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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

HOMEWORI$HOP


GP UIDE WORKSHO TIPS SAFETY . Concentrate on ihe job;do notrush. or Never workwhenyouaretired,stressed h a v eb e e nd r r n k i nagl c o h oo r u s i n g m e d r c a t i ot nh sa ti r d u c ed ' o w s i n e s s .

POWER TOOLS r Wearappropriate safetygear:safety glasses. on. a 'aceshieldfor extraprotect protectors or earplugs.lf andhearing wea'a thereis ro dustcolecton system. dustmask.Forexoticwoodssuchas may ebony,usea respirator; thesawdust reaction. Wearwork causean allergic g l o v ew s h e nh a n d l i nrgo u g hl u m b e r .

. Keepyourworkareacleanandtidy; andsawdust cluttercanleadto accidents, andwoodscraps canbea firehazard,

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mater ial.or sharpen thecuttingedge, . KeepLheedgesof cuttingtoolssharp.

ANATOMY OFA BOARD

HAND TOOLS

. Donotusea toolif anypartof it is worn or 0amageo. . Keepyourhandswe I awayfroma turning b l a d eo r b i t .

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. Usetl-eappropriate tool'or thejob:do for nottryto makea tooldo something whichit wasnotdesigned.

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. Clampdowna workpiece to f reeboth handsfor an operation.

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it from overyourshouderto prevent gettingin thewayandbe ngdamaged.

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. Cutawayfromyourself ratherthan towardyourbody.

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CLAMPS CABINETMAKING

W e bc l a m p Aleoknovrn a e b a n dc l a m po r e L r a pc l a r n p : l y p i c a l ya v a ia b l e with eLra2 15 feeL.tn lenqLh.For a p p l y t n q? r e . a L ) r .t n m o r eL h a n o-P ) .pr tion, -, .c\ )

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Quickaction ctam? h60 Knowa n5 cabineLmaker.e c a m ? :t y ? c a y i a e a 2 / l h r o a l A e p L ha n b , a 4 - i n c he 2 a n ,b u La a o a v a ia b l e t n I a r q e re i z e e .

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S p r i n qc l a m p A v a ia b l e i n a v a r i e l y c:feizesf or ci.am.ptnq u 2 t C 4 n c l , e " ' a' .o r n e mode". have? aglic t.t?. Lc,tprolecL atock.

Double-sided clamp ane Eil,eof clanp eecured "votNorLeurfaceanA cLher eiAetr: etr:ck; fealuree a reachof tp to 5a inchea d e p e n A i naqn t h e r Y o d ,.e

f o u r c h a i r ) e q ea L o n c e .

T r i q g e rc l a m p A v a i l a b l ei n e p a n e o f 6 , 1 2 ,1 8 , 2 4a n d 3 6 i n c h e ed: e e i 4 n e A lo beineLallea dnd removeAvtiLhone h a n d .T a d A e dl a w e proLecLetock,

Handecrew f, ao Kncwnaa acrew c l a m p .C o m e et n v a r i o l s e i z e ew i " v h jawethaL can o?en u p l o 1 6 i n c h e ew i d e ,

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with deepLhroaLelor e x l e n d , ecd a m 2 i n qr e a c h 6ar clamp C amge uVtu A fuel i n i e n q l ha v a ta b l e ' , m o r ec o r n m o ne t z e e a r e2 4 , 3 6 a n d 48 nchea. ? i p eo l a m p for SuiLable c l a m ? r n qa n I e r L h a n1 2 t n c h e e . C o n e i e l eo f j a w e a l * " a c h e d l o . o . / . _- c r _ a r a 1 f i , ? ?", p i g e e n q t hc a n b ec u . L o r n t z e a t o f i l a p a r L i c ua r . ? a n ,

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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

CABINETAAAKING


THE ART OF WOODWORKING

CABINEMKING

BOOKS TIME-LIFE VIRGINIA ALEXANDRIA. ST.REMYPRESS NEWYORK MONTREAL.


THE ART OF WOODWORKING wasproduced by

ST.REMYPRESS PUBLISHER KennethWinchester PRXSIDENT PierreLdveill6 SeriesEditor SeriesArt Director SeniorEditors

PierreHome-Douglas FrancineLemieux Marc Cassini(Text) HeatherMills (Research) Art Directors Normand Boudreault,SolangeLaberge Designer Luc Germain Research Editor TimMcRae PictureEditor ChristopherJackson Writers TamsinM. Douglas,Andrew fones ContributingWriter StephenHart Cont r ibuting IIlustrators RonaldDurepos,RobertPaquet, Studio La Perludteinc. Administrator NatalieWatanabe ProductionManager MichelleTurbide SystemCoordinator fean-LucRoy Photographer RobertChartier Index ChristineM. Jacobs Proofreader Iudith Yelon Time-Life Booksis a division of Time-Life Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY

TIME-LIFEBOOKS President Publisher ManagingEditor Directorof Editorial Resources Associate Publisher MarketingDirector Editorial Director ConsultingEditor ProductionManager

Mary N. Davis RobertH. Smith ThomasH. Flaherty EliseD. Ritter-Clough Trevor Lunn ReginaHall Donia Ann Steele Bob Doyle MarleneZack

THECONSUXTANTS Mark Duginske,a cabinetmakerwho lives in Wausau,Wisconsin, is a contributing editor to F in e Woodworking magazine and the author ofseveralbooks on woodworking power tools. Leonard Leeis the presidentofVeritas Tools and LeeValleyTooli, manufacturersand retailersof fine woodworkinghand tools. He is also the publisherand executiveeditor of Woodcuts, a magazinethat focuseson the history and techniquesof woodworking. GilesMiller-Mead hastaught advancedcabinetmakingat Montreal technicalschoolsfor more than ten years.A nativeof New Zealand, he previouslyworked asa restorerofantique furniture. fosephTruini is SeniorEditor ofFlome Mechanixmagazine. A former Shopand Tools Edrtor of PopularMechanics,he hasworked as a cabinetmaker,home improvementcontractor and carpenter.

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Cabinetmaking p. cm.-(The Art of Woodworking) Includesindex. (trade) ISBN0-8094-9904-5. (lib) ISBN0-8094-9905-3 l. Cabinetwork. L Time- Life Books. II. Series TTt97.C2r2 1992 684'.04-dc20 92-11188 CIP For information about any Time-Life book, pleasecall l-800-621-7026,or write: ReaderInformation Time-Life CustomerService P.O.Box C-32068 Richmond,Virginia 2326r-2068 @ 1992Time-LifeBooksInc, All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproducedin any form or by any electronicor mechanical means,including information storageand retrievaldevicesor systems,without prior written permissionfrom the publisher,except that brief passages may be quoted for reviews. First printing. Printed in U.S.A. Publishedsimultaneouslyin Canada. TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time Warner Inc. U.S.A.

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CONTENTS

6 INTRODUCTION 12 CABINETMAKING TECHNIQUES 16 18 20 27 39 4L

CARCASECONSTRUCTION Anatomyof a carcase Making wide panels joinery Carcase Edgebanding Shelving

44 FRAME-AND.PANEL CONSTRUCTION Anatomy of a frame-and-panel 46 assemblv 48 Making the frame 53 Making the panel 57 Puttinqthe panelin the frame 59 Assemblinga frame-and-panel case 60 Installinga bottom panel 6 T Shelving 64 Installinga top 69 Installingmolding 72 74 76 85 87 95 97

DRAWERS Anatomy of a drawer Drawerjoinery Assemblinga drawer Mounting a drawer Drawerstops Falsefronts and hardware

r00 DooRS I02 104 108 111 113 115

Anatomy of a door doors Frame-and-panel Solid-paneldoors Glassdoors doors Veneered-panel Hanginga door

I2O L22 L24 I28 131 I33

LEGS Anatomy of a cabrioleleg Cabriolelegs Thperedand octagonallegs Inlaysand detailing Legjoinery

I4O GLOSSARY I42 INDEX IM

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


INTRODUCTION

Ian Ingersollon building a

SHAKERCHEST the furniture.Wandering whenI firstcameunderthespellof Shaker f remember to I was transported New York, Museumin Old Chatham, I ha[sof theShaker pieces. were The Shakers bythosesimple atthefeelingevoked anothertime,awestruck Midrvestin the a religious,utopiansocietythatflourishedin NewEnglandand_the partially out of a desireto least werebornat 19thCentury.Theirfurnituredesigns purity of design quest, achieved a they In their existence. morereligious leadasimpler, of temples |apan'_ for theBuddhist rivaledonlybytheworkcreated of drawers andcase term,I havedubbedthecupboard Forlackof amoredescriptive "TheUtilityChest." purpose is no-longer whoseoriginal Itsprototype, shownhere off-center The surprising around1825-1850. known,wasbuiltin Enfield,Connecticut, pgp$g its height, designat Shaker demonstrates placement of thetwosmalldrawers well. The as of humanexistence not onlyto apurity of form,but to theasymmetry have been is to maybelosttoday,but it sure originaifunctionof thosetwodrawers one. a practical wideand 17inches deep,31inches Theutilitychestisbuiltof pineandmeasures using simpleandcanbeaccomplished is relatively 71incheshigh.Itsconstruction Fora techniques. door-anddrawer-making casework-, of standard a combination I thedesign.find attentionshouldbepaidto thelayout_of projectlikethis,however, or thefrahly drawingon eitheralargepieceof cardboard it trilpm to doafull-scale is correct. thatthescale to ensure sanded topof myworkbench arenotfinMostcabinetmakers challenge. Finishingthispiecewasaconsiderable It shouldbepointedoutthatthetrickto anygoodfinishisto buildit up gradishers. alightyellowpaintlvasusedfirst,thensteel ln thiscase, uallywith multiplethin coats. of wool,followedbyawashof pumpkinpaint,moresteelwool,andanapplication with alightcoating to warmuptheyellow.Thefinishingtouchcomes orangeshellac to protecttheshellac. ofvarnishor lacquer

lan Ingersollownsa cabinetmaking shopin WestCornwall,Connecticut, specializingin Shakerfurniture.


