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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

HOMEWORI$HOP


WORKSHO GPU I D E SAFETY TIPS

TURNING ANDCARVING TOOLS

Power tools

9kew chisel UeedLo ehape peaa6and Pommels on workpieceemounLed on ETne;ranqe7 beLween /, inchand 1l incheatn wtdth

. Wearappropriatesafetygear:safety glasses, a faceshieldfor extraprotection and hearingprotection. lf therers no cust collection system, weara dustmask.For exotrcwoodssuchas ebony,usea respirator;the sawdustmaycausean allergic reaction.Wearworkgloveswhenhand l i n gr o u g hl u m b e r . o Drapethe powercord of a portable powertool overyourshoulderto keep it out of the way.

Round-end earaPer 9moothe work mounLedon lalthe faceplaLe:typical blade widtheare , 1 ,l,a n d l i n c h

. C o n c e n t r a toen t h e l o b ; d o n o t r u s h . Neverworkwhenyou aretired,stressed, o r h a v eb e e nd r i n k i n ga l c o h ool r u s i n g m e d i c a t i o nt h s a t i n d u c ed r o w s i n e s s . . A l w a y sk e e py o u rw o r ka r e ac l e a n a n d t i d y ; c l u t t e cr a n l e a dt o a c c i d e n t s , and sawdustand woodscrapscan be a fie hazard.

Roughing-out gouge UeedLo turn cyltndere from oquare blankemounLedon lathe;availablein '/-,1 /- and 1y'inch widthe

. K e e py o u rh a n d sw e l l a w a yf r o m a t u r n i n gb l a d eo r b i t . o Do not usea tool if any partis worn or damaged.

9pindle gouge Kound-noaed 1ouqefor qenerai turntnq;ran4e9 '/, from Lo 1 ',1 incheetn wtdl,h

Handtools . Usethe appropriate tootfor the lob: do not try to makea tool do something for whichit wasnot intended. . Clampyourworkpiece to freeboth handsfor an operation.

Parting tool Narrow,chiael-like tool ueed1taaecLion workptece mountedon laLhe; avatlablein'/:.-and /,-tnch widtha

o Cut awayfromyourselfratherthan towardyourbody. . Do not forcea tool;if possible, try removing lessstockon eachpass. . Keepthe edgesof cuttingtoolssharp

Veiningchioel Fartrng Loolfor ouLliningaeparate areao and cuttin7 6harpqroovea; availablein 1-, l-,

and ''/.-tnch wtdths

Eent gouge For ehap,inqholtowaana curvea: ranqeafrom'/ tnch t o 1rnchin widLh No.5 gouge For shaping ,ftne worK;ranqea from I inch Lo 1 inch in wtdth No.8 gouge For,rou4hehaping worK;ran4e' rrom '/

inch to 1 inch in width Handlee

With a typical lenqth of 10 to 14 rnchee,handleo of turninq l;ooleare Lhicker and lonqerLhanLhoeeof carvinq Loola: the exl,ra

lenqth permiLsLwohanded operation

DESIGN ANDMEASURING T()()LS . Awl

. Carpenter's square o Combination

square o Compass o Contourgauge o Cuttinggauge o D i a lc a l i p e r

. Dovetail square r F l e x i b lceu r v e r Frenchcurve o I n s i d ec a l l p e r s . Markinggauge o M e a s u r i nt g ape o M i t e rs q u a r e . Mortisegauge . Outside ca||pers

o Protractor o Sliding DEVCI

o Steelruler . Straightedge

. Trammel points . Trysquare

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T I I I

THEARTOFWOODWORKING

CABINETS ANDBOOKCASES


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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

CABINETS AN{DBOOICNES

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TIME.LIFE BOOKS VIRGINIA ALEXANDRIA. ST.REMYPRESS MONTREAL. NEWYORK


THE ART OF WOODWORKING wasproduced by ST. REMYPRESS PUBLISHER KennethWinchester PR-ESIDENT PierreL6veill6 SeriesEditor SeriesArt Director SeniorEditors Art Directors Designers ResearchEditor PictureEditor Writers Research Assistant Cont r ibuting I IIustrators

Administrator ProductionManager SystemCoordinator Photographer Proofreader Indexer

PierreHome-Douglas FrancineLemieux Marc Cassini(Text) HeatherMills (Research) Normand Boudreault,Luc Germain, SolangeLaberge Jean-GuyDoiron, Michel GiguEre, H6ldneDion TimMcRae ChristopherJackson Andrew Jones,Rob Lutes BryanQuinn GillesBeauchemin,RollandBergera, Michel Blais,Jean-PierreBourgeois, RonaldDurepos,RobertPaquet, JamesTh6rien NatalieWatanabe MichelleTirrbide fean-LucRoy RobertChartier Iudith Yelon ChristineM. Iacobs

Time-Life Booksis a division of Time-Life Inc., a wholly ownedsubsidiaryof THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY

TIME-LIFEBOOKS President Iohn D. Hall Vice-President NancyK. Jones Editor-in-Chief ThomasH. Flaherty Directorof Editorial Resources EliseD. Ritter-Clough MarketingDirector EditorialDirector ConsultingEditor ProductionManager

ReginaHall LeeHassig fohn R. Sullivan MarleneZack

THECONSUTTANTS fon Arno is a consultant,cabinetmakerand freelancewriter who livesin Tioy, Michigan. He also conductsseminarson wood identificationand earlyAmericanfurniture design. Kam Ghaffari is a freelancewriter and editor. He hashis own businessin RhodeIsland designingand building one-of-a-kindand limited production furniture. Kam's background alsoincludesworking professionallyin furni ture reproductionand fine carpentry,and studyingwith furniture patriarchsWendell Castleofthe U.S.and FredBaierofEngland. Giles Miller-Mead taught advancedcabinetmaking at Montreal technicalschoolsfor more than ten years.A nativeofNew Zealand,he has worked asa restorerof antiquefurniture. fosephTruini is SeniorEditor of Hoze Mechanixmagazine. A former Shopand Tools Editor of PopularMechanics,he hasworked as a cabinetmaker,home improvementcontractor and carpenter.

Cabinetsand bookcases p. cm.-(The Art of Woodworking) Includesindex. ISBN0-8094-99 45-2 (trade) l. Cabinetwork-Amateurs' manuals. 2. Bookcases-Amateurs'manuals. I. Time-Life Books.II. Series

TTr97.C23 684.1'6-dc20

93-20771 CIP

For information about any Time-Life book, pleasecall l-800-621-7026,or write: ReaderInformation Time-Life CustomerService P.O.Box C-32068 fuchmond, Virginia 23261-2068 @ 1993Time-LifeBooksInc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproducedin any form or by any electronicor mechanical means,including information storageand retrievaldevicesor systems,without prior written permissionfrom the publisher,exceptthat briefpassages may be quotedfor reviews. First printing. Printed in U.S.A. Publishedsimultaneouslyin Canada. TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time WarnerInc. U.S.A. R 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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CONTENTS 6

INTRODUCTION

t2 T4 T6 L9 20 24

CABINETMAKING BASICS Wood movement Selectingand orderinglumber Lumber defects Preparingstock Cabinetmakingjoinery

40 42 44 45 50 52 54 56

BOOKCASE Anatomy of a bookcase Bookcaseaccessories Adjustableshelving Fixed shelves Edgetreatmentfor shelves Faceframes Basesand feet

106 108 110 Llz 116 118 I20 L24 L28 130 I34 136

HIGHBOY Anatomy of a highboy Assemblingthe upper chest Cabriolelegs Assemblingthe lower chest Cockbeading Drawers Crown moldings Rosettes Finials Quarter columns Applied sculptures

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GLOSSARY

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INDEX

T44 ACKNO\{LEDGMENTS

60 62 64 66 72 84 86 88 93 100 104

ARMOIRE Anatomv of an armoire Pilasters' Cornicemoldings Doors BLANKET CHEST Anatomy of a blanketchest Tops Basesand feet Hardware Inlays


INTRODUCTION

Nain Morcelandhis

LIBRARYI.]NIT wasoneof my helibrary unit shownhere,madeout of Hondurasmahogany, Loeven, with Frdddric I in the shop co-own It wasbuilt I first big commissions. past, was our but this pieces in the lot single Wehadbuilt a of a fine cabinetmaker. large, inteof a planning construction and first opportunityto experimentwith the gratedwall unit. of theroom that theunit would Our first stepwasto takeaccuratemeasurements walls arenot alwaysstraight.Thedifsince occupy.Thishadto bedoneverycarefidly, thewallsat the corners between ferencecanbe asmuch as%inch.Sowe measured to cut our stockonce! We wanted only of the room andagaineveryfewinchesout. piece Our clientwanted in the shop. the in hand,wedesigned With measurements mahogany.The why we chose a dark a traditionalEnglish-librarylook, which was ofthe unit. appearance Frenchdoorsalsocontributedto the classical would be wasto makesurethebookcases Themostcriticaldesignconsideration height, depth between the wellproportionedfor thesizeof theroom.Therelationship as visual reference with a andwidth of the unit hadto be right. To provideourselves plan of we drew a full-scale the componentsof the structure, we cut and assembled and usto keeptrackofall thepieces theroomon thefloorofthe shop.Thisenabled positionthemin theirproperlocationsaswewentalong. fiberboardfor the basicstructureandjoinedthe We usedmahogany-veneered theysit on brassshelfsupports areadjustable; pieceswith biscuits.Mostof theshelves in thesidepanels.Weaddedsolidmahoganybanding, into sleeves whicharescrewed to givethem twicethe thicknessof the shelfstock,to the front edgesof the shelves of morerigidity.Thebackpanelssit in rabbetscut into the backedges the unit. We jointswith madethepaneleddoorsout of solidmahoganyusingmortise-and-tenon pieces molding.Thecornicemoldingis madeup of threeseparate a fineintegrated the unit. of wood individuallyshapedand gluedtogetherbeforebeingappliedto with a darkredmahoganystainfollowedby severalcoats Wefinishedthebookcases the molding lacquer,thenwipedon a glazingstainto accentuate of cellulose-based andgivethepiecean agedappearance,

Alain Morcel operatesLesRialisations Loeven-Morcel,a cabinetry shop in Montrdal, Qutbec, along with his partner, Fr,lddricLoeven.The shopspecializesin architectural woodwork and reproductionsof antiquefurniture.


INTRODUCTION

ChrisBecksvoort describes the

CHALLENGES OF CABINETMAKING asepieces---<upboards, bureaus, bookcases, chests, sideboards, andotherassorted cabinets-areat bestmerelyglorifiedboxes.Yetthereis something special

aboutthem.All containanelement justwaitingto beexplored. of mystery, who can resist opening a smalldoorwithatinyturnedknobandspinner, oi liftingthelid of a dovetailed keepsake box?AskPandora.

To thecabinetmaker, casepiecesarea pleasure, aswell asa challenge to build.The possiblelay'outcombinationsareendless: pull-out trays, doors,drawers,shelves, dividers,pigeonholes, and oneof my favoritecomponents, secretcbmpartmenls. Nothingthrillsa customermorethanto betold thattheirnewacquisition h,asa hidden compartment.And nothingaddsto the anticipationmorethan to sayit is up to themto find it. Woodworkers specializing in individuallybuiltpieces thriveon variety.I concentrate on cases that arenot available commercially, suchasa special-size pieceto fit a specific spot,a l5-drawercameracabinet,a displaycasefor a watchcoll-ction,or a tinware cupboardlike theoneshownin thephotograph.It wasinspiredby a shakeroriginal I sawat the RenwickGalleryof theSmithsonian Institutionin 1973.Thecupboard is oneof themostversatile piecesI build,equallysuitablein a hallway, bedroom,bath, kitchen,or livingroom-anlnvherespaceis at a premium. EachpieceI makeinvolves theintegiationof functionanddesign. Therealchallenge comesin thebuildingprocess. wood expands duringsummer's humidityandshrinks duringwinter'sdryness. A boardmovesacrossitswidth,whileits lengthremainsvirtuallyconstant.Any constraintthat physicallylimits this movementlnvites disaster. Moldingscannotbegluedacross a cabinetside;insteadtheyrideon dovetails. Door framesarecut from relatively narrowquartersawn woodto minimizemovement, while the wide panelsarefreeto float in their grooves.Theframesbetweendrawersmust jointsto followthemovementof the telescope in andout of theirmortise-and-tenon casesides. Backs, likedoors,consistof quartersawn framesandfloatingpanels, mortisedand tenonedto providestrengthand resistracking,Eventhe gapi aboveeach drawermustbe figuredpreciselyto keepthem from swellingshut. when the elementsof design,wood,andjoinerycometogithercorrectly,thecase will survivesothat futuregenerations will becomeintriguedenoughto wantto turn theknob,openthedoor,andsearchfor thesecretcompartment.

Chris Becksvoortbuildsfine furniture at his workshop in New Gloucester,Maine. He is shown herewith his tinware cupboardin the Meeting House at the Shakercommunity of SabbathdayLake,Maine.


INTRODUCTION

aboutbuildinghis Mario RodriguLeztalks

CORNER CUPBOARD

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in thecountrywelookedat newcon1 A f henmy wifeandI startedhouse-hunting andold houses. built in traditionalstyles, V V temporaryhomes,newhouses plumbing. dependable and thingslikelayout,heatingsystems, weconsidered Naturally, an old that knowledge For me,therewasthe But wewerestilldrawnto old houses. the hand-split up to housewasbuilt by hand-from thehand-dugfoundationright andskill. werebuiltwith sheerstren$hguidedby experience roof.Oldhouses shingle Weendedup buyingan old house. that undulateand ripplefrom hand Walkingthrbughour placeyou seesurfaces beamswith shirnplanesthaipasedoverthemnearly200yearsago.Therearechestnut cut by an adzeand thick, pine floorboardsstudded mering,fatetedsurfaces mantels, andpanelingwereproducedwith with hind-wroughtnails.Nl thedoor-ways, base or finger-jointed handplanesfrom choiceHudsonValleypine.No flakeboard moldinehere. stonefireplace, for thediningroom.With itsmassire I waitedto builda specialpiece I decided room. aroundthis it istheheartof thehouJe.In thel8th Centuryiiferevolved fireplace. to buildthecornercupboardshownin thephotoandplaceit oppositethe It'slikelythata similarpieceoccupiedthesamespotmanyyearsago. I built thecupboardfromtigermaple;muchof it wasmadeusingantiquehandtools. someof whichI mademyself.Thehard I shapedthemoldingwith planesandscrapers, smallbitsof andup closeyou cansee. werJhandplaned,not sanded, mapiesurfaces Theinteriorof fromthe lBthCentury. wouldfind on cupboards tearout-justas.you It is madeof pineandjoined asidefroma fewangles. thecaseisfairlystraightforward, with srnallcutnails.I mortisedandtenonedthe andrab6etjointssecured with dadoes I evenuseda dark,less-refined glass. cabinetframesandfinedthesashwith oid,seeded to givethewooda warmhoneycolor.Thenit wasrubbedwith a mlxtureof shellac satinfinish.I madethecabinetas pumiceanldfinseedoilto achieve an antique-like andplacedin thecorner, it wouldhavebeenbuilt 200yearsago.Whenit wascompleted the cupboardand the room cameto life.Togethertheytakeyou backto the lBth Centurv.It'sa perfectmatch. Likea painting,a pieceof furnitureneedsthepropersettingto createtherightmood important,but soisscale, Xot onlyistheproperperiodenvironment andatmoiphere. theimpactof thepiece thatwillheighten color,andiighting.Theseareconsiderations I wouldenjoymy cupboardplantedaq'wherebut without andcontributetolts success. a doubtI enjoyit ntoreinthediningroomof my beautifulold horne. nt WarwickCotuttryWorkjnps irt woodworking teoches MnrioRodriguez in NewYork Instituteof Technology Warwick,NewYork,andat theFttshion editorof FineWoodworkingntngctzine. City.He is alsoa contributirtg

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CABNETKG BASICS herearetwo kindsof skill a involved in constructing putting finecabinetor bookcase: of the thebasicskeleton together pieceandthenembellishing it. the of Thefinialsandrosettes QueenAnnehighboyfeatured on page106mustbe turned with careon a latheandthen artfullvcarved:the distinctive pilasters of anarmoire(page60) attention to prorequirecarefirl duceontherouter.Butalthough thesedistinctiveadornments attention, maycaptureaviewer's together. Panelsareoftenmadeof boardsedge-glued theyalsoreflecta truism:No produce pattern pieces is visually a that The should will conamountof decoration should run grain of all the boards poorlybuilt while the interesting of a cealthedefects will help A marked triangle the same direction. looksin in Thischapter structure. you rearrangethe boardscorrectlyif theyare moved detailat thebasicskillsyouwill beforeglueup. it needto selectstock,prepare professionally, and then assemble it into a sturdyfoundationfor your cabinetor bookcase. with an understanding Thebasicsof cabinetmakingbegin of wood.Thesectionson dealingwith woodmovement(page 14),orderingwo od,(page16),andpreparinga cuttinglist based

on a sketch(page18)will help youpurchase theright lumber for yourproject. With your stockin hand, you canbeginthestep-by-step process of buildinga carcase. stock Thisbegins withpreparing (page20)andgluingup panels Qage2a).A varietyof corner joineryoptions, handincluding andplate(or biscutdovetails begincuit)joints,arepresented ningon page26.Nextcomes jl) installing abackpanel(page andfinalglue-upandassembly. method Theframe-and-panel isdescribed ofbuildingacabinet startingon page32.Thistechniqueispopularnotonlyfor its it allows butbecause appearance, In many for woodmovement. cabinets, the frame-and-panel

"raised"-that panelsare is,theyhavebevelscut aroundtheir touch,but they Not only do thebevelslenda decorative edges. alsoallowthewoodto expandandcontractwhilepreservingthe worKsintegrity.Raisingpanelsis shownstartingon page36.

sliversof wastefrom the A skewchiselremoves dovetailsin a drawerside.Cuttingthejoint by handispainstakingbut it impartsa traditional of furniture. and distinctivelookto a Diece

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WOODMOVEMENT ood is a hygroscopic material, absorbing andreleasing moisture astherelativehumidityof thesurrounding air risesandfalls.And asthe moisturecontentofa pieceofwoodchanges, sodo its dimensionsandweight.When wood is assembled into a pieceof furniture, the changescan produceproblems-somegreat,somesmall.A cabinet door that shutssmoothlyin December may not closeat all in lune; a perfectly squarebookcase canliterallypull itself apartat thejointsashumiditychanges throughout the year. Knowing how moistureaffectswood will help vou avoidtheseproblems. The waterin wood is measured as a percentage ofits oven-dry,or waterfreeweight.Forexample, if a 4O-pound pieceofwooddropsto 30poundswhen oven-dried,the weight of the shed water-10 pounds-divided by the wood'sdry weight-30 pounds-is the moisturecontentof the originalpiece: in thiscase,33percent. Woodholdswaterboth asvapor-like moisturecalledfreewaterin itsiell cavitiesandasboundwaterin thecellwalls. Whenwood is cut and exposedto the air,it shedsits freewaterfirst. Whenall freewateris expelled, the wood is said to beat its fibersaturationpoint (FSP), typicallybetween23 and 30 percent moisturecontent.Tothispoint therehas beenno change in thedimensions of the piece;it simplyweighsless.As wood driesfurther,however,wateris shedfrom the cellwalls,causingthem-and the board-to shrink. Undernormalcircumstances, wood neverregainsits freewater;a dried board'scellcavitieswill alwaysremain emptyof moisture.But the amountof boundwatercontainedin thecellwalls changes with shiftsin the humidity in the air.At 100percentrelativehumidity, wood reaches its FSP.At 0 percent humidity,woodis drainedof all water, Therelativemoisturein theatmosphere normallyfallsbetweenthesevalues,and the moisturecontentof mostwoods

rangesbetween5 and20 percent.Still, possible. Remember to makeallowances the fluctuationin relativehumidity for woodmovementin theconstruction betweentypicalNorth Americanwinof your work. Usingframe-and-panel tersand summerscan causesubstan- joinery for example(page32) will protial wood movementoverthe course vide spacefor wood to expandand of a year. contractwithout affectingthe overall Youcancompensate for thisin several conditionof thepiece.Somewoodstend ways.Usea humidifier in winter and a to movemore than others;consulta dehumidifierin summerto keepthe lumberdealerto find the mostdimenindoorlevelofhumidityasconstintas sionallystablespecies for yourprojects.

Moisture content above 30% (nochange)

(nochange) Moisturd contentatFSP-26%

Moisture content at 17%(%"shrinkage)

Moisture content at 13%(%"shrinkage)

Moisture contentat 8o/o('1"shrinkage)

plain-sawn plankof softwood Asthemoisture levelof a 2-by-10 lumber point(FSP), dropsbelow thefibersaturation thewoodshrinks. At 17 percent,theboardis %inchnarrower thanit wasat its FSP;it loses another %inchof widthwhenkiln-dried to 8 percent. partly Shrinkage depends generally, onthedensity of thewood; a denser species shrinks andswells morethana lighter one.Sapwood alsotendsto change in sizemore quickly thanheartwood.

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CABINETMAKING BASICS

WOOD SHRINKAGE andradialshrinkage Tangential asshown Wooddoesnotshrinkuniformly; bythedottedredlinesin theillustration to shrinkage-tangent at right,tangential thegrowthrings-isabouttwiceasgreat across whichoccurs asradialshrinkage, boards causes therings.Thisdifference andpanels to warpastheyshrinkor swell lt can in relative humidity. withchanges jointsto loosen ortighten from alsocause below. asdiscussed excess Dressure, alongthe lengthof a boardis Shrinkage plankthat A 2-by-10 insignificant. usually itswidthmightlose %inchacross shrinks lessthanXeinchalongan8-footlength.

ANDJOINERY WOOD GRAIN

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Tan4ential plane

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graindirection 0ptimizing planes of Thelocation of thetangential willsignif icantly affecta mating boards joint'sstrength Intheideandstability. in theillustration al situation-as shown jointat left-the of a mortise-and-tenon planes are of joinedpieces tangential parallel. Thisensures thatthe boards similar woodmovement willexperience astheirmoisture in thesamedirection Orienting boards this content changes. a jointfromcoming wayhelpsprevent it alsoprevents themating boards loose; whentheyswellwithhighfromsplitting er levels of moisture.


SELECTINGAND ORDERINGLUMBER V ou canbuy the lumberfor your I woodworkingprojectfrom several sources, eachwith its own advantages and drawbacks. The locallumberyard is oftenthe most convenientsupplier, but the selectionmaybelimitedto constructionwoodssuchaspine,spruce, and other softwoods.Though you mayfind the occasional cacheof hardwood at a lumberyard,you will probably have to venture farther afield, consultingwoodworkingmagazines in the to find dealerswho soecialize hardwoodsusedin cabinetry.Pricesfor goodhardwoodlumbercanbe high, but asis oftenthe case,you will generally getwhat you pay for. you canbuy locallycut Sometimes lumber from a smallsawmill,but the

woodwill oftenneedto be seasoned andsurfaced. Rerycled boards aregrowingin popularity, a resultof thescarcity of certainwoodsandthegrowing responsibility sense of environmental felt bv manvwoodworkers. Whether removed fromanoldbarnor a pieceof timewornfurniture,suchwoodmaybe relatively inexpensive it and,because fromoldgrowthtimber, oftenoriginates it canbevisuallyandstructurally superior to thesmallbilletsof younger lumberavailable today. Before yourwood,consider ordering yourrequirements carefully andreferto thefollowingtipsto helpyougetwhat youneedat a reasonable cost. . Species: Askfor thespecific wood species, not a broadfamilyname.For

example,orderWesternred cedar,not simplycedar.Tobeabsolutely sure,learn the botanicalnameof the wood you want and askfor it. .Quantity: Let your supplierknow whetheryou areorderingin boardfeet or linealfeet.A lineal foot refersto a board'slength,regardless of its width andthickness. Theboardfoot is a measureof the volumeof woodtit is usualIy necessary to referto board feetfor orderinghardwoods,which areoften availablein randomsizesonly. .Size:Woodissoldin nominalrather thanactualsizes. somakeallowances for the difference whenorderingsurfaced lumber.A nominal 2-bv-4is actuallv l'/i'-by-31" . The thickness of wood ii oftenexpressed asa fractionin quarters

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BOARD FEET CATCUTATING 0rdering lumber bytheboardfoot usedwhen Theboardfootis a unitof measurement commonly withhardwood lumber. Asshownbelow, thestandard dealing boardfootis equivalent to a pieceof wood1 inchthick,12 of inches wide,and12 incheslong.Tocalculate thenumber pieceof wood,multiplyits three boardfeet in a particular dimensions, thendividethe resultby I44 if thedimensions areall in inches. or bv 12 if oneof thedimensions is in feet.

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I -,iy6:[,::;#f, difterent, sizeboardg 1-by-3= 2 board feet i

Theformulafor a standardboard: I " x 1 2 "x 1 2 "+ I 4 4 = I ( o r1 "x 1 2 "x 1 ' : 1 2 = I ) youwouldcalculate the Soif youhada 6{ooflong1-by-4, boardfeetasfollows: 1"x 4" x $' + 12 = 2 (or2 boardfeet). Otherexamoles areshownin theillustration, Remember that boardfeetarecalculated onthebasisof nominal ratherthan actualdimensions.

l-D!-O = + OOarATeeT ',

1-by-12=Bboardfeet

1"x 12"x 12"= 1 eLandardboardfoot 2-by-4=5%boardfeet

2-W-6 = B board feet i,

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primary differencebetweenthe two of an inch.A 2-inch-thickboard,for is the moisturecontent(MC) of the as%;surfacingwill is expressed example, reduceit to 1%inches.Wth unsurfaced wood.Kiln-driedwoodhasa moisture or greenwood,the nominaland actual contentof about8 percent;it will not drv anvfurtherwhenusedfor indoor arethesame. dimensions . Grade: The primary difference fuiniture.Air-driedwood hasan MC of 12to 15percent.Thiswoodis often betweenhigh and low gradesof hardor by woodworkers chosenby carvers, ratherthan wood lumberis appearance the gradeofa board who preferto dry their own wood. strength.Because .Surfacing:Surfacingrefersto how by theproportionsof clear isdetermined wood it contains,large high-grade wood is preparedat the mill beforeit comesto the lumberyard.Hardwood thanlowboardsarefar moreexpensive er-gradeboards.If you needonly small- lumberis usuallysurfacedon both faces (S2S). Ifyou havea planerandajointer, er high-gradepiecesyou cancut them board,at greatsav- buying rough lumber and surfacing out ofa lower-grade it yourselfwill provelessexpensive. ings.Consultyour localdealerfor a chart ofthe differentgradesavailable. . Seasoning: Lumberis soldeither kiln-dried(KD) or air-dried(AD).The

THESTAGES OF PRODUCTION CABINET Likemosttasks,the building canbe of a oieceof furniture mostsmoothly accomplished andefficientlyif youtakea Most approach. methodical projectsinvolve the stepslistbecared below;theyshould shown, riedoutin thesequence board startingat the drawing witha finalinspecandending efficiency, tion.Formaximum layoutyourtoolsin theshop sothatyourwoodfollowsa directroutefrom relatively roughstockto f inalassembly. ing fordetermin Considerations yourneedsandordering wood at leftandonpage arediscussed andjoin18.Stockpreparation erybeginon page20. rDesign andplanpiece . Listandordermaterials . Prepare stock .Jointonefaceandedge . Plane otherface . Ripto width rGrosscut to length . Cutjoints .Sandbefore assembly .Assemble components .Finishsand oMakeandinstalldoors anddrawers 'APPIY finish .Givefinalinspection

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CUTTING LISTS

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Making andusinga cutting list A cuttinglistrecords thefrnished sizes pieceof of lumberneeded fora particular furniture. lf oneis notincluded withthe plansyoupurchase, youwillhaveto make yourownbased ona sketch of thedesign. U s et h ef o r m u l sah o w n o n p a g e1 6 t o totalthe number of boardfeetforeach component of the prolect; add20 to 40 (depending percent on thespecies) to account forwasteanddefects in thewood. Forthe bookcase shownat right,which totalsroughly 14 board feet,youshould purchase 17 to 20 board feetof %lumber in addition to theplywood forthebackof thecase. Asshown below, a cuttinglist should i n c l u dteh en a m eo f t h ec o m p o nent,thequantity, thedimensions of each piece, andthewoodspecies selected for the project. Forconvenience, assign each piecea kevletterfor laterreference,

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Adjuotableehelf

CUTTING tlST Qtv. 1

Th.

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Material

Boardfeet

1u

23Yo'

ash

1.6

B Bottom

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1',

23Yo'

ash

1.6

C Side

a Z

1u

4z',

asn

5.8

D Fixedshelf

1

1u

23%'.

ash

1.6

Y"'

asn plywood

3.0

1

10' 10' 10" 10' 10' 24',

Piece A Top

EAdjustable shelves F Back

1u

18

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42',


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LUMBERDEFECTS mayreducea board's T umberdefects L.i strengthor workabilityor mar its Or, in the handsof a creappearance. ativewoodworker,somedefectsmayin transforming factbecomevisualassets, an ordinarypieceinto a work of art.

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The chartbelowillustratessomeof the most commondefectsand details the wayin whichmostcanbe corrected;with diligentuseof the band saw cuppedboards eventhemostseriously (page21). canbe salvaged

INWOOD DEFECTS REMEDIES

CHARACTERISTICS

as Tightknotscanbecutoutor used, bysoundtissue.Formed asa whorlencircled Appears deador dictates; gradually Live asappearance branch. girthof treeincreases, enveloping must be removed loose knots in resulting wood, withsurrounding integrate branches withstock. withsurroundingbeforeworking tightknots;deadstubscannotintegrate deador looseknots. forming tissue, of the boardor in pockets Donotusestockif a quality onthesurface Anaccumulation asgumwill finishis required, whena treehassufdevelops Usually withintheboard. most finishes. bleed through insect attack. fire, or to injury, exposure feredan

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however, areundiminMostdefects, somemayresult Although ishedtrouble. treeor the to thestanding fromdamage greatest number lumbercutfromit, the drybyirregular areproduced ofdefects ingof thewood.

