrt r o pa n dp o l i s h i ncgo m p o u n df i,n i s h i n gw i t ha f e wp a s s eosn t h e f l a ts i d eo f t h e b l a d et o r e m o v teh e b u r r .l f t h e inshavehasa knife-edgebeveled on bothsides-honebothsides.

H o n i na g na d z e S e c u r et h e a d z ei n a b e n c hv i s e ,a s s h o w n a b o v eW . r a pa s h e e to f e m e r yp a p e ra r o u n d a d o w ew l h o s ed i a m e t ecr l o s e l ym a t c h e s t h e c u r v eo f t h e a d z eb l a d eH . o n et h e c u t t i n g e d g eu s i n ga b a c k - a n d - f o rmt ho t i o na l o n g t h e l e n p t ho f t h e h e v e l H o n et h e f l a t s i d e o f t h e b l a d ew i t h a s l i p s t o n teo r e m o v ea n y b u r r .l f t h e a d z eh a sa k n i f e - e d g eh,o n e bothsides.

Muebles clásicos

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