INTRODUCTION

MichaelBurnstalksabout

CRAFTSMANSHIP peargivento me heinspiration forthiscabinet camefroma smallbilletof Swiss yearsago.I feltthatit hadtakenmeatleastthatlongto acquire theskills seven difficultwood.Thepearwasadarkgolden toworkwiththisbeautiful, butsomewhat pinkandhada softappearance. I designed thecabinet to highlightthewood'swonof delicate edgeprofiles. I wantderfi.rlsurface anditsabilityto standupto theshaping edto showofftherawmaterial. I resawed thepearintoveneers, ascnt %-inchthick,bookmatched them,andglued andshaped thetopandbottom.I doweled themto aplywoodcore.I thenedgebanded posts, needing solidwoodforthejointswiththelegs.Next, thesides to smalllYa-inch precisely, I doweled usingonedowelperinch.I thetop,bottomandsidestogether finishedallthepieces beforegluingup.Thelegs,madefromjarrah,werethennotched, gluedandscrewed to thecorners ofthecabinet. Thejoinerymustbetightandperfect; slight Pearisasdemanding asit isbeautiful. myplanes imperfections areverynoticeable. I spenta greatdealof timesharpening jointscrispandthesurfaces unflawed. Thejarrah,ontheotherhand, to gettheedge sawed andshaped easily, and wasapleasure to workwith.It planedin anydirection, verywell.I finished thepearwithseveral thin coats tookthelightoil finishI applied markings. of blondshellac, bringingoutitscolorandsurface padauk eachmadeof Andaman andcamphor. Insidethecabinet aretwodrawers, in themiddleof theinterior,isacurvedshelf.I madetheL-shaped Underthedrawers, knifehingesanddoorpullsfrompatinated brass. includingmyteacher My inspiration comes fromseveral sources, Greek JimKrenov, Emile What is imporcraft and French cabinetmaker Rutrlmann. architecture, fapanese isthe I makeisthattheinfluences arebalanced, thecraftsmanship tantin everything pleasing. andtheresults bestI canachieve,

MichaelBurnsteaches cabinetmakthe Redwoods in ing at College of FortBragg,Califurnia.


INTRODUCTION

Terry Moore andhis

WRITINGDESK My furnituretends I relyonaveryinformalapproach to design. eingself-taught, process. Forexample, seeking to evolve asI proceed throughtheconstruction leg,andinspiredby 1920s cabinetmakers to thecommontapered analternative Jules I developed amultifaceted flutedleg.Todothis,I designed kleu andEmileRuhlmann, a fixturefor myspindleshaperthatallowedmeto profileandflutethetwelvefacets of theleg.Aftermuchtrial anderror,I hadoneprototypelegandawholenewchalI madea lenge:Namely,howto attachthelegto a tableor deskapron.Eventually, thelegto thepost. mock-upof a deskwith a diagonalcornerpostandattached the visuallypleasing detailsthatbecame Presenting thelegata 45oangleproduced for thislady'swritingdesk. inspiration anddovetail of mortise-and-tenon Toconstruct thedesk,I useda combination joinery.Thedrawers I chose Bubinga-AfricanRosewood-which arealsodovetailed. isremarkable for itsstrikingfigureandcolor.Thegrainpatternin thedesktopwas veneer. A wonderfulstreakof lightaplankinto %o-inch-thick achieved byresawing edges wereglued graces colored sapwood oneedgeof theplank.Whenthesapwood (mirrorimage)panels,theresultswerespectacular. togetherinto bookmatched framemeetsthepanels, Aroundtheperimeterof thetopandwherethesurrounding theframeI inlaidathinlineof curlymapleto addvisualtextureandto emphasize further aroundthedrawers and-panel effea.Addingcurlymaplepullsandacockbead All features work together to evoke a sense of functhe color contrast. these enhanced tionalelegance. youshouldnotfeelintimidated; every Whilethisdeskisobviously ammplexpiece, right instructional information, along was a novice. You can, with the craftsman once masterallof thetechniques thatyouwill need.Remember, withpatience andpractice, your masterpiece, museums wait to enshrine sodon'tbiteoffmore though,the can projects you right with simple that allowyouto practise than canchew away. Start is farbetter yourskillsanddevelop yourdesignsense. A simpleprojectwellexecuted piece has made. There will be failures andmisthananelaborate that beenshoddily part process is learning. The main objective of the of takesalongtheway,butthis,too, you isto enjoyyourworkanddothebest can.

OriginallyfromWales,TerryMoore designs and buildsfinefurniture in Newport, NewHampshire..


CABINETMAKINGTECHNIOUES -l- h. first stepin anycabinetmaking I. projectisto selectandprepare your stock.As shownbelow not all thewood at a lumberyardis freeof defects, so it is importantto chooseboardscarefully. Whetheryou arebuildingan armoire or a toy box, most stockis readiedin

roughlythe sameway.The procedures illustratedon pagesl3 to 15coverthe basictechniques. For rough,or unsurfacedlumbet first passone faceacross the jointer,then one edge,producing two surfaces that areat 90oto eachother.Next,planethe secondface,making

it parallel to thefirst.Nowyouareready to rip yourstockto widthandcrosscut it to length. Fordressed, or surfaced lumber,youonlyhavetojointoneedge, then rip andcrosscut. Before gluingupapiece of furniture, besureto sandanysurfaces thatwill bedifficultto reachafterwards.

CHO()SING LUMBER COMMON WOOD DEFECTS Knot, A dark whorlaurcoundedby new qrowth ringe; may fall out, affectinq appearance.Avoid eawing through thia defect.

Cheak 9plito acroae qrowDh ringa, affectinq apPearance

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t Pitah Kesinaccumulationon aurface; can affect

Twiat Unevenor irceqularwarping; makea board unatable and prone to further warpinq

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Crook End-to-endcurve alon4 edge

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Selecting stockforcabinetmaking Woodisavarlable in twobroadcategories: hardwood andsoftwood. Although thetermsarebotanical rather thandescriptive, hardwoods, suchasmahogany andcherry, arepreferable formost projects cabinetmaking because theyare,in fact,generally harder. Before buying lumber, examine it carefully. Check its color,texture andgrainpatterns, andselectstockthatyoufind visually appealing. Lumber is usually milledin oneof twoways:

Quarter-sawed, or edge-grained lumberhasa toughsurface and plain-sawed, isgenerally stable; orflat-grained lumber, although lessexpensive, is moreprone to warping andshrinking. Whatever you typeof wood buy,choose kiln-dried lumber, andwatchout fordefects. Someof thoseshownabove onlyaffectappearance, butothers canmakethewooddifficultto cut,jointor plane. "select" Youcanavoiddefects bybuying lumber whenpossible.

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CABINETMAKING TECHNIQUES

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JOINTING A BOARD proper pressure Maintaining ontheoutfeed table Formostoperations, seta cuttingdepth between Vaandlruinch.Tojointa board edge,feedthestockslowlyintothecutpressing terhead, itsfaceagainst thefence whilekeeping theedgef latonthejointer tables.Besureto feedtheworkpiece so t h ek n i v ea s r ec u t t i n gw i t ht h eg r a i n . C o n t i n ufee e d i n tgh e s t o c ku n t i ly o u r righthandapproaches theoutfeed table. Thenreverse the position of yourhands without stopping thecut.Gradually slide yourleft handtowardthe backof the workpiece, maintai ningpressure against thefence(/eff).Shiftyourrighthand fartherbackon thestockto maintain justto theoutfeed pressure downward sideof theknives. Continue thesehandover-hand movements untiltheoassis completed. Tojointthefaceof a board, followthesameprocedures, usingpush blocksto feedthestock.

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PLANING STOCK Feeding theworkpiece intothecutterhead Seta cutting depthupto %einch.Stand t o o n es i d eo f t h ew o r k p i e caen du s e bothhands to feedit carefully intothe machine, keeping theedges of thestock o a r a l l et ol t h ep l a n etra b l e0. n c et h e gripsthe boardandbegins machine pullingit across thecutterhead, support itstrailing endto keepit flatonthetable (left).Thenmoveto theoutfeedsideof theplaner. with Support theworkpiece bothhandsuntilit clearsthe outfeed roller.To prevent stockf romwarping, avoidpassing onlyonefaceof a board planethe through themachine; instead, sameamount of woodfrombothsides.

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CABINETMAKINGTECHNIQUES

RIPPING A W()RKPIECE Using theripfenceasa guide Setthebladeheightaboulr/qinchabove theworkpiece. Position theripfence forthe w i d t ho f c u t ,t h e np u s ht h es t o c ki n t o theblade,pressing it against thefence withyourlefthandandfeeding withboth thumbs(/eff).Standto onesideof the workpiece andstraddle thefencewith yourrighthand,making surethatneither handis in linewiththeblade. Keeooushingtheboard untilthebladecutsthrough it completely. Tokeepyourhandsfrom c o m i n cg l o s etrh a n3 i n c h e fsr o mt h e blade, complete thecutwitha pushstick. (Caution: Bladeguardpartially retracted for clarity.)

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CR()SSCUTTING STOCK

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Using themitergauge Withtheworkpiece f lushagainst the mitergauge, markwith alignthecutting t h eb l a d eP. o s i t i ot nh er i of e n c ew e l l awayfromtheendof thestockto prepiece ventthecut-off fromjamming up a g a i n st ht eb l a d e a n dk i c k i n bg a c k you.Hookthethumbsof both toward hands overthemitergauge to holdthe stockf irmlyagainst thegauge andf lat onthetable,thenfeedtheboardinto the blade(righil.(Caution: Bladeguard partiallyretracted for clarity.)