Crook

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lJ---------/ Twist

.-'-t-Z

Y--t'-Split

â&#x201A;Ź

in thewood,usually orseparations ruptures Lengthwise and strength Maycompromise caused byrapiddrying. appearance of board.

Canbecutoff'

caused by curvealongtheface,usually Anend-to-end internalstresses of lumber.Introduces storage improper in thewoodthatmakeit difficultto cut. in theface.Common curveacross Anedge-to-edge cutcloseto thepith, cutstock,or boards tangentially withtheairthan if onefaceof a boardhaslesscontact theother.

onthe Flattenbowedboards jointer, pieces, or cut intoshorter thenusethejointer. canbesalvaged Cupped boards onthe bandsaw(page21) or onthejointer. flattened

curvealongtheedge,causedby incorrect End-to-end orcuttingtheboardcloseto thepithof a tree. seasoning forweightit unsuitable Weakens thewood,making applications. bearing is not whenonecorner warping or irregular Uneven drying or fromuneven Results withtheothers. aligned patternthat is notparallel to theedge. a cross-grain

byjointing Boardcanbesalvaged andrippingwastefromtheedges. remainunstable, boards Crooked andmaynotstainorfinishwell. onjointer, Board canbeflattened boards. orcut intoshorter

alongthe Board canbeused,butsplitmay asseparations appeartng to checks, Similar of thewood, martheappearance grovuth rings.Alsoknownasringcheckor ringshank. when morenoticeable of woodorfellingdamage. becoming drying fromimproper Results stainis applied.

l9


PREPARING STOCK nceyouhavedesigned a projectand /l \-rl purchasedthe lumber,you must preparethe stock,jointing and planing it smoothand square,cuttingit to the properdimensions andsandinganysurfacesthat will be difficult to reachwhen the work is assembled.

The procedures you follow depend board to makeit parallelto the first. on how the wood wassurfacedbefore Whenthe stockisiquareand smooth, you boughtit. For rough,unsurfaced youarereadytorip it to widthandcrossIumber,first smoothone faceon the cut it to length. jointer,then one edge,producingtwo For S2Slumber,which hasalready adjoiningsurfaces thatareat 90oto each hadboth facessurfaced, you needonlv other.Next,planethe other faceof the joint one edgeacrossthe jointer,then cut to width andlengh. S4Sstock,with all four surfaces dressed, canbe ripped andcrosscutimmediately;only surfaces thatwill begluedtogethermustbejointed.Beforegluing up anypart ofyour project,rememberto sandanysurfaces thatwillbe hardto reachafterassembly.

A jointer producesa smooth,even edgeon a hardwood board. For best results,seta cutting depth between Vtaand t/einch.

SURFACING LUMBER

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lointing a board Slidethefencetowardtheguard,if necessary, to ensure thatno portion of thecutterknives will beexposed asthe passes workpiece overthem.Laytheworkpiece face-down on the infeedtablea fewinches fromthe knives. Buttits edgeagainst thefence,thenplacetwopushblocks squarely (Usepushblocks on itsface,centered between theedges. withoffsethandles yourhandsfromhittingthe to prevent

fence.)Feedthe boardslowly andsteadily across the knives (above) pressure applying downward on the outfeedsideof t h ek n i v e a s n dl a t e r apl r e s s u raeg a i n st th e f e n c e W . hen w o r k i nw g i t hl o n gs t o c kb, r i n gy o u rl e f th a n dt o t h e b a c k o f t h ew o r k p i e cweh e ny o u rr i g h th a n dp a s s etsh e k n i v e s . W h e no n ef a c ei s d o n ej,o i n tt h e b o a r de d g ea ss h o w ni n the ohotoabove.

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CABINETMAKING BASICS

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stock Planing depthto %oinch.Stand Setthecutting anduseboth to onesideof theplaner into handsto feedthestockcarefully Oncethefeedmechanism themachine. g r i p st h eb o a r da n db e g i ntso p u l li t thetrailsupport thecutterhead, across i n ge n dt o k e e pi t f l a to n t h et a b l e hbove).Thenmoveto the outfeed theworksideof theplanerto support the prece withbothhandsuntilit clears thestockfrom roller.To prevent outfeed onlyone in use,avoidplaning warping plane thesameamount face;instead, of woodfrombothsides

llllilllltillllililllllllllill l]llllljlllllllll]lllllllllllllllllllll1 )HO? TI? galvagingouppedotoak on lhe band eaw cuppedboardoueinq Youcanoalvage Nhebandsaw,radialarm eaw,or table narrower ehockinNo eawfo riVVinqNhe boarde.lf you are ueinqlhe bandeaw yourwideet' as ehownhere,ineNall bladeand a rip fence.Thenarrower Nhewidlh of cuI,I'he flaNt'erthe reeulting boarde.5 el Nheboard convex(hiqh)eideup on lhe Iable and,bul5inqLheboardaqainet the fence,teed it eteadilyinbo the blade,Finishthe paeewiNha puehetick.Kemove any remaininq hiqhopote on the jointer.

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DIMENSIONING ST(]CK

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Ripping a board onthetablesaw posiSetthe bladeheightabout%inchabove theworkpiece. tiontheripfenceforthewidthof cut,thenpushthestockinto t h eb l a d eh, o l d i nigt f i r m l ya g a i n st ht ef e n c ew i t hy o u rl e f t handandfeeding theboardwithboththumbs(above). SIand slightly to onesideof theworkpiece andstraddle thefence

withyourrighthand, makrng certain thatneither handis in line wrththeblade. Keeppushing theboarduntilthebladecuts throughit completely. Tokeepyourfingers fromcoming closer than3 inches fromtheblade, usea pushstickto complete the pass.(Caution: Bladeguardpartially retracted for clarity.)

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r Crosscutting stock W r t ht h ew o r k p i e cf leu s ha g a i n st ht e mitergauge, alignthecuttingmarkwith theblade. Position theripfence wellaway fromtheendof thestockto prevent the cut-offpiecefromjamming against the blade andkicking you.Hook backtoward thethumbsof bothhands overthemiter gauge to holdthestockf irmlyagainst the gauga e n df l a to n t h et a b l et,h e nf e e d theboardintothe blade(right).(Caution: Bladeguardpartially retracted for clarity.)

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CABINETMAKING BASICS

SANDING

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llllllllllllllllllllllllllllljl]lllllllllll iltlll llllllllIIlllllllt 1HO?TI? Making repeat cuts with the lable eaw To cut, several boardeLo Nhe on eamelenqNh Nhet ablesaw, 6crewa boardLo lhe miler qauqe a e a n e x t e n e i o ne,n o u r i n q Lhe beYond Nhat one ende>lvends sawblade.Tueht'he miberqauqet'o offthe cut,intol'heendof the e>l1ension.Turn eawand markf'helenqlhof cut on Ihe erteneion. Aliqnawoodblockwi|ht'he mark and clampiNin p.lace ae-a olop block.To lineup oachcul, bulN'lheend of aqainet'Nheblockand makeNhecut' vhe workpiece

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a beltsander Using to Clampa stopblockto a worksurface a Install moving. keepthestockfrom power cord beltanddrapethe sanding to keepit outof the overyourshoulder parallel direction way.Withthesanding and grain, the tool turnon to thewood (above). slowlylowerit ontothesurface preferto setthetool Somewoodworkers it. starting before f latontheworkpiece along In eithercase,movethemachine strokes thegrainwithlong,overlapping To is smooth. avold untilthesurface keepthe sander gouging thesurface, do notletthe moving; f lat andalways pause in onespot. machine


I

CABINETMAKINGIOINERY his sectionintroducessomestan-

J. dardjoinerytechniques common to thebuildingof virtuallyanystyleof cgline1 orbookcase. Ifyouareusingsolid lumberforyourproject,youwill make upthewidepanels forthecarcase or the panelof aframe-and-panel assemblyby gluingboardstogether edge-to-edge, as shownbelow.Thistechnique enables youto savemoney-wideboardsare prohibitively expensive-without sacrificingstrength; a glued-uppanelisjust asstrongasa singlepieceof lumber.If youareworkingwith plywoodpanels, hardwoodbandingwill hideunsightly (page25). edges Of thedozens ofjoineryoptions,the throughdovetailjoint remainsthe benchmark of craftsmanship. Thejoint

canbecut on a varietyof powertools, but thehand-cutting technique shown startingonpage26will giveyouthedistinctivelookassociated withfinefurniture.A platejoint,shownbeginning on page29,is a muchquickeroption. Althoughit lacksthedovetail's esthetic appeal,the platejoint is virtually asstrongandis anexcellent choiceif youareworkingwith p\nvoodpanels, whichcannotbejoinedwith dovetails. joint youchoose, Whichever yourcar-

casewill needa back.Installationdetails areprovidedon page31. Manytypesof cabinets, includingthe armoireshownon page60, are built around frame-and-panel assemblies ratherthancrcrses.Twojoinery options for buildingsucha cabinetarepresented:themortise-and-tenon (page33)and joint (page35).The the cope-and-stick panelsfor a frame-and-panel cabinet can be raisedon eitherthe tablesaw (pagej6) or router (page3S).

GLUING UPA PANET

t I I

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t I T Theplate,or biscuit, joint ffirs a strong and simplemethodof connecting carcasecornerswith a minimum of set-up time. The slotsarecut with a special toolknownasa platejoiner. Onceglue isaddedto the slots, ovalbiscuitsof compressed beechare inserted.When the joint isgluedand assembled, thebiscuits swell,creating a durableconnection.

t theglue 1 Applying r Settwobarclamps on a worksurface andlaythe boards on top.Adoas many clamps propthecramos asyouneedto support thepieces at 24-to 36-inchintervals. on notched woodblocks to keepthemfromfallingover.Marktheendgrainorientation of eachboard witha pencil, thenarrange thepieces to enhance theirappearance, as shownin thephotoonpage13.Tominimize warping, makesuretheendgrainof adjacentboards runsin opposite directions. onceyouhavea satisfactory arrangemenr, alignthepieces edgeto-edge andmarka triangle onthestockto helpyouassemble the boards at glueup.Next,cuttwoprotective woodpadsat leastas longastheboards. Leaving thefirstboardfacedown,standtheotherpieces onedgewiththealignment marksfacingawayfromyou.Applya thingluebeadto eachboard(above), rnenuse a small,stiff-bristled brushto spread theadhesive eventv.

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llltlll lllllllllllllllllillfllllllllllllilllllllllllillllllllllllJllll 1HO?Tt? Adding edge molding to plywood Coicealthe vieibleedqeeof plywoodpanelewilh eolid' woodmoldin7.Uoea I'onguejoint'lo )oinlhe and-groove pieceo.CUI a qrooveinNo lhe ed4eone-t'hirdas Nhick a e N h eo a n e l . T h esna wa matchiiqlonyueon the edqe of lhe hardwoodboardthat' willbeusedaslhe edqemoldinq.(lNis besl'o maket'he

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lhe 7rooveand on Lhetonque. gecurelhe moldinqin 7lacewilh clampo. Nhree-way

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r) Tightening theclamps facedown,making L Settheboards align.Tightsurethesidesof thetriangle s n d etrh eb o a r djsu s t e nt h ec l a m p u Installa themtogether. to press enough thetopof thestock, thirdclampacross Gradually theothers. it between centering untilthere alltheclamps(above) tighten and the boards arenogapsbetween outof the a thinbeadof gluesqueezes joints.Usea C clampto leveladjacent f lushwith thatdonotlieperfectly boards witha theboards eachother.Protecting theclamponthejotnt woodpad,center n e a tr h ee n d sa n dt i g h t e ni t u n t i lt h e thenremove arelevel(inset), boards theclampandpad.Usea puttyknifeto as muchof thesqueezed-out remove it dries.Oncethe glueaspossible before theclamps hascured,remove adhesive any to remove andusea patntscraper gluethatremains.


I CABINETMAKING BASICS

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HAND.CUT DOVETAILS

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1 Waate

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0utlining thepins I Marktheoutside faceof eachboardwitha bigX,thenset gauge a cutting to thethickness of thestockandscribe a line around theendsof thefourpanels to marktheshoulder of the pinsandtails.Thepanels thatwillformthetopandbottom of thecarcase willbethepinboards. Secure eachonein turnin a viseandusea dovetail square to ouflinethepinsontheends of theboardin thesequence (youcanalsousea shown above. slidingbeveltomarkthepins;setanangleof l:6 forsoftwood o r 1 : 8f o rh a r d w o o d . ) T haerreen of i r mg u i d e l i n feosrs i z i n g a n ds p a c i ntgh ep i n so f a d o v e t aj iol i n t .I n g e n e r at lh, ep i n s r) Cutting thepins Z- Secure thef irstpin boardrna vise wrthits outsidefacetoward you.Usea dovetail saivto cut alongtheedges of thepins,working fromonesideof the panelto the other(right).Somewoodworkers findit easier to cut all the lefthandedges first,andthenmoveonto theright-hand edges. Foreachcut,align thesawbladewiththewastesideof the cuttinglineandusesmooth, evenstrokes, takingcareto keepthebladeperpendicularto thepanelendasyoucutto the shoulder lines.Repeat theprocedure at theopposite endof theboardandat both endsof theotherpinboard.

s h o u lb d en ow i d etrh a nt h et a i l se; v e n lsyp a c epdi n sa t l e a s t one{hird thesizeof thewaste sections around themwillmake j o i n t .B e g i nw i t hh a l f - p i nast e a c h f o r a n a t t r a c t i v set,r o n g edge,making certain thatthenarrow sidesof thepinsareon theoutside faceof thepanel.Outline thewastesections beside thehalf-pins andmarkthecenter of thepanelend.Oufline a pinat thecenter mark,thenmarktheremaining pins(above, right),indicating all thewastesections withXs.Usea combinationsquare to extend themarksdownto theshoulder lineon bothfacesasyougo.

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CABINE,TMAKINGBASICS

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llllllljt]llilllllllll[ lllll]illllllllllllJlll tjillll i[ tlil]Illll 9HO7Tt? Cuttin7 awaywaole with a aoping saw A copinqsawworKe a s w e l la s a c h i e e l for clearingawayNhe bulkof the wast'ewood betweenNhepine.WiNh N h ep a n e le e c u r e du p r i 4 h l i n a v i e e ,s l a n d f a c i n q t h e o u N s i d e f a c e o f N h e V a n e la n d o l i d e the saw blade into t'he kerl beeide each pin, Kolale lhe frame wit'houL e N r i k i n aN h ee n d o f L h e b o a r d a n d c u No u t ' a e m u c h w a e t ' ea o y o D c a n w h i l ek e e p i n qt h e b l a d ea b o u l / , ai n c h a b o v et ' h e s h o u l d e rl i n e .C u l

u n N yi lo ur e a c h l h e k e rot n L h ee d q eo f t ' h ea d l a c e n t wasLe. pin.Dsea chieello pareawayany remaininq

outthewaste Q Chiseling r-J Mostof the wastewoodbetweenthe p i n sc a nb e r e m o v ew d i t ha c o p i n gs a w , a s s h o w ni n t h e s h o pt i p b e l o wl,e a v i n g . o w e v e irt, t h e f i n a lp a r i n gf o r a c h i s e l H i s n o t m u c hm o r ed i f fi c u l tt o c h i s eol u t all the waste.The keyis to workpatientl y , r e m o v i ntgh i n s l i v e r so f w o o dw i t h e a c hc u t , u s i n ga c h i s e nl o w i d e rt h a n the narrowsideof the wastesection.Set t h e p i n b o a r do u t s i d e - f a cuep o n a w o r k a n dc l a m pa g u i d eb l o c ko n t o p surface w i t ht h e s h o u l d e r w i t ht h e e d g ea l i g n e d l e v e l - o uatg a i n s t t h ec h i s eb l i n e .H o l d i n g t h e g u i d eb l o c ka n d p e r p e n d i c u ltaort h e s t, r i k et h e h a n d l e f a c eo f t h e w o r k p i e c e w i t ha w o o d e nm a l l e t o s c o r ea % - i n c h deepcut (above,left).Thencut fromthe end of the boardto shaveoff a %-inch layerof wasle (above,rrght). Continue r e m o v i ntgh e w a s t eu n t i ly o ua r ea b o u t halfway throughthe stock.Onceyouhave all the wastefromonesideof removed the edge the board,turn it over,reposition y v e rt h e s h o u l o f t h eg u i d eb l o c kd i r e c t l o d e rl i n e ,a n dr e m o v teh e w a s t ef r o mt h e o t h e rs i d e .


I CABINETMAKING BASICS

?in board

X

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t I I I ()utlining andcutting thetails M a r ks h o u l d el irn e so n t h et a i lb o a r dassv o ud i do nt h e t o e x t e n tdh e l i n e so n t ot h ee n d so f t h eb o a r d sM. a r k a l lt h e p i n b o a r d sS, e to n eo f t h et a i l b o a r dosu t s i d e - f adcoew no n wastesections withXs.Usea dovetail sawto cutthetailsthe a w o r ks u r f a c ae n dc l a m pa g u i d eb l o c ka l o n gt h ee x p o s e d samewayyoucut the pins(step2). Forsomewoodworkers, s h o u l d el irn e .T h e nu, s i n ga h a n d s c r eaw n dc l a m p sf i,x o n e anglingthe board(above,right)ratherthanthe sawmaKes pin boardon endagainst theguideblockwithitsoutside face f o r e a s i ecr u t t i n gI.n e i t h ecr a s es, a ws m o o t h layn de v e n l y a w a yf r o mt h et a i l b o a r dM , a k es u r et h ee d g e sa r ea l i g n e d , a l o n gt h ee d g eo f e a c ht a i l ,s t o p p i nagt t h es h o u l d el irn e . , f f ) .R e p e at th e p r o c e d u r e O n c ea l l t h e s a wc u t sh a v eb e e nm a d ei n t h e no u t l i n et h et a i l s( a b o v e/ e b o t ht a i lp a n e l s . o n t h e o p p o s i teen do f t h e b o a r da n do n t h eo t h e tr a i l remove thewaste witha chiselor a copingsaw. panel, thenremove theclamps andusea combination square

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upthecarcase f, Gluing r.,l Dry-assemble thecarcase glueupto ensure before the jointsfit properly. Press eachcorner together byhandasfar asit willgo,thentapthepieces intofinalposition withthe mallet,protecting thewoodwitha scrapboard.lf a jointis tootrght,markthespotwhereit binds, thendisassemore thecarcase andpareexcess woodat themark.Onceyou aresatisfied withthefit, takecareoftheotherrequirements of thecarcase, suchasinstalling a backpanel(page 3j) or preparing thesidesforshelving or drawers. Forglueup, makefourwoodpadsaslongasthewidthofthepanels and cutsmalltriangular notches in thepadssotheyonlyconract thetails.Spread a thin,evenlayer of glueonallthecontactingsurfaces, thenassemble thecarcase andinstall two barclamps across the pin boards. Tighten the clamps a littleata timeuntila smallamount ofgluesqueezes outof thejoints(rghf).

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CABINETMAKINGBASICS

J()INTS WITHPLATE A CARCASE ASSEMBLING theslotlocations 1 Marking l d e n t i ftyh eo u t s i dfea c eo f e a c h I lines panel withanX,thenmarklocation four corners. of the on each fortheslots Tostart,placeonesidepaneloutside-face d o w no n a w o r ks u r f a c ae n dh o l dt h e to it. Usea penat a 90' angle top panel a d j o i n i npga n e l s l i n e s o n t h e c i lt o m a r k make each corner; in from abou|2inches (left). the edge midway along a thirdmark b li s l si l lr e q u i raed d i t i o n a W i d epr a n e w o ne g e n e r a l , b e t h e r e s h o u l d c u i t s ;i n t h e R e p e a t 4 6 i n c h e s . b i s c u iet v e r y t o p r o c e d u tr oe m a r ks l o tl o c a t i o nosn t h e o t h e trh r e ec o r n e rosf t h ec a r c a s e . to helpyouidentiletters Addreference fy thecorners.

/":.

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r) Cutting theslots willallowyouto cutalltheslotsfor above L m" setupshown Leaving a side moving thepanels. without corner onecarcase piece upon outside-face the top panel down,set outside-face making panel thickness, by the stock thetop topof it. Offset arepermarks onthetwopanels slotlocation surethemating p l a c e p i e c e s a s u pport i n a n d s e t fectla y l i g n eC d .l a m tph e panels. front of the in asthestock thesamethickness board thedepthof forsetting instructions themanufacturer's Follow

butt board, Restthetoolonthesupport cutontheplateloiner, andaligntheguidetheendof thetoppanel, against itsfaceplate Then markonthestock. witha slotlocation lineonthefaceplate left).Iocutthematingslotsin cuta slotat eachmark(above, thetoppanbaseplateagainst buttthejoiner's thesidepanel, e l a n dt h e na l i g nt h ec e n t egru i d e l i no ent h ep l a t ew i t ha s l o t rrght). locationmark(above,

29


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Inserting thebiscuits Q r-,1 Onceall the slotshavebeencut, dryf i t t h e p a n e l sa n dc u t a b a c kp a n e li f t h a t is partof yourdesign(page31),or make r e a d yf o r s h e l v e so r d r a w e r sT. h e ns e t l u t s i d e - f a cdeo w no n t h e o n es i d ep a n e o w o r ks u r f a c e a n ds p r e a dg l u ei n t h e s l o t s a n d a l o n gt h e p a n e sl u r f a c ei,n s e r t i n g b r s c u i ta s s y o ug o ( l e f ) . f o p r e v e ntth e w o o d e nw a f e r sf r o m e x p a n d i n g before t h e p a n e l sa r ea s s e m b l e dp .r o c e e tdo s t e p4 a s q u i c k l ya s p o s s i b l e .

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Gluing upthecarcase F i t t h e t o p a n d b o t t o mp a n e l so n l n d t h e na p p l ya d h e s i v e t h e s i d ep a n e a i n t h e s l o t sa n d a l o n gt h e p a n e e l nds, i n s e r t i nb g i s c u i t sa s y o ug o .A d dt h e o t h e r s i d e p a n e l( r i g h t ) .T u r n i n gt h e c a r caseon end,usetwo barclampsto press t h e t o p a n d b o t t o mp a n e l st o g e t h ear n d t i g h t e nt h e c l a m p se x a c t l ya s y o uw o u l d w h e ng l u i n gu p a c a r c a sw e i t hd o v e t a i l (page 28),Ihis time using standard lotnIs woodpadsto protectthe stock.

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A BACKPANEL INSTALLING 'l

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forthepanel a rabbet Routing ona worksurandsetthecarcase I Drv-assemble theoanels usinga together facewithitsbackfacingup;holdthepieces w i t hs u p p o b r to a r d sI n. s t a al l % - i n crha b b e t i nb gi t b a rc l a m p loa t n da d j u stth ed e p t ho f c u tt o m a k e w i t ha b a l l - b e a r ipni g s sf t h e t a tw i l lb e ' l oi n c hd e e p et hr a nt h et h i c k n e o a r a b b et h b a c kp a n eyi o uw i l lb ei n s t a l l i nSgt.a r t i nagt o n ec o r n eorf t h e board with baseplateonthesupport resttherouter's carcase, firmlyin Holding therouter thebitjustclearof theworkpiece. 0nce thebitintothepanel. turnonthetoolandguide bothhands, pulltherouter thedirecagainst meets thestock, thepilotbearing thebaseplatef lat.Whenyoureach keeping tionof bitrotation, boardand thesupport turnoff thetool,reposition thecorner, t h ee d g eos f t h er e m a i n i npga n e lfso l l o w i n g c u tr a b b e tasl o n g (/eft). thesameprocedure

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r)

S q u a r i ntgh e c o r n e l s l n da s t r a i g h t e d gt oe L t l s ea p e n c i a m a r ks q u a r ec o r n e r sa t t h e r o u n d e d ' l - i n c ho r e n d so f t h e r a b b e t sU. s i n ga w i d e rw o o dc h i s e ls, t r i k et h e t o o lw i t h cuttingto the a woodenmallel(above). d e o t ho f t h e r a b b e tB. e s u r et h e c h i s e l b e v e fl a c e st h e i n s i d eo f t h e c a r c a s e .

thepanel 2 Installing e i l l h e l pk e e pt h e a s s e m b l y r J I n s t a l l i ntgh e p a n e dl u r i n gg l u eu p o f t h e c a r c a sw . l u eu p t h e c a r c a s e s q u a r eC . u t a p i e c eo f p l y w o o tdo f i t s n u g l yi n t ot h e r a b b e t sG g l u e r a a l o n gt h e b b e tasn do n t h ec o n a n d ,a t t h e s a m et i m e ,a p p l ya t h i n b e a do f glue and evenly,setthe panelin position, Spreadthe of the plywood. tactingsurfaces g l u e up Y o u c a n a l s o u s ef i n i s h i nnga i l s t os e c u r ei t a t 4 - t o 6 - i n c hi n t e r v a lbsb o v e ) , p a n e l . t h e c a r c a ssee p a r a t e llye,tt h e a d h e s i vder y ,a n dt h e ni n s t a ltlh e

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I CABINETMAKING BASICS

FRAME.AND.PANEL C(lNSTRUCTI()N Frame-and-panel cabinets mayvary cope-and-stick on page35. Whatever nerontheedges thanin themiddle. widelyin theirdetails, butallshare sev- thejoint,cabinetmakers generally build Theshapeof sucha so-called raised eralfeatures: Theassemblies arecomframes fromstockthatis at least%inch panelis achieved bycuttingawaythickprisedof framesmadefromstilesand thickand2 inches wide.Larger stock nessat theedges. rails,andpanels thatfit intogrooves in canalsobeusedto suitthedimensions Thereareseveral waysof making a theframe.A typicalfrontandsidesecproject. of a particular panel, raised depending onthevisual tionis shownbelowat right.To provide Thepanels thatfit inside theframes effectyoudesire. A common method, access to the insideof thecabinet, the canbemadeeitherof plywood or edge- shownbeginning on page36, involves frontfrequently hasa framebutnopan- gluedboards(page24).Toensurethat beveling theedges of thepanelwitha el.Thisonefeatures a median railwith a panelwillfit snuglyin thegrooves of tablesawor router. openings fora dooranda drawer. The therailsandstiles, butstillhavea little Thestepsforgluingup individual twomissing assemblies wouldbesimiroomto moveasthewoodexoands and frame-and-panel assembl iesandcabilarto thesideassembly shown; eachhas contracts, it is madesubstantially thinnetsareshownon page39. a frameanda panel.In thiscase,the sideswouldsharestileswiththefront andbackassemblies, allowing therails AI{ATOMY OFA FRAME.AI{D.PANEL CABIT{ET to fit intoboththeedges andfacesof thestiles. Bottoms aretypically attached to the frameby ledgerstripsor let into Rail grooves cut in the insideedges of the Frovidea horizontal auppori at top and bottom frame. Topscanbeattached withwood of cabinet buttons thatfit in grooves in theframe, orwithmetalfasteners, ledgerstrips,or pocketholes. Stile Vertical compojointsusedin Thetwomostcommon nent of frami,e frame-and-panel construction arethe mortise-and-tenon shownin the illustrationandthecope-and-stick. Themorprovides tise-and-tenon a relatively large gluingarea,making joint. it a verystrong Twovariations areemployed in thetypicalcabinet: Blindmortise-and-tenons Panel Solid woodpiece joinmedian railsandstiles, whilethe that fits into haunched version is usedto fill the qroove-typically groove end,eliminating theneedfor %inch deep-in inoide edqea of grooves. stopped Thecope-and-stick is frame; aan be flat quite not asstrong,butoffersan addiwith edqeorabbettionaldecorative touch.Therouterbit ed or beveledon thatcutsthegrooves forthepanelalso four oifufn"raige" carves a decorative molding on the center ofthe panel insideedges of theframe.Step-by-step techniques for producing theseloints areshownin thissection: themortiseand-tenons starting on page33 andthe

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CABINETMAKING BASICS

JOINTS M(lRTISE.AND.TEN()N intherails thetenoncheeks 1 Cutting tenons, startby I Forbothblindandhaunched i n s t a l l i nagd a d oh e a do ny o u rt a b l es a wt h a ti s widerthanthe lengthof thetenons-often slightly 3/oinch. fenceandraisethe Thenattachan auxiliary notchin it. Setthewidth to cuta clearance blades of cut equalto thetenonlengthandthecutting Feedthe heightto one-third thestockthtckness. the face-down, butting theendagainst workpiece Turn the mitergauge. fenceandtheedgeagainst thecut ontheotherside therailoverandreoeat (left).TesI thetenonin a scrappieceof woodwith a mortise thesamewidthasthoseto becut in the the heightof thedadohead stiles(page34); adJust Cuttheremaining andrepeat thecuts,if necessary. proceeding. before tenoncheeks

thetenonshoulders O Cutting tenons canbe Z m" shoulders forbothblindandhaunched leave thecutting cutonthetablesaw.Forthe blindtenons, andsetthe heightof thedadoheadto about widthunchanged thefenceandthe miter Y,inch.Withtherailf lushagainst gauge, Turnthe feedtheworkpiece on edgeintotheblades. railoverandrepeatonthe othersideof thetenon(abovd. C u tt h es h o u l d ear st t h eo p p o s i teen do f t h er a i lt h es a m e

usethesamecuttingheight tenons, way.Forthe haunched a rsf o rt h eb l i n dt e n o n st h, e np o s i t i o n a n dc u to n es h o u l d e equalin widthto thedepthof thefenceto leavea haunch Withthestockon on theothershoulder. the panelgroove to feedit intcthe edge,usethefenceandthe mitergauge on theotherend Repeat to cut the haunch blades(insef). of theboard.

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CABINETMAKING BASICS

Routing themortises Clampall thestilestogether faceto face,endsaligned, and useoneof theblindtenons cut in step2 to outlinethemortises on thestiles.Tocuteachmortise, secure onestilein a vise. Installa commercial edgeguideon a plunge router, thenscrew a woodextension ontotheguide.Fittherouterwitha straight bit thesamewidthasthe mortise andsetthecuttingdepth. Center thebitoverthemortise outline andbutttheextension against thestile.Gripping therouter firmly,turnit onandplunge the bit intothe stock(right).Movethetoolfromoneendof the mortise to the other,makingas manypasses as necessary to complete thecutto therequired depth.Repeat to routtheother mortises, thensquare theendsof thecavities witha chisel.

t I I I I I I I Cutting thegrooves Ontherailsandstilesof eachframe. markthelocation of thegrooves thatwill holdthepanel.Leave thestraight mortisingbit in therouter, mountthetoolin a table,andadjustthecuttingdepthto aboutYz inch.Center theedgeof a stile on the bit andbuttthefenceagainst thestock.Clampa featherboard to the tableto holdtheworkpiece against the fenceandfeedthestockwithbothhands, making sureto press thestileflushagainst thefence(/eff).Complete the passwith a pushstick.Tocut grooves in thestile faces,keepthefencein thesameposition,butreposition thefeatherboard as necessary. Next,youcancut andraise the panels(page36).

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CABINET A COPE.AND.STICK

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Miter qauge extension

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Rail Copin4

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bit

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thetongues in therails 1 Cutting I Beginconstructing a cope-and-stick in theendsof all framebycuttingtongues for the the rails.Afterthat,routgrooves panels of theframe alongtheinsideedges pieces; in thestileswillaccomthegrooves at thesametime. modate the railtongues installa pilotedcoping Tocutthetongues, bit-the railcutter-in yourrouterandmount thetoolin a table.Setthecuttingdepthby thebit and buttingtheendof a railagainst depthsettingsothat adjusting therouter's cutteris slightly thetop of the uppermost Position thefenceparabove theworkpiece. slotandin linewith allelto themitergauge theedgeof thebit pilot.Fitthemitergauge face withanextension andlaytheoutside of thestockflatonthetable;keeptheends of theworkpiece andextension buttedagainst thefencethroughout eachcut (left).

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r) Cutting thegrooves Z Replace the copingbit witha pilotedstickingbit-also knownasa stilecutter.To setthecuttingdepth,buttthe end railagainst the bit,andadjustthebit until of thecompleted teethis levelwiththe railtongue oneof its groove-cutting (above, left).Alignthefencewiththeedgeof the pilotbearing. theworkpiece duringthecut: to secure Usetwofeatherboards

the bit andsecure the Clamponeto theroutertableopposite (ln fence. this illustration, the otheronthe infeedsideof the hasbeenremoved for clarity,) Makeeach featherboard second pressing the workpiece down, cut withthestockoutside-face right).Usea pushstickto complete againstthefence(above, thegroove cut onall therailsandstiles. thepass.Repeat

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RAISING A PANEI WITHA TABLE SAW theendgrain 1 Cutting I Test-fit therailsandstilesandmeasuretheopening between them.Add Y ,i n c ht o e a c hd i m e n s i o% n ;i n c ho f eachpanel sidewillfit intothegrooves in theframe.Thencutthepanelto size onthetablesaw.Todetermine theblade angle forraising thepanel, drawa %-inch square at thebottomcorner, thenmark a linefromthefrontfaceof the panel through theinside corner of thesquare to a pointon the bottomedge%inch fromthebackface(inset). Holdthepanel against an auxiliary woodfenceand adjust thebladeangleuntilit aligns with themarked line.Adjust theheight of the cutting edgeuntiltheoutside trpof one toothextends beyond thefaceof thepanel,thenclampa guideblockto theworkpieceto ridealong thetopof thefence. Feed thepanelintotheblade, keeping it flushagainst thefencewhilepushing it forward withtheguideblock(lef\.f esIfit thecutendin a groove. lf lessthan %inchof thepanelenters thegroove, move thefencea littlecloser to thebladeand pass.Repeat makeanother thecutat the otherendof theoanel.

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r) Cutting withthegrain 1 Setthe panelon edgeandfeedit i n t ot h eb l a d et,h e nt u r nt h ep a n eol v e r to cut the remaining edge(nghf).No guideblockis needed forthesecuts,but takecareto keepthebackflushagainst thefence.Cutting intotheendgrarn ofthe panelf irst-beveling thetopandbottom before thesides-helps reduce tearout.

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PANETS RAISED A JIGFORCUTTING at righw t i l le n a b l e T h ej i g s h o w n youto raisea panelonthetablesaw to tilt thesawblade. without having forsuggestReferto the illustration eddimensions. Screwthe lip alongthe bottom edgeof the angledfence,making where to position thescrews certain theywillnotbestruckbytheblade whenthejig is used.Leantheangled fenceat theauxiliary fenceagainst thesameangleasthecuttingltne marked onthepanel(page36l (Use theangle.) a slidingbevelto transfer supports to fit between Cuttriangular thetwofencesandfastenthemin olacewithscrews. Tn rrsethe iip set it on thesaw thelip tablewiththeseambetween fenceovertheblade; andtheangled arewell checkto besurethescrews

An4led fence

12"x 30" Auxrliary fence

9" x 30"

N LIP

11"x30"

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Position clearof thetableopening. theauxiliary the rip fenceagainst fence,thenscrewthetwotogether. Turnonthesawandcrankup the bladeslowly intothejigto cuta kerf through thelip.Turnoffthesaw,seat thepanelin thejig andadjustthe tip of bladeheight untiltheoutside onetoothextends beyond thefront faceof theoanel.Makea testcuton a scrapboardthesamethickness as thentest-fit thecutend theoanel. in a groove. Reposition thebladeor fence,if necessary. Then,placethe panelin thejig andmakethecuts, theendgrainfirst(/eff). beveling

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MAKING A RAISED PANEL WITHA ROUTER uptherouter 1 Setting I Install a panel-raising bit in yourrouterandmountthetoolin a table.Toensure posithatthecuttingdepthis uniform, tionthefenceparallel to themitergauge s l o ta n di n l i n ew i t ht h eb i t p i l o t W . ith therouterturnedoff,adjustthefenceby placing a scrapboardalongthefenceand across thebit.Thebit pilotshould turnas the boardtouchesit (right).Startwith a %-inch-deep cutsothatyouwillreach yourfinaldepthin twoor morepasses.

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I r) Raising thepanel L Lower theguardoverthebit andturn onthe router. To minimize tearout, cut theendgrainof the panelf irst.Work caref ully;a panel-raising bit is oneof themoredangerous routerbitsbecause of the largeamountof stockthat it removes witheachpass.Keepthe panel flaton thetableoutside-face downand flushagainst thefenceasyoufeedit across the biI (left).Repeat the cut at the otherendandalongbothsides.Turnoff therouterandtest-fit oneendin a frame groove. lf thepanellieslessthan%inch deepin thegroove, increase thecutting depthslightly pass andmakeanother allaround. Continue in thismanner until thepanelfits properly.

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CABINET A FRAME.AND-PANEL ASSEMBLING

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assembly upa single 1 Gluing (above, b a rc l a m p sa,l i g n i ntgh eb a r sw i t ht h er a i l sT, o k e e pt h e left).ll a the frame-and-panel I Test-assemble o v e rp, r o pt h e mu p i n n o t c h ebdl o c k s . c l a m pfsr o mf a l l i n g p i e c e s a n du s ea c h i s e l t hl e , isassemb l o i n ti s t o ot i g h t d t es t o c kt,i g h t e e nach b l o c ktso p r o t e ct h c l a m p i n g fit, U s r n g withthe to pareawaysomewood.Onceyouaresatisfied g l u e o u to f t h e o f s q u e e z e s b e a d u n t i a l t h i n i n t u r n c l a m p w h e nt h e s a n da n ys u r f a c et hs a tw i l lb ed i f f i c u lt to r e a c h (above, 90o as are at corners that the right). Check g l u e f r a m eh a sb e e ng l u e du p ,a n ds p r e a d o n a l lt h ec o n t a c t - loinIs glue a n y d r i e d r e m o v e y o u g o . h a s d r i e d , a d h e s i v e O n c e t h e i n gs u r f a c eosf t h el o i n t sD . on o ta p p l ya n ya d h e s i vi net h e p a i n t t he a n d s a n d s c r a p e r , w i t h a w o o d o n t h e r e m a i n i n g panelgrooves; the panelmustbefreeto movewithinthe surfaces. outside theframeandsetit facedownontwo frame.Reassemble

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r) Gluing upthecabinet adjust anyill-fitit thecabinet, Z- Test-f of surfaces tingjoints,andsandtheinside y l u et o t h ej o i n t s a l lt h ep i e c e sA.p p l g thatholdthepanelsthegrooves except Then,withthe thecabinet. andassemble install fourbarclamps upright, cabinet fromfrontto backovertherails, running thestock. usingwoodpadsto protect evenly(/eft)until Tighten theclamps outof the a thinbeadof gluesqueezes joints. tssquare Check thatthecabinet t hged i s t a n cbee t w e e n b ym e a s u r i n thetwomeasurements corners; diagonal anextra lf not,install bethesame. should of thetwo the longer barclampacross onthose theclamp.1aws setting diagonals, Tighten theclampuntil in place. already t h ed i a g o n aal rsee q u a lO. n c et h eg l u e andscrape theclamps remove hascured, awavanvdriedadhesive.

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BOOKCASE,

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sizeandweightof theitemsit is hetheritis asimpleplywood for examto hold.Shelves, intended or acustom-made structure to dotheir ple,mustbelongenough wall unit craftedfrom fine hardjob,but not solongthattheywill twofuncserves wood,abookcase canbefixedin sagin use.Shelves tions at once:It is an efficient Each hasitsown place or adjustable. accommodating system, storage shelving Adjustable advantages. accuitems that other and books mulatein mosthomes,anda fine Qagea5)permitsa moreflexible interiof abookcase's organization pieceof furniturein its ownright, (page 50) fixed shelves but space, or freestanding as the handsome as rigidity. structural lend a bookcase at left. unit choiceof Youhaveconsiderable on illustrated Thebasicbookcase joinerymethbuildingmaterials, to storejust page 42canbeadapted when A lengthof moldingis shapedon a routertable. ods, and ornamentation aboutanything,from boundvolThe chapter a bookcase. building carcase, top ofthe or the to thebase Fixed records, toys, china, crystal, umesto compactdiscs,andvideocassettes. moldingprovidesa classictouchto a bookcase. thatfollowsdetailstheconstruction of abasicunit.Youmaywishto add Withtheadditionof somespecialthepieceandsoftenitslines(page frame to strenghen face a (page can be transformed simple bookcase 44),a izedhardware to andfeet(page56)canallowabookcase and 54).Moldedbases centerto housea television into a homeenteitainment will surround that pieces of furniture other with harmonize utilitarian gear. This and computer components VCR,stereo of most it. Seepage59for a simplemethodof stringinga series oneof thewoodshop's versatilitymakesthebookcase into awallunit. together bookcases popularprojects. to work, skill,andpatience Byputtingyourimagination, mayvaryfromone of abookcase Althoughtheappearance pieceof a fine building rewards of reap the you able to will be remain constant. its design principles of the unit to another, furniture. useful and the its size between a balance strike must Everybookcase

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with and sizes,bookcases Because bookscomein manyshapes they are built. after long their retain adjustableshelves Jlexibility at left can the bookcase movable, its shelves With all but oneof growing collection. of a demands the changing accommodate

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ANATOMYOFA BOOKCASE suchascrown |-\ espiterefinements Iul and.basemolding,a faceframe andturnedfeet,thebookcase at right is basicallya carcasewith shelves. Theprocedurefor buildinga carcase canbe foundbeginningonpage24. Mostof theotherdetailsof thebookcase,from the shelves to the feet,are discussed in this chapter.Thecrown moldingis similarto thetypeinstalled on thearmoireon page66. Designa bookcase to suittheitems it will store.Standardbookshelves, for example, areatleast8 inchesdeepand9 inchesapart;allowanadditional3 or 4 inchesof depthandheightfor oversize bools.Recordalbumsneed13inchesin bothdepthandheight.Televisions, video recorders, andstereoequipmentmay requireapto24inchesof depth. After you havesettledon dimensions,decidewhichtype of shelving bestsuitsyour needs.Thebookcasi on thispagefeatures threeadjustable, or floating,shelves andonefixedshelf. Although the fixed shelfcannotbe movedonceinstalled, it helpsto snengthenthepieceandislesslikelytosagthan adjustable shelves. Theloadtheshelves will haveto bearshouldbeconsidered whenchoosing materials(page43).The thickerthe lumber,the strongerthe shelf.Whilel-by-10pineor fir is economical,% hardwoodwill support greater loads. Alsorememberthat a shelfweakens asit increases in length.Shelves thatare too,longarenotlikelytobrealgbut they will almostalwayssag.Ifyou areplanninga bookcase widerthan36inches, consider insallingcleatsunderthemiddleoftheshelves atthebackor averticalpartitionbetween them.

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BOOKCASE

MATERIATS SHETF COMMON u/oHardwood LJsedfor heavier loadoand ahelf epaneup to 4B inchba

ReinforcedoAhardwood L)aedfor liqht-to-medium loade.gpan for ahelveereinforced with 1-by-2lipe can be up to 42 inches:without reinforcement,epan ahould not exceed32 iiches

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%'inchplywood For meAiumloadsand ahelf ePaneuP to 32 inchee;up to 42 incheo,if reinforced with lipa.For enhancedaPPearance, front edqe ahould be concealedwith bandin4

SUPPORTS SHETF AD'USTABIE Hidden adjuat'able euPPott Woodatripe with dowelathat fit in holea drilled in eide panele;etripe are concealed in blind rabbets routed in the undersideof the ahelf Dowel

?laetic aupport

Adjuatable auppotte Flaced in drilled holea in aidea of bookcaEe; holedepth ia one-halfthe lenqth of aupport

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Temperedhardboard Conipooite,Ii7htwei7ht shelf for medium-to-heavyloadaand shelf epaneup to 36 inchea;features two layere of tempered hardboard oandwichinqPieceeof 2by-2 etock. Front edgecan be rounded for decorative eFfeot

ffi--WW

r-_ri F-'s-$wr-1 Pa))tc-an)L*,*t.il-:j W e,eeve6uPPot-, Two-piecemetal-plated a uPPo rt; sl eevea are ineerfedinto holeadrilledin eidepaneleand paddleeare elippedinto aleeves at each ahelf location

Threaded \fl,JS,

euppot+ Two-pieceadjuetable eupport; threaded part is inaerted into holea drilledin eidepaneloand 6UPpOrt6are qcrewed in to hold up ohelf

Z ffi_'

to hold ehelvinq rnPEce

(-.".*

Standards and alipa Track ehelvin4eyetem that featurea slotted verDical etripo Lhat 6it in grooveerouted in eidepanel; clipa lock into alote at ahelf locatione

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BOOKCASE ACCESSORIES ff ooksarenot the only itemscomI) monlystoredin a bookcase. With thecommercial accessories shownbelow, you caneasilyorganizerecordalbums, compactdiscs,audiotapes,andvideocassettes. Ifyou intendyour bookcase to housea stereosystem,televisionor

VCR,wire clipsandcord-holeplugscan tamethetangleof wiresandconnectors thataccompany them. Specialty itemslike runnerslet you slideshelves in andout of thecarcase, providingeasyaccess to the contents, whileswivelattachments canbeinstalled

on a slidingshelfor thebookcase top for a television set, Youcanevenilluminatethe insideof your bookcasewith a cabinetlight or hideand protectthe contentsbehind tintedglassor acrylicdoorsheldclosed by magneticlatches.

()FSHETF A SAMPLING HARDWARE Cabinei light Uauallymounted out of aight inaidecarcaoe;moaet ehownia uaedto dieplavchina and qlaeewareaia ieaLureea 25-watt bulb

Glaaa door hinge )wivelinq hingea uaed for glaoadooro up to %inch thick; ocrewapreee eafety plate aqainet qlaoe to hold it in place.

Wire clip 9 elf-adheatveclipemo unted inaide bookcaaeto hold wireaout of eiqht

Compact diac holder Conaiateof two tracks with adheaivebackingfor mounting to carcaee; modelahowncan hold up to 24 diace. )imilar holdera for videocasaetteaand audio tapea are available

f#*,ffi

fite eniqly-in hole in bookcaae back;holdeand feede wireoout of carcaae

Mag netic d oor Iatch -a nd -plate Uaedwith acrylic or 4laaa d'oora up to %ainch thick. Latch plate attachea to door and maqnetic latch ia mountedineidebookcase: latch holdoplate ma4netically, keepinqdoor cloeed

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SHELVING ADJUSTABLE shelves do not I lthoughadjustable .{1. contributeto the strengthof a theydo giveit greaterflexibookcase, biliry allowingyouto adaptto changing needsand organizespacemostefficiently.It isunwiseto makeabookcase withoutprovidingatleastonefixedshelf for structuralrigidity. shelves arecommonly Adjustable or metheldin placewithwood,plastic, (page43)thatfit in al shelfsupports The sides. holesdrilledin thecarcase trickisto makecertainthattherowsof Usea comaligned. holesareperfectly jig (below) or a mercialshelf-drilling jig (page46)to borethe shop-made

holes.Otheroptionsincludeadjustable whicharemountedin shelfstandards, or shop-made grooves in thesidepanels, a8).These aredadoed cornerstrips(page to theinteriorcornersof andattached to holdup theshelving. thebookcase

shelf Madeof solidbrass,thesetwo-piece supportsaddan eleganttouchto a bookcase.Thesupportscanbescrewedinto alongthe any of the threadedsleeves to be sidepanels,permittingtheshelves mountedat any heightin thebookcase.

SUPPORTS THREADED SHELF

holes forthesleeves 1 Drilling rowsof holesto requires twoparallel system I Thismounting jig Thecommercial of thebookcase. bedrilledin thesidepanels youto boreholesat 1-inchintervals and allows shown above aligned. Set holeswill be perfectly ensures thatcorresponding andclampthe ona worksurface inside-face-up thesidepanels jigto theedges from theholescanbeanydistance of onepanel; butabout2 inchesin wouldbe bestforthe the paneledges, panels drillwitha bitthesamediameter Fityourelectric shown.

depth andinstalla stopcollarto markthedrilling asthesleeves at ettherendof oneof the length. Starting equalto thesleeve jig'srails,place bushing in thefirstholeof the theappropriate (Thebushing to keeps the bit perfectly square bushing carrier. borethehole.Bore Holding thedrillandcarrier, theworkpiece.) holesalongbothrails.Remove thejig spaced a series of evenly positioning thejig fortheothersidepanel,carefully andrepeat withthosein thefirstpanel. willbealigned sothattheholes

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BOOKCASE

I I I I I

t t I I I I I I

r) Mounting thesleeves andsupports l to installthreaded sleeves without d a m a g i nt h g e m ,u s ea s l e e v e - s e t t i n g punch. Place a sleeve ontheendof the punchandpushit f irmlyintooneof the holesin a sidepanel(above). Inserta sleeve intoeachholeyoudrilled. Once youhaveinstalled allthesleeves, screw shelfsupports intothesleeves at each (inseil. shelflocation

I I I I I ilufiI]llllilltfilttjllilltfilllll ilIjfilttllllltlll lll1 tltllllilt1 t

1HO?TI? A shop-made ahelt drillingjig jiq TheI-ehaped ehownherewillallow youto borea rowof evenly epacedholeeas accujig. ral,elyas a commercial Makethe jig from 1-by-Zebock, beinqcarefullo ecrewlhe fence and arm NoqelheraNa pertecN90" angle.Marka linedownLhecenlerot Nhearm and boreholeeatr2-inchinlervaloalonqit,wiLhlhe eamebil you would /,usetor threadedsleevee. Touselhe jiq, panel a n e lw clamp c l a m Qfiti Tto . oa e eide t a ep with t l n tlhe n e rfence cnce ) b u | I e d a q a i n e Ne i l h e r e n d o f t h e p a n e la n d

the markedcenNerline 2 incheein from ito edge. FiNyour drill bit wiLha stop collar,boreNheholee, and repoeiLion the ji7 for eachnewrow.

46

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I

t I I I I I I I t I I I I I

BOOKCASE

HIDDEN SHELF SUPPORTS andinstalling 1 Making I theshelfsupports Usea jig to boreholesfortheshelfsupporls(page45). lfake twosupportsper shelf.Eachoneis a thinwoodstripabout 1 inchlonger thanthegapbetween the rowsof holes; makethestripwideenough dowto holda dowelat eachend.(%-inch foraverage loads.) elsarelargeenough on the To helpyouposition thedowels supports, inserta dowelcenterintoeach of twoparallel holesandpressthestrip against the points.Usethe indentations pointsfor fromthecenters asstarting drilling theholes. Maketheholesin the shelfsupports thesamedepthasthe holes inthesidepanels. Gluedowels into and,oncetheadhetheshelfsupports s i v eh a sd r i e di,n s t a tl lh e mo nt h es i d e panels at the heightthatyouwantthe shelfto resl(left).

t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

r) Preparing theshelves andinstalling cut I to conceal the shelfsupports, in eachshelf.Markoutthe blindrabbets rabbets by positioning theshelfon the on andoutlining theirlocations supports of theshelf.Cuttherabtheunderside betsusinga routerf ittedwitha rabbeting theendswitha chiseland bitandsquare mallet. Therabbets shouldbe a wooden of theshelfsupasdeepasthethickness ports.Onceall therabbets havebeencut, (right). test-fittheshelfin the bookcase if necUsea chiselto adjusttherabbets, fit thatcomessary, to ensure a perfect pletely hidesthesupports.

47


BOOKCASE

STANDARDS ANDCTIPS Installing thestandards Metal standards andclipsareamong the simplest accessories to install formountingadjustable shelves in a bookcase. Two slotted standards, ortracks, arefastened to theinside facesof thesidepanels and shelf-support clipsareinserted in theslots at thedesired height. Rather thannotchingtheshelves to accommodate thestandards,recess thetracksin grooves cut in thesidepanels. Install a dadobladeon yourtablesawandcuttwoparallel grooves in eachpanel. Thegrooves shouldbeas wideandasdeepasthestandards; forthe position widthof panelshown, thegrooves about2 inches in fromeachedge. Withthe panels inside-face-up on a worksurface, setthestandards in thegrooves andfix themin place, driving screws through the predrilled holesin thetracks(left).AtIach clipsto thestandards at eachshelflocation.

CIip

A

^v CORNER STRIPS thecorner strips 1 Making I Dadoed corner striosinstalled in each insidecorner allowbookcase shelves to be adjusted. Youcanmakefourstripsfrom a single 4-inch-wid be oard t h a ti s l o n g enough to extend fromtopto bottomof the interior. Install a dadoheadonyourtable sawandsetthewidtheoualto thethickyouplanto nessof the shelfsupports use.Determine thedesired spacing of the notches andcuttwodadoes thatdistance apartin a mitergauge extension board. Lineuptheleft-hand dadowiththeblade andscrewtheextension to yourgauge. 0nedadoshouldbeoffsetto theright; cuta 2-inchpieceof shelfsupport stock andpress it iniothatdado,whereit will serve asan indexing key.Buttoneendof t h ew o r k p i e caeg a i n st ht e k e ya n dc u t yourfirstdado.Cutthesecond andsubsequentdadoes bymoving thepieceto the rightandfittingthelastdadooverthekey (right). Whenthedadoes areall cut,rip theboardintofour1-inch corner strios.

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t t I I I I I I 48

t I


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BOOKCASE

r) Installing thecorner sttips I andshelfsupports of thebookPosition eachstripin a corner face case,making surethatthedadoes andscrew thestripsto the the interior, Placean extra sidesat topandbottom, fastener in themiddle ona tallbookcase. Fortheshelfsupports, measure thedisthefrontandbackof the tancebetween to fit. bookcase andcut the supports M a k es u r et h a tt h es u p p o r tasr ew i d e properly; testenough to holdtheshelves in f it themto ensure thattheyf it snugly thedadoes(/eft).

I I I I I I I I I I I I I T

lllllll lllrllllllllllllllltllllllllllll ilttrl1lllriiltlli lllilllllll1

t

1HO?T'?

I

Jig for routinq evenly opaceddadoes tILachNhejig ehown h e r e t o N h e b a s te VlaNeol your ..-\i'rouler fo cui -----

I T I

t t T I I I T I I

?."'

lhe dadoesin the

cornerotrripeof a ehelf (ThieNech' eupVort6yoNem. niquecan aleobe ueedIo roul

----iiie tne baee da'doeefor fixeder,elreo.) from'/"-inch plywood and'thee?acerfromsolid

-\--. ----\12

wood.CUNa bit clearanceholeLhroughthe baseand --.-_-/ ecrewiI to the roufer.Makethe widlh of Ihe o?acerg,quu,l, you Lo the willuse cul dadoee. NoNhediameterof the ot raiqhNbiL 1crewlhe opacerto NheboNlomof Lhejiq baeeeo Nhedisf,ancebethe dadoes. tweenil and NhebiI equaleNheopacinqyou wanNbeNween Cut,the firet,dadowilh the 6?acerridinqalonqt'heendof the work' cuts wibhNheeVacerin t'heiuot'-cut'dado. Viece.Makeeubeequent

49

Preparing theshelves Allfourcorners of eachshelfmust b e n o t c h etdo f i t a r o u n tdh ec o r n e r andmarking strips.Aftermeasuring it in a viseandcut eachshelf , secure witha backsaw outthecorners hbove),


FIXEDSHELVES

I I

t bolsterthe structural f, ixedshelves I' integrityof a bookcase, but since they cannotbe movedoncethey are installed, you need to give careful thought to their location.You can mount fixed shelvesquite simply by screwingthem to cleatsthat arefastened to thebackandsidepanels. Yourbookcasewill be strongerand more attractive,however,if the shelves areattached to thesidepanelsusingoneof thejoinery methodsshownbelow. Ifyou do not intendto add a face frameto your bookcase, rememberthat someof thesejointswill conceal thecut madein the sidepanelfor the shelf. Cuningthroughdadoesin thesidepanelsis oneof thequickestwaystojoin a fixed shelfto a bookcase. In thephotoabove,thesidepanelsareclamped togetherwith theirendsflush,allowingtwoperfectlyaligneddadoesto be jig guidestherouterthroughthecut. cut at thesametime.A straightedge

JOINERY OPTIONS FOR FIXED SHELVING

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50

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BOOKCASE

DOVETAIL A HALF-SLIDING MAKING

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thesidepanels 1 Preparing arerouted in in thesidepanels dadoes I Thehalf-dovetail with a dovetail bit. bit, and then firstwitha straight twosteps: in yourrouter. Clamp diameter bitof thedesired Install a straight panels a work surinside-face-up to edge-to-edge and theside Clamp a board against face;makesuretheirendsarealigned. Also tearout. thestockat theendof thecuttinglineto prevent properly panels, guide locate offset to across the clampanedge at one theedgeof therouterbaseplateandthebit.Starting pressing panels, the stock, feedtherouteracross edgeof the thecuI(above). theedgeguidethroughout thebaseplateagainst with a dovetail thesecond cut thedadobymaking Complete (inset), guide from firsi cut by away the shiftingtheedge biI bitdiameter. one-half thedovetail

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t

r') Preparing theshelf ontheendsof the mating half-dovetail tongues L fo creale bit in therouter andmountthetool leave thedovetail shelves, cut.Feed theshelf thefencefora shallow in a table.Position it flushagainst thefencewithone onendintothebit,keeping Testit forward withtheotherhand(/eff). handwhilepushing dado.Adtust thefit, if necesfit thecutendin a half-dovetail thefencerluinchawayfromthebit andmaking sary,bymoving Reoeat thecutat theotherendof theshelf. another oass.

5l


EDGETREMMENTSFORSHELVES arestripsof solid E dg. treatments I--i wood,veneer, or commercial banding appliedto the visibleedgesof plywood shelves; theyconcealthe panels' plies,creatingtheillusionthattheshelving is madeof solidwood.Commercial edgebandingis available by the roll in a wide varietyof wood types,colors, and widths.To install,simply cut off thelengthyou need,setit in place,and heatit with a householdiron to melt

the adhesive that bondsit to the edge of the shelf. Althougha little morepainstaking to apply,shop-made wood stripsoffer severaladvantages overstore-bought banding.Theyareoftenlesscostly,and you can finish your shelfedgeswith any availablewood species, cut to whateverthicknessyou desire.A variety of solidwoodedgetreatments is shownbelow.

If your shelvesare made of solid wood,you can rout a decorativedesignin their edges.For plywood shelvesyou will needto attach wood stripsor veneerto covertheplies.

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

A SETECTION OFEDGE TREATMENTS

t

V-groove

Wood atrip

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t

Molded wood atrip

I I I I Tongue-and-groove

Reinforaededge

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t T


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BOOKCASE

A SHELF REINFORCING

t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

llllfiltllllillllllllllljlllllll lllllllllllJll11 tllltllJiltllltllll1{1lr 9HO7Tt? Springboard alamp for edgegluing ForIhick edgetrrealmenls,youmiqh| needthreeor four clamVo to holdthe piecein place whileNheqluedriee.A oinqleclampwilldo rhe job jueNas wellif you ueea oprinqb o a r d . T om a k eL h e d e v i c ec, u t a 4enLlecurve-'/o-inch-deepaL

boardlhe eame iLs cenLer-alongoneedgeof a 2-inch-wide the Vanelon NoVof Nhebar len7thand thicknessas lhe panel.CenNer edge againeNNhe edqeoflhe oVringboard clampand eet.Nhe concave material.Uoinqa woodpad f,o ?roLectlhe other edqeof lhe panel, Nighten th e clamp unt il Ih e eprinqboard fl aLt ene againot th e edqe,

53

Rabbeting theedgepiece A pieceof hardwood canbegluedto the it. Torout edgeof a shelfto strengthen install a %in theedgepiece, therabbet inchstraight bit in yourrouter andmount thetoolin a table.Setthefencefora of the widthof cuteoualto thethickness theworkpiece throughshelf.Tosecure to a outthecut,screwa featherboard s h i ma n dc l a m pt h ea s s e m btloyt h e t a b l eT. h es h i mw i l lr a i s et h ef e a t h e r to themiddle of board to applypressure featherboards theworkpiece. Alsoinstall t o t h ef e n c eo n b o t hs i d e so f t h eb i t . (Forthesakeof clarity, thefeatherboard sideof thefencehasbeen ontheoutfeed r e m o v eidn t h e i l l u s t r a t i o nD.o) n o t to routtherabbetin onâ&#x201A;Źpass; attempt increasinstead, makea series of passes, ingthedepthof cuteachtime(abovd. R e p e autn t i tl h es h e lffi t sf l u s hi n t h e rabbet(inset). Youcanroundor shape to yourliking. theedgepiece


t

FACEFRAMES theycompletely coverthe |f ecause IJ edgesof sidepanels,faceframes areideallysuitedfor plywoodbookcase construction. Madefroma contrasting wood,theycanalsoprovidea decorativedetail.Cuttingandassembling aface framedemands precision; thejoints mustbetightandtheframesquare if it is to fit properlyandprovidestrength. Usetheassembled carcase asa reference to measure therailsandstiles. Face frames areeithergluedin placeor attached with biscuitjointsasshownbelow.