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CABINETMAKINGTECHNIQUES

SANDING

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Using a sanding block Clampstopblocks to a worksurface at bothendsof the workpiece to holdit steady. Fita sanding blockwitha piece paperandsandthesurface of abrasive of thestockalong (abovd.Use pressure thegrain,applying even,moderate long,smooth, is smooth. overlapping strokes untilthesurface paperfora smoother Repeat witha finer-grit finish.To preventrounding theedges of theworkpiece, keepthesanding blockflaton itssurface, andworkupto-but notover-theedge.

THEBELT SANDER ASPTANER

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Using a beltsander Usea stopblockto keeptheworkpiece frommoving. Install a sanding beltanddrape thepower cordoveryourshoulder parallel to keepit outof theway.Withthesander to thewood grain, lower turnit onandslowly it ontothesurface, holding it firmlywithbothhands(above). Movethemachine backand youwouldusewitha sanding forthwiththesametypeof strokes block.Toavoidgouging thesurface, keepthesander flatand always moving; do notletthemachine restin sppsnnt

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Smoothing a panel lf a planer is notavailable to evenout panels, thesurface of glued-up usea belt sander. Thediagrams ontheleftillustrate thecorrect sequence of operations. First, slowlymovethesander backandforth across thesurface al a 45'angleto thewoodgrain(farleft),Besureto coverthe entire surface, butdonotletthesanding drumruncompletely offtheedges of the panel; thismayround thecorners. Next, makea secondoassbackandforth diagonally across thegrainin theoppo(centerlefil. Finally,run sitedirection thetoolalongthewoodgrainto remove a n ys c r a t c h el esf tb yt h ee a r l i esra n d ing (nearleft).

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CONSTRUCTION CARCASE, panelsrun in the samedirection. andcontracts, Sincewoodexpands especially across thegrain,thepanbeenthe startingpoint of many elswill expandandcontracttogethtypesof furniture.The earliest the nailed er at thesamerate,preserving examples weresimplecoffers, structuralintegrityof the box. together, thatserved douor pegged Assembling with thegrain a carcase or benches. Toduy, ble-dutyaschests ofadjacentpanelsatrightangles to limitlessvariathereareseemingly eachothervirtuallyensures thatone The tionsonthatsamebasicdesign. of thepanelswill eventually split; of carcase consmallest examples plywood pieces whenwoodis readyto move,it is of Drawers,shelves and aveneered structionfeaturedelicate almostimpossible to stop. backpanel transforma typicalcarcase into an highlyfigured,exoticwoods,such Muchof thecharacter andindielegantbookcase. Thedrawersrun alongfixed asbird's-eyemaple,rosewoodor viduality of a particularcarcase Hawaiiankoa,that areassembled shelves setinto dadoescut in thesidepanels. designderivesfromthemethodof with precisejoints and delicate Largerbut still assembling thepanels. Thereareagreatmanytypes of corner hingesto formjewelryboxesandsilverchests. jointsyoucanuse;someof themostcommonincludedovetails, compactboxesprovidetheframeworkfor drawers. joins, biscuitjoints,and in thepages lockmiters,rabbets, miter-and-spline examined Onceassembled, thetypeof carcase jointsarehighlyregarded dovetail thatfollowcanbethebasisfor anythingfroma smalldresser boxandfingerjoints.Because cabinetor a home-enter- for theirstrengthandbeautyin solidwood,onevariety-the or tool chestto a floor-to-ceiling in thisbooklookat the hand-cutthroughdovetail-is featuredin thischapter(page tainmentcenter.Thelaterchapters 27).It canalso doorsor legs-so asto becutmorequicklywith ajig asshownin the subsequent steps-addingdrawers, Drawers chapter(page80).Intheeyesof manywoodworkers, turn thebasiccarcase into a finishedpieceof furniture. hand-cutdovetailjoint isvisibleproofof thecabto withstand awell-made Althoughcarcases anddrawersaredesigned in coninetmaker's competence. types and levels ofstress use, there are certain different Forplywoodcarcases, rabbet(page34)orbiscuitjoints-also thatareapplicable to both.Whereapprostructiontechniques j6) arebetter jonts-(page plate priate,a cross-reference known choices. Bothoffer Drawers chapter will be included as to the joints prove pretfymuch as dovetail and, although you technique that could the same strength to direct to a drawer-building pleasing, quick less they are and methods for esthetically easy of usefi.rl constructingcarcases. joined panels major four together to form assembly. The convenience factor becomes a considerAll carcases consistof withproducing alargenumberof carcases. a box.A keyrequirementis that thewoodgrainof all the ationif youarefaced hebasicbox-or arcase-featured in this chapterhaslong

panelsofferstwo very Usingbiscuitjoints to assemble strengthand easeof assembly. Abiscuit appealingbenefits: joiner cutssemicircular groovesinto matingpanek.The beech, slotsarefilled with glue and biscuitsof compressed thenthepanelsarebuttedtogethertoform a perfeajoint.

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I I hetherit is a boxthatwill house acoupleof drawers anda shelfor a chinacabinetdestined to graceyour diningroom,thecarcase youbuildwill featuremanyofthebasicelements illustratedbelow.First,it will havefoursides, or panels,whichareusuallythe same widthandthickness. Anotherrequire-

mentis thatparallelpanelsmusthave thesamedimensions. Althougha panelcanbemadefrom a singlepieceof lumber,it is generally lessexpensive to gluenarrowerboards edge-to-edge to formthewidesurface (page20).Oncegluedup,thepanelsare planed,jointedon oneedge,cutto size,

andthentheirsurfaces aresanded.A third option-one whichcombines the economy of glued-uppanelsandthe easeof solidlumber-is to usehardwoodplywood,whichcanbemadeto looklikesolidwood, bytheadditionof a bandingalongexposed edges(page39). Constructingcarcases from plywood

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funel Uaedto form the top, bottom and sidea of the carcaai, May be a ein6le piece of plywoodor eolid lumben but panelaare more commonlymade from amaller boarda qlued edqe to edge; dowela may be ueed to help with alignment. Individualboards can be of varyinq widtha, but are uaually2 to 5 inches wide.

Cornerjoint Secureathe ende of the panele together: rabbet joint ia ahown,but dovetail and plate jointa are aleo popular choicea.

Thissimplecarcase-framed cabinet paneh edge-glued of ashand features rabbeted cornerjointscutona tablesaw. A fixed uppershelfissetin dadoescut into thesidepanek;aloweradjustable shelfrestson hiddensupports.

Back UauallyI/+-inchplywood piecenailedand'gluedinto a rabbot routed alonq baok ed1e of the panela.

thelving May be plywoodor ein7le pieae of wood,but often made from edge-qluedboarda. Fixed ahelveaare qlued in dadoes routed on the inside surfaces of aide panele;adjuatable ehelvearegt on aupporta.

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CARCASECONSTRUCTION

however. doeshaveits disadvantages, It reduces vourflexibiliwwhenit comes for example, to thejoinery;dovetaiis, not work. It also rulesout will simply possibilities creating esthetic as such attractivegrainpatternson the panels byedgegluingcareflrlly matchedboards.

Ifyou planto addedgebandingor (page 41), youmustanticinstallshelves ipatethosesteps beforegluingthepanels youwill needto Forshelves, together. routdadoes or boredowelholesonthe insidesurfaces of thesidepanels. Formoredetailon thecutting,jointing, sandingand other procedures

necesssary to prepare boardsandpanels, Techniques referto theCabinetmaking section onpage12.Of themanyjoinery methods thatcanbeusedto connectthe panels thischapterfocuses ofa carcase, on threeof the mostcommon:the hand-cutthroughdovetailjoint, the platejoint andtherabbetjoint.

CORl{ER JOINTS Through dovetail joint Taperedpine on onepanel interlock with anqled taila of the other: offera lar1e qluing aurface. For best appearance, pino are ueuallycut at the enda of the top and bottom panela;taile are aawnat.enda ofthe eide panele. Stronq, decorativejoint for eolid lum' ber; not recommendedfor plywood. Good choice whenfeaturinq joinery ae an elementof deoiqn.

Plate or biocuit joint Diecuits of compreaaedwoodfit into slote in the matinq boarda; qlue owellothe biacuite, atrength' eninqthe joint. Toconcealend 1rain whenviewedfrom the aide of carcaae, alots are uauallycut into end 6rain of top and bottom panelaand into mating facea of oide panele,)tronq joint for aolid lumber or plywood.Not decorative but quick and eaay to make.

Edge banding Decorativeveneercommerciallyavailablebut can be made in the ahop;glued to expoeed edqeoof plywoodpanelaand shelvea.

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Rabbetjoint Edge of one board fita into rabbet cut in the matinq board;offers larqe gluinq aurface. To conceal end grain of top and bottom panele,the rabbeta are normally cut into the aide panela.)trong joint for aolid lumberor plywood. Alao uaed to join carcaee back to panela.Not ae decorativeaa a throuqh dovetail, but much aimplerto make.


MAKING WIDE PANELS

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makeup the \ 7f ost woodworkers IVJ. widepanels for a carcase bygluing boardstogetheredge-to-edge. Building a carcase thiswayisnot a matterof cutting costsat the expense of strength. Panels ofedge-glued boardsareeverybit asstrongasa singlepieceof lumber.In fact,a propergluejoint providesa sturdier bondthanthefibersofa oieceofwood. Followthesteosdetailed belowand on thefollowingpages to assemble panels.Apartfrom a supplyof glueandan

assortment of clamps,all you needis a levelwork surfaceor a shop-builtglue rack(page24).To help keepthe boards aligned,somewoodworkers alsouse dowels(page2S).Formoreinformation on selecting glue,referto theinsideback coverofthis book. Selecting yourwoodis an important part ofthe process. Do not buy green woodor stockthat is cuppedor ftvisted, andavoidusingwoodwith a highmoisturecontent,whichcanadversely affect

the glue.Instead,buy lumberthat has beendriedin a kiln. If you areworking from rough stock,begin preparing boardsby jointing a faceand an edge, thenplaningtheotherface.Next,crosscut theboards,leavingthem roughlyI inch longerthan their finishedlength, andjointan edgeofeachpiece.Ripthe stocksothatthecombinedwidth of all the boardsexceeds the finishedwidth ofthe panelby aboutI inch,thenjoint thecut edses.