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A faceframestrengthens A cArcase whilehidingpaneledges. It also jambsfor doorhinges. provides

INSTALLING A FACE FRAME

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slotsin the 1 Gutting I carcase andfaceframe yourcarcase Measure andcutthetworails andstilesof thefaceframeto length; also cut median railsto coveranyfixedshelves. Theframeshouldrestflushwiththeoutsideof thecarcase. Jointherailsandstiles withdowels, biscuits, or mortise-and-tenon joints,thenglueupthefaceframeassembly,ensuring thatit is square. Oncethe adhesive is dry,sandit andplaceit ontop of thebookcase. Markthe locations of the biscuitjointson boththecarcase andthe faceframe-typically every 4 to 6 inches. Setthe platejoinerfor the biscuityou areusingandcuttheslotsin thecarcase (right),aligning theguideline ontheface platewitheachpencilmark.Thencut matingslotsin theframe.

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BOOKCASE

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thefaceframe Installing A p p l yg l u et o t h es l o t si n t h ec a r thematcaseandfaceframeandalong in the Insert thebiscuits ingsurfaces. carcAqe slots.thensetthefaceframe sincethe Workquickly in placehbove). g l u ew i l lc a u s teh eb i s c u i t so e x p a n d almostimmediately.

I

I I I I I I I I I I

theassembly Clamping C l a m pt h e f a c ef r a m et o t h e c a r c a s e

Toapplypressure 12 inches. aboutevery t o t h ec e n t eor f t h em e d i a rna i l ,u s ea at pieceof stockclamped to thecarcase eitherendwitha shimin themiddle(/efil.


BASES AND FEET

I I

t t ':.,'ii

i

I

-,'tr, li qp*

\, 'lq- .;,

Basentoldingand Jbetadd n firishing touchto a bookcase. The nnlding cnn be routed to rnatcltilrc crown rrrolditrgor thestn'roundingtrint in the room.

isoftenaddedto a book$.)"asemolding "anchor" piece S-J caseto the andcomplement anycrowrr nrolding installed at thetop.Therearetwobasicwaysto build a base.The firstis to rnake.r rabbeted miteredframeof moldedpiecesfrom stockstanding on edgefseabclowl; rhis framewrapsaroundthe baseof the bookcase likea skirtandhidesthejoineryat thebottomofthecarcase. Thesecondn-rethod involves buildinea mitered fraureof horizontal rnolded stock;this providesa flat surfacefor attaching turned feet(page5B).Both rnethods allowfor woodexpansion andcanalso beadaptedto fit modularbookcases or joinedtogether. bookcases

INSTALLING A RABBETED BASEM()LDING

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'l

Assembling theframe I Theframeshownaboveis madefromthreepiecesof molded s t o c ka , b a c k ,a n df o u rc o r n e b r r a c e sA. r a b b e its c u t a l o n gt h e i n s i d ee d g eo f t h e m o l d e dp i e c e sf,o r m i n ga l i p t h a tt h e b o o k c a s ew i l l s i t o n . T o m a k et h e b a s em o l d i n gf,i r s t p r e p a r teh r e e p i e c e so f s o l i ds t o c ka n d r o u ta d e c o r a t i vm e o l d i n si n t h e e c l s e

of eachT . h e ni n s t a lal s t r a i g hbt i t a n dc u t a r a b b e itn t h e o p p o s i t ef a c eo f e a c hp i e c eC . u tt h e m o l d i n g t o l e n g t hw i t h m i t e r sa t b o t hf r o n tc o r n e r st ,h e n c u t a p i e c eo f s t o c kf o r t h e b a c ka n d j o i n i t t o t h e s i d e sw i t h b i s c u i t sG. l u et h e f r o n tt o t h e s i d e sa n d s c r e wc o r n e rb r a c e si n p l a c et o s e c u r et h e l o i n t ( a b o v e ) .

56

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I I I I I I I I I I I I I

BOOKCASE

thebasemolding lnstalling a s s e m b l i nt hge O n c ey o uh a v ef i n i s h e d

frame,attachthe unitto thebottomof the thejoint,screwtwo Toreinforce bookcase. alongthe inside midway anglebrackets glueon Spread frameof thebasemolding. therabbetonthefrontpieceof theframe a n do nt h ef i r s ti n c ho f t h es i d ep i e c e s . ( T h i sw i l lc a u s ea n yw o o dm o v e m etnot thebackof thecarcase, takeplacetoward preventrng themiterjointsat thefrontfrom Thensettheframein placeon breaking.) to andscrewthebrackets thebookcase, the bottomof thecarcase.

I I I I I I

ANDFEET MOLDINGS, BASE BRACES, BOTTOM

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brace lnstalling a bottom nearthebotanda f ixedshelfis located nobasemolding features lf yourbookshelf youcaninstalla bottombraceto bottom, tomof thepiecein placeof a carcase /eff).Simplycut thebraceto sizeandglue hidethespacebelowtheshelf(above, shelf.Youcanalsocuta or nailit in placefromtheendsandthetopof thebottom center)glued A basemolding(above, patternin the brace(dottedlines). decorative Youmight optton. isanother thecarcase to thefrontandsidesfrominside orscrewed (above, right)'(seepage97for moretnforto attachogeebracketedleer alsochoose andinstallation.) ontheirconstruction mation

57


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BOOKCASE

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INSTATTING A BASE WITHFEET

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t I I I thefeet 1 Turning I C u tb l a n k fso rt h ef e e tf r o mt h e a p p r o p r i astiez es t o c kT. ot u r ne a c h blank,determine itscenter, mountthe blockona faceplate, andattach thefaceplateto thelathe.Position thetoolrest in linewiththecenter of theblankand ascloseto thestockaspossible without touching it, thenusea round-end scraper to shapethefoot(above). Always work onthe"down" sideofthespinning block to prevent kickback. Periodically check theprofileof thefootwitha pairof out(rnset). sidecalipers Onceyouaresatisfiedwithitsprofile, sandthefootonthe lathewithprogressively finersandpaper.

llilllfltltlllltlllt]lllllllltll]l1 t]lllllltll]llljtltllltillllltltlll ";;

5HO?TI? Routin6 deaorativedet ails lf youare building a bookcaee Lhatfeatureeboth base andcrownmoldinq,you AV

' tl'

f#iy

can uoe lhese adorn-

or otrherdetail in i] ;t Nheeideeofrhefaceil 11 f r a m e e , l n e t aal l li pilobed decoralivebit li ti in your rouIer.WiNh the bi| clearof lhe work,bull the t ool'ebaeeVlaheaqainsllhe crownmoldinq. Turn on Nheroulerand easethe bit,into the work,Continuecuttina unlilthe baoeVlate louchesNhemoldinqat lhe oppositeend-.

ii

58

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BOOKCASE

r) Installing thefeet L Oncevouhaveturnedall thefeet, screwthemto the bottomof the base basemolding theverttcal Unlike molding. at on page56,thebaseillustrated shown witha widerabbetroutleftis horizontal, ed in thefaceof eachpiecethataccepts is a molding of thebookcase; thebottom cutontheframe'souteredge(page96) the base,drilla counAfterassembling of theway tersunkholethree-quarters of eachfoot,thenbore thecenter through the a pilotholetherestof thewaythrough wood.Screwthefeetto the base(/eft).

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T(IGETHER B()()KCASES ATTACHING

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filtllllllllllllljlllllllll lllllllllllllllllllllllll]llfijllll illlllll 1HO?TI? Anchorin1 bookaases to the wall OnceelackedwiLh and books,maqazineo, of,her iLeme,bookcaees topcan be danqerouely heavy.Larqe, f reeeI'and' i n g b o o k c a e easr e b e e t ' a n c h o r e dt o t h e w a l l , Lo a eIud.lf preterably y o u r b o o k c a e ies l a l l enouqh, an anglebracket Or on Nopw.illbe invi.sible. you can locatelne anqle brackel underneaI'hlh e fixedshelfand hiqheot, Nheback ecrewit,Nhrou4h paneland into the wall.

connectors Using threaded morethanonebooklf youarebuilding c a s eo r a m o d u l awr a l lu n i t ,c o n s i d e r together bookcases adjacent attaching A quickandefficientwayto forstability. connectors dothejob is to usethreaded Withthe sides(above). to joinadjacent sidebysideandproptwobookcases witheachother,borea hole erlyaligned t h r o u gthh et w os i d ep a n e l sl n. s t a lal use for stability, connector; threaded alongthelength fourto sixconnectors o f t h es i d ep a n e l sl f. y o u rb o o k c a s e s youcaninstallinterhavefaceframes, stilesto hidethegapbetween mediate thetwobookcases.

59


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ARMOIRE andadothesclosettoanentercupboard tainmentcenter. Whatever its use,the modernarto meetthegrowingneedfor Centuries moireis usuallybuilt in thetraditionEurope's space by Renaissance storage al,or period,style.Likeits ancestors, city dwellers. wealthyandacquisitive with anupright, today's armoirebegins Thearmoireprovideduprightstorage rectangular cabinet,typically74to 80 were of finegoods;before,belongings wide.For inches talland36to 48inches usuallypackedin largechests. thepieceshouldbe useasa wardrobe, thearmoirewas Fromthebeginning, deepenoughto housea clotheshangas attributes asprizedfor itsdecorative er-about 22inches. Thepieceis essenfor its practicality. Thebasiccabinetshownonpage60 closetfeaturingone tiallyafreestanding with frame-and-panwasput together to hang or two doors,providingspace a combi32)toachieve eljoinery@age drawersand clothes,andoccasionally andstrength. nationof attractiveness shelvingto furnishadditionalstorage. Dovetails(page26) and platejoints a pinnaclein the Thedesignreached (page29)areequallysturdyalternatives. cabilate17thCenturywhenParisian Thischaptershowshowto addthe Boullepronetmaker Andrd-Charles adornments of an armoireto a basic for thecourtoflouis XIV. ducedseveral (page 64),corniceand cabinetpilasters Thoughhis pieceswereundeniably basemoldings(page66), andframein theirelaborate ornamenta- This glasscurio,or display,cabinetwas Baroque and-paneldoors(page72).Theelein muchthesamewayas constructed tion,theystillserveasloosemodelsfor in mentsof thearmoirearehighlighted except thearmoireon thefacingpage, of today. thearmoires theanatomyonpage62. and thesideand In America,thetermarmoireisoften that thewoodenshelves the Despite itselaborate appearance, doorpanelswerereplacedwith glass. with its Englishequivainterchanged projectfor a armoireis a reasonable name,the Bywhatever lent,wardrobe. carefi.rlly of average skills.Buildthevariouspieces piecehasprovento bepopularin NorthAmericasincethe woodworker pieceof furniture. versatile fromafood andtheresultwill beanattractive, aseverything late18thCenturyandnowit serves he armoire cameinto favor during the late 15th and early 16th

t I I I I

t I

Thearmoireat leftdisplaysa muted Baroquedesigntypicalof manymodernAmericanwardrobes.

6l


I

ANATOMYOF AN ARMOIRE,

I I I

Layered cornice moldinq ( 2 a q e6 6 )

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/ Top panel FlywcoC or aoltd jr;ccK ett.aahae fluslt tvt*ch eC4es of c;ebinel,uein4 rnrooci buLfone, met.al fastenert, (-1fltoaKaTtlotea

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Layered cornice molding

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Stile YerTicat ir;eme aomFa)neni

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ncIizon"tei frame aornPOnent.

to"t / ( 2 a q eb 3 ' ;

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Door / ( 2 a q e7 2 )

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Bottom panel ,.'ii. a t l tr,::l t.o f r :l tr e wi r.it 1cr14er t,l.rtp:' al ctat ,t: .et. inf.o a 4 i ' L ) a r ( ' , ; t . t i .t.n i . i i c in:t,it: ::ti4t::' of tht i:ctli,arr: r:|l:t

Decorative base moldinq rt.t.aclted t.h. aeffi. riet 'o.\' l ': .t

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Muttion / t,'erfical member f,hat, a.peral,e. fronl, tnto fwo parts. pro',,tCtnqeur'face for d o c r L o o l o s ea 4 a t n e t a n d for mcunLtn4lock hardware

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i:a?e../ inc.habovr,'bcl,t.om oi :srrnotret.c prcvenT.nol'7rnq ircrr i:carinq any wct4lit.. 0r'. tnst,alta rabberetl ba?t nttltitnq (2aqe 56'1

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ARMOIRE

()FARMOIRE HARDWARE ANASSORTMENT

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Double-ballcatch 9mall catch wiLhtwo eprinq-loadedballeecrewedLo mullionor rail. Dallaonap in placeovera keepermounted to door; catch can ehter'keeperfrom front or srdee.

Adjuatable levelera UaedLo levela pieceoffurnrture; threaded bolt with plaatic baae aecuredin threaded T nut

Laaehinge Full-len7thhinqewith finialeat top and bottom; htnqete bolted to cabrnetand mortiaed into door

Rat-tail hinge Ftvotaon pin wtLhdecorative Lail natledto armoire:like ( clock-caee hinqe,allowe o door to be eaaily removed

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Straight cupboard loak wrtha Eack-mounteddoor lock wrt through bolt extendtnglefLor riqht, ao required;key chamber centeredin lock case

Cloak-aaeehinge Tivots on a pin, which allowadoor to be lifLed off

63

Caeementbolt lock Eolta exLendthe full len7thof Lhedoor and are aecuredin brackete faetened to the top and bottom ratla of Lhearmoire


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PILASTE,RS MAKING ANDINSTATLING PITASTERS

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Pilastersare narrow boardsfastened to thefront stilesof an armoire and Jluted with two or three blind grooves for decoration.

thegrooves 1 Cutting I C u tt h ep i l a s t epri e c etso s i z et,a k i n gr n t oa c c o u nt ht ew i d t ho f t h es t i l e sa n d allowing enough spacebetween thedoorandthepilaster youplanto forthehinges use.Then,installa coreboxbit in yourrouter andmountthetoolin a table.Adjustthe cutting height fora semicircular cove.Markthelocation of thegrooves ontheendof theboard andaddmarks onthefaceindicating where thecutshould startandend. AIignthefrontcuttinglinewiththebit,thenusetheleading endof thepieceto marka reference Iineontheoutfeed fence,Repeat theprocedure withthebackcuttingline andmakea similar reference lineontheinfeed fence. Adjustthefenceforthefirst groove, theninstalla featherboard on thetableto holdthe pilaster firmlyagainst thefence.Roundoverthetopedgeof thefeatherboard to prevent thestockfrom catching whenit is pivoted downintothecut.Tomakethecuts,aligntheleading end of thepilaster withthereference lineontheoutfeed fenceandlower theboard face ontothe biI (above, topl.Holdtheworkpiece flat on thetableasyoumakeyour p a s sW . h e nt h eb a c ke n do f t h ep i e c ea l i g n w s i t ht h er e f e r e n cl ien eo nt h ei n f e e d fence,pivotthe stockoff the Iable(above, bottom).Repeatthe cut on the other p i l a s t etrh, e na d j u stth ef e n c et o c u tt h er e m a i n i nggr o o v e s .

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fillllllllllllill]llllllllllllllfillllllllll llllfilll]l1 llllilltillllll1 gHO? TI? thaping pilaeteroonthetable eaw Wilh Lhehelpof a oimpleohop-builljiq,youcan useNhecove-cut'tin4 Forlhe iiq, cul a ehownon ?aqe69 ro ehapeVilaohere. Nechnique an7lef or lhe coveyou 6hapedbaee pieceal Nheappropriahe wedqeneeAand ecrewil t d two tencee:a' lowfencealongonelonqeideand a hi4heroneon lhe adlacenleide,lhenscrewlhe jiq t'o the eawe rip fence.Io makeNhecule,lineup t'hemiddleof the leadinqendof a IesI boardwith Nhebladeand adjueLNherip f enceuntilIhe anqled 4uidebuLIoaqainotthe pilaet'er,lurnon t'heeawand feedlhe board inlo the bladeao shown;adjuotI'hecultinq heiqhl groove. untilyou creaNetheaVVropriaNe Markqroovelocalionlineeand fronNand backculLinqlineson a6 you did in oNeV Nheworkpiece 1 on paqe64,then eawIhe qrooveg.Useexlremecare in lowerinq and raieinq EheworkaT, ?tec,e , eacnena of the troove.

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r') Installing thepilasters withglue Z. Pilasters canbesecured usesome alone,butforaddedstrength, ine First,determ screws. well-concealed onthestile. of thepilasters thelocatron its between centered Theyaretypically Next,spread a thin,evencoatof edges. glueonthebackfaceof thepilaster, set andclampit, usingwoodpads it in place, thestock.Drillpilotholesinto to protect and frominside thecabinet thepilaster drivea screwintothetopandbottomof (abovd.Repeat theprocess thepilaster pilaster. to mountthesecond


CORNICEMOLDINGS Created by the three separaterouter bits shown below, the three layersof molding that make up the typical cornice at right appear as one singlepiece when theyare installedcn an armoire. Besidesproviding a visual framework for the armoire, the molding servesa secondestheticfunction, leading the eye into the center of the piece and keepingit focused there.

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MAKING CORNICE MOLDING TAYERED C(|RNICE MOTDING

t Covebit

themolding 1 Routing I Cutthreeboards longer andwiderthan youwill needforthethreelayers of molding(above). Installa panel-raising bit in yourrouter andmountthetoolin a table. Alignthebit bearing withthefenceand adjustthecutterheightto leavea flat lip nomorethan%inchthickontheedgeof thestockabove themolding. Mounttwo featherboards onthefenceandoneonthe tableto secure thestockthroughout the cuts.(lnthisillustration, thefeatherboard ontheoutfeed fencehasbeenremoved forclarity.) Turnonthetoolandfeedthe stock(left).Tocomplete the pass,move to theoutfeed sideof thetableandoull thestockthrough theendof thecut. passes, Makeseveral increasing thewidth of cut%inchof stockat a time.Formthe second boardwiththecovebit andthe thirdpiecewiththeRoman ogeebit.

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r) Mitering themolding L Wnenvouhavemadethethreemoldripeachto width(thefirst,inneringstrips, andthe bethewidest mostoieceshould Thencutstripsslightthirdthenarrowest). ly longer thanyouwillneedforthefront Theendsof andsidesof theworkoiece. at 45' to stripsaremitered themolding The goaround andpilasters. thecorners procedure foreachlayeristhesame:Hold itsbackend in position, thesidemolding Mark flushwiththebackof thecabinet. onthestrip. of thecabinet thefrontcorner (Forthesecond markthe andthirdstrips, layerof moldof the previous frontcorner i n g . I) n a d d i t i o nm, a r kt h ed i r e c t i or ne quired forthemitercut.Tiltthetablesaw bladeto 45" andfeedthestockusingthe Bladeguard mitergauge(/eff).(Caution: Repeat thecutonthe forclatity.) removed Then,markandcut sidepiece. second theendsof thefrontpieces.

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thefirstlayerofmolding 2 Installing is fastened to r-J Eachlayerof molding strips Thelonger in twosteps: thearmoire first, forthesideandfrontareattached pieces the around followed bythesmaller pilasters. a thinlayerof glueonthe Spread thenset backfaceof thefirstsidepiece, withitstop thearmoire it in placeagainst thetopof the above levelwithor slightly Usea cut-offbradasshownon cabinet. p a g e1 2 3t o h e l pp o s i t i otnh em o l d i n g it in placeat whileyouclampandscrew you areusing eitherendof thestrip.lf conrather thanframe-and-panel carcase usea sliding struction to buildthearmoire, in place dovetail to holdthesidemoldings (page procedure to attach the 127).Repeat thenmountthe theothersidemolding, franl , , v , , (

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Applying themolding around thepilasters O n c et h e s i d e sa n d m a i nf r o n tp i e c eo f t h e f i r s t l a y e o rf

molding areinstalled, thesmallpieces around thepilasters mustbecutto sizeandmounted in place. Foursmallpieces needto befittedaround eachpilaster; miterallthepieces at 45'at bothends.Holdthemitered endof a stripof the f irstmolding flushagainst themrtered endofthemainfront piece, thenmarkthefrontcorner of thepilaster ontheedge o f t h em o l d i n gM. a k ea 4 5 " m i t e cr u ta t t h i sp o i n tT. h e n , holdthemolding in placeandrepeat theprocedure to mark a n dc u tt h en e x p t i e c eC. o n t i n ui net h i sm a n n eurn t i tl h e fourpieces arecutto surround eachpilaster. Dry-assemble thepieces to ensure anaccurate glueonthe fit,thenspread p i e c eas n df i t t h e mi n p l a c eS. e c u rteh ef r o n tp i e c eo n t h ep i l a s t ewri t ha s c r e wU. s ef i n i s h i nnga i l sf o rt h es m a l l er pieces, driving theheads below thesurface witha nailset (right). Thesecond layerof molding cannowbeattached thesamewayasthefirs1.

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theoutside layerof molding in place f, Clamping . - , 1S r n c teh eo u t s i dlea y eor f m o l d i nw g i l lb ee n t i r e lvyi s i b l e f r o mt h ef r o n to f t h ea r m o i r ei t,s h o u l d b es e c u r ewdi t ho n l y g l u eA . s b e f o r ea,p p l yt h es i d e sa n dm a j nf r o n tp i e c ef i r s t , t h e na d dt h es m a lsl t r i p sa r o u ntdh ep i l a s t e rW s .h e ni n s t a l l i n gt h ef r o n tp i e c es, p r e agdl u eo n i t a n da l i g ni t st o pe d g e w i t ht h et o po f t h ef i r s tt w ol a y e rosf m o l d i n gI n . stallthree b a rc l a m p a s c r o stsh ea r m o i rteo s e c u rteh ep i e c ei n p l a c e , t r g h t e n rtnhgec l a m pgsr a d u a li lnyt u r nu n t i a l t h i nb e a do f

gluesqueezes outfromthejoint;usewoodpadsto protect thestock(above). lf necessary, usecut-offbrads(page123) t o h o l dt h em o l d i nign p o s i t i ownh i l ey o ua p p l yt h ec l a m p s . R e p e at ht ep r o c e d ufroert h et w os i d ep i e c e sT.of i n i s ht h e m o l d i n g ,l u eu p a n di n s t a tl lh ep i e c easr o u ntdh ep i l a s t e r s . C l a m tph es m a lflr o n tp i e c ew s i t hb a rc l a m p sF. o rt h es i d e s , s e tt h ep i e c eisn p l a c ea n di n s t a l l o ncel a m pa c r o srsn e pilaster to secure thembothat once.

6B

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ARMOIRE

()NTHETABLE SAW MOLDING CUTTING

theguidelines thewidthandmarking 1 Setting twicethe of thetwolongarmsequals edges theinside withthehelpof thecove-cutting between molding cornice I Fashion you the blade install. Set part will molding of coved jig width of the you moldcut a cove guideshown The willenable to above. guide the blade across Lay the of cut, depth desired height at the p r o d u c e c o r n i c e t w o i n g ,w h i c hc a nt h e nb er i p p e di n h a l ft o just the intouches hand, by blade, turned it until the rotate and 1-by-2s two18-inch-long the1ig,fasten Toconstruct moldings. pencil edges the inside along run a Then the arms. edges of side wing nuts, and bolts withcarriage 1-by-2s to two9-inch-long onthetableinsert(above). thejig sothedistance of thelongarmsto traceguidelines arms.Adjust twosetsof parallel forming r) Cuttingthe cove Z- Remove the suideand lowerthe blade beneath t h e t a b i e .O u t l i n et h e d e s i r e d c o v ep r o f i l eo n t h e l e a d i n ge n d o f t h e thensetthe stockon the saw workpiece, o u t l i n ew i t ht h e t a b l ea , l i g n i n tgh e m a r k e d g u i d e l i n eosn t h et a b l ei n s e r tB. u t tg u i d e boardsagainstthe edgesof the workpiece a n dc l a m pt h e mp a r a l l et ol t h e g u i d e l i n e s ; u s eb o a r d sl o n ge n o u g ht o s p a nt h e s a w t a b l e .D r a wl i n e s3 i n c h e st o e i t h e sr i d eo f t h e b l a d eo n t h eg u i d eb o a r d sd,e l i n e a t i n g a d a n g e zr o n et h a t y o u rh a n d ss h o u l d a v o i dC . r a n kt h e b l a d e% i n c ha b o v et h e t a b l e .T o m a k et h e f i r s tp a s s f, e e dt h e w o r k p i e cset e a d i liyn t ot h e b l a d ew i t hy o u r l e f t h a n d ,w h i l eh o l d i n gt h e w o r k p i e c e a g a i n stth e t a b l ew i t h y o u rr i g h th a n d (/eff)F . i n i s ht h e c u t u s i n ga p u s hb l o c k . M a k ea s m a n yp a s s eas s n e c e s s a rrya, i s i n gt h e b l a d e% i n c ha t a t i m e .F o ra d e e p c o v e t, a c ka b a c k u pb o a r dt o t h e t o p o f . o ra t h e w o r k p r e cteo p r e v e nst p l i t t i n gF s m o o t hf i n i s h ,r a i s et h e b l a d ev e r ys l i g h t ly for the lastpassand feedthe workpiece s l o w l yi n t or t .W h e nt h e c u t i s c o m p l e t e d , r i p t h e s t o c ki n h a l ft o f a s h i o nt h e m o l d i n g ,t h e ns a n dt h e p t e c e s .

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MITER JIG jigwillallowyouto miter Thissimple theendsof molding onyourradial armsawwiththebladein thenormal position. 90'crosscutting Refer to the illustration forsuggested dimensions. Tobuildthejig,bevel theendsof theguides at 45". Next,cutthebase andfenceandscrewthetwopieces together, leaving enough of thefence extending belowthebaseto sit in the slotbetween thefrontauxiliary table andthespacer. Then,remove the saw'sfenceandposition thebaseof thejigonthesawtable,seating the fencein thetableslot.Settheblade in the90'crosscutting position and adjustthecuttingdepthto makea %-inch-deep kerfin the base.0nce thecut is made, remove thejig and

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screwoneof theguidesedge-down onthebasewithitsbeveled endflush against thefenceandits pointjust touching thekerfin thebase.Positionthebeveled endof thesecond guideflushalong thekerfinthebase. Usea carpenter's square to ensure guideis square thesecond to the firstone,thenscrewit in place. (There shouldbeenough spacebetweenthetwoguidesforthestock youwillbecutting.) Install thejigonthetable.Holding t h es t r i po f m o l d i nfgi r m l ya g a i n s t oneof theguides, butttheendof thestockagainst thefence.Turnon thesawandpulltheyokethrough the cuI (left),Tocut the matingmiter, secure pieceagainst thesecond the guide,thenpullthesaw opposite through thecut.

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MOLDING DENTIL MAKING a tablesaw Using D e n t im l o l d i nigs a c l a s s iocr n a m e n t a l d e t a icl o n s i s t i nogf s m a l rl e c t a n g u l a r between withspaces or dentils, blocks, typicalthem.lt is madefromthinstock, , n di s l y b e t w e e% n a n d% r n c ht h i c k a placed thecabinet against directly either w i t ha n o t h emr o l d i nogn t o p ,o r s a n d (inset). twomoldings wichedbetween width. First,rip thestockto thedesired Theninstalla dadoheadaswideasthe and youwantbetween thedentils, space to setthelength adjustthebladeheight board of the blocks.Screwan extension thenfeedit intothe to themrtergauge, dadoheadto cuta notch.Movetheextensionto therightbythewidthof thedena small Make notch. til,thencuta second in thenotches; keyto f it snugly wooden s l i d ei t i n t ot h ef i r s tn o t c hu n t i li t p r o trudesabout1 inch.Butttheendof the the keyandholdit f irmly stockagainst to cut thef irst the mitergauge against d e n t i lF. o rt h en e x ct u t ,p l a c et h ef i r s t the procenotchoverthe keyandrepeat d u r eC . o n t i n ui net h i sm a n n eurn t i tl h e is cuI (right). lengthof molding

ARMOIRE THE LEVELING levelers adjustable Installing floor,install foran uneven Tocompensate on the baseof your levelers adjustable of a T nut consists Thehardware armorre. rodwitha plasticfoot. anda threaded forthe holes byboring thelevelers Install of thefeet.Drillthem T nutsin thebottom rods.Tap thanthethreaded longer slightly then witha mallet, thenutsintotheholes (/eff).Adjustthefeet screwin thelevelers to levelthecabinet.

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DOORS he frame-and-panel doorsof an armoirearebuilt in muchthesame wayasthe sideassemblies of a frameand-panelcabinet(page32).However, therearedifferences. Boththeinsideand outsideedges of thestilesandrailscanbe moldedfor addeddecoration. In addijoint usedto tion,themortise-and-tenon connecttheframepieces incorporates a miteredmolding,shownon page73.A final differenceinvolvesthe stockused to build doors.Because theyswingfree, doorshavea tendencyto deform.To counteractthis, doorsareoften made from heavierstock.To avoidan excessivelyheavyappearance, thebackofthe door framecanbe rabbetedto allow a portion of thedoor to remaininsidethe armoirewhenit is closed.Theresultins lip alongthe outsideedgeofeachdooi restson a verticalmullion dividins the cabinetopeningor on a falsemulTion, whichis a stripofwood attached to the edgeofthe left-handdoor.

Theglass doorshownon page73is essentially a frame-and-panel doorwith glass panels. Theglass sitsin rabbets cut alongtheinsideedges of theframeand isheldin placeby stripsof molding.

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Thedoorsof thearmoireaboveharmonizewith theframeand-panelconstruction of thepiece.Theirtip-rabbeted mountingpartly recesses thedoorsinto thecabinet,makingthem appearthin and delicatedespitetheirsturdyconstruction.

TWODOOR-MOUNTII{G METHODS

t Lip-rabbeted FIueh-mounted _

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ANATOMIES TW()D()()R DOOR GLASS

9Lile

Median

--.-'rait

9I;ile

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Kabbet


ARMOIRE

MAKING A FRAME-AND.PANEL D()()R

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Cutting thetenons I Makeyourarmoire's frame-and-panel doors bycuttrng blindtenons attheendsof alltherails, asshown here, andthenshaping theinside edges o f a l l t h ef r a m ec o m p o n e nat ss,i l l u s t r a t ei nd s t e p s2 t h r o u g4h. F i n a l l yd,r i l lm o r t i s ei nst h e stiles(sfep5) andprepare eachframefora panel (step6).Tocutthetenons onyourtablesaw, install a dadoheadslightly widerthanthetenon length. Install anauxiliary woodfenceandnotch it byraising thedadoheadintoit. Setthewidth o f c u te q u atlo t h et e n o nl e n g t a h n da d j u st th e cuttingheight to aboutone-third thethickness o f t h es t o c kH. o l d i ntgh er a i lf l u s ha g a i n st ht e mitergauge andthefence,feedthestockfaced o w ni n t ot h eb l a d etso c u t o n et e n o nc h e e k . Turntheboardoverandmakethesamecuton t h eo t h e sr i d e C . h e c fko rf i t i n a t e s tm o r t i s e , thenrepeat theprocess ontheotherendof the boardandon theotherrailshbovd.Tocutthe tenonshoulders, setthecuttingheight at about I tnch.Then,withtherailfacef lushagainst the mitergauge andtheendbuttedagainst thefence, feedtheworkpiece intotheblades. Turntherail overandrepeatthecut onthe olherside(right), Cuttherestof thetenonshoulders thesamewav.

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ARMOIRE

r) Shaping therailsandstiles onthe molding integrated fashion I to your f it frame, the door of insrde edges mount piloted bit and molding witha router thetoolin a table.Alignthefencewiththe onthebit,thenadjustthecutting bearing of the depthto shapethebottomportion pass, the stock feed board.Foreach it good-face-down intothe bit, pressing c u tt h e f e n c e a ; d j u s t t h e f i r m l ya g a i n s t only the Shape if necessary. tingheight, of therailsandstilesaround interior edges rail, perimeter. Fora median thedoor's edges. both right, shape liketheoneat

t I I I therailsforglueuP Q Preparing r.J Thecorners of thetenonshoulders with to mateproperly mustbe mitered fence theauxiliary from thestiles.Remove a crosscut thetablesawfenceandinstall angle blade. Settheblade orcombination board, to 45', makea testcut in a scrap a n dc h e c kt h ec u tw i t ha c o m b i n a t i o n and Adjustthefenceposition square. as bladeheightsothatthecut is exactly wideanddeepasthewidthof theedge justpro(Thebladeteethshould molding. Tomake thetenonshoulder.) trudebeyond piece the flushagainst thecuts,holdthe andthefenceasyoufeedit mitergauge thecuts intotheblade.Repeat edge-down edgeof the ontheendsof eachmolded rails(left). remaining

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Notching thestiles L e a v et h e t a b l es a wb l a d ea n e l e da t

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45o,measure thewidthof eachrail,and marka lineonthemolded edgeof themati n gs t i l ea c o r r e s p o n ddi ni sgt a n cf er o m theend.Cutintothemolded edgeat the line,making certain thatthecutwillnot marthefaceof thestile.Forstilesmatrngwithmedian rails,youneedto make twoopposing 45" cutsandsliceawaythe wastebetween them.Sliceoff mostof thestripof molding between the45" cut andeachendof thestilewitha bandsaw (above). Smooththe cut edgeusingthe tablesaw.Leaving theripfencein place, holdthestileflushagainst themitergauge andslidethestockbackandforthacross the blade(right).Repeat the process for a l lt h es t i l e s .

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mortises in thestiles f, Cutting r-,f Useoneof the tenonsyoucut in step t h e m o r t i s eos n i a s a g u i d et o o u t l i n i n g T t h e e d g e so f t h e s t i l e s , o m a k et h e j o b e a s i e rc, l a m pa l l t h e s t r l e st o g e t h efra c e t o - f a c ew i t ht h e i re n d sa l i g n e dI.n s t a lal m o r t i s i na g t t a c h m e notn y o u rd r i l l p r e s s a n dc l a m po n es t i l et o t h ef e n c ec, e n t e r i n g e u t l i n eu n d e tr h e c h i s eal n d t h e m o r t i so d e p t hX i n c hm o r e b i t ,M a k et h e d r i l l i n g ; a k ea c u t a t e a c h t h a nt h et e n o nl e n g t hm e n d o f t h e m o r t i s eb e f o r eb o r i n go u t t h e wastein between(/eff).Repeatthe proceg ortises. d u r et o c u t t h e r e m a i n i nm

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forpanels thelrames 1i Preparing withyourrouter in theframeedges \J Cutthepanelgrooves . r y - a s s e mtbhleer a i l sa n d a n da t h r e e - w i sn lgo t t i ncgu t t e rD on a work stilesof eachdoorandclamptheframeface-down t es t o c kA. d j u stth ec u t t a b l e u, s i n gw o o dp a d st o p r o t e ct h between the midway to cuta groove tingdepthof yourrouter W. i t ha f i r m bottom o f t h ef r a m ea n dt h ee d g eo f t h em o l d i n g and gripontherouter, lowerthebaseplateontothesurface Once of theframe. suidethebit intothestocknearonecorner

t h e b i t p i l o tb u t t sa g a i n stth e e d g eo f t h e s t o c k ,c o n t i n u et h e for the Repeatthe process direction(above). cut in a clockwise o t h e rp a n e ol p e n i n g sM. a k ea r a i s e dp a n e fl o r e a c ho p e n i n g ( p a g e3 6 ) a n d g l u e u p t h e d o o ra s y o u w o u l da n yf r a m e - a n d p a n ea l s s e m b l yY.o uc a n n o wr o u ta d e c o r a t i vm e o l d i n ga r o u n d t h e o u t s i d ee d g e so f t h e d o o r sa n da r a b b eat r o u n dt h e i rb a c k faces;be sureto leaveenoughstockbetweenthe two to install ihp hinopc lnaop

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ARMOIRE,

t BUILDING A GLASS DOOR 'l

Cutting a rabbetto holdgtass I G l a s sp a n e l sl i e r n r a b b e t rsa t h etrh a n g r o o v easn da r eh e l di n p l a c eb yt h i n s t r i p s o f m o l d i n gC. l a m pt h eg l u e d - ufpr a m et o a w o r ks u r f a c eu, s i n ga w o o dp a dt o p r o t e c ty o u rs t o c k T . h e ni n s t a lal % - i n c hr a b b e t i n gb i t i n a r o u t e ar n ds e tt h e d e p t ho f c u t t o t h e c o m b i n e tdh i c k n e sosf t h e g l a s s a n dt h e m o l d r n gH. o l dt h e t o o lf i r m l yw i t h b o t hh a n d sw h i l er e s t i n g t h e b a s ep l a t eo n t h e f r a m en e a ro n ec o r n e rt,h e ng u i d et h e b i t i n t ot h e i n s i d ee d g eo f t h e d o o r .M o v e the routerclockwise alongthe edges(far ieft)untilthe cut is completed. Squarethe c o r n e rw s i t ha c h i s eal n da w o o d e nm a l l e t (nearleft).Makethe cutsacrossthe grain f i r s tt o a v o i ds p l i t t i n g t h ef r a m e .

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M a k i n gt h em o l d i n a gnd L gluingupthe door Shapeboth edgesof a board(page66) t h a t i s l o n ge n o u g ht o p r o d u c e the length o f m o l d i n yg o un e e dT. h e nr i pt h e m o l d i n gf r o mt h es t o c ko n a t a b l es a w .C u tt h e molding t o l e n g t hm . i t e r i n tgh e e n d sa t 4 5 ' . C u ta n df i t o n ep i e c ea t a t i m e .0 n c e t h e m o l d i n gi s r e a d ys, e ta d r o po f c l e a r glaztng c o m p o u nedv e r yf e w i n c h e st o p r e v e ntth e g l a s sf r o m r a t t l i n g L . a yt h e m o l d i n gi n p l a c ea n d ,s t a r t i n 2 g inches f r o m t h e c o r n e r sb, o r ep i l o th o l e sa t 6 i n c hi n t e r v a ltsh r o u g ht h e m o l d i n ga n d r n t ot h e f r a m e T . a c kd o w nt h e m o l d i n g w i t h b r a d s u, s i n ga p i e c eo f c a r d b o a rtdo protectthe glassfrom the hammer(right).

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LACE HINGES THED00RS 0NTHEARM0IRE: HANGING

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onthedoors thehinges 1 Installing to thedoorwitha I Thetypeof hingeshownhereattaches The fasten the assembly to thearmoire. leafat eachend;bolts Begin by securinto the door edge. mustbe mortised leaves thehingeontheedge in a vise.Position ingthedooredge-up l e a v e s A . t e a c ho u t l i n eu, s ea a n dm a r kt h e l o c a t i oonf t h e t h c h i s etlo c u t a r e c e sisn t h ec h e e ko f er a b b eat r o u n tdh e b a c ko f t h ed o o re q u a il n d e p t ht o t h el e a ft h i c k n e ssst;o p . e nf i t a ne l e c t r idcr i l lw i t h t h ec u ta t t h er a b b esth o u l d eTr h a t w i s tb i te q u ailn d i a m e t et or t h et h i c k n e sosf t h el e a fa n d therecesses down holesto extend of overlapping borea series

(above, theleaves /eff).Periodically test-fit intotheshoulder i n t h em o r t i s etsa,p p i ntgh e mi n w i t ha m a l l e ts;t o pd r i l l i n g oncethe hingerestsflushon theedgeof thedoorwiththe s .e m o vteh eh i n g ef r o mt h ed o o r , l e a v eisn t h e i rm o r t i s e R l a yt h ed o o rf l a to n a w o r ks u r f a caen dp o s i t t otnh e h i n g e Mark outside themortises. the leaves ontheedge,leaving s c r e wh o l e so n t h e b a c kf a c eo f t h ed o o rs t i l ea n db o r ea . l i d et h eh i n g el e a v ebsa c k c o u n t e r s uhnokl ea t e a c hm a r kS thehinge to secure intothemortises, anddrivethescrews right). to the door(above, r) Installing thedoor L to mountthehinpeboltsto the armoire, setthepiecJonits back. if necessary, Working witha helper, andmark holdthedoorin position onthefrontstileof theboltlocatrons holeat Borea clearance thearmoire. thedoor eachmark.thenreposition slipping theboltsinto onthepiece, theholes(left).Fixthedoorin place withthenutsorovided.

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HANGING THED00RS: CL0CK-GASE HINcES thehinges 1 Positioning I Setthearmoire on itsback.Foreach door,fix stripsof masking tapeacross the corners of theopening. Place smallsandpapershimsbeside thepieces of tapeto prevent thedoorfrominadvertently shifti n ga sy o uw o r kS . e tt h ed o o ri n p l a c e , c e n t e r i ni g t o v e tr h eo p e n i n gM. e a s u r e frombothsidesto makecertain thedoor is parallel to thestiles.Onceyouaresatisfiedwiththepositioning, markthecornersof thedooronthetapewitha pencil. Next,buttthehinges against theedgeof thedoor;usea tapemeasure to makesure thattheyareequally spaced fromthetop and bottomof the door(right).Holding theupperhalfof thehingein place, slip offthebottom halfandthehingepinand usea pencilto markthescrewholeson the dooredge(below).

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Dottom half

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r) Mounting thehinges onthedoor L Securethe on a worK dooredge-up surface. thenboreoilotholesat each point.Holdthetophalfof each marked hingesquare to thedooredgeandscrew it in place(/eff).

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Hanging thedoor Place thedoorbackonthearmoire thehinges. Check that andreassemble of thedoorarealigned with thecorners tape.Trace themarkson themasking witha around thebottom of thehinges p e n c i lr,e m o vteh ed o o rd, i s a s s e m b l e the hinges, andreposrtion the bottom halves on thearmoire. Markthescrew holes onthecabinet, borepilotholes, and screwthe bottomhalfof eachhingeto (below). thearmoire Remove theshims a n dt a p es t r i p si,n s e rtth e p i n i n t h e halfof thehinge, bottom andplacethe dooronthearmoire.

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HANGING THED00RS:RAT-TAII HINGES 'l

Mounting thehingeson the door I Measure the distancebetween the top e d g eo f t h e h i n g el e a fa n dt h e s c r e wh o l e s i n t h e l e a;f t h e h o l e sw i l l b e h i d d e no n c e the leafis readyto be fastened to the door. Makea mortisefor eachhingeleafas you wouldfor lacehinges(page79). Withthe d o o re d g e - u ipn a v i s e ,s l i d et h e l e a fi n t o i t s m o r t i s eT. h e ns l i pt h e r a t - t a ipl i n i n t o its bracketandsetthe bracketon the door edgewith the tail pointingtowardthe bottom of the door.Holdingthe pin and brack, p t h e l e a fd e e p e irn t ot h e e t i n p o s i t i o nt a d o o re d g eu n t i lt h e h o l ei n t h e l e a fa l i g n s with the pin (left).Measure fromthe top o f t h e l e a ft o m a r ki t s s c r e wh o l e so n t h e doorand borecountersunk holes.Drivethe screwsto f ix the leafto the door.

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r) Mounting thedoor Z. Position thedoorin itsopening in the a r m o i raen da s s e m btlheeh i n g es,l i d i n g therat{ailpinintotheholein theleaf. F a s t e n i nt hgeh i n g et o t h ea r m o i ries a t w o - s t eopp e r a t i obne, g i n n i nwgi t ht h e bracket. Traceitsoutline onthearmoire, remove the bracket andoin.thenborea clearance holeforthe bracket boltsupp l i e dw i t ht h eh i n g et h r o u gthh ec e n t e r o f t h eo u t l i n eT.h r e atdh eb o l ti n t ot h e b r a c k est ,l i pt h eb o l ti n t ot h ec l e a r a n c e h o l ea, n du s et h en u ts u p p l i etdo f a s t e n thebracket to thearmoire. Thenslidethe pinintothebracket, checking thattheratt a i ll i e sf l a to nt h ec a b i n e bt ;e n dt h et a i l in a vise,if necessary, to makeit sit flat. R e a s s e mtbhl eh i n g e o n ef i n a tl i m ea n d u s ea f i n i s h i nnga i lt o f a s t e tnh er a t - t a i l to Ihe armoire(right).

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ARMOIRE

A L()CK INSTALLING the keyhole Cutting 1 I T o m a r kt h e k e v h o l el o c a t i o n on the d o o r ,m e a s u r teh e d i s t a n c eb e t w e e nt h e o u t s i d ee d g eo f t h e l o c ka n dt h e c e n t e ro f t h e k e yc h a m b eor n t h e i n s i d eo f t h e l o c k . ( T h el o c kb e i n gi n s t a l l e d h e r ei s i l l u s t r a t e d o n p a g e6 3 . ) T h e nt r a n s f eyr o u rm e a s u r e m e nt to t h e d o o r ,m e a s u r i nfgr o mt h e rabbetcheekon the door'sbackface.You n e e dt o d r i l l t w o h o l e sf o r t h e k e y :o n e f o r t h e s h a f ta n d a n a r r o w eorn ef o r t h e k e yb i t ,w h i c hi s t h e s t r i po f m e t a lb e l o w t h e f o r w a r de n d o f t h e s h a f t ,B o r et h e w i d e rh o l ef i r s t ,u s i n ga n e l e c t r i cd r i l lf i t t e d w i t h a t w i s tb i t s l i g h t l yl a r g e trh a n 'fhen f i t t h e d r i l lw i t h a b i t t h e k e ys h a f t . s l i g h t l yl a r g etrh a nt h e t h i c k n e sosf t h e k e yb i t a n d b o r ea s e c o n dh o l eb e l o wt h e shafthole(right);localethe holeto suit t h e k e y .H o l dt h e d o o rs t e a d ya s y o ud r i l l t h e h o l e sU . s ea s m a l lf i l e o r a r i f fl e rt o j o i n t h e t w o h o l e sa n d c r e a t ea c a v i t y t h r o u g hw h i c ht h e k e yf i t s e a s i l y .

r) Mounting thelockand L makingthe boltmortise Position thelockonthebackof thedoor, in theholein the sliding thekeychamber door,andfit thekeyintothe lock.With t h ek e yi n p l a c eh, o l dt h e l o c ks t e a d y it to thedoor(/eff).Make whilefastening surethatthe lockis square to theedge of thedoorasyoudrivethescrews. To locate the mortise forthe bolt,turnthe keyto extend theboltandusea pencil to coattheendof theboltwithgraphite. Retract thedoor.Extend theboltandclose theboltagainst theedgeof the mullion to markitslocation andusethedrilland a c h i s et lo c u t a m o r t i scee n t e r eodn l a r k l.f d e s i r e di n, s t a lal n t h e p e n c im escutcheon around thekevhole.

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CHE,ST

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areall relatively Blanketchests hechestis oneof theearliest beginning witha rectangusimilar, typesof furniture,withalong larcarcase andahingedtop.Dimenutilitariantradition.Duringthe guideline sionsvarybutasageneral served asthe MiddleAges,chests a lengthof 40to 45inchconsider primaryreceptacles of household anda es,awidthof i8 to 20inches, Theywere also goodsandvaluables. Thecarheightofabout25inches. calleduponto performdoubleduty caseis madefrompanelsof edgeplace,at a timewhen asa seating with gluedboardsandassembled chairswerealuxuryformostpeople. joindovetail or frame-and-panel Althoughearlychestdesigns routedwood ery.Thetop features wereprimitive,medievalartisans withsliding stripsthatareattached Abiscuitjoiner cutsa slotin themiteredend oftenadornedthemwith carved joints (page91); or amolddovetail of the blanketchest'smoldedbase.Thebaseis chivalricand arches andelaborate ing canbe cut into its edge(page DuringtheRenais- rabbetedto acceptthecarcaseof thechestand battlescenes. thetopfromwarp92).Toprevent thebracketfeet arethenscrewedto the base. sanceand Baroqueperiods,the touch,wood ing,andasadecorative piecebeganto assume someof the for stiffening(page 92).Thetop can canbefastened thatarestillusedtoday,includingframe-and-panel battens elements withapianohinge(page88)orbuttbnges(page89). joinery,moldedtopsandbases, bracketfeet. beattached andpatterned for makingbasemoldingandbracketfeet Thetechniques hardware wasadded,suchasbrass Overtheyears,attractive onpage93.Youmight arediscussed starting forablanket chest locks,handles, andescutcheons. feet;thesemakea fitting instead to installogeebracket In ColonialAmerica,thechestwasusuallyplacedat the choose box blanket andarmoires aswell.Installing quilts,andlinens-hencethe baseforbookcases footof a bedto storeblankets, isshownstartingon page100.Theseitemsprovide thepieceis usedto storeevery- hardware nameblanketchest.Today, to carefully touchandshouldbechosen arebuilt thefinaldecorative thingfromtoysandclothingto books.Manychests designofyourproject. theparticular complement for additionalstoraqe. with drawers

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chest,with itspatternedfeet Thistraditionaldovetailed and moldedtopand bottom,is basedon a designimportEuropein the18thCentury. ed toAmericafrom eastern

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ANATOMYOF A BLANKTTCHE,ST

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Batten (pa1e92)

--

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ToP ^8) 1p-tqe

Piano hin4e (paqe 88)

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?ix;:i-,=-..--

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/ Cheotlock -/ (pale 1OO)

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Flap etay )creweC to tnatde of cheel: aiCeand lid: can be adjusLed lto suiL wide ran4e of lid wetqhLeand cloetn4epeede.ln fttlly open poeitton. collar enaps inLo retd cap to hold ltd oPen

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Eacutaheon (paqe 101)

'Flush handle ln;ne \ rulL

/ Dovetailed carcase (pa7e 26)

Baee -----.' ( i ) . , 1 E9. C )

Bracket. foot. (tttqe 93.) ---\-_____

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BLANKET CHEST

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Traditional blanket chestswere oftenfurnishedwith one or moredrawersto store anythingfrom papersand pens to sewing needlesand thread. The top and bottom panelsof rhedrawerassemblyare mounted in stoppedgroovesin thefront and backpanelsof the chest,with a divider to separatethe openingfor the drawers.

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HARDWARE CHEST INVENTORY OFBLANKET

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Eutt hinge )ta nda rd rectangular braoe or eLeelhin4eeet fluah wtth aurfaceof cheaL:pin cannot be removedeo hingemuet be unscrewedto rernovetop

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Decorative esautaheona A aelectionof fittin4a ineLalted on the front panelaround keyholeto prevent damageby key Threaded eacutcheon Key-eha ped fixtu re fita onuglyin elightlyoveretzed kevhole, proiectina eliahtlv fim cf,'eeifroni

Cheat ahain Ltnkchainuaed ae a lid eLay

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Reaeesedhandle Featurea receee for finTera;handle etopo at 90" Elanket aheat hinge )trap-otyle cheet htn4ewith forqed finieh for anLtqueappearance; availablein 9- to 14-inchlenqtha

Colonialchest handlea TraditionalAmerican cheet handlea

Campai6n ahest corner Corn'erfittinqe ortqinallyueed for protectronon cheote car' ried on mtlrtarycampaiqne, nowugedto decorate varioua cheat type6

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Large cheot- lifti ng ha ndlea Handlewith 90" atop for lrfttnqheavycheeta


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TOPS

I Sincemoldingstripsarefastenedaround its edgeswith slidingdovetailsto accommodatewoodmovement,the chesttop shownat left does not requirebattensto keepit flat, thoughtwo havebeen addedfor decorativeeffect. Thelid stayholdsthetopopen and allowsit to closeslowly to avoiddamagingthepiece.

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ATTACHING THETOPWITHA PIANO HINGE Installing thehinge T h eh i n g es h o u l db ee q u atlo o r s l i g h t ly shorter thanthe lengthof thechest. Clampthetopto a worksurface using woodpadsto protect thestock.Holdthe hingein position, aligning thecenterof thepinwiththebackedgeof thetop,and traceitsoutline. Next,installa straight bit in a routerandsetthecuttingdepth to thethickness of the hingeleaf.(Take careadjusting thedepth;if therabbetis toodeepit willcausethe hingeto bind whenthelid is closed.) Alignthebitover the insideedgeof theoutline, thenfasten an edgeguidebuttedagainst therouter baseplate.Routthe insideedgeof the rabbet, keeping the baseplatepressed against theedgeguide.Makerepeat cuts, adjusting theedgeguideeachtime,until the rabbetis completed. Then,setthe h i n g ei n t h er a b b eat n dm a r kt h e l o c a tionof thescrewholes. lf youareadding (page91)orbattens(page92), molding doso now.Thenborepilotholesat the putthe hingebackin position marks, (right),anddrivethescrews. Setthetop onthechest,withthefreehingeleafflat onthetopedgeof theblanket chest'sback panel.Markthelocation forthescrews, borepilotholes, anddrivein thescrews.

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THET()PWITHBUTTHINGES ATTACHING

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thehinge outlines 1 Tracing youcanuse of a pianohinge, I Instead thetopto to attach twoorthreebutthinges aremortised Thehinges chest. theblanket intoboththetopandbackpanelof the clampthetopgood-side Tobegin, chest. andplacethef irst downona worksurface in fromone in position a fewinches hinge thepinjustofftheback end,positioning to tracethe edgeof thetop.Usea pencil the othoutlineof the hinge(left).ltAark onthetopin thesamemanner, er hinges positioning oneneartheotherendandone

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in tho eenter

epcs:r , ,i f n p-----v.

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thehinges 2 lnstalling in thetop,drillpilotholes, in theirmortises .J Setthehinges (above). Next,setthetoponthechest, themin place andscrew onthe hingemortises forthecorresponding markthelocation the themoutfollowtng thenchisel r) Chiseling topedgeof thebackpanel, outthewaste procedure in step2, Nowlaythecheston its backon described o u t l i n ae n dc u t i t t o t h e L ' l s e a c h i s et lo s c o r teh eh i n g e downbehindit. Place andsetthetopgood-face a worksurface up,pare thechiselbevel Then,holding ofthehinge. thickness (abovd.Repeat thanthetopunderthebackof slightly thicker to clear a woodspacer theprocedure fromthemortise thewaste withtheirmorthefreehingeleaves chestto line-up no theblanket to cutthemortises mortises. Becareful outtheremaintng in place. thehinges andscrew binding. tises.Borepilotholes to prevent of thehingeleaves deeper thanthethickness

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I I HINGE MORTISIl{G JIG A routeris an idealtoolto cut mortisesfor yourblanketchest'sbutt hinges, butdo nottryto dothejob freehand. A jig liketheoneshown at rightwill guarantee fast,accurate results. Youwill needto equipyour routerwitha straight bit anda templateguideto makethecuts. Makethetemplate froma piece of %-inchplywood wideenough to support therouter. Outline thehinge leafonthetemplate, beingsureto guide compensate forthetemplate andthethickness ofthefence, which plywood. is alsomadefrom%-inch Cutoutthe template, thenattach thefencewithcountersunk screws. To usethejig, securethetop of thechestedge-up in a vise.Mark thehingeoutlineontheworkpiece andclampthetemplate in position, aligning thecutoutwiththeoutline

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on the edgeandbuttingthe fence against theinnerfaceof thetop.Make the cut below),movingthe router in smallclockwise circles untilthe bottomof the recessis smooth, then

square thecorners witha chisel. When youareusingthejig to cut mortises in thetopedgeof theblanket chest, besureto securethecarcase to oreventit frommoving.

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BLANKET CHEST

TOTHET()P MOLDING ADDING themolding 1 Making and bit in a router I lnstall a moldinp thetoolin a iable.Routthemoldmount i n gf r o ms t o c kt h t c k etrh a nt h et o ps o t h a tw h e nt h e l i d i s s h u t h em o l d i n g thesideandfrontpanels willoverhang (Thestockshould alsobewider slightly. thanyouneedsothatYou andlonger to size themolding canripandcrosscut later.) Alignthefencewiththebearing andfeedtheboardintothebitto carve in onehalfof anedge.Mount thedesign on eithersideof thebit a featherboard t o s e c u rteh ep i e c ed u r i n tgh ec u t .( l n thefrontfeatherboard the illustration, Flipthe forclarity.) hasbeenremoved pieceoverandrouttheotherhalf,creatinga mirrorcut of the Itrst(right).Then to thestze themolding ripandcrosscut youneeo.

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r') Installing themolding L Y o uc a ns e c u rteh em o l d i ntgo t h e orgluealone. dovetails edgewithsliding areattached ln thiscase, thesidemoldings to allowfor slidrng dovetatls withstopped thefront woodmovement; cross-grain m o l d i nw g ,h i c hw i l l s h r i nakn ds w e lpl a r a l l e tl o t h et o pp a n e li ,s a t t a c h ewdi t h glue.Makestopped ontheends dovetails rnortises dovetail of thetop;cut stopped (seepage127). in thesidemoldings joints, Afteryouhavemadethedovetail at 45".Then mitertheendsof themolding placethetopgood-face uponwoodshims. a thinlayerof glueonthelasttwo Spread andthedovedovetail inches of thesliding intopositailslot,thenslidethemolding towelonthetop tion.Next,laysomepaper andinstallbarclamps scratches to prevent the woodpadsto secure withprotective molding in place(left).

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BLANKETCHEST

R()UTING MOLDING IN THET()P 'l

Routing theedge I Instead o f a t t a c h i n sge p a r a tset r i p so f m o l d i n gy, o uc a n r o u ta d e c o r a t i vseh a p e i n t h et o p i t s e l f S . e c u r et h e t o p g o o d - f a c e u p o n a w o r ks u r f a c ew r t h i t s e d g ep r o j e c t i n go f f t h e s u r f a c eI.n s t a lal p r l o t e d r o u n d i n g - o vbei rt o r a n o t h em r o l d i n gb i t i n y o u rr o u t e rt,h e ns e tt h e c u t t i n gh e i g h t t o m o l dt h e t o p p a r to f t h e e d g e T . u r no n t h e t o o la n dg u i d et h e b i t i n t ot h e s t o c k , m o v i n gt h e t o o l a g a i n stth e d i r e c t i o no f bit rotation a n d k e e p i n tgh e p i l o tb e a r i n g buttedagainstthe stock (/eft).Oncethe t o p h a l fo f t h e e d g ei s m o l d e df,l i p t h e w o r k p i e coev e ra n d r o u tt h e b o t t o mh a l f i f c a l l e df o r b y y o u rd e s i g n .