Edge-gluedboardsshould createthe illusion of a singlepieceof wood rather than a composite.Experimentwith the boardsin diferent configtrations to producea pattern that is visuallyinterestingbut makesurethat thegrain runs in the samedirectionon all of the oieces.

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EDGE GLUING 'l Arranging theboards I Settwobarclamps ona worksurface andlaytheboards onthem.Useasmany clampsasnecessary to support theboards at 24-Io 36-inchintervals, Tokeeothebars placethemin notched frommoving, wood (insef). blocks Usea pencilto marktheend grainorientation of eachboardasshown, thenarrange thestockontheclamps to (photoabove). enhance theirappearance Tominimize warping, arrange thepieces so thattheendgrainof adjacent boards runsin opposite directions. lf thegrainisdifficult to read,dampen orsandtheboardendsto makeit showup moredefinitely. Onceyou havea satisfactory arrangement, alignthe stockedge-to-edge andusea pencil orchalk (right). to marka triangle Thiswillhelpyou correctly rearrange theboards if youmove thempriorto finalassembly.

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filltllllllll]llllllIllllllllllllllfillllllllllllllllilllllllllllllilll 1HO?TI? Two wayo to opreadglue To soreada aluebead

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art oupplyelores.Tocleanlhe rollerafler use,roll iI repeaNedly overa ocrapboard.Fora ohoP-made ueea 6-inchlenqlhof alueepreaAer, i/"-inchdowelae a handleNoholda 2-incheectionof a brokenor worn or blade.Usea backeaw hackeaw in one slot' shallow cuN a saw No band endof lhe dowel,makinqit' t'hinenouqh lo holdNhebladeeectiononu4ly.FiI the int'othe sloL' bladeNeelh-eide-ouL

r) Applying theglue of the marring theedges L fo auoid you the clamPs, panel tighten when of scrapwoodat least cuttwopieces and to beglued, aslongastheboards first pads. the Leaving usethemas boardfacedown,standtheother pieces on edgesothatthetriangle marksfaceawayfromyou.APPIY a thingluebeadto eachboard(/eff), justenough to covertheedgecompletely is spread. whentheadhesive glue in willresult a weak Toolittle a mess bond;toomuchwillcause Usea theclamPs. whenyoutighten to spread brush small,sttff-bristled edges ontheboard theglueevenly (abovd,leaving Do no baresPots. forsPreading; notuseyourfingers to thegluewill dirtorgrease adding thebondandslowthedrying weaken time.Moveonto step3 assoonas possible thegluefromdryto prevent youtighten theclamPs. ingbefore


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CARCASECONSTRUCTION

Tightening theclamps Setthe boardsfacedownand line u p t h e i re n d s ,m a k i n gs u r et h a tt h e s i d e so f t h e t r i a n g l e alignT . i g h t e tnh e c l a m p su n d e rt h e b o a r d sj u s te n o u g h t o b u t tt h e mt o g e t h e cr ,h e c k i n g again f o r a l i g n m e nA t . v o i do v e r t i g h t e n i n g t h e c l a m p so r t h e b o a r d sm a yb u c k l e u p a t t h e j o i n t s .P l a c ea t h i r dc l a m p acrossthe top of the boards, centering i t b e t w e etnh e t w o u n d e r n e a t F h i.n i s h t i g h t e n i n ag l l o f t h e c l a m p si n t u r n (left) until there are no gapsbetween t h e b o a r d sa n d a t h i n b e a do f g l u e s q u e e z eosu t o f t h e j o i n t s .

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Leveling theboards Foradjacentboardsthat do not lie

perfectly levelwitheachother,usea C c l a m pt o h o l dt h e mi n a l i g n m e n t . Protecting theboards withwoodpads, c e n t et rh ec l a m po nt h ej o i n tn e atrh e endof thestock;placea stripof wax paperundereachpadto prevent it from sticking to theboards. Thentightenthe clampuntiltheboards arelevel(right). Refer to themanufacturer's instructions fortheglue's drying time.lf youareshort of clamps, markthetimeonthepanel sothatyoucanmoveonto thegluing of thenextpanelassoonaspossible.

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CONSTRUCTION CARCASE

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glue theexcess f, Removing :,f Usea plasticputtyknifeto remove glueas asmuchof thesqueezed-out it dries.Themoisture oossible before e illbe f r o mg l u el e f to n t h e s u r f a c w swelling bythewood,causing absorbed a n ds l o wd r y i n gh; a r d e n eadd h e s i v e c a na l s oc l o gs a n d p a p edru, l lp l a n e r knivesandrepelwoodstain.Oncethe from gluehasdried,remove theclamps andusea paint thetop of the boards, that anysqueeze-out to remove scraper (/eftl.Remove the lowerclamps, remarns by thepanelforjoinery thenprepare planing anedgeandcutting it, jointing t o i t sf i n i s h eddi m e n s i o n s . t h ep i e c e to smooththe surUsea beltsander once facesthatwillbehardto reach is assembled carcase the

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'lll$ "llllflt"llJ"llf

"lfif"1lr1llf".llr'ffi llll"l$

1HO?TI? ?revenling clamp otains Themetal bar of a clamp can be olainedby adheeive thal dripodurin44luing Oriedqluecan operationo. aleo interterewith Ihe ratchetinqaction ot elimieomeclamoe.To nat'eNheproblem,usea haoksawor bandeawto cut a rollof wax?a?erinto Z-inch' eachNime widemini'rolls.Then, you applya clamp,tearofl a ot'rip of paVerIo wrapoveror underNhebar.

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CARCASECONSTRUCTION

GIUERACK Tousethegluerack,seatat least A shop-built rackmadefromtwo twobarclampsin the notches so provides sawhorses a convenient thatthe boards to begluedare wayto holdtheclamps forgluing supported at leastevery24 to 36 up a panel.Tobuildthejig,remove thecrosspiecefromyoursawhorses. Cutreplacements thesamewidth andthickness astheoriginals, making themat leastas longastheboards thatyouwillbegluing. Usea handsawor a bandsawto cut notches alongoneedgeof each crosspieceat 6-inchintervals. Make the cutswideenough to holda bar c l a m ps n u g l a y n dd e e pe n o u gtho holdthebarlevelwiththetopof the crosspiece.Youcanalsocut notches pipeclamps, to accommodate but barclampsarestronger.

inches. Therestof theoperation is identical to edgegluingboards ona worksurfaceasshownin steps3 to pages. 5 onthepreceding

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ANAIDT(lALIGNMENT DOWELS: usedowelsto help Marrywoodworkers with thealignmentof boardsin a panel.Oneof theproblemsin usingthis techniqueis that thewoodpins have to bepreciselycenteredon theedges of theboardsto bejoined.In thephoto at left,locationpointshavebeenmade for thedowels-oneabout3 inches from eachendof theboardsand one in themiddle.A line is thenscribed across thepointswith a cuxinggauge of the setto one-halfthe thickness at thecenter stock.Thelinesintersect perguaranteeing of theboardedges, placement the dowels. of fect

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thedowelholes 1 Boring onthe board I Locatepointsfor dowels Toavoidsplitting edges(phoitoabove). dowels withthe pins,usegrooved boards asthick thatarenomorethanone-half asthestock.Fita drillwitha bitthesame thenwrapa strip diameter asthedowels, thebit to mark tapearound of masking beslightthedrillingdepth,whichshould the lengthof the ly morethanone-half tothe Keepthedrillperpendicular dowels. boardedgeasyouboreeachhole(righ), tape thebitwhenthemasking withdrawing thedrill thestock.(Although touches press canalsobeusedto boretheholes, steadyon the longerboards keeping difficult.) tablemayprove machine's

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r) Pinpointing mating dowelhotes L lnserta dowelcenterthesamediameter asthedowels in eachof the holes(above), thensettheboards flatonthe clamps withthetriangle markfacingyou.Aligntheendsof theboards andbutttheedgeof thesecond boardagainst thatof thefirst.Thepointed endsof thedowel centers will punchimpressions providing onthewood, points starting for themating dowel holes. Boretheseholes to thesamedepth as in step1, thenrepeat theprocedure forthethirdboard.

Gluing uptheboards A p p l yg l u et o t h e b o a r dt h e s a m ew a ya s w h e ne d g e

gluing(page 21).fhenusea pencil tip to daba smallamount of adhesive in thebottom of eachdowelhole.Avoid spreading gluedirectly onthedowels; quickly theyabsorb moisture and willswell, making themdifficult to fit intotheirholes. Insert (above), thedowels thentapthemintofinalposition using a hammer. Avoidpounding onthedowels; thismaycause a board to split.Close upthejoint,thentighten theclamps (page22). Remove the excessglue(page23).

ilIlllllilttfillfililllllll illlfiltfltlllJil[filtllllilltiltlljltllll 1HO?TI? lnoerling dowelewith a deplh 0au0e ToavoidNherisk of oplittin7 boardswheninseilinqdowels,usethie oimple ehoV-made depth qauqe.Kipa f-inch'/' longboardto a Nhickneeethal ie exactly one-haltthe lenqthof Nhe dowele.Borea holethaN is olightlywiderNhanthe t.hicknessof Nhedowelelhrou7hthe gauqenearoneend. Thenplaceit aroundeachdowelwhenyou NapiXinNo its hole.Thedowelwillbe aNT,hecorrecl deobhwhen iNis flush with the Lopof Nhedepth qauqe.