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t I I r) Adding battens L Wnenmolding isattached withsliding dovetails, it serves to stiffen thetop,eliminating theneedforbattens; molding that issimplyrouted in theedgeof thetopdoes notofferthisadvantage. In thiscase, to prevent warping fromchanging humidity levels, fastentwoor threebattens across theundersrde of thetop.Cutthestrips of woodfromthesamestockasthetop,makingthemaboullY,inches wideand3 inchesshorter thanthewidthof thetop.For visual appeal, roundoneendof eachbatt e no n t h eb a n ds a w .N e x ts, e tt h et o p good-face downon a worksurface and h o l dt h ef i r s tb a t t e ni n p l a c ea b o u 5 t inches fromoneendofthetop.Drrve three (Io allow screws to fastenit in place(right). thebatten to expand andcontract, enlarge thecounterbored holes attheendsofthe woodstripsintoovals; thecenterscrewis t h eo n l yo n et h a ts h o u l b d ed r i v e inn tight.)Repeat theprocess to mountthe otherbattens.

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AND FEET BASES

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o.l'tlrcblorrTIrcltottottrttssurtltls, ol'brackct.lbct kct clrcstcon,si-sr-s t t t o t t r t t c trlv l r / r- s c r c t vt os a r o b tltat srtpprtrts Itctcdltascrrroldirtg Tltc ltrockct.lcclorc tlrc cttrcasc. joitrcdn,ith lttl.f blirtddttvctails.

FEET BRACKET MAKING theninboard 1t Markins -

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I T h ef e e to f t h e b l a n k ect h e s a t r em a d e f r o mt w o i d e n t i c abl o a r d sc u t w i t h a d e c orative scrolp l a t t e r na n dl o i n e dw r t hh a l f t sa, k el h el o i n e rcyu t s b l i n dd o v e t a i l l o i nM f i r s t ,t h e ns a wo u tt h e p a t t e r nasn da s s e m b l et h e n i e c e sT o n e s i nc. u t b l a n k tso t h e s i z eo f t h e f e e t ,t h e nm a r kt h e h a l f - b l t n d d o v e t a i l sI n. d i c a tteh eo u t s r dfea c eo f e a c h b o a r dw i t l ra n X . T h e na d l u s ta c u t t i n g p a r r s teo t h e t h i c k n e sosf t h e s t o c ka n d s c r i b ea l i n ea c r o s tsh e i n s i d ef a c eo f t h e p i n b o a r dt o m a r kt h e s h o u l d el r n e .N e x t , s e c u r et h e b o a r de n d - u pI n a v i s e ,s e t t h e c r r l l r nppa r p et o a h o u o t n e - t h i rtdn e s t o c k ' st h i c k n e s sa,n d m a r ka l i n ea c r o s s t h e e n d c l o s e rt o i t s o u t s i d ef a c e .U s ea d o v e t a i l s q u at o r em a r kt h e p i n so n t h e e n d o f t h e b o a r d .F o rt h e s i z eo f b o a r d s h o w na, h a l f - p i na t e a c he d g ea n dt w o e v e n l sv n a . e dn i n si n h e t w e ew n i l lm a k e ^ ^ f ,^ + r - ^ ^ r i , r, r^n t I. n d r c a t e he d >LruilB dilu dLLrdLLrvc JL w a s t es e c t i o nw s i t hX s ,t h e nu s ea c o m b i n a t i o ns q u a r e t o e x t e n dt h e l i n e sd o w nt h e . ei n s i d ef a c et o t h e s h o u l d el ri n e ( / e f f )R p e a t h e m a r k so n a l l t h e p i n b o a r d s .

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I BLANKET CHEST

r) Cutting thepins Z- Secure a pinboardin a visewithits you,thencut down outside facetoward alongtheedges of thepinswitha dovetail saw,working fromoneedgeof the board to theother.Foreachcut,alignthesaw bladejustto thewastesideof thecutting lines(left).Usesmooth, evenstrokes, continuing thecutsto theshoulder line.Next, clamptheboardoutside-face downon a worksurface andusea chiselandmallet to pareawaythewastewood:Scorea line about%inchdeepalong theshoulder line andthenshave off a thin layerof waste, withthechiselheldhorizontally andbeve l - u pR . e p e at h t e p r o c e d utroec u tt h e pinboards. remaining

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rherails Q Gutting r.,l Seta cuttinggauge to thethickness o f t h ep i n st,h e nm a r kt h es h o u l d el irn e on all thetail boards. Placethefirsttail boardoutside-face downontheworksurf a c e .H o l da p i nb o a r de n d - d o wwni t h its insidefacealigned withtheshoulder lineof thetailboard, making certain the edges of theboards areflush.Outline the tailswitha pencil, thenusea trysquare to extend thelinesontotheendof theboard. Markallthewaste sections withXs.Then usea dovetailsawto cut Ihelails(right). Angling the board, ratherthanthesaw, makes foreasier cutting. Thensecure the b o a r de d g e - uipn t h ev i s ea n dc u tt h e wastebeside thetwooutside tails.Remove thewastebetween thetailswrtha chisel using t h es a m et e c h n i q udee s c r i b ei nd step2. Whenyouhavechiseled outhalf thewaste, flipthepieceandf inishthejob fromtheotherside.Repeat the process to cuttheothertailboards.

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BLANKETCHEST

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Test-fitting thejoint M a k ea t e m p l a t ew i t h t h e d e s i r e d p a t t e r nf o r t h e f e e ta n d t r a c et h e s h a p e o n o n ef a c eo f e a c hb o a r dT . h e n ,t e s t - f i t the half-blinddovetailjoinl (right).Mark a n ys p o t st h a t b i n dw i t ha p e n c i al n d c a r euf l l y p a r es o m ew o o da w a ya t e a c h m a r ku n t i lt h e f i t i s s a t i s f a c t o r y .

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CUTTING THEPATTERN Usingthe bandsaw C u t t h e p a t t e r ni n e a c ho f t h e f e e t f r e e h a n do n t h e b a n ds a w .T o k e e pt h e b l a d e f r o mb i n d i n gi n t h e k e r fa t t h e t i g h tp a r t o f t h e c u r v e ,m a k ea s e r i e so f s t r a i g h t r e l e a s ec u t s f r o m t h e e d g eo f t h e w o r k p i e c et o t h e m a r k e dl i n e .T h e n ,a l i g nt h e b l a d ej u s tt o t h e w a s t es i d eo f t h e c u t t i n g l i n ea n df e e dt h ew o r k o i e ci en t ot h e b l a d e w i t hb o t hh a n d sm , a k i n gs u r en e i t h ehr a n d is in linewith the cuttingedge(left).

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BLANKET CHEST

MAKING THEBASEMOLDING 'l

Making thebasepieces I T h ef o u rp i e c etsh a tm a k eu p t h e b a s em o l d i nagr es h a p eadn dr a b b e t e d i n d i v i d u a lW l yo . r k i nwgi t hs t o c kl o n g e r you than need,routoneedgeof thefront andsidepieces thesamewayyouwould (page66).Next shapecornice molding y o u r use t a b l es a wt o c u tr a b b e tisn a l l fourpieces. Therabbets aresawnin two passes, withtheshoulders f irst,followed bythecheeks. Adjust thebladeheight so thecheeks willbewideenough to support t h ec h e sw t i t h o urte a c h i nt hg em o l d i n g cuts;position thefencesoone-third of the stockthickness willbecutaway. Usetwo featherboards to support theworkpiece; attach thetable-mounted featherboard to a s h i ms ot h em i d d l o e f t h ew o r k p i e icse p r e s s eadg a i n st h t ef e n c eF. e e de a c h pieceon edgeintothe blade(left)until t h et r a i l i n eg n dr e a c h et h s et a b l eT. h e n m o v et o t h eo t h e sr i d eo f t h et a b l ea n d pullthestockoasttheblade.

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t I r) Gluing upthebase pieces L Sawthemolding to length, cuttingmiters at both endsof thefrontpieceandat oneendof thesrdes. Thefroni corners of thebaseareassembled withmiterjoints;buttjoints aresufficient fortheback.Theconnections should bereinforced withwoodbiscuits, Usea platejoiner to cutslots, thenspread gluein theslots,insertbiscuits in thefrontandbackpieces, (above) andpress thecorners together andclampthem.

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thefeetto thebase Q Fastening r-,1Working position ona flatsurface, thebaseonthefeetof thechest,making surealltheouteredges areflush.At each corner, borefourcountersunk holes through thebaseandinto (above). thefootandscrewthetwotogether Placethechest in therabbets of thebasepieceanddrivescrews fromunderneath through thebaseandintothechest.

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BRACKET FEET A VARIATION: OGEE

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It is easierto sandthe surfaces of the contoured ogeebracketfeet beforeinstallingthemon thebase.

FEET MAKING OGEE BRACKET theogeecove 1 Gutting feetarecreatedmuch I Ogeebracket likethe bracket feetshownon page93, ogeeprofileshaped butwithan S-shaped in theiroutside faces.Because of their surfaces, thetwohalves of each contoured joint footarejoinedwitha miter-and-spline (page98),ratherthana half-blind dovetail.Theogeeprofileis cut in threesteps Beginby onthetablesawandtherouter. marking theprofileontheendof a pieceof stocklongenough to makeall thefeet.Set up yourtablesawto makea covecut in thefaceof theboardasyouwouldforthe cornicemoldingof an armoire(page69). Usea pushblockto feedthestock,makpasses ingseveral shallow to cut a cove depth(right).Onceyou of theappropriate havemadethecovecut,usea routerfitbit to shapethe tedwitha rounding-over of theboardto themarked line. corner

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BLANKET CHEST

r) Finishing theogeeprofile L me rideeof wastebetween thecove cutandtherounding-over cutissliced off bythetablesaw.Tosetupthecut,hold theworkpiece onedgeonthesawtable andadjust thebladeangle to alignthecutt i n ge d g ew i t ht h em a r k e d l i n eo n t h e boardend.Butttheripfenceagainst the stock,lockit in place, andsettheblade herght to sliceawaythewaste.Usethree featherboards to support theworkpiece duringthecut:Clamp twoto thefenceanda thirdto thetable;thisfeatherboard should bemounted ona shimsoit willpress closerto themiddleof thestockagainst the fence.Feedtheworkpiece withbothhands (right).Oncetheboard's trailingendreachesthetable,moveto theothersideof the tableandoullthestockoasttheblade.

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ASSEMBLING OGEE BRACKET FEET

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thebevelcuts 1 Making I Sincetheoseebracket feetwill beassembled withmiter- B e f o r m e a k i n tgh ec u t ,c l a m pa s t o pb l o c kt o t h ee x t e n s i o n joints, and-spline eachof theeightfootpieces willhavebevels t o e n a b lyeo ut o l i n eu pt h ec u t sf o rt h et h r e eo t h e ird e n t i c a l o n a d j o i n i negn d s F . i r s tc, u t a l l t h ep i e c essl i g h t loyv e r s i z e .pieces. Holdtheflatedgeof theboardagainst theextension Tocutthebevels, setyoursaw'sbladeangle to 45" andattach andtheendagainst theblockasyoumakeeachcut (above). . a r kt h e l e n g t h a w o o de x t e n s i ot on t h e m i t e rg a u g eM ofa To beveltheendsof thefourmatching footpieces, holdthe f o o tp i e c eo n y o u rs t o c ka n d ,h o l d i ntgh ef l a te d g eo f t h e contoured edgeof thestockagainst theextension asyou b o a r da g a i n st h t ee x t e n s r oanl ,i g nt h em a r kw i t ht h eb l a d e . m a k et h ec u t s .

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BLANKETCHEST

r) Gutting thesplinegrooves g r o o v ef o s rt h es p l i n eisn t h e 1ne of the footDieces arecut beveled ends Install a dado head and onthetablesaw. splines adjustitsthickness to thatof the youwill use.Settheangleof the headat 45oandshifttheriofenceto theleft-hand sideof theblades. Holding onefootpiece flat-face-down onthesawtable,buttthe endagainst thecuttingedgesof beveled thedadoheadandadjustthefenceand groove will be bladeheightsoa %-inch locatedaboul%inchfromthe bottomof theend the piece.Buttthefenceagainst of the stockandlockit in place.Feed eachpiecewith the miler gauge(left), pressing theendagainst thefencethroughoutthecut.

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and Cutting thepatterns gluingupthefeet arecut,design Onceallthesplinegrooves thescrolloatterns ontheflatfacesof the pieces andcutthemoutonthebandsaw (page95).Sandthe piecessmooth, then or solidwoodto fromplywood cutsplines shouldbe fit intothegrooves. Thesplines maketheirwidth aslongasthegrooves; slightlylessthantwicethe combined (lf youusesolid depthof twogrooves. cut themsothe woodfor thesplines, grainrunsacross theirwidth,ratherthan in thegrooves lengthwise.) Spread adhesive andglueup thefeet (right),thenattach themto the baseasyouwouldstandard bracketfeet (page96).

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HARDWARE INSTATLING A LOCK

t A commonfeature of traditional campaign chests,solid brassflush handles add a touch ofclassto any blanketchest. The handlesstop at a 90" angle to the sidesof the chest,providing a convenient way to lift the piece.

I I I thelockfaceplate 1 0utlining I Laythecheston itsfrontpanelandposition the lockface-down midway between thesidesandflushwiththetopedgeof thepanel.Tracetheoutline (above), of thefaceplale thenextend thelinesontothetopedgeof thepanel. r) Routing thelockmoftise l mis is oneof therareinstances in whichtherouteris usedto makea freehandcut.Careandpatience arerequired. Usea woodchiselto firstcut a shallow mortise forthefaceplate lip in thetop edgeof thefrontpanel.Next,installa straight bit in yourrouter, setthecutting depthto thethickness of thefaceplate, andcuta mortise insidethemarked outline.Startbyguiding thetoolin a clockwisedirection to cuttheoutside edgesof themortise; clearouttheremaining waste byfeeding thetoolagainst thedirection of bit rotation. Usethechiselto souare the corners andpareto theline.Measure the distance between theedgesof thefaceplateandthe lockhousing andtransfer the measurement to themortise. Adjust therouter's cuttingdepthto thethickness of thehousing andcutthef inalmortise (left).Usethechiselto square anycorners. Test-fit the lockin thecavityandusethe chisel to deepen orwidenanyof themortises,if necessary.

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BLANKETCHEST

thekeyhole Q Cutting andmark r-J Setthelockin themortise Cuttheopenof thekeyhole. thelocation lock(page ingasyouwouldforanarmoire oneholeforthekeyshaftand B3),drilling forthekeybit.Usea smallf ileto another lointhetwoholes(nght)

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Installing theescutcheon onthefront Position theescutcheon p a n eol f t h ec h e s ta, l i g n i nigt so p e n i n g Usea stripof masking overthekeyhole. while t a p et o h o l dt h eh a r d w a irnep l a c e youstartthenailsin theirholes. To proeachnail whendriving tectyourf ingers flush,gripthenailshaftwithneedle-nose pliers(/eff).

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BLANKET CHEST

thelock f, Mounting r-f Oncethekeyhole is cut,laythechest on itsfrontpanelagainandsetthe lock in itsmortise. Markthescrewholesonthe panel,remove the lock,andborepilot holes. Setthelockin placeagainandfastenit to thechest,driving thescrewheads (/effl. flushwiththefaceplate

Front panel

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Installing thestrikeplate Complete h e l o c ki n s t a l l a t i ob ny mounting thestrikeplateto thetopof thechest.Slipthescrews through their holesin the plateandsetthe plateon topof the lock.Turnthe keyuntilthe lockengages withthestrikeplate,then adda stripof masking tapeto holdthe platefirmlyin place.Slowly closethetop of the chest(right)untilits underside touches thescrews. Borea pilotholeat eachmarkleft by the screwtipsand attachthestrikeplateto thetop.

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HANDLES FLUSH INSTALLING thehandles 1 0utlining I Laythecheston onesideandPosimidway outside-face-down tiona handle panels anda back between thefrontand the outline top. Trace below the fewinches of the mountingplate tight).

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/) Mounting thehandles L lnstalla straightbit in yourrouter, of setthecuttingdepthto thethickness plate, inandcuta mortise themounting asyouwouldfor outline sidethemarked the disa lock(pageI 00). Next,measure of themounting theedges tancebetween and plateandthe bowl-shaped housing to themortise. themeasurement transfer cuttingdepthto the Adjusttherouter's andcutthedeepof thehousing thickness in thecavity thehandle Test-fit er mortise. andusea woodchiselto pareanyremain(farleft). ingwastewoodfromthe mortises platerestsf lushwith Oncethemounting faceof thesidepanel,mark theoutside and thehandle, remove thescrewholes, borea pilotholeat eachmark.Setthe it to the andfasten handle in placeagain for theprocedure chest(near/eff).Repeat theotherhandle.

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103


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INLAYS

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Contrrrcrcinlbarding is at,nilaltleirr a variety oJ'desigrts to conrplenterfi works rarrgirrg r Ji"ortta Welshtlresse to n boardroonrtnble.Here, it nddsa decorntivetortcltto the top ofn blanket chest.Inlay nurterinlsctm be nrctal, wood verteer,or solid lurrdwood.

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INSTATTING INLAY

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Routing thegroove I G r o o v efso r i n l a ya r ec u t w i t h a r o u t e fr i t t e dw i t h a s t r a i g h t s u r et h e d i s t a n c eb e t w e e n t h e r o u t e rb a s ep l a t ea n d t h e e d g e b i t t h e s a m ew i d t ha s t h e i n l a y .l f y o ua r ei n s t a l l i nsgh o p - m a d e o f t h e t o p , a n d c u t t h e e d g eg u i d ea n d s t o pb l o c k st o t h a t r n l a ys, e tt h e c u t t i n gd e p t hs l i g h t l ys h a l l o w et hr a nt h e t h i c k - w i d t h .S c r e wa f e n c et o e a c hp i e c es o i t c a n b e p o s i t i o n e d n e s so f t h e s t r i p s ;t h e i n l a yw i l l b e s a n d e df l u s h ( s f e p3 ) . s q u a r et o t h e e d g e so f t h e t o p . F o re a c hc u t ,c l a m pt h e g u i d e F o rc o m m e r c i abla n d i n gw, h i c hi s v e r yt h i n ,m a k et h e c u t t i n g a l o n gt h e e d g ey o uw i l l b e c u t t i n ga n df a s t e na s t o pb l o c ka t d e p t he q u atl o t h e i n l a yt h i c k n e st o s m i n i m i zsea n d i n gO. u | i n e e a c he n d . H o l d r n g t h e r o u t e r ' sb a s ep l a t ea g a i n stth e e d g e e n t h e t o p w i t ha p e n c i l i;t s h o u l db e e q u i d i s t a n t g u i d ea n do n es t o pb l o c k t, u r no n t h e t o o la n d p l u n g e t h eg r o o v o thebit f r o mt h e e d g e sR . o u tt h e f o u rs i d e so f t h e g r o o v ei n d i v i d u a l l y ,r n t ot h e s t o c k .F e e dt h e b i t ( a b o v eu) n t i lt h e b a s ep l a t ec o n g u r d i n gt h e t o o lw i t h a n L - s h a p eedd g eg u i d ea n d s t o pb l o c k s . t a c t st h e o t h e rs t o pb l o c k ,O n c ea l l t h e c u t sa r e m a d e , square T o s e t u p t h e g u i d e sa, l i g nt h e b i t w i t ht h e c u t t i n gl i n e ,m e a - t h e c o r n e rw s i t ha c h i s e.

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r) Setting theinlayin thegroove the I Cut inlayto lengthto f it in the groove, usingyourtablesawfor shopmadeinlay,or a woodchtselforcommergroove Fortherectangular cialbanding. at the ends cuts 45" miter make shown, pieces. it test-f one Cut and of the inlay pieceat a time,thenspread a littleglue of theinlayandinsertit ontheunderside (right),tapping thestripgently in theslot bandCommercial mallet. witha wooden place with masking held in be ingshould cures. tapeuntiltheadhesive

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theinlay Trimming sandthetoP Oncethegluehasdried, andbring adhesive anyexcess to remove f lushwiththesurface theinlayperfectly inlay,usea of thewood.Forshop-made b e l ts a n d efri t t e dw i t ha 1 2 0 - g r ibt e l t . alongoneinlay forward Movethesander pieceIeft)andpullthesander backwhen youreachtheendof thestrip,overlapping thewidthof the thefirstpassbyone-half of theinuntilthesurfaces belt.Continue layandthetopareflush,thenmoveonto witha theprocess theotherstrips.Repeat (150the to smooth or 18O-grit) finerbelt Sand surface. inlayandthesurrounding byhandwitha sandbanding commercial bandSomemodern ingblock.Becareful: inchthick. ingis lessIhan%o

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HIGHBOY

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shown Themodemreproduction hehighboyoriginatedin 17th page 106 dison photograph in the I CenturyEuropeandwasinof elements plays manytt'aditional lacspiredby theornateChinese gracethe 18th Centurydesign: the importedfor the queredcabinets frrl cabriolelegs,the scrolledpediof itssize, Endishnobilitv.Because mentor crownmolding,theflamethe"highboy-or high chestof and-urnfinials,theflutedquarter in two drawers-wasconstructed columns,andtheshellcarvingand a lowerchestthat suPsections: appliedmoldingadorningthescalporteda tallerchestwith four or loped aprononthelowerchest. moretiers.ThetoPlevelwasfrechapterwillshowyouhow This quentlydividedinto threesmaller thisclassic andconstruct design to drawerssetsideby side. frombuildingthe piece of furniture, styleevolved fu theQueenAnne upperchest(page110)to sawing andclasinto themoreornilmental (Dase less(page legs shaoins thecabriole andshaping sryleduringthe sicalChippendale lowandthen assemblins the and,thenassgmblinq 112) cabinet, Topreventdustfromenteringthe futt.t p*ilf thersth Centu{ the (page.116). is also Attention er chest thebotunderneath areinstalled speciilframes tifihb"y found favorwith afflulike details, finer to the devoted nmdranerinthelowerchat.Thedustshield .n?ro.i.ty in colonialcitieslike the around cockbgl{ing installing construction isabasicframe-and-panel Itritaaapiria, Boston,and New (page crown r.outing 118), drawers sides. scrsuedto theiarcase York.Towaing7 or 8 feethigh,the molding (page124),carvingthe i.foringhigliboy*miaeaiyiuit1j4)t (2ag.el30), thequartel.glp": (page shaping and .a'to inâ&#x201A;Ź.t."g.nt,lofty ceilihgsof themanorhousesof the frnals and upper htghboy't the pagej illustrate two The-foiiowing time,anditsiumerousdraweisweretheperfectsolutionfor piece identified; are the of major The chests. Highboysbecame lower for entertaining'. rt"riititft.rttiJes needed {eatryeg to find outhowto makeandinstall indicated the ha"llmarkof fashionableliving rooirs aid ttreir prices referto thepages Today, eachelement. Thetrendhascontinuedunabated. rosedramatically. butwith careand ahighboyisa challenging.task, cabi- -..Building Philadelphia by therenowned tft. ftigiib"yrpr6duced netm;kersofthe 1700sl.. rrnongthemostsought-after diligenceyoucangleateapieceoffurniturewiththegraceand ancestors. of its200-year-old appeal timeless pieces of antiquefurniture.

theharmony at leftexempffies Thehighboy typiandfluid curves straightlines between Anne-style calof Queen furniture.

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ANATOMYOF A HIGHBOY UPPER CHEST Crown molding ilr:irl. l,-/ij \

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LOWER CHEST

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Bottom.rail

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Knee block (Fqe 117.) Cabriole leq 1 ; t a 4 e1 1 2 )

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THE,UPPE,R ASSE,MBLING CHE,ST lic highbol,'s uppcrchc'sthastu'cr majorconrponcnts: a largccarcase anclan claborate lircetranrethat tits 1,ithi1it. As shorvn1.,.1sl1r, tl.tecarcase cor.rsists of ir top anclbottour,tl'o sicle panels, ancltu'clbackpanclsscparatecl 'l'he corbr.astile-ol mr-rntilt. carcasc luersarejoincdn'ith throLrgh clovctail lssit 26J,anclthebacli. parre ioints(prrgc in rabbets the insidecclgcs cr.rtrror.rncl (prrgc i 1).Thc of thecarcase anclr.r.runtir.r n.r-rntir.r is attachecl to thetop andbotn'ithnrortise-andtonrofthe carcase teuonjoints. Thctracc fl'rrnrc, shorvnfrrce-Lrp belorv auclfacc-clou'n on pageI I 1,isbuiltfronr a top rail,tn'oL-shapccl fi'ontposts,ancl

fl'anrefbr cachticr of cil'arvcrs. r clrau,cr T l l e t o p t r t i li s t l t r t l ' . ' t lr ' . t 6 6 . ' 11t111 . ' crorvnmolcling(prrgc124)nd rosettes (ptrgc128),both of 1'hicharc aclcle cl latc'r. The backtaceof the top rail is qroovecl top,ancl to acceptthecarcase hasa tenoncutin eachendto flt in r.norThcL shape tisesin thetu,ofr-ontposts. thespaccfbr ol'thefl'ontpostscreates (prrge 1,34). The the quarter-colunrns firnt postssitin notches cLLt in thecarcasetop auclbottout. The drrrrver's supportingfl'trnres irrc from railsanclstilesjoined assenrbled

(prryc n'ithmortisr'-ancl-tenons -16J. lx6l1 franrehasan rrclclecl dovetailedslicle (pagc122).Tiranchortheframesto the cArcase, tn'obraces rrrcscren'ecl to thc'top of cachoneanclto thesiclcpanels. The drau'erfl'aurcsarcnotchcdat thc front to accou'uloclate the front postsancl scrcrvecl to thenr.'l'he uppernrost clrarv er franrcsllpports thlecsmalldrau'ers; it f'eatures tu'ocliviclers anclthreeclrau,hasbeen er slicles. Oncethefrrcefr-ame bLrilt, it is simpl,v slipped into thecarctrse(.scc &c/orr') aucltheu scrervc'c'l to thc' sicleofthe carcrsc tliroLrgh thebraces.

DETAIL C()NSTRUCTION (FACE-UP VIEW)

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FACE FRAME (FACE-DOWN VIEW)

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ol'tlrc lrighboy tlratt't'rstlnt lit irtto lltc ltlrr c/ic-sl-s -s.rc11'('rl to tltc sidt' trc tvpictlly sttltportctlbv.litrrrrt's t l t t l raw c r b ott o tt ts t t to l c p a t tt' l s; t l o t't' t tt i l r:d t rttrrt t'-s ii i t' troiIt'd to tItt'.l)'orrrt'. tvitIr rrrott'Irirrs -s/lrfu'-s

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CABRIOLELEGS ()UTTHEIEGS SAWING

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Foat block

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A distinctivefeatureof QueenAnne style,the tapering,curyedcabrioleleg haslongbeenconsidered a challenge But itsgracefullines for cabinetmakers. canbecut easilyon thebandsawand smoothed with handtools.

theleg 1 Designing I Makea template plywood froma pieceof %-inch or hardboard cutto thesame lengthandwidthasyourlegblanks. Thedesign shownabove at topwillyieldan attractive, stable, andwell-proportioned leg,butyoucanalterthepattern to suit yourproject or copythedesign of an existing legthatappeals to you.Begindrawing thelegbyoutlining thepostblock.Makeits length equalto thewidthof thelower railthatwillbeattached to it, plustheheightof thelowerchest's sidepanels. The widthof thepostblockshouldbeadequate to accepttherailtenon.Later,it will be (page116)to acceptthequarter notched columns of the lowerchest.Next,sketch thepadandthetoe,thenthefrontof thelegfromthetoeto theankleusinga french point,thediameter curve;at its narrowest of theankleshouldbeabouttwo-fifths thestockwidth.Moveonto theknee,sketching a gentlecurvefromthepostblock to thefrontedgeof thetemplate about2 to 3 inchesbelowtheblock.Thenjointhe kneeto theanklewitha relatively straight line.Complete theoutlineat thebackof the leg,fromtheankleto the bottomof the postblock(above). Experiment untilyou havea satisfactory design.

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r') Transferring thedesign I rcne legblanks C u to u ty o u rt e m p l a toen a b a n ds a w , outto the marked thensandtheedges l i n e .H o l dt h et e m p l a tfel a to n o n eo f facesof thelegblank,making theinside and surethattheendsof thetemplate t h eb l a n ka r ea l i g n eadn dt h a t h eb a c k of theoostblockis f lushwiththeinside edgeof theblank.Tracealongtheedges . urn o f t h et e m p l a t eo o u t l i n teh el e g T theprocedure theblankoverandrepeat on the otherinsidefacetight).At this point,somewoodworkers prefer to prepare the legsandrarlsforthejoinerybefore to clampand cutting theleg.(lt iseasier legblank, in a rectangular cuta mortise forexample, thanto carryoutthesame p r o c e d u r oe ns a l e gw i t hp r o n o u n c e d cutthe leg Otherwoodworkers curves.) firstandthendotheloinery.

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oneface Cutting Setthe leeblankon the bandsaw facoutlines tablewithoneof themarked of thelegpointing ingupandthebottom thesawblade awayfromyou.Aligning justto thewaste line sideof themarked forthebackof theleg,feedthestockinto Turnoffthesawabouthalfway theblade. theworkpiece. thecutandremove through t h es a m el i n ef r o mt h e T h e nc u ta l o n g thewaste detaching opposite end.Toavord piecefromtheblankandlosing themarked face,stopthecut outline ontheadjacent a about%inchfromthefirstkerf,leaving thetwocuts.Retract shortbridgebetween thencutalong thelinefor theworkpiece, thefrontof the leg(left),againleaving thewastewoodfrom to prevent bridges fallingaway.

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Completing thecutsand severing thebridges Turnoverthe blanksothatthemarked o u t l i n oe n i t sa d j a c e n s itd ei s f a c i n g up. C u ta l o n gt h em a r k e ldi n e sb, e g i n n i n g withthosealongthefrontof theleg,then theback(above). Thistime,complete ihe cuts,lettingthewastefall away. Then r o t a t teh eb l a n ka n dc u tt h r o u gthh e bridges leftduringyourfirstcuts(right).

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SHAPING THELEGS thepad 1 Forming I Usea compass to outline thecircular padonthebottom of theleg.Thensecure thelegin a vise,withthebottom endfacingup,andusea backsaw to cut away t h eb u l ko f t h ew a s t e s u r r o u n d itnhge outline. Maketwoseries of cuts,starting withfourcutsstraight intotheendof the l e ga t t h ec o r n e r tsh, e ns a w i nagr o u n d theendof the legto severthecorners. Next,secure thelegin a barclamp,lock t h ec l a m pi n a v i s ea, n du s ea p a t t e r n maker's raspto roundthecorners of the p a dC . o n t i n uuen t i l t h ep a di s c i r c u l a r (right), rotating the legin theclampas necessary. Usea fileto smooth thepad.

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r) Shaping thefoot theclampin theviseso Z- Reposition thepatthefootistilteddown.Holding raspat anangleof approxternmaker's 45" to theleg,beginbyshaping imately fromthebottomup hbove). thecontour thelegin theclampasnecesRotate sarysothatyoucanshapethefootall thesurface Smooth thewayaround. file,then flatbastard usinga double-cut f i n i s ht h ej o bw i t hs a n d p a p eurs,i n g papers. progressively f iner-grit

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theknee andsmoothing Shaping legand thecabriole Tof inishshaping leftbytheband anyblemishes to remove of theknee thesurface sawblade,smooth witha rasp following witha spokeshave, Holding thespokeshave andsandpaper. of a curved withbothhandsat thebottom edgeof the leg,pushthetoolslowlyaway (left).Make fromyou,cuttinga thinshaving passes, working of overlapping a series is smooth. withthegrainuntilthesurface Turnthelegin thebarclampto cleanup Usethe raspto smooth theotheredges. cannotreach. an areathatthespokeshave thejobwithsandpaper. Complete

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ASSEMBLING THE LOWERCHEST

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t ncethecabriole lessarecompleted and the cavitie-'s for tl-recluart c r c o l L r r t t ri lt rse r o u t e di n l l r e p o s t blocks,thelou,erchestctrnbegluedup. Thechest-sholvn in thephotoou page 107-is madeup of four legs,trvoside panels, trvobackpanels, bottomrailsat the front and back,i'Lndtu,o drau,er

frames.Thebottomdrau,erf}antecontainsdustpanelsandisdividedinto sectionsfor threedrau,ers. Likethedraler fiiules of theupperchest,thetop frante features a dovetailed dralverslide.(The threesmaillowerdr;ru,els slidervellrvithout the aid of a s1ide.) Thefiarrestrre screrved to bracesthat trreattached to

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thesidepanels. Thelegsaregrooved to accepttl-reentirethickness of theback panelsandrabbets in thesidepanels. Theleesalsofbature nortisesthatrnate nith tenor.rs cut in thebottonrrails.As lr,ithtl-reupperchest, thebackpanelsirre separated bv a nr.urtin.Oncethelou,er chestis gluedup,kneeblocksarefashionedandattached to thelegs(pngcI 17). Cockbeading arround the dralers and the shellcarvirlgandappliedmolding on the bottontrail areaddecllater.To complete thechest,thequartercolnrnns aretnmedandinstalled in thelegnotchesand,finall1,, a moldedfl'ameis attachedto thetopeclee of thechest. The f}amelvill conceirl the seantrvhenthe upperchestis setin place.

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HIGHBOY

BL()CKS KNEE ANDM()UNTING MAKING 'l

thekneeblocks Oesigning whichlointhecurves I Thekneeblocks, of thelegsandbottomrails,aredesigned For andcut muchlikethelegsthemselves. placea prece of stiffcardboard a template, thelegandadjoinbetween in thecorner linethatconingrailanddrawa contour Thesametemplate nectsthetwopieces. Transcanbeusedforallthekneeblocks. f e rt h e l i n et o a w o o db l a n kt h a ti s a s widerandlarger thickastheleg,slightly f ill. Place theblank it must the area than face leg so its outstde rail and the against is flushwiththeouterpartof thelegand the lineontheblankusing drawa second legas a guide(right).Thegrainof the to thatoftheleg. beparallel blockshould on the bandsawasvou out the block Saw (page 113). legs did the

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r) Mounting thekneeblocks L Onceall thekneeblockshavebeen gluethemup oneat cutandsmoothed, of adhesive to a time.Applya thinlayer surfaces, thenholdthe thecontacting pieces witha clamp.Usewood in place padsto protect the stockanddirect pressure themto byshaping clamping the legs(left).Driuea f it f lushagainst thekneeblockandinto screwthrough thelegforaddedreinforcement.

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COCKBEADING Cockbeadingis a rounded molding that extends beyond thefront of the highboy and frames the drawer openings.It is set into rabbetscut along the inside edgesof the openings.In addition to providing decoration, cockbeading protects the edgesof veneereddrawer fronts.

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MAKING ANDINSTALLING COCKBEADING thedrawer openings 1 Preparing I Usea routerfittedwitha %-inch oiloted rabbeting bit to cut therabbets around thedrawer openings. Setthedepthof cut pieceof %at%inch,thenattacha square inchclearacrylic to thetool'sbaseplate (inset). Makethisauxiliary sub-base large enough to keepthetoolflatandstable during theoperation. Setthecheston its backon a worksurface. Starting at the corner of onedrawer opening, restthe routeronthechestwiththebitlustclear of theworkpiece. Gripthetoolfirmlywith bothhands andturnit on,guiding thebit intothewood.Oncethe pilotbearing buttsagainst thestock,feedthe router toward theadjacent corner, keeping the sub-base flal (right).Continue around theopening untilyoureachyourstarting point.Cutrabbets around theotherdrawer openings thesameway,thensquare thecorners witha chisel.

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r) Making thecockbeading fromlenoughcockbeading L trttaie cut to fit in alltherabbets stock inchlhick is bestshaped in step1. Thecockbeading onthetablesaw.(Do cutters usingmolding cut pieces stock;instead, notusenarrow wideandthen thatareat least4 inches an fromthem.)Install ripthecockbeading woodfenceandf it themolding auxiliary onyourtablesaw.Raise headwithcutters theheadintothewoodfenceto notchit. theworkto secure Usea featherboard piece;screwit to a shimsothatpressure e ft h e w i l lb ea p p l i eadg a i n st ht em i d d l o with Makea fewtestpasses workpiece. scraostockto setthewidthof cut.Forthe firstpass,centertheboardedgeovera cuttheface ter,thenbuttthefenceagainst of thestock.Holdtheboardflushagainst thefenceandthetableasyoufeedit into withdifferthe cutters(right).Experiment s n t i tl h ee d g eo f t h e g idthu e n tc u t t i n w both thenshape rounded, stockis properly Onceall your edgesof eachworkpiece. a ripblade install stockhasbeenmilled, from onthesawandcutthecockbeading to proit wideenough making theboards, openings trudebyI inchfromthedrawer whengluedintotherabbets.

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thecockbeading Q Mounting miterto length, .J Cutthecockbeading ingtheendswiththetablesawora backto cutand sawandmiterbox.lt iseasiest f i t o n ep i e c ea t a t i m e ,m a k i nsgu r ey o u of endswiththecorners alignthemitered a littleglueon the Spread the rabbets. andinsertonestripat surfaces contacting in placewtth thepieces a time,securing (/eff,). at 6-inchintervals clamps spring

119


DRAWERS MAKING THEDRAWERS

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r I Thehighboy'sdrawersexemplifyclassic cabinetmaking techniques. Thecorners are joinedwith throughdovetails and theend grain of the tail boardsis thenhidden with a falsefront. A dovetailedrunner attachedto the bottomglidesalonga matingslidefastenedto theframe.

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joints thedovetail 1 Cutting I Sizethedrawer partsto fit theopenings in thechests, then routthedovetails, cuttingthepinsin thefrontandbackpieces andthetailsin thesides. A setof commercial templates like theoneshown onthispagemakes thejobsimple andensures accurate results. Attach thepinandtailtemplates to backup boards following themanufacturer's instructions. Secure one of thedrawer sidesend-up in a vise.Clamp thebackup board to thestock,making suretherearehalttails at either end;the template andbackup board shouldbeflushagainst theworkpiece.Protecting thestockwitha woodpad,butta stopblock against thedrawer sideandclampit to thesupport boardto h e l py o ua l i g ns u b s e q u ecnutt s .I n s t a tl h l ed o v e t abi li t a n d guidesupplied template withthejig andcutthetails,feeding thetoolin andoutof thetemplate slots(above). Cuttheremaini n gt a i l st h es a m ew a y T . h e nu s eo n eo f t h ec o m p l e t et a dil boards to outlinethe pinson onedrawer frontor back.Securethepinboardin theviseandclampthepintemplate to t h es t o c ka, l i g n i ntgh ej i g f i n g e rw s i t ht h em a r k e od u i l i n e . I n s t a lt lh es t r a i g hbti ts u p p l i ewdi t ht h ej i g a n dr o u to u tt h e wastebetween the pins(left).Repeat at theotherendandfor theremaining frontsandbacks.

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r) Preparing thedrawers panels Z to,bottom parts andclamp of eachdrawer it the Dry-f t h ec l a m p s o f h eb a r s , l i g n i nt g t h eu n i t a pieces; remember withthefrontandback thestockwithwoodpads.Then to protect groove forthe bottompanelalong routa with Fita router of thedrawer. theinside the mount and cutter slotting a three-wing to height cutting toolin a table.Adlustthe runners of thedrawer leave thethickness thegroove. youwillmakein step3 below on up thetable right-side Setthedrawer at themiddleof onedrawer and,starting side,feedthestockintothecutter.Keepi n gt h ep i l o tb e a r i nbgu t t e da g a i n st ht e w o r k o i e cfee,e dt h ed r a w ecrl o c k w i s e (right).Continue pivoting onthe thedrawer point. your you starting tableuntil returnto

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andslides runners thedrawer Q Making highboy in the thedrawers rJ Mounting for components twoaddrtional requires a dovetailed with a runner eachdrawer: groove bottomanda matchonthedrawer therunner Prepare ingslidefortheframe. drawer long as the f irst;it shouldbeas gap the as sidesandthesamethickness panel the bottom and thebottom between in the Tocutthegroove edgeof thedrawer. router and bit in a install a dovetail runner, cutting Set the mountthetoolin a table. thickness. therunner's depthat one-half groove in the Adjustthefenceto center passes rout it, to andmaketwo therunner (/eff). stock usinga pushblockto feedthe slideonthetablesaw, Makethematchtng asthickastherunner. one-half using stock asthe to thesameangle Adjust theblade passes groove, thenmaketwo sidesof the theripfence to cuttheslide,positioning sideof thebladesothe ontheleft-hand awayfromthefence. edgeisangled cutting Feedthestockusinga pushstick(insef).

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Gluing upthedrawers F o rt h e b o t t o mp a n e lo f e a c hd r a w e r c, u t a p i e c eo f % i n c hp l y w o o d t o f i t t h e o p e n i n ga, d d i n gt h e d e p t ho f t h e g r o o v etso i t s l e n g t ha n dw i d t h .D r y - f i a t n d c l a m pt h e d r a w e r againp , osition t h e r u n n e ra c r o s tsh e b o t t o mp a n e l a, n d m a r k t h e s i d e so f t h e r u n n e r ' sd o v e t a i l egdr o o v eo n t h e d r a w e r b a c k .D i s a s s e m btlhee d r a w ear n d u s ea c h i s e tl o e x t e n dt h e

gd r o o vteh r o u gthh ed r a w ebr a c k l.f y o uw i s ht o dovetaile installdrawer stops(page123),prepare themnow.Thenglue upthedrawer asyoudidthechests, adding someadhesive to attach therunners to thedrawer bottoms. Notched clamping p a d sw i l le n s u rteh a tp r e s s u ri seo n l ya p p l i e tdo t h et a i l boards(above).

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t I I I I I n s t a l l i ntgh ed r a w esr l i d e s R r - , 1O n c et h e a d h e s i v e h a sd r i e d .s l i o e a c hd r a w esr l i d ei n t oi t s r u n n e or n t h e d r a w e rb o t t o ma n d i n s t a l tl h e d r a w e ri n t h e h i g h b o yM . a r kt h e l o c a t i o no f t h e s l i d eo n t h e f r o n ta n d b a c ko f t h e d r a w e r f r a m e t, h e nr e m o v e t h e d r a w e rR . emove t h e s l i d ea n dc e n t e ri t o n t h e f r a m eb e t w e e nt h e a l i g n m e nmt a r k sA . p p l ya t h i n l a y e ro f g l u eo n t h e c o n t a c t i n g surfaces a n ds e c u r teh e s l i d ei n p l a c ew i t hc l a m p s (right).Oncethe clampshavebeentighte n e d ,s c r e wt h e s l i d et o t h e f r o n ta n d b a c ko f t h e f r a m e .

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lltllllllllllllllllilllllllljllllllllllllllllllllltllllllllllltlll Ill1 5HO?TI? Adjuotable \\ drawer otop I To keepa drawer from beinqpulled riqhNout, allach a oimVle6No?Io trhe frame.Deforegluingup cul a \-inchthe drawer, aquarenot'chin the mid' dlb of the tup edgeof the drawerback.1awNheeIoP from ecrap,makinqiNlonqerand narrowerNhan1 inch.Mountt'he etropNolhe boVt'omof Nheframe or 7anelunderwhichNhedrawer wll'elide.LineiNup wibhIhe not'chin I'hedrawerback.)crewNhe looeeenou7heo f'heeloV can be otop in place,leavinqNhefaotener turn Nhelto? 60 lhaL Nhelong rot afed, Whenvou installthe drawer, Ihrou7h ie paralleliothe drawereides.Oncet'heoI'op'?ao6ee ed,ae back' Io Nhe io lonq edge it'e r,hEnolch,NurniN90" eo ?arallel

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thefalsefronts Installing Attacha falsefrontto eachdrawer theendgrainof thedrawer to conceal faceupona work Setthedrawer sides. anddrivetwobradsintothe surface theirheadsprofront,leaving drawer Makesurethebradsarenot truding. pullwill be wherethedrawer located and thensnipofftheheads installed, Cutthefalsefront thedrawer. reinstall position to therightsize,thencarefuly Once it overthe drawerfront(above). youaresatisfied withtheplacement, endsof the press f irmly;thepointed intothe willpunchimpressions brads thedrawbackof thefalsefront.Remove alignerandgluethefalsefrontin place, withthebrads. ingtheimpressions


CRO\ArI\T MOLDINGS

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t I I I I I I The crown molding-or pediment-on eachsideof the highboyfront is actuallybuilt up front four separatepiecesof wood. The brokenswan-neckface molding that curvesupwards from thefront corner to the rosetteis ntadefrom two piecesof molding glued together.With the hetp of a template cut on the band sow,the moldingpiecesare shapedon a pin router (page 125). The moldingson both sidesofthe highboy,calledthe returns,also consistoftwo piecesglued together.They are installed with dovetailedslidesthat fit into matchinggroovesin the upperchest(page 127).

A COTTECTION OFCROWN M()TDING STYLES

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t I I Triangular pediment

Latticed broken pediment

Eroken pediment

5arolled broken pediment

124

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M()LDINGS FACE 'l

thefirstpieceof molding Shaping I F o ra t e m o l a t et.r a c et h e c o n t o u r s o f t h e u p p e r a i lo n t oa p i e c eo f % - i n c h p l y w o o dA. d d a c u t t i n gl i n et o r e p r e s e n t the bottomedgeof the f irstpieceof molding (inset),then sawthe templatein two a l o n gt h e l i n ea n dd i s c a rtdh e b o t t o mh a l .f o n t h e s t o c ky o uw i l l O u t l i n et h e t e m p l a t e usefor the moldingandcut it to size.Next, screwthe moldingblankatopthetemplate, m a k i n gs u r et h e f a s t e n e rwsi l l b e c l e a ro f t h e r o u t e rb i t . I n s t a lal p i l o t e dp a n e l - r a i s i n gb i t a n dm o u n t h e r o u t e irn a p i n r o u t themanufacturer's i n ga t t a c h m e nFt .o l l o w for settingthe depthof cut,then directions p l a c et h e s t a r t e rp i n i n t h e t a b l eo n t h e infeedsideof the bit.Asyoufeedthemoldi n gb l a n ki n t ot h e b i t , b r a c et h e t e m p l a t e againstthe pin (right),keepingthe moldi n g b l a n ka g a i n stth e b i t ' sp i l o tb e a r i n g . M a k el i g h tc u t s ,u s i n ga s m a n yp a s s eass to reachyourfinaldepth.Repeat necessary to the processwith the templatereversed s h a p et h e m o l d i n fgo rt h eo t h e rs i d eo f t h e c h e s tf r o n t .T h e ns h a p et h e s t d em o l d i n g s u s i n gt h e s a m es e t u pa n da s t r a i g htte m p l a t eo f t h e s a m et h i c k n e s s .

r)

d i e c eo f m o l d i n g S h a p i ntgh es e c o n p L m " p i e c eo f m o l d i n gt h a t i s g l u e dt o t h e f i r s to n et o b u i l du p t h e f a c em o l d i n g i s s h a p e db y t h e s a m ep r o c e s su s e dI n t h e f i r s t p i e c ef r o mt h e s t e pl . U n s c r e w t e m p l a t et ,h e nd r a wa c u t t i n gl i n ef o r t h e s e c o n dp i e c e o, f f s e t t i ntgh e l i n eb y t h e w i d t ho f t h e f i r s to i e c ep l u s%i n c h .B a n d sawalongthe mark (left).Cul and shape t h e s e c o n dp i e c eo f m o l d i n ga s y o ud i d t h e f i r s t :C u t i t t o w i d t h ,a t t a c ht h e p i e c e t o t h e t e m p l a t ea, n ds h a p ei t o n t h e p i n r o u t i n ga t t a c h m e n t - t h itsi m e ,u s i n ga r o u n d - o vbeirt .O n c et h e m o l d i n gh a sb e e n i t f r o mt h et e m p l a t a en d s h a p e du, n s c r e w s a wi t t o f i n a lw i d t h .

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Preparing thefacemoldings Q r-,f for installation Gluethe partsof the facemoldingtogether a n dh o l dt h e ms e c u r e lwy i t hc l a m p sO . nce the adhesive hascured,eachpieceof face m o l d i n gm u s tb e c u t a t o n ee n dt o m e e t t h e s i d em o l d i n ga n da t t h e o t h e re n dt o f it aroundthe rosette.Forthe side moldi n g - e n ds,e t u p y o u rt a b l es a wf o r a c o m p o u n dc u t b y a n g l i n tgh e b l a d et o 4 5 ' a n d t h e m i t e rg a u g et o t h e a n g l ef o r m e db e t w e e nt h e s t r a i g h e t d g eo f t h e m o l d i n g a n d t h e s i d eo f t h e c a r c a s w e h e nt h e . l a m pt h ef a c e molding i s h e l di n p l a c eC m o l d i n gt o t h e m i t e rg a u g ep, r o t e c t i n g t h e s t o c kw i t ha w o o dp a d .S i n c et h e t o p o f t h e m o l d i n gi s s t r a i g hat n dt h e b o t t o m i s c u r v e dy, o uw i l l h a v et o f e e dt h e s t o c k w i t hw h a tw o u l dn o r m a l lby e t h e t r a i l i n g e n d f i r s t .H o l dt h e g a u g ea n d m o l d i n g securely, and pushthe stockintothe cut, k e e p i n gy o u rh a n d sw e l l c l e a ro f t h e blade (left).Then band saw the waste (marked w i t hX s ) .

INSTALIING THECR()WN M()TDING thefacemolding 1 Installing I O n c ea l l t h em o l d i n ghsa v eb e e n shaped andcutto length, install thequar(page134).Thenclampthe tercolumns s i d em o l d i n ign p l a c eu s i n gp r o t e c t i v e woodpads.Next,mountthefacemolding t o t h er a i la sy o ud i dt h ef a l s ef r o n t so f (page123),usingbradsto thedrawers alignthe slock(right). Themitered endof thefacemolding shouldrestflushagainst t h ee n do f t h es i d em o l d i n g G.l u ea n d clamp t h ef a c em o l d i nt go t h er a i l .

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r) Preparing theupperchest L torthesidemolding to thechest tsattached Thesidemolding g o v e t aj iol i n t o a l l o wt h e w i t ha s l i d i n d because andcontract carcase to exoand o f c h a n g ei n s h u m i d i twy i t h o ubt r e a k t n g jointsonthefrontcorners, The themitered groove is cut in thechestside dovetailed bit,then witha router.Installa dovetail edgeguideto the attacha commercial tool'sbaseolateandscrewa woodextenits sionto theguidefenceto increase Setthecheston itsside surface. bearing andplacethe routeron top.Adjustthe willbecut edgeguidesothatthegroove joint. With the bit corner below the lust clearof thechest,startat the backand intothesidepanfeedthecuttingedges flush theedgeguideextension el, pulling the Continue toward against thetoppanel. thecut frontof thechest(right),stopping point. a littlepastthehalfway

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thesidemolding Q Installing produce r-,1To a slideto matchthe groove thedovetail bit in thechest,leave in a table, mountthetool in therouter, along andshape theslidein twopasses rip the slide Then theedgeof a board. Position thesidemolding fromtheboard. against thechestandmarkthesidesof groove onthebackof themolding. the in a vise face-down themolding Secure andscrewtheslideto theback(inseil, glue themarks. Spread it between aligning andon endof themolding onthemitered of itsbackface,then thefirst2 inches clampsecurely. slideit in place(left)and

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ROSETTES Rosettes are an onnnterttalfeatw'e cotl1tltot1 to rttartyftu'ninre styles. Theycttrrtnkerrtanyslnpesarrd be producedin variottswttys.The concentric circleso.fthe rosetteot left h l e r eI r t n t ( do r rn l o t l r e ,c r c n t i r rng pattem thnt flowsseanilessly f'orrt the graceftl cLn'ves o.fthe crown nnLlirg.

MAKING THER()SETTES

Turning the rosettes C u tt h e r o s e t t eb l a n k st o f i t o n t h e e n do f t h e f a c em o l d i n g sA.t t a c ha b l a n kt o t h e c e n t e ro f a l a t h ef a c e p l a t et h, e nm o u n t h e p l a t eo n t h e m a c h i n eA. d j u s t h e t o o lr e s ts o t h e t o p f a c eo f t h es c r a p e r y owui l l u s ei s l e v ew l i t ht h e c e n t e r otfh e b l a n kT. h e r e s ts h o u l db e a s c l o s et o t h e w o o da s p o s s i b lw e i t h o utto u c h i n g r t . S w i t c ho n t h e l a t h e .H o l d i n gt h e t i p o f a r o u n d - e nsdc r a p e r

a g a i n stth e b l a n k ,r o u n do v e rt h e r o s e t t e 'osu t s i d ee d g e ,a n d t h e n c u t t h e c o n c e n t r i rci n g so n i t s f a c e ( a b o v e )H. o l dt h e s c r a p ebr l a d eo n t h e t o o lr e s tt o k e e pi t s t e a d yC. u to n t h e l e f t h a n ds i d eo f t h e b l a n kt o p r e v e nt th e s c r a p efrr o mk i c k i n gu p . 0 n c e t h e r i n g sh a v eb e e nc a r v e d r, e m o v et h e t o o l r e s ta n d s m o o t ht h e f a c eo f t h e b l a n kw i t h f i n e - g r ist a n d p a p e(ri n s e t ) .

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THEROSETTES M(lUNTING

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thefacemoldings 1 Preparing I fortherosettes havebeenturned,use Oncebothrosettes therounded endof the a gouge to shape moldings sothatthecontacting surfaces fit snugly together. Settheupperchest face-up andholdthe on a worksurface gougeuprightasyoupareawaywood fromthe molding(left)untilit f its f lush against therosette.

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r) Gluing uptherosettes Z. Position eachrosettein turnon the chesisothat itswoodgrainrunsin the This samedirection asthefacemolding. willcreatethe impression thatthetwo piece.Markthe partsareonecontinuous then rosette whereit touches themolding, surfaces applysomeglueto thecontacting Useoneclampto secure of bothpieces. therosettein placeandasecond(right) or backto keepit fromslidingforward ward.Protect thestockwithwoodoads.

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FINIALS SHAPING THEPOMMEL

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Traditionallyusedto decoratethecornersoffurniture,Jiniak takea variety offor ms, including Jlame-and- urn, acorn,pineapple, andplume.The above incorporates twoshapes, finial aflame-and-urnon allutedpommel base.Thisexampleisproducedfrom thebottomup: First,theflutesof the pommelaregroovedon a routertable (right),and thentheflameand urn areturnedon a lathe(pagel3l). FinalIy,thefinishedshapeof theJlameis carved byhand(page133).

Cutting theflutes Makea blankforeachfinialthat is slightly larger thanthefinished dimensions. Mark thetopandbottom of thepommel onthe blankanduseXsto indicate thewaste section below thepommel. Usethedadoheadin a tablesawto reduce theblank's thickness between thetwomarks. Setthecuttingdepthat % inch.Feedtheblank passes withthemitergauge, cuttingawaythewaste withoverlapping on eachface (inseil.Theflutesarecut witha coreboxbit in a table-mounted router.SetthecuttingdepthaI%inch.Alignthepommel overthebitforthefirstsetof outside flutes andlockthefenceagainst theblank.Toensure thatallthefluteswillbethesame length, clampa stopblockto thefenceat eachendof theblank. Turnontherouter andlower theblankontothebitwithitstrailing endagainst thestopblockclosest to youanditsedgeagainst thefence.Feedtheblankuntilit contacts theotherstop block.Lifttheblank, thenrotateit andrepeat theprocess untilonesetof outside flutesis finished. Reposition thefenceonceto routthemiddleflutesandagainfor thesecond setof outsidefluleshbovd.

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THEFLAME.AND.URN TURNING thecylinder 1 Turning beI Cutoff mostof thewastesection leaving a couple of inches lowthepommel, fora roundtenon.Mounttheblankona latheandadjustthetoolrestascloseto aspossible without touching theworkpiece gouge to roundthe it. Usea roughing-out thepommel. corners of theblankabove Turnonthe latheandholdthetio of the gouge blank.Begin against therotating w i t ht h et i p o f t h eg o u g tei l t e du p ,t h e n gradually raisethehandle untilthebeve l u n d etrh et i p i s r u b b i nagg a i n st ht e stockandthecuttingedgeis slicinginto it. Workfromtheright-hand endof the thepommel, leaving a square blanktoward the pommel(right).Keep shoulder above thetoolat thesameangleto theworkpiecethroughout thecut.Continue until andsmooth. theblankis cylindrical

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r) Shaping theflame whileyoumarkthebottom endsof L L"uu"theblankrotating cuta flame with a Use a skew chisel to theurnandthe oencil. flame flame and urn, then begin shaping the notchseparating the (above). gouge process for The is the same as the witha spindle fixed instead of holdingthe tool at a angle cylinder in step1, but thetip to to theblank, sweep it fromsideto sidewhileangling flame has the desired shaoe. cuta contour. Continue untilthe

Shaping theurn gouge asyoudidtheflame. Shape theurnwitha spindle lowerend Thenusea skewchiselto cuta notchdefiningthe firmlyagainst of theurn.Pressing thechisel thetoolrest,hold theshortpointof thetip against theblankto cuttheV-shaped notch; keepthebevel onthebackof thebladerubbing against Thenusethe skew thestockto helpcontrolthecut (above). gouge to shape beads below theurn. chiselandspindle

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Turning thetenonand smoothing thefinial U s ea p a r t i n gt o o lt o t u r n a % - i n c h - l o n g r o u n dt e n o nb e l o wt h e p o m m e ll,e a v i n a g t h i nd i s ko f w o o da g a i n st th e h e a d s t o cokf . h e nr e m o v teh e t o o lr e s ta n d t h e l a t h eT s m o o t ht h e s u r f a c e o f t h ef i n i a lw i t hs a n d p a p e ru, s i n gp r o g r e s s i v fei n l ye rg r i t s .F o l d t h e p a p e tr o r e a c ha r o u n dt h e b e a d sa n d (lefil.Io f inishsmoothing intocrevices the p i e c eh , o l da h a n d f uol f w o o ds h a v i n g s u n d e rt h e r o t a t i n fgi n i a la n d a l l o wi t t o r u ba g a i n st th e s h a v i n g C s .o m b i n ew di t h y o u rs k i no i l s ,t h e s h a v i n gwsi l l i m p a r at s m o o t hf i n i s ht o t h e s u r f a c eO. n c et h e j o b i s d o n e t, u r no f f a n du n p l u gt h e l a t h e b. u t l e a v et h e b l a n km o u n t e d o n t h et o o l .