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CARCASE IOINERY herearemanywaysof joiningcarThepages that J. casepanelstogether. follow will examinethreeof the most popularchoices:dovetail,rabbetand platejoinery.As shownin thephotoat right, the interlockingpins and tails of a throughdovetailjoint giveboth solidity and distinctiveappearance. Cuttingsucha joint with thetraditional hand tools is considereda rite of passage for aspiringwoodworkers.It requiresskill and practiceto perfect. It alsoleavesroom for creativity,since it allowsyou to choosethe width of pins and tails to giveyour joints an

f

blind dovetail,which is examinedon pages B2-84. If you prefer somewhatsimpler forms of joinery,try eitherthe rabbet or the plate joint (page34-37).Both are ideal for joining plywood panels,which arenot suitedfor dovetails. Whichevertype of joinery you select, you mustplan aheadfor the laterstages projects,suchas pleasinglook. The same ofyour cabinetmaking esthetically panels, shelving,edge joint canbeexecuted installingback in far lesstime,but Somedrawer-hangbandingor drawers. with equalprecision,usinga routerand requireyou a jig; that approachis demonstrated ing methods,for example, panels (page before 80-81). to rout a groovein theside in the Drawerschapter is assembled. thecarcase You may also want to try the half-

D()VETAIL JOINTS thoulder line

Half-pin

X

X X /

\ X

X X

'l 0utlining thepins faceof eachpanelwitha bigX,thenseta I Marktheoutsrde of thestockandscribea line cuttinggaugeto thethickness of thepins to marktheshoulder along theendsof thefourpanels of the thatwillformthetopandbottom andtails.Thepanels eachonein turnin a vise Secure willbethepinboards. carcase thepinsontheendsof the to outline square andusea dovetail at Startwithhalf-pins above. boardasshownrnthesequence endsof thepinsareon surethatthenarrow eachedge,making thewastesections Nextoutline faceof theboard. theoutside thenmarkthecenterof theboardend. adjacent to thehalf-pins,

thenoutline theremaining mark, a pinat thecenter Outline withXs. pins(above, all thewastesections right),marking (Youcanalsousea sliding gauge thepins; bevel to outline or 1:8for hardwood.) setanangleof about1:6forsoftwood of pinsorfor forthenumber There arenorigidguidelines pinsthatare spaced them.Butevenly between thespacing around them thesizeof thewastesections at leastone-half andsolidjoint.Usea combination makeforanattractive markssothattheyreach allthedovetail square to extend lineson bothfacesof theboards. theshoulder


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r) Cutting thepins Z- Secure thefirstpin boardin a vise sothattheoutside faceof thepanelis you.Usea dovetail toward sawto cut alongtheedges of thepins,working from onesideof thepanelto theother. Some preferto cut allthe left-hand woodworkers edges first,thenmoveon to the righthandedges. Foreachcut,holdthepanel steady andalignthesawbladejustto the waste sideofthecuttingline.Usesmooth, evenstrokes, allowing thesawto cut on the pushslroke(right). Continue sawing r i g h t o t h es h o u l d el irn e ,m a k i nsgu r e t h a tt h eb l a d ei s p e r p e n d i c utloatrh e line.Next,usea copingsaw(sfep3) or a chisel(step4) to remove the waste between thepins.Repeat theprocedure at theotherendof theboardandat both endsof theotherpinboard.

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t I I thewaste witha coping saw Q Removing r-J Standontheothersideof the panel andbegincuttingawaythewastewood between thepins.At thesideof eachpin, slidea coping sawbladeintothekerfand rotatetheframewithoutstriking theend of theboard. Cutoutasmuchof thewaste asyoucanwhilekeeping theblade about %oinchabove theshoulder line.Cut(/efrl untilyoureachthekerfontheedgeof the pin.Pareawayanyremaining adjacent wastewitha chisel(step5).

2B

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CARCASECONSTRUCTION

Removing thewaste witha chisel Setthepaneloutside faceupona worksurface and clampona guideblock, aligning itsedgeabout%oinchto thewaste sideof theshoulder line.Using a woodchiselno widerthanthenarrow sideof thewastesection, butttheflat sideof thebladeagainst theguideblock.Holdtheendof thechiselsquare to thefaceof thepanelandstrikeit witha wooden mallet(left),scoring a lineabout7s-inch-deep. Then turnthechiseltoward theendof thepanelabout% inch belowthesurface of thewoodandshave off a thin layerof thewaste(below). Continue shaving awaythewastein this fashion untilyouareabouthalfway through thethickness of thepanel, thenmoveonto thenextsection. Whenyouhave removed all thewastefromthisside,turnoverthepanel, andworkfromtheothersideuntilthepinsareallexposed.

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paring f, Final \,, Withthepaneloutside faceup,aligntheedge of a guideblockwiththeshoulder lineonthepanel andclampit in place. Butttheflatsideof a chisel yourthumbto holdthe against theblock, andusing gently bladevertical, taponthehandle to pareaway thefinalsliverof waste(left).Repeat the process between theotherpinsuntilthereis nowaste beyond theshoulder line.

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CARCASECONSTRUCTION

I Preparing to outline thetails S e to n eo f t h e t a i l b o a r d so u t s i d e f a c ed o w no n a w o r ks u r f a c ea n d c l a m p a g u i d eb l o c ko n t o p o f i t w i t h t h e e d g e o f t h e b l o c kf l u s hw i t ht h e s h o u l d elri n e . T h e nh o l dt h e e n d o f o n eo f t h e p i n b o a r d sa g a i n stth e g u i d eb l o c kw i t h i t s o u t s i d ef a c ea w a yf r o mt h e t a i l b o a r d . F a s t e na h a n d s c r e w to the pin board a n d u s ea n o t h ecr l a m pt o h o l di t f i r m l y rn position(/eff).

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Markingthe tails I / Usea pencrlto outlineIhe Iatls (rrghil, t h e nr e m o v e t h e c l a m p sa n d u s ea c o m b i n a t i o ns q u a r et o e x t e n dt h e l i n e so n t ot h e e n do f t h e b o a r dM . a r kt h e w a s t es e c t i o n s w i t hX s ,t h e no u t l i n et a i l so n t h e o t h e r e n do f t h e b o a r da n da t b o t he n d so f t h e o t h e rp a n e l .

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Cuttingthetails andremoving waste U s ea d o v e t a isl a wt o c u t t h e t a i l s the samewayyou cut the pins (step2). S o m ew o o d w o r k efrisn d t h a t a n g l i n gt h e b o a r d ,a s s h o w nr a t h e rt h a n t h e s a w m a k e st h e c u t t i n gg o e a s i e rI.n e i t h e r case,sawsmoothlyand evenly,and stop justa fractionof an inchbeforeyoureach t h e s h o u l d elri n e .R e m o v teh e b u l k o f t h e w a s t ew i t h e i t h e ra c o p i n gs a w (step3) or a chisel (step4), then pare a w a yt h e f i n a l b i t so f w a s t ed o w nt o the shoulderline (step5).

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Dry-fitting thecarcase gluing Before upthecarcase, assemble it to check t h e f i t o f a l l t h e j o i n t s .S t a n do n eo f t h e p i n b o a r d so n a w o o db l o c k t, h e na l i g na m a t i n gt a i l b o a r dw i t h i t ; supportthe otherend of the tail boardwith a sawhorse. P r e s st h e l o i n t t o g e t h e b r y h a n da s f a r a s i t w i l l g o , t h e nt a p t h e t w o e n d st h e r e s to f t h e w a y i n t o p l a c e , whileprotecting the workpiece with a scrapboard.To a v o i db i n d i n ga n dd a m a g i ntgh e p i n s ,c l o s et h e j o i n t evenlyalongits wholelenglh(left).Jointhe otherpin a n dt a i l b o a r d tsh e s a m ew a y ,t a p p i n go n l yo n t h e t a i l b o a r dT. h ej o i n t ss h o u l db e t i g h te n o u g ht o r e q u i r ea l i t t l eg e n t l et a p p i n gb, u t a v o i du s i n ge x c e s s i vf o er c e . l f t h e j o i n t i s c l e a r l yt o ot i g h t ,m a r kt h e s p o tw h e r ei t b i n d st,h e nd i s a s s e m btlhee p a n e l sa n d u s ea c h i s etl o pareawaya little morewood.DryJitthe carcaseagain a n d m a k ef u r t h e ra d j u s t m e n t isf ,n e c e s s a rlyf .t h e r er s anygapbetween a pin anda tail, inserta thin wedgeto f i l l i I ( p a g e3 2 ) . A I t h i s p o i n t ,y o uw i l l n e e dt o s e e t o t h e o t h e rr e q u i r e m e n ot sf y o u rp r o j e c ts, u c ha s i n s t a l l i na g b a c kp a n e l( p a g e3 & a n d e d g eb a n d i n g ( p a g e3 9 ) , i f d e s i r e dt,h e n p r e p a r i ntgh e s i d e sf o r shelves(page41) or drawers. Oncethat is done,glue up the carcase(stepl0).

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f\ Gluingup thecarcase e hen I\J r o a p p l yp r o p e rp r e s s u rw t i g h t e n i ntgh e c l a m p su, s ef o u rw o o d p a d ss p e c i a l lnyo t c h e d f o r d o v e t a ji ol i n t s . M a k et h e p a d st h e s a m el e n g t ha s t h e p a n e l sa r ew i d e ,a n dc u t a w a y carcase l i t t l et r i a n g u l anro t c h e s o t h a ti h e w o o d w i l l o n l ym a k ec o n t a cw t i t ht h e t a i l sa n d n o te x e r tp r e s s u roen t h e p i n s .A p p l ya t h i n b e a do f g l u eo n t h e f a c e so f t h e p i n s a n dt a i l st h a tw i l l b e i n c o n i a cw t h e nt h e j o i n t sa r ea s s e m b l e dU.s ea s m a l l ,s t i f f b r i s t l e db r u s ht o s p r e a dt h e g l u ee v e n l y , leaving n o b a r es p o t s A . s s e m b lteh e c a r c a s ea n d i n s t a ltl w o b a rc l a m p sa c r o s s t h e f a c e so f e a c ho f t h e p i n b o a r d si n t u r n .T i g h t e n t h e c l a m p sa l i t t l ea t t i m e (left)unlil a little gluesqueezes out of the joints.Remove the excessglue(page 2 3 ) , a n dk e e pt h e c l a m p si n p l a c eu n t i l t h e g l u ei s d r y .

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llltl]lllllllllllllrlll]lll ilitllilllrllltlll l[ llllllrlll1 l]ltllt jHO? TI? Dealingwith a defeclivedovetail Evena eliqhN error in cuLNinq doveLaile can resullin a small qaVbeNween a Vin a n da I a i l . l tt h e q a pi o small,fill it wilh a thin lrianqularchiVof veneeror a woodshav' i n qc u t t r o m t h e V a n eol l o c k . T om a k e L h e woodchipleesobvioue, cut itrso lhat ito qrainwillrun in the samedirectionae lhat of the Vino.Usea dovetail eawIo eLraighNen out or deepenLhegap,if neceooary. qluein NheqaVand inserlIhe chip,which AVVIya liLNle shouldfiNenualv.

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CARCASE-SOUARING BLOCKS youareinstalling Unless a back panelon a carcase, it canbedifficultto keepthefoursidessquare glueup.A shop-made during carng block(right)placed case-squari on eachcorner will helpa great deal.Foreachblock,cuta pieceof 3/q-inch plywood intoan B-inch

square. Fita drillpress oranelectric drillwitha 2-inch-diameter holesaw or circlecutter,thenboreanopeningin thecenterof theblock.(The gluesqueeze-out holewill prevent frombonding theblockto thecarcase.)Next,outfityourtablesaw witha dadoheadthatis thesame widthasthethickness of thestock.

Carcaoe-aquartnq

block B"xB"

andcuttwogrooves at rightangles to oneanother, intersecting at the centerof theblock. Tousethejig,applytheglue andassemble thecarcase, thenfit a blockovereachcorner(left), centering the holeat the point join.Makesure wheretwopanels thatthedadoes onthe blocksfit snugly around theedgesof the panels.lnstallandtightentheclamps.

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llllllltlll lllllll1 lltlll1 lll llll]ltllllilltillIlll illllll llllilt1 1HO?TI? Checkinga carcaoefor equare To Vrevenlclamp Vreoourefrom pullinqa carcaaeoul of oquaredurin4qlueu?,meazurethe diaqonalo beNween opposiLecornerl immediately after IiqhNeninq lhe clampo. TheLwo resulf,sehouldbe lhe eame.lf Nheyare noL,the carcaee ie out- of- equare.To correcNNhe loosenNheclampe,then problem, olideonejaw of eachclampaway fromthe joint aL oppooihe corners ae ehown.Tiqhten the clampeand checkaqainfor 6quare, ohifLin7Iheclampoa6 neceobary untilNhecarcaoeio oquare.

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RABBET JOINTS

t Quickandeasyto cutandassemble, therabbetjoint is idealfor bothsolid woodandplywoodcarcases. Thejoint is madeup of a boardorpanelthatfits intoa rabbetcuton itsmatingpiece. Thewidthof therabbetshouldbe equalto thethickness of thestock.In a carcase, thejoint is bestcut into theside panelssothat theendgrain of thetop and bottomwill becovered. Although stronger thansimplebuttjoints,rabbet jointsfrequentlyrequirescrewsor nails for reinforcement.

therabbets 1t Cuttine I Marka cuttinglineforthewidthof edgeof one therabbetonthe leading l l d a d oh e a d s i d ep a n e lT. h e ni,n s t a a widerthantherabbet andlower slightly it below t h et a b l eS . crew a na u x i l i a r y woodfenceto thesaw'sripfenceand markthedepthof therabbet on it; the depthshould beone-half thethickness of thestock.Withthemetalfenceclear theauxiliary of thedadohead,position fenceoverthetableopening. Turnon slowlyintothe thesaw.Raise theblades woodupto thedepthline.Turnoffthe sawandlineupthepanelandauxiliary fenceforcutting a therabbet. Clamp featherboard to thefenceabove the dadoheadto holdthepanelsecurely against thetable.Turnonthesawand makethe cut (above), thenrepeat the process fortheremaining rabbets in the (Caution: guard sidepanels. Blade removed forclarity.)

filillttlltlllfitltll]IrIIJlllllllllllfiltllrllltlllttlllfillllll

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lnvisiblenailer Toconcealnaile driveninLoa carcaoepanel,uoe a b l i n dn a i l e r . Thecommercial deviceworkslike a mini-plane,litti n 7a l h i n w o o d ehavinqunderwhicha nailcan bedriven.The ohavinq canLhenbeqluedriqhl backdownto hidelhe nailhead. )et up the nailertollowing Lhemanufactrurer's inslrucLions-uouallyf or a 1/zz-inch-t hickohavinq, And praclioe on a 6cra?boardbeforeuoin7the naileron an aclual workpiece. Theehavinqyou raieemusl be lon4enou4h to leNyou drivethe nailcomforLably. A ebriVof Iape will holdIhe ehaving downwhileNheqlueie drying.

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upthecarcase ! Gluing 1- Dry-fit thecarcase, thenmakeanyothernecessary preparations, suchasinstalling a backpanelor preparing Then,applya thinbeadof adhesive thesidesforshelving. surfaces of thetop in therabbets andonthecontacting panels. theglueevenly, andbottom Usea brushto spread leaving nodryspots. Assemble thecarcase andinstall two panels, protecting barclamps across thetopandbottom withwoodpads. Tighten a little theworkpieces theclamps at a timeuntilgluestartsto squeeze outof thejoints. Reinforce thejointswithscrews aboutI inchf romthe of thetopandbottompanels; foraddrtional strengih, edges in themiddle. lf youwishto conceal the drivemorescrews screwheadswithwoodplugs,boreholesin twostages bits.First, usinganelectric drillf ittedwithtwodifferent fortheplugs; usea spade bitwideenough to makeholes widerthanthescrew thenswitchto a twistbitslightly holes. Boretheclearance shanks formaking clearance holes deepenough to reach thesidepanels; angle thedrill theinsideof thecarcase to increase thegrip slightly toward Then,drivethescrewsintoplace(right). of thescrews.

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t I I T I woodplugs ? Installing r-,1 Tosecure theplugs,applya dab of glueto thescrewheads, theninsert a plugintoeachhole(/effl,aligning the grainwiththatof thepanels. Tapthe plugsin placewitha wooden mallet, thenusea woodchisel to trimtheprojecting stubsflushwiththesurface of thepanels. Finally, remove anyexcess glue(page23).

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CARCASECONSTRUCTION

t PLATE JOINTS Although it lack the allu'e of luud-ctft dovetails,theplate or biscuitjoirt hnsgrown in popularity in recerttyearsltecause of its strengthand sinrylicity.Tlrcjoint is ctrt with a platejoiner, showrrirr thephoto nt left. The tool workssorrrewhnt like n rrirtiotttrccircrtIar saw,with n retractablebladethat plunges into mating workpieces. Glue is nppliedand an oval-shapedbiscuitof corrtpressed beeclr is insertedhtto rtntching slotsorr eachpiece. The carcnseis therrossentbled. Sirtcethe blade projectsfront the tool orily while it is ctrttirrg, theplatejoirrcr is very safeto use.Guide lines on thebaseplateof the nnchine rnakeit u sir'trple nntter to nlign the slotsirr nnting boards. The slotsare cut slightlylnrgerthnn the bisctrits,perntitting n small rnargin of error while still ennn'inga properlyaligrecljoirtt.

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Marking thelocation ofthejoints _

I l d e n t i f tyh e o u t s i d e f a c eo f e a c hp a n e l w i t ha n X , t h e nm a r kl o c a t i o p n o i n t sf o r t h e s l o t sa l o n ge a c ho f t h e f o u r c o r n e r s . S t a r tw i t h o n eo f t h e s i d ep a n e l so u t s i d e f a c ed o w no n a w o r ks u r f a c ea n d h o l d t h e t o p p a n eal t a 9 0 ' a n g l et o i t . U s ea p e n c i l t om a r kl i n e st h a to v e r l atph e faceof the top pieceandthe endof the s i d ep a n eal b o u t2 i n c h e si n f r o me a c h c o r f l â‚Ź rm ; a k ea t h i r dm a r km i d w a ya l o n g t h ee d g eW . i d e rp a n e l sw i l l r e q u i r e addit i o n a lb i s c u r t si n; g e n e r atl h, e r es h o u l d b e o n eb i s c u i e t v e r y4 t o 6 i n c h e sM . ark s i m i l a rs l o t l o c a t i o np o i n t so n t h e o t h e r threecornersof the carcase.