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THEFLAME CARVING

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theDattern 1I Sketchins -

. a r ka I T o h e l py o uc a r v et h ef l a m e m p r i do - i n c hs o u a r eosn t h ee n t i r es u r " 'f b " * f a c eo f t h e f l a m es e c t i o nT. h e nd r a wi n f o u re q u a l l sy p a c e sd p i r alli n e sf r o mt h e h n i t n mt o t h e t o n n f t h e s e c t i o nt o d e l i n e a t et h e h o l l o w ys o uw i l l c a r v ei n s t e p2 : t h e l i n e ss h o u l di n t e r s e cotp p o s i t ceo r nersof eac.hsotnre (ripht). L v

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r) Caruing theflame gougeto Usea narrower Z . R e m o vt eh ef i n i a fl r o mt h e l a t h ea n ds a wo f f t h ew a s t e youcanreachthe entiresurface, eachhollow(above, definedridgebetween d i s kb e l o w t h et e n o nT. h e nc l a m pt h ef i n i atl o a w o r ks u r f a c e ,carvea sharply thehol- right).\Norkf romthe bottomto thetopof thef lame,bringCarve to thebenchtop. usingshimsto holdit parallel o u tt h et o pe n dt o r e i n ge a c hr i d g et o a p o i n tT. h e nh o l l o w witha starttng lowsbetween thegridlineswithtwogouges, to thewoodgrain m o v et h e h o l el e f tb yt h e l a t h e 'tsa i l s t o cakn ds m o o t thh e wide-blade toolGbove,/eff).Workparallel f l a m ew i t hs a n d p a p e r . h ef i n i a sl ot h a t a n dr e - c l a mt p a s m u c ha s p o s s i b l reo; t a t e

MO U N T I T NH GEF IN IA L S Gluing thefinialstothechest Foreachfinial,borea holeintothetopof bitthesamediamthechestwitha soade the eterasthetenononthefinial.Locate q u a r t e r c o l u m n h o l ed i r e c t layb o v teh e (page134).Thiswillcreate impression the piece. andfinialarea single thatthecolumn glue sides of Spread onthetenonandthe (left) place the hole,thenfit thefinialin U s ea c l a m pt o h o l di t i n p o s i t i ounn t i l cures. theadhesive

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QUARTERCOLUMNS MAKING ANDINSTATTING THEOUARTER COTUMNS thecolumns 1 Making I Cuta blankseveral inches longer than thef inished lengthof thecolumns, and wideandthickenough forthenumber of quarter youneed. columns Ripthe blank i n t oq u a r t e r jso, i n tt h e i n s i d seu r f a c e s of thepieces, thenglueandclampthem backtogether withnewspaper in between (inset, youto pull top).Thiswillenable thecolumns aparteasily. Oncetheglueis dry,mount theblankona lathe.Marktwo lineson theblankforthe lengthof the columnandindicate thewastewithXs (inset,bottom). Drivescrews throughthe wastesections to holdthequarters together.Adjusta setof outside calipers to the desired diameter of thecolumn, thenturn theblankintoa cylinder asyoudidforthe finials(pagel3l). Periodically turnoff thelatheandusethecalioers to checkthe diameter oftheblank(right).Onceyouhave reduced theblankto thecorrect diameter, turntwobeadsat eachendusinga skew gouge. chiselanda fingernail Thencut theflutesintheblank, eitherbyhandusing a gougeor withtherouterandjig shown on page135.

Separating andinstalling thecolumns Onceallthefluteshavebeenmade, cut awaythewasteon theendsof theblank.Thenusea woodchisel quarter to prytheglued-up columns apart.Holding theblankupright on a worksurface, workthechiseltip intoa seamontheendof thestock. Pushthebladedeeper intotheseam (left)untilthe blankseparates in half. Prythe halvesintoquarters, thenusea scraper to cleantheglue a n dn e w s p a pfer or mt h ec o l u m n s . Toinstall thecolumns onthechest, spread someglueon theirinside surfaces andclampthemin place.

Fluted quarter columnsadd a strong visualframework to the highboy.

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JIGFORFTUTING A ROUTER.LATHE qUARTER COTUMNS jigshown you below, Withthebox-like column canroutflutesin a quarter onthelathe. blankwhileit is mounted Cutthepartsof thejig from%-inch plywood, forthetop,whichis except The clearacrylic. madefrom%-inch jig should be longandwideenough therouterandhighenough io support thecolumn to holdthetooljustabove blankwhenthejig bottomrestson the lathebed.Oncethetop,bottom, addtwo andsidesareassembled, to makethejig more vertical braces rigid.Restthejig onthelathebed.

piloted fluf a double-bearing Install drilla bit clearingbit in yourrouter, thejig top,and anceholethrough screwthetool'sbaseplateto thejig. so Theroutershouldbe positioned thecolumn thebitwillliealongside blankwhenthejig is used.Next,mark cuttinglinesfortheflutesontheblank, thenmounttheblankonthe lathe. durBesureall toolsareunplugged ingsetup.Adjustthecuttingdepth onthe routersothe bit is aligned withthecuttinglineat themidpoint a handscrew of theblank.Tighten around thelathedriveshaftto keep Clampstopblocks it fromrotating.

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to the lathebedsothatall theflutes willbethesamelength. one Tousethejig,buttit against stopblock,turnon therouterand pushon thesideof thejig to feed 0ncethepilots thebit intotheblank. thestock,slidethe areflushagainst jig alongthelathebeduntilit contactstheotherstopblock.Keepthe pilotspressed against the stock asyourouttheflute.Turnoff the and remove the handscrew router, rotatethe blankby handto align the nextcuttinglinewiththe bit, wu. t a n dr e i n s t atlhl eh a n d s c r eC flules(below). the remaining


APPLIEDSCULPTURES

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Scallopshells,stylizedsunburstsand fans werepopularcarvingsappliedto and Chippendale QueenAnne,Georgian, furniturethroughoutthe18thCentury. Carvedby hand,decorativemotifslike theoneat right werecommonly found on theapronsof highboys.Theywere alsousedto adornthekneesof cabriole legsand thefronts of centraldrawers.

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A SAMPLING OFFANANDSHEttMOTIFS

t I I I Queen Anne ecallop ahell

QueenAnne fan

Re1encyflower

Chippendaleeaallop shell

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SHELL A SCALLOP ANDAPPLYING MAKING

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theshellsurface 1 Sculpting the of thewoodgrain.Thentransfer in thedirection working then full-size ona sheetof paper, I Drawtheshellpattern p a r ting y o u r p a t t e r n u s e a t o t h eb l a n ka, n d thickness. v e i nl i n e sf r o m yourdesign blankof thedesired to a hardwood transfer (above, right). Cutfrom it to a chiselto etchthelinesintothewood of theblankonthebandsawandfasten Cuttheedges stopeach Start thebottomof theblankto thetop;to avoidtearout, boardto a worksurface. thebackup Secure board. backup (above, direction. it fromtheopposite left), cutnearthetopandcomplete of theshellusinga flatgouge thesurface sculpting therays Rounding O n c ea l l t h e v e i n sh a v eb e e nc u t , u s e

of the to roundthecontours theflatgouge theveinlines.Startbymakraysbetween (or of alltheraysconvex rngthesurfaces Tof inishcarving the outward). crowning pattern, valley intoevery a concave carve gouge raywitha narrow-blade second (lefil.fhesurfaces raysshould of adjacent t ei r e c t i o nasl t, e r n a t i n g c u r v ei n o p p o s i d Usea partconvex andconcave. between t h ev e i n si n t h ew i n g s i n gt o o lt o c a r v e at the lowersidesof the shell(photo, page136).Onceyouaresatisf iedwith t h es h a p o e f t h es h e l ls, a n dt h es u r f a c e it fromthebackup Thendetach lightly. andglueit in placeonthefrontof board to helplocate thelower chest,usingbrads it (page123)andclampsto holdit tn place dries. whiletheadhesive

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MAKING ANDMOUNTING THEAPPLIED MOLDING thevolutes ontherouter table 1 Shaping I Thecurved moldings, calledvolutes, whichdecorate theaoronof the lower partially chest, areshaped withtherouter, asshown at left,andpartially byhand,as in step3. Startby making a cardboard template of the molding, thentransfer yourpattern to a workpiece of thedesired thickness. Leave enough wasteon the stockto feedit safelyacrossthe router table.Cutalongoneof thepattern lines on thebandsaw,exposing oneedgeof themolding. Toshape thisedge,install a piloted r o u n d - o vbei rt i n a r o u t ear n d m o u ntth et o o li n a t a b l e R . a t h et rh a n m a k i ntgh ec u tf r e e h a ncdl,a m pa p i v o t pointto thetablein linewiththebit,using a braceto steadyit. Asyoufeedtheworkpieceintothebit, bracethestockagainst the pivotpoint(left).Makesureyoukeep theworkpiece flushagainst thebit pilot.

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r) Cutting awaytheremaining waste L Onceyouhavefinished shaping one edgeof thevolute, detach themolding fromthewasteusingthe bandsaw.To keepthebladefrombinding in thekerf, makea release cut through thewaste, stopping at the patternline.Thensaw along theline,feeding theworkpiece with bothhands(right).Makesurethatneither handis in linewiththeblade.

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edge thesecond Q Hand-shaping to a worksurboard a backup r-J Secure to theboard. molding clamp the faceand of thevolute edge the second Round over produced profile gouge, the copying witha (right). Shape I bit in step by the router are smooth; contours its the edgeuntil to cut withthe try as muchas possible fromthebackgrain.Remove themolding lightly. surface sand the and up board

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Mounting thevolutes a thin,evenlayerof glue Spread of the surfaces on thecontacting Clamp the molding andthechest. v o l u t ien p l a c el ,i n i n gi t u p f l u s h withtheedgeof thebottomrailand it leaving a smallspacebetween a n dt h ew i n go f t h es c a l l o sph e l l (\efl. Usetwoclampsforeachpiece of molding.

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GLOSSARY

I A-B-C Air-driedlumber: Lumber that has reachedits equilibrium moisture content by exposureto unheatedair. Batten: A board fastenedacrossthe grain ofa flat surfacesuch asa chest lid to minimize warping. Bevelcut A cut at an anglefrom face-to-facealong the length or width of a workp.iece.Seimiter cut. Biscuit joinfi Seeplatejoint. Board foot A unit of wood volume measurementequivalentto a pieceof wood I inch thick and 12 inchessquare. Boundwater: Moisture presentin the cell walls of wood. It remains evenafter drying; seefreewater. Cabriole leg: A styleof furniture lee characterize? bv rbundedcontours designedto imilate the hind leg of a leaping animal. Carcase The boxJike foundation of a pieceof furniture; made from solid panels. Cockbeading:Narrow projecting molding surroundingthe inside edgeof a draweropening. Cope-and-stickjoint: A method of joining stilesand rails in frame-andpanel construction. Tonguesin the rails meshwith groovesin the stiles; a decorativemolding is cut along the insideedgeof thEframe.

Crosscut A cut made acrossthe grain of a workpiece. Cuttinglist A list of the dimensionsof the lumber neededfor a specificproject. D-E-F Dado: A rectangularchannelcut into a workpiece. Dentil molding: A decorativedetail consistingof a row of small,evenly spacedbars or teeth;usuallyadded to cornicemolding. Doretail joint A method ofjoinery usinginterlockingpins and tails; the name derivesfrom the distinctive shapecut into the endsof the joining boards. Dowel center: A metal rylinder that is insertedinto a dowel hole to pinpoint a matching hole in a mating workpiece.

Escutcheon:A decorativefitting installedaround a keyholeto prevent damageto the surrounding wood by the key. Faceframe A decorative frame attachedto the front ofa carcasebasedbookcase,cabinet,or armoire; alsoservesto stiffen the structure. Falsefronfi A pieceof veneeror wood fixed to the front of a drawer, usuallyto concealits joinery. Fiber saturation point A condition in which wood cell cavitiesare free of all water while the cell walls remain fully saturated. Finiat An ornament-usually turned and carved-projectirig from the upper cornersof a fuiniture piecesuch asa highboy.

Drawer slide: A strip of wood or a commercialmetal devicefixed to a carcaseto support a drawer.

Frame-and-paneljoinery: A method of assemblingdoors and cabinet sidesusing framesenclosingpanelsthat float m groovesto accommodateshrinkageand swellingof the wood.

Dust frame: A frame-and-panel assemblyinstalledat the bottom of a pieceof furniture or betweenthe drawersto preventdust from entering.

Freewater: Moisture presentin the cell cavitiesof wood, so called becauseit is free to evaporateduring the drying process;see-bound waterl

Edgegluing: Bonding boardstogether edge-to-edge to form a panel. Equilibrium moisture content: The moisture content that wood eventually reacheswhen it is exposedto a given levelofrelative humidity and temperature.

Cornice or crown molding: Molding attachedto the top of a pieceof furniture; typically mounted aboveeyelevel and angledoutwardsat 45o.

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G-H-r-l-K HeadstoclcThe shaft attachedto the motor of a lathe;holds work for spindle-turningin conjunctionwith the tailstockor for turning with a faceplate.Seetailstock Highboy: An elegant18th Century styleofdresser,consistingofan upper and lower chest.

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Keybit: The part of a key that engagesthe locking mechanism. Kiln-dried lumber: Lumber that hasbeen dried with heat to a specific moisture content. Knee block A contoured pieceof wood usedto ioin the curved lines of a cabriole169with the bottom chestof a dresseror chest. L-M-N Marquetry: Decorativeinlays of veneer,metal, or other materials. Median rail A horizontal member betweenthe upper and lower rails of a frame,dividing the opening into two sections. Miter cut A cut that anglesacross the faceof a workpiece.Seebevelcut. Miter-and-spline joint A mitered joint that is reinforcedwith a spline, or strip of wood,let into the pieces. Moisture content The amount of water containedin wood, expressed asa percentageof the wood's ovendried weight. Molding: Decorativestrips of wood usedto embellisha pieceof furniture; seedentil and cornice moWing.Decoration may alsobe carvedon the edgeofthe piece with a router. Mortise-and-tenon joint A joinery techniquein which a projecting tenon on one board fits into a cavity -the mortise-in another. Mullion: A verticalmemberbetween the outsidestilesof a frame: also known asa muntin.

O-P-Q Pediment Arched or S-shaped molding mounted on the upper rail of a dresser;alsoknown as crown molding.

Releasecut A preliminary incision from the edgeof a workpieceto a line about to be cut: enablesa band sawor sabersawto cut tighter curves by facilitating the removal of waste wood. Also known asa relief cut.

Pilaster:A decorativeboard fixed along the full length of the front stilesof a cabinet.

Rip cut: A cut following the grain of a workpiece-usually alongits length.

Platejoint A method ofjoining wood in which oval wafersof compressedwood fit into slotscut in mating boards. Pommet The bottom sectionof a finial; rectangularshaped,sometimes fluted. Quarter column: A turned and sometimesfluted column setin nichesin the front cornersof highboys and other piecesof 18th Century furniture. QueenAnne: A sryleof furniture that emergedin the early 18th Century, characterized by graceful, flowing lines. R-S Rabbet A step-likecut in the edge or end of a board; usuallyforms part of a joint. Radial shrinkage: Shrinkagethat occursacrossthe growth rings as wood dries. Raift The horizontal member of a fr ame-and-panelassembly. RaisedpaneLA pieceof wood with bevelededgesthat createthe illusion "raised." that the centralportion is Relativehumidity: The ratio of water vapor presentin the air comparedto the amount the air would hold at its saturationpoint, usually expressedasa percentagefigure.

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Rosette A circular ornament found at the end of crown molding on higboys;typically turned on the lathe. Scallopshel} A decorative,carved motif found on the bottom aprons ofhighboys and other piecesof 18th Century furniture. Seasoning:The processor technique of removing moisture from green wood to improve its workability. Slidingdovetail joint A joinery method in which a dovetailedslide on one piecefits into a matching grooYein the other. Stile: The vertical member of a frame-and-panelassembly. T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z Tirilstock The adiustableshaft on a lathe;usedin conjunction with the headstockto hold work for spindle turning. Seeheadstock. Tbngential shrinkage Wood shrinkagethat occurstangentialto the growth rings. Volute: An S-shapedscroll carving mounted on the bottom apron of highboysand many other pieces of furniture.


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INDEX Pagereferencesin italicsindicate an illustrationof subiectmatter. Pagereferences in bdld indicate a Build It Yourselfproiect.

A-B-C Applied sculptures,136 137 Armoires,60,61, 62 Decorativefeatures cornice moldings, 66-69 dentil moldings, Zl pilasters,64-65 shapingpilasterson the table saw (ShopTip), 65 Doors,72-73 glass,61,73,78 hanging,72,79-82 Hardware. 63 adjustablelevelerc,63, 71 clock-casehinges,63, 80-81 lacehinges, 63, 79 locks,63,83 rat-tail hinges,63, 82 LeveIing, Tl Band saws: salvagingcupped stock on the band saw(ShopTip),21 Becksvoort,Chris,8-9 Belt sanders,23 Biscuitjoints. SeePlatejoints Blanketchests,84-85,86 Bottom assemblies basemoldings,85,96 feet, 93-95,97-99 Decorativefeatures escutcheons, 87,101 inlays,87, 104-105 Hardware, ST handles,87,100,103 hinges,87,88-89 locks,8Z 100-102 Tops inlays,104105 moldings,9I-92 piano hinges,88 Board-footmeasurement . lG 17 Bookcases,G7, 40-41,42 Anchoring bookcasesto the wall (ShopTip), 59 Basemoldings,56-57 Bottom braces,57 Connecting bookcasestogether,59 Decorativefeatures,41, 52,54,57 face frames, 54-55 moldings,4I routing decorativedetails,58 F e e t , 5 65, 7 , 5 8 - 5 9 Hardware.43-44 threadedconnectors.59 SeealsoShelves

Build It Yourself: Radial arm saws miter jigs, 70 Routers hinge mortising jigs, 90 routerJathe jigs for fluting quartercolumns,135 Table saws raisedpaneljigs, 37 Cabinetmaking,8,13 Projectplanning,l7 Cabinets.SeeArmoires; Blanket chests; Highboys Cabriolelegs, 112-115, 117 Carcases: Backpanels,3I Edge-gluedboards, 13 Gluing up,28 SeealsoFrame-and-panelconstruction; foinery Chests.SeeBlanket chests;Highboys Chisels,fr ont endpaper Clamps: Springboardclampsfor edgegluing (ShopTip), 53 Cockbeading,118-119 joints, 35 Cope-and-stick Corner cupboards,l0- I Cornice moldings, 66-69 Crosscutting,22 Crown moldings,124-127 Bookcases,42 Curio cabinets,61, 73,78 Cutting lists, 18

D-E-F Decorativetechnioues: Applied sculptu?es,136-137 Faceframes.54-55 Finials,130-133 Hardware escutcheons, 87,101 Inlays,87, 104-105 Pilasters.6465 shapingpilasterson the table saw (ShopTip), 65 Quarter columns, 134,135 Rosettes,128-129 Routing decorativefeatures (ShopTip), 58 SeealsoMoldings Dentil moldings, Zl Display cabinets,61, 73, 78 Doors: Armoire* T2-73 fiame-and-panelconstruction, 7i-78 glass,61, 7j,78 hanging,72,79-82

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r Dovetail joints: Blanket chests.84 Hand-cut, 12,2G28 cutting awaywastewith a coping saw(ShopTip),27 Shelves.50-51 Drawers,120-123 Adjustabledrawer stops (Shop Trp), 123 Blanket chests,87 SeealsoHighboys Drills: Shelf-drilling jigs, 45, 46 Shop-madeshelf-drilling jigs (ShopTip), 46 Edge-gluedboards, 13,24-25 Edgemoldings, 52-5i Adding edgemolding to plywood (ShopTip),25 Springboardclampsfor edgegluing (ShopTip), 53 Escutcheons, 87,101 Faceframes.54-55 Feet: Adj ustable lev elers, 63- 7I Bracketfeet,93-95 ogeebracket feet,97-99 Turned, 58-59 SeealsoLegs Finials, 130-133 Frame-and-panelconstruction, 32-39 Carcaseassembly,39 Cope-and-stickjoints, 35 Doors,73-77 glass,28 Mortise-and-tenonjoints, 33-34 Raisedpanels,36,37, 38

G-H.I Gluing: Carcases.28 Edge-gluedb oards,24-25 Springboardclamps for edgegluing (ShopTip), 53 Gotges,front endpaper Hand-crafting: Dovetailjoints, 12,2G28 Hardware: AdjustableIevelers,63, 71 Locks,63, 83,87, 100-102 SeealsoHinges;subheading Hardware under types of cabinets Highboys,106,107, 108-109 Decorativefeatures appliedsculptures,136-137 cockbeading,1 18-119 crown moldin gs,124-127 finials, 130-133 quarter columns, 134,135 rosettes,128-129 volutes.138-139

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Drawers,1lU 111, 120-123 adjustabledrawer stops (Shop Tip), 123 Dust shields.102 Legs,112-115, 117 Lower chest,109,116-117 Upper chest,I l0 Hinges: Hinge mortising jigs, 90 Tlpes of furniture armoires,63,79-82 blanket chests,8Z 88-89 Typesofhinges butt hinges,82, 89 clock-case hinges,63, 80-81 lacehinges, 63, 79 piano hinges,88 rat-tail hinges,63,82 Inlays,87,104-105

I-K-t figs: CIamps springboardclamps for edge gluing (ShopTip), 53 Drills shelf-drilling jigs, 45, 46 shop-madeshelf-drilling jigs (ShopTip), 46 Radial arm saws miter jigs, 70 Routers jigs for routing evenlyspaced dadoes(ShopTip), 49 router-lathe jigs for fluting quarter columns.135 Table saws cove-cuttingjigs, 69 raisedpaneljigs, 37 loinery,24 Cope-and-stickjoints, 35 Mortise-and-tenonjoints, 33-34 Platejoints, 24, 29-30,85 Wood grain, 15 SeealsoDovetail joints lointing,20 Lathes: Router-lathejigs for fluting quarter columns,135 Tools,front endpaper Legs: Cabriole,112-115,117 SeealsoFeet Locks: Armoires, 63, 83 Blanketchests,8Z 100-102 Loeven,Fr€d6ric,7

Lumber,16-17 Defects,19 salvagingcupped stock on the bandsaw(ShopTip),2l Grades,backendpaper Measurement,backendpaper,1G17 cutting lists,18 Selection,l6-17 Shrinkage/swelling, 14- 15 Surfacing/dressing,20-23 SeealsoWood

M-N-O Moldings: Cockbeading,1 18-119 Cornice moldings, 66-68 Crown moldings, 124-127 Dentil moldings, ZI Edgemoldings, 52-53 adding edgemolding to plywood (ShopTip),25 springboardclampsfor edge gluing (ShopTip), 53 Integral moldings, 92 Iigs radial arm sawmiter jigs, 70 table sawcove-cuttingguides,69 Volutes,l38-1i9 Morcel, Nain,6-7 Mortise-and-tenonioints: Frame-and-paneiconstruction, 3i-i4 Ogeebracket feet,97-99

P-Q-R Panels: Edge-gluedboards, 13,24-25 Frame-and-panel construction, 32-39 raisedpanels,36,37, 38 Pediments,42, 124-127 Pilasters,64-65 shapingpilasterson the table saw (ShopTip), 65 Planing,2l Platejoints, 24, 29-30,85 Plywood: Edgetreatments,52-53 adding edgemolding to plywood (ShopTip),25 Projectplanning,17 Quarter columns, 134,135 Radialarm saws: Miter jigs,70 Raisedpanels, 36, 37, 38 Ripping,22 I Rodriguez,Mario, -10-1

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Rosettes,128-129 Routers: Hinge mortising jigs, 90 Integral moldings, 92 |igs for routing evenlyspaceddadoes (ShopTip), 49 Raisedpanels,38 Router-lathejigs for fluting quarter columns,135

S.T-U-V Safetyprecautions,front endpaper Sanding,23 Sculpture.SeeDecorativetechniques Shelves,43 Adjastable, 45-49 Edgetreatments,52-53 adding edgemolding to plywood (ShopTip),25 springboardclampsfor edge gluing (ShopTip), 53 Fixed, 50-5I Hardwarc,43,44 standardsand clips,43, 48 threadedshelf supports, 43, 45-46 loinery, 50-51 Supports,43,45-51 jigs for routing evenlyspaced dadoes(ShopTip), 49 shop-madeshelf-drilling jigs (ShopTip), 46 ShopTips: Armoires,65 Bookcases,46, 49, 53,58 Cabinetmakingbasics,21, 23, 26, 27 Highboys, i23 Table saws.22 Cornice moldings, 69 Making repeatcuts with the table saw(ShopTip),23 Raisedpanels,36,37 Shapingpilasterson the table saw (ShopTip), 65 Tools: Safetyprecautions,front endpaper Turning and carving tools, front endpaper SeealsoDrills; Radial arm saws; Routers:Tablesaws Volutes.l38-139

W.X-Y-Z Wall units. SeeBookcases Wardrobes.SeeArmoires Wood: Grain, 15 SeealsoLumber


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Theeditorswish to thank thefollowing CABINETMAKING BASICS AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; DeltaInternationalMachinery/Porter Cable,Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd.,Mississauga, Ont.; GreatNeckSawMfrs. Inc. (BuckBros.Division),Millbury, MA; LeeValleyToolsLtd., Ottawa,Ont.; SandvikSawsand ToolsCo.,Scranton,PA;Shopsmith,Inc.,Montreal,Que.; StanleyTools,Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT; Steiner-LamelloA.G. Switzerland/ColonialSawCo., Kingston,MA AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,,r, o-..i..rur?3[:t:Etin.oln, NE; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools, Towson,MD; LesBoisM & M ltde.,St-Mathieu,Que.;DeltaInternationalMachineryiPorter Cable,Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd.,Mississauga, Ont.; GrisetIndustries,Inc.,SantaAna,CA; LeeValleyToolsLtd., Ottawa,Ont.; SandvikSawsand ToolsCo.,Scranton,PA; Sears, Roebuckand Co.,Chicago,IL; Shopsmith,Inc., Montreal,Que.;Steiner-Lamello A.G. Switzerland/Colonial SawCo.,Kingston,MA; VeritasToolsInc., Ottawa,Ont./Ogdensburg,NY ARMOIRE AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; DeltaInternational Machinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; Allan Flegg,Montreal, Que.;FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd., Mississauga, Ont.; GreatNeckSawMfrs. Inc. (BuckBros.Division),Millbury, MA; LeeValleyToolsLtd., Ottawa,Ont.; Sears,Roebuckand Co.,Chicago,IL; Shopsmith,Inc.,Montreal,Que.;StanleyTools, Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT; Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY BI-ANKETCHEST AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln,NE; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools, Towson,MD; DeltaInternationalMachinery/Porter Cable,Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd., Mississauga, Ont.; GeneralToolsManufacturingCo.,Inc.,New York, NY; GreatNeckSawMfrs. Inc. (BuckBros. Division), Millbury, MA; Alain Morcel, LesRdalisationsLoeven-Morcel,Montreal, Que.;SandvikSawsand Tools Co., Scranton,PA; StanleyTools,Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT; Steiner-LamelloA.G. Switzerland/Colonial SawCo.,'Kingston, MA; VermontAmericanCorp.,Lincolnton,NC and Louisville,KY HIGHBOY AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln,NE; Anglo-AmericanEnterprises Corp., Somerdale,NJ; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; Delta InternationalMachinerylPorterCable, Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd.,Mississauga, Ont.; GreatNeckSawMfrs. Inc. (BuckBros.Division), Millbury, MA; Hitachi PowerTools U.S.A.Ltd., Norcross,GA; RobertLarsonCompany,Inc., SanFrancisco,CA; Alain Morcel,LesR6alisations Loeven-Morcel, Montreal,Que.;Shopsmith,Inc.,Dayton,OH and Montreal,Que.; RobertSorbyLtd., Sheffield,U.K./BusyBeeMachineTools,Concord,Onl Thefollowingpersonsalsoassisted in thepreparationof this book: Lorraine Dor6, Dominique Gagn€,Graphor Consultation,GeneviiveMonette,Brian Parsons,J. Gail Sowerby

FURNITURECREDITS Cover LesR6alisationsLoeven-Morcel,Montr6al, Qudbec 40 GilesMiller-Mead,Brome,Qu6bec 60,6l GilesMiller-Mead,Brome,Qu€becand fean-Frangois Brunelle,St-Bruno,Qu6bec 84, 106LesRdalisations Loeven-Morcel, Montrdal,Qudbec

PICTURECREDITS Cover RobertChartier 6,7 Mark Tomalty 8,9 Tom Stewart 10,ll GraceHuang

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GUIDE WORKSHOP CABINETMAKING FOR GRADES LUMBER FAS

GRADE HARDWOOD

N0.1 COMMON

SETECT

N0.2A& 28 COMMON

NO.3A COMMON 4 ' , -t 6 '

NO.38 COMMON 4'- 16'

A l l o w a b llee n g t h of board

8'- 16'

6'-16'

4',-r6',

4 ' , -1 6 ' ,

A l l o w a b lw eidth of board

6" orwider

4" orwider

3" orwider

3" orwider

3" orwider

3" orwider

M i n i m u m% o f c l e a rf a c ec u t t i n g s

83i/2"/'

83Vz%

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33Vz%

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M i n i m u ms i z eo f c l e a rc u t t i n g s

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3 "x 7 ' ; 4 ' ,x 5 '

3 "x 3 ' ; 4" x2'

3" x2'

3 "x 2 '

GRADES SOFTWOOD

CHARACTERISTICS

SelectB and BTR ( s up r e m e )

minordefectsand and highestQuality; Clearappearance . o t a l w a y sa v a i l b l e m i s h e lsd. e a lw i t h c l e a rf i n i s h e sN a b l e :e x P e n s i v e H i g hq u a l i t ys; m a l ld e f e c t sa n d b l e m i s h e s

C S e l e c (t c h o i c e ) D S e l e c (t q u a l i t Y ) S u p e r i oFr i n i s h P r i m eF i n i s h N o .1 C o m m o n ( c o l o ina l ) N o .2 C o m m o n (sterli ng)

s o r ep r o n o u n c e d G o o dq u a l r t yd; e f e c t sa n d b l e m i s h em Highestqualityof finishgradelumber;minordefects a n db l e m i s h e s H i g hq u a l i t yw i t hf e w d e f e c t sa n d b l e m i s h e s H a sl i m i t e da v a i l a b i l iat yn ds i z er a n g e sm; a yh a v es m a l l if a knotty tight knots,makingthis gradeappropriate a p p e a r a n ci sed e s i r e d oftenusedwhere Larger,coarserdefectsand blemishes; i s d e s i r e d a k n o t t ya P p e a r a n c e

THICKNESS STANDARD HARDWO(ID SURFACED FOR NOMINAL (rough)

ACTUAL (surfaced twosides)

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SIZES ANDACTUAL N()MINAL TUMBER ORSOFTWOOD NOMINAL ilNCHES) 7-by-2

1/rc"

Notlessthan 172"wide 36 containing inches square

ACTUAL (rNcHES) dry Surfaced 3h-by-Ir/z

1-by-3 1-by-4

3k-by-2t/z

1-by-6 1-by-8 1-by-10

3h-by-5r/z

I-by-12

3h-by-lIrh

3h-by-3t/z

3h'by-7rh 3/+-by-9th

NOMINAL

(rNcHES)

ACTUAL (INCHES) Surfaceddry

Z-by-2

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2-by-4 2-by-6

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2-by-B 2-by-10

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Z-by-12 4-by-4

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Gabinetes