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)loL locaLion mark

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CONSTRUCTION CARCASE,

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r) Cutting theslots facedownontheworksurface, sidepaneloutside L Leauinga piece outside faceup ontopof it. Offsettheendsof setthetop of the byan amount equalto thethickness thetwoworkpieces marks on the two stock.Makesurethatmatingslotlocation panel perfectly panels with wood Protecting thetop aligned. are pads,clampthetwoworkpieces in placeandsetin frontof Thissetasthestock. board thesamethickness thema suooort you of the carcase upwillallow to cutalltheslotsforonecorner panels. instrucFollow themanufacturer's the withoutmoving thedepthof cutontheplatejoiner;it usually tionsforsetting

the plate on the sizeof biscuitbeingused.Resting depends j o i n e ro n t h e s u p p o r b t o a r d ,b u t t t h e m a c h i n e 'fsa c e p l a t ea g a i n stth e e n d o f t h e t o p p a n e la n d a l i g nt h e g u i d e n a r ko n t h e s t o c k . e i t ha s l o tl o c a t i o m l i n eo n t h e f a c e p l a tw Holding t h e j o i n e rw i t h b o t hh a n d sc, u t a s l o ta t e a c hm a r k ( l e f i l . f oc u t t h e m a t i n gs l o t si n t h e s i d ep a n e l b, u t tt h e j o i n l n dt h e na l i g nt h e e r ' sb a s ep l a t ea g a i n stth e t o p p a n e a centerguidelineon the baseplatewith a slot locationmark to cut on the top panel(righil.Followthe sameprocedure marks. s l o t sa t t h e o t h e rs l o tl o c a t i o n

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upthecarcase Q Gluing r-J 0nceall theslotshavebeencut,dry-fitthe panels or a backpanelif thatis partof yourdesign, andinstall glue Then up the carready for shelves or drawers. make facedownona worksuroutside case:Setthesideoanels glue intoeachslotandalong squeeze a bead of face,and panels theslots,inserting bisof the between thesurface panels, you go boftom Repeat for the top and cuitsas @fl. Toprevent thewooden thistimeomitting thebiscuits. panels are assembled, before the wafers fromexpanding possible, gluing quickly fitting thestde as upas dothe p a n eal n dt h e na d d i ntgh et o p . p a n e losnt h eb o t t o m panels thetopandbottom Install twobarclamps across gluing you would when theclamps exactly as andtighten joints rabbet 35). with up a carcase @age

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CARCASECONSTRUCTION

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INSTALLING A BACKPANEL

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Routing a rabbet forthepanel I Fitthepanels together andsetthecarcase ona worksurface withits backside facingup;install a barclampwitha support board across thetop andbottompanels, asshown. Installa 3/s-inch rabbeting bit witha ballpilotonyourrouter, bearing thensetthedepthadjustment to cut %oinch deeper thanthethickness youwillbeinstalling. of thebackpanel Starting at onecorner, resttherouter's baseplateonthesupport boardwiththebit justclearoftheworkpiece. Griptherouter firmlywithbothhands andturnit o n ,g u i d i ntgh eb i t i n t ot h ep a n e lO. n c et h ep i l o tb u t t sa g a i n st ht es t o c k , pulltherouterslowly toward theadjacent corner, keeping thebaseplate flat.Whenyoureachthecorner, turntherouteroff.Reposition thesupport boardandcutrabbets alongtheedges panels ofthethreeremaining in the samemanner(above).

r) Squaring thecorners 1 tlsea pencilanda straightedge to mark square corners in therounded endsof the rabbets. Select a woodchisel thatiswide enough to finishoff thecorners wrthtwo perpendicular cuts.At eachcorner, stand thetip of thechiselonthemarkthatruns across thegrain,making surethatthebevel facestheinside of thecarcase. Usea woodenmallet to strikethechisel(above), cutting to thedepthof therabbet. Alignthechisel withtheothermarkandstrike thehandle (Making again. thecutwiththegrainf irst maycause thepanel to split.)

thepanel Q Installing r-,f Cuta pieceof plywood to fit snuglyintotherabbetsonthebackof thecarcase. Glueupthecarcase and,at thesametime,applya thingluebeadalong therabbets forthebackpanelandonthecontacting surfaces of theplywood. Spread theglueevenly, set thepanelin position, thenusesmallnailsto secure (/effJ. it at 4-inchintervals

3B

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EDGEBANDING D dg. bandingistheusualwayof conof plyruood Ij cealingthevisibleedges theillusion it creates panelsandshelves; of is madeexclusively that the carcase solidwood.Youcanchooseoneof two options:Commercialedgebanding, shownon page40,is availablein a wide varietyof woodtypes,colorsandthick-

nesses. Installingit is simplya matterof cuttingoffthe lengthsyou needfrom a roll, settingthe bandingin placeand heatingit with a householdiron to melt that bondsit to the surface the adhesive ofthe wood. Althoughsomewhatmorepainstakedgebanding ing to apply,shop-made

overthe storeoffersseveraladvantages boughtsolution.Youcanmakeit from anv availablewood speciesand cut it to whatever thicknessyou choose; bandingis typical.The 7s-inch-thick varietyis alsolessexpenshop-made sive-a considerationif you plan to usea lot ofbanding.

BANDING EDGE SHOP.MADE thebanding 1 Applying I Usethetablesawto cutthinstrips froma board;besureto of edgebanding usea oushstickto feedthestockintothe longer than Makethestripsslightly blade. thepanelandat leastaswideasthepanel isthick.Gripthepanelat eachendin thenclampthehandscrews a handscrew, sothatthefrontedgeof to a worksurface facesup.Thenapplya thtn theworkpiece gluebeadto theedgeof thepanelanduse the brushto spread a small,stiff-bristled along thebanding evenly. Center adhesive edge; to holdit flatwhilethe thepanel's gluedries,tapeit veryf irmlyat 2-inch intervals. Useas manystripsof tapeas anygapsbetween necessary to eliminate andtheedgeof thepanel. thebanding

I I I I I r) Trimming excess banding gluehasdried, that trimanyedgebanding Z Oncethe projects Fita routerwitha flushthepaneledges. beyond baseplateonthepanel bit,thenrestthemachine's cuttrng Holding banding. edgewiththebitjustclearof theexcess turnonthemotorand firmlywithbothhands, therouter guidethebit intotheexcess Oncethebit'spilot banding. the thepanel,guidetherouterslowlyagainst buttsagainst endof theworkto theopposite of bit rotation direction piece. Makesurethatthebaseplateandthepilotremain andendsof sandtheedges Lightly flushwiththepanel. unevenness. anyremaining thebanding to remove

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a CARCASECONSTRUCTION

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SETF.ADHESIVE BANDING

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theedgebanding 1 Applying I Seta household ironon High(without steam) andallowit to heatuo.Meanwhile. applyclamps to holdthepanelupright, andcuta stripof banding slightly longer thantheedgeto becovered. Setthebandingadhesive-side downalongthe panel e d g eH . o l d i ntgh eb a n d i nign p l a c e with onehand,runthe ironslowly alongthe paneledge,pressing thetrimflat.Theheat of theironwillmelttheglueandjointhe banding to thepanel. Keeptheironmoving;resting it ononespotfor morethan a fewseconds will leavescorchmarks.

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llltllllfllJ fit]IIJlllllll]lllllllllll]lltllllIIJillJlllllllltllllllt 1HO?TI? r) Flattening outthetrim pressure, L Applyingeven runa smallhandrollerbackandforthalong the lengthof theedgebanding to smooth it outandbondit firmlyto the paneledge.Shaveoff anyexcess banding witha laminate edgetrimmeror a router(page39).

5 pringboard f or alamping edgebanding Forthick edgebandinq,iNmay be neceeoary to clampLhebandinryto a paneledqewhilethe gluedriee.Foratypical panel, you miqhLneedNhreeor four bar clampo;a einqle clampwill suffice, howevenif youueea ohop-made oprinqboard.To make the device,cut a genblecurve-r/+-inch-deep aL iIs c oneed7eof a 2-inch-wide boardthe eami lenaNh and Nhickness ae the panel.CenterNhepanelon a bar clampand seNVhe concaveed4eofthe Ihe epringboard aqainof,lhe againeL the edge edgebandinq.Uee bandinq. Ue a woodpad lo prolecl prolecl the Vanel, Ti the clampunLilNhe protecl Vanel,Ti4hten epringboard flatlens aqainelthe bandinq.

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SHELVING isoneway to a carcase I ddingshelves f\ to turn a simplewoodbox into a usefulpieceof furniture.The simplest is to bore methodfor installingshelves parallel rowsof holesin the side two panelsof the carcase and insertcommerciallyavailableplasticor metalshelf shownin supports.Thetwo alternatives thischapterrequirea littlemorepreparation, but they havea payoffin that thereareno visibleshelfsupportsto mar theappearance of thefinishedpiece.Like hiddensupcommercialshelfhardware, ports(belowandpage42)areadjustable; the differenceis that they relyon narrowwoodstripsrecessed in rabbetscut into the undersideof the shelves, and this makesthem all but invisible. For fixedshelves(page43),youhave to rout dadoeson carcase sides.The shelves arethen gluedpermanentlyin is assembled. Many woodworkers usecommercialshelf-drillingjigsto helpwith the olacewhenthe carcase job of boringparallelrowsof holes.Clampedto theedgeof thepanel, rowsareperfectlyaligned.Thejig the jig ensures that thecorresponding anydistance in thephotoallowsyou to boreholesat l-inch intervals from 2 inchesin from theedges is typical. theedges of thepanel.For mostprojects

ADJUSTABLE SHELF SUPPORTS HIDDEN

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andinstalling 1 Making I ttrestretfsupports Boreholesfortheshelfsupports usinga jig.Afterthecarcase is assemcommercial pershelf. For bled,maketwosupports eachof them,cut a thinstripof wood aboutI inchlonger thanthegapbetween therowsof holes;makethestripwide enough to holda dowelat eachend.To markpositions forthedowels, inserta dowelcenterintoeachof twoparallel holes, thenpress thewoodstripagainst forthe theooints. Usetheindentations points forboring dowelcenters asstarting t h eh o l e sM . a k et h eh o l e si n t h es h e l f pieces support thesamedepthasthe h o l e isn t h es i d eo a n e l sG.l u ed o w e l s intotheshelfsupports, andwhenthe has install themonthe adhesive dried, panels height side at the thatyouwant rest. theshelfto

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CARCASECONSTRUCTION

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t r) Making andpreparing theshelving plywood Z- Usesolidlumber, or edge-glued boards(page20)to maketheshelving. Cuteach shelfto thesamewidthasthecarcase oanels andto a length equalto thedistance between thesidepanels. Addedgebanding to thevisible edgeof theshelf(page39),if desired. Toconcealthesupports, routstopped rabbets in the . Startbypositioning shelf theshelfonthesupportsandoutlining theirlocations ontheundersideof theshelf.Usinga woodpadto prevent anymarring, clamptheshelfto a worksurface. Fita routerwitha rabbeting bit,thensetthe depthof cutto thewidthof theshelfsupports. Gripping thetoolfirmlywithbothhands andrestingits baseplateontheshelf,routeachrabbet (abovd,making asmanypasses asnecessary to cutto themarked outline. Square theendsof the rabbetsusinga chisel(page3B).

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t I I I theshelving Q Installing \Jt Withtheshelfsupports at thedesired height onthesidepan(above). els,test-fittheshelfin thecarcase Usea chiselto adjust the length, widthor depthof thestopped rabbets, if necessary, to ensure a perfect f it thatcompletely hidestheshelfsupports.

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CARCASECONSTRUCTION

FIXED SHETVING thecarcase sidepanels 1 Preparing I Setthesidepanels oneontooof theotheron a worksurandmarkcuttinglinesforthe face,edges andendsaligned, of bothpanels. Makethewidth dadoes ontheleading edges of theshelf;thedepth of thedadoes equalto thethickness Install of thesideoanels. a should beone-half thethickness dadoheadona tablesawandalignthecuttinglinesonone to the proper heightfor sidepanelwithit. Cranktheblades the theripfenceflushagainst thedepthof cut,thenposition panel.Cuta testdadoin a scrapboardandadjustthewidth Clampa featherboard to thefenceabove of cut if necessary. stability. Tomakethecutin each thedadoheadforadded panel, turnonthesawandfeedthepanelintothedadohead Blade usingthemitergauge andbothhands(/eft).(Caution: guardremoved forclari$.)

r) Making anddry-fitting theshelving plywood tlsesolidlumber, oredge-glued boards I (page20)to maketheshelving. Cuteachshelfto panels andto a thesamewidthasthecarcase thesidepanlengthequalto thedistance between Addedgebanding elsplusthedepthof thedadoes. 39),if desired. to thevisible edgeof theshelf@age jointhetopand Tocheckthefit of theshelving, withonesidepanel, of thecarcase bottompanels intothe dadotighD.FiIthe thenfit theshelving othersidepanelontop.Adjustthe lengthor width if necessary, to ensure a perfect fit. of theshelving,

upthecarcase Q Gluing r-J Applya thingluebeadintothedadoes in thesrdepanels whilegluing surfaces of theshelving andonthecontacting Spread theglueevenly andthenassemble upthecarcase. (step2). Clampthecorners of the theboxaswhendry-fitting joints@age32) or for rabbetor plate for dovetail carcase joints(paEe35).Fortheshelving, installa barclampacross thesidepanels withwood eachedgeof theshelf, protecting pads;placea %-inch-thick woodchipundereachpadto pressure midway between the focussomeof theclamping of theshelving. Tighten eachclampa littleat a time edges untila thingluebeadsqueezes outof eachdado.

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FRA4E-AdD-PN\TEL CONSTRI.ICTION

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joinery was rame-and-panel inventedabout 500yearsago)

Theopening in theframeisfilled "floating"panel,which in by a sits probablyby a frustratedmedieval grooves cutin therailsandstiles. Thepanelis saidto floatbecause craftsman deterrnined to findabetit is not gluedin place.Rather, terwayto buildcabinets thansimply it fixing boardstogether.A major merelyfitsin itsgrooves with room of woodasa building for movement. If thepanelwere drawback material isitstendency gluedin place,theassembly might to warpand split.Frame-and-panel offersasolueventually split. Panelsaresetinto their surtion to theseoroblems. Ever-changing moisturelevels roundingframeswithoutglueto minimizewarping. Butin addition in theaircause woodto move,espepressure ciallyacrossthegrain.As relative Thisclampingsetupfocuses on the to theirstructural function,panels humidityrises,wood swells;as cornerjoints to locktogetherthecomponents alsoserve anesthetic role.Theyare "raised"-that themoisturecontentfalls,wood of aframe-and-panel assembly. Whileglue often is,theyhave Thecentralheatingfound bondsthecorners,no adhesive is appliedin bevels cutaroundtheiredges. This shrinks. in mostmodernhomescompounds thegroovesthat holdthepanel,allowingit not onlymakesthemeasier to fit In a heated hbmein to moveasthewoodexDands and contracts. into grooves, theproblem. but alsogivesthem winier,therelativehumiditycan interest. decorative Wth oneframe-and-panel youneedonlyrepeat drop aslow asl0 percent;in summerit cansoarto 85percent. assembled, Thedifference betweenthe two levelscansignificantlychange theprocess andvaryit slightlyto builda cabinet(page59). the cross-graindimensionsof a pieceof wood. Usually, tlvoassemblies arejoinedtogether with siderailsand Frame-and-panel constructionis designed to accommodate panels, with thefrontassembly leftopenfor a door. the movementof swellingand shrinkingwood,resultingin furAsyouwill seein thepages thatfollow,frame-and-panel niture that is both strongand stable.In the typicalpieceshown construction isaversatile furniture-building Youcan system. on the two pagesthat follow, individual frame-and-panel addabottompanelto a cabinet(page60),thenatop (page &) (page61).lnstalling assemblies arejoined togetherto form a four-sidedcabinet. andeitherfixedor adjustable shelving Eachassembly molding(page69)hidestheconnection comprisestwo verticalmembers-stiles-and between theframeand two or morehorizontalrails,all lockedtogetherby anyoneof thetop;it alsoaddsa decorative flourish. a varietyof joints.Thesecanincludedowel,plate,miter-andAlthoughthismethodof construction is moredifficultto masterthanbuildinga simplecarcase, splineandlap joints.This chapterwill showyou how to usethe theresultis a sturdy, (page48)andthe decorative functionalandattractive pieceof furniture,whichmakes haunchedmortise-and-tenon allthe joint (page51). cope-and-stick timeandeffortworthwhile.

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Mountedupside-down in a table,a routerfltted with a copingbit cutsa tongueat theendof a rail.Anotherbit will cut a matching grooveinto thestiles,makinga solidand attractivecope-and-stick joint, oneof thehallmarlcs offrame-and-panel construction.

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ANATOMY OF A FRAME-AND-PANELASSEMBLY espite theirdifferences, theframeand-panel assemblies thatmakeup haveelements in comatypicalcabinet mon:Namely,framesmadefrom rails andstiles,andpanels thatfit intogrooves in theframe.Bottoms andtopsareusuallyadded,alongwith shelvingin many cases. Thesecomponents aretypically madeof edge-glued boardsof thesame stockusedfor theframe. Individualcabinets will featurevariations.In someinstances, thesides will sharestileswith the front and back assemblies with railsfittingintoboththe edges andthefaces ofthestiles. Toprovideaccess to theinsideof thecabinet, the front frequentlyhasa framebut no panel.Sometimes, a medianrail is usedto dividethe openinginto two discrete sections. Thetwomostcommon iointsin frameand-panel cabinets ateihe haunched mortise-and-tenon andthecope-andstickThehaunched mortise-and-tenon offersgreatergluingsurfacethanthe standard mortise-andtenon,makingit a verystrongjoint. Thehaunchalso fills in the endof the groovecut into the stiles,eliminatingthe needfor stoppedgrooves. Thecope-and-stick joint providescomparable strength and addsits own decorativetouch. The routerbit that cutsthe grooves for the panelalsocarvesa decorative moldingin theinsideedges of theframe. Whatever thejoint, cabinetmakers usuallybuild framesfrom %-inchstock that is at least2 incheswide;larger stockmayalsobeusedto suitthedimensionsofa particularproject.

Rail Frovideahorizontal aupport at top and bottom of cabinet Stile Vertical component of frame

)olid wood piece that fit6 into 4roove-typically 1/z-inch-deep-in frame; can be flat with edqea rabbeted or beveledon "raiae" four aideeto center of the panel

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FRAME-AND-PANELCONSTRUCTION

ToP Uouallyoverhanqaoutaide edqeaof frame; attached with wood buttona, ae ahown,or with metal faetanera, led4er etripe or pocket holea.Edqe commonlyhaa routed decoration

Molding Concealajoint betweentop and frame; can be purchaaed or made in the ohop

Wood button Used to faaten top to frame. Oneend fits into 1roovecut into frame, permittinq ali4ht movement;other end acrewedto top

thelf eupport Can be pooit.ionedin dadoea at any heiqht inaide cabinat to provideadjuatable ehelving

Shelf May have decorative detail routed alonq front edqe

#r'

I Led4er etrip Uaedto faaten bottom or top panel to frame; one edqeacrewedto frame; other ed1e screwedto panel Eottom Attached to frame by ledqer atripa or 1lued into 7roove cut in inaideedaee of frame

Thisframe-and-panel cabinetis held togetherby haunchedmortise-andtenonjoints. Thefront hasrailsand stiles,but nopanel.Instead,a median rail serves asa dividinglinebenveen theopenings for a doorand a drawer.

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MAKINGTHEFRAME hissectionof thebookexamines I theframingtechniques forbuilding a typicalframe-and-panel case. Remember,however, youneeda carefuldesign for thewholepieceof furniturebefore you makethefirst cut on a projectof yourown. Whetheryouwill beusingthestanHa unchedmortiae-a nd-tenon ioint joint, the dard mortise-and-tenon haunched versionofthat joint (right, -stickjoint (right, top),or thecope-and bottom), calculate thenumberof rails andstilesyouwill beneeding soyoucan cutthemall to lengthandwidthat the sametime.Thispermitsyouto usethe sametoolsetupfor allthecutting. Forthehaunched mortise-and-tenon youmustcuta joint andthecope-and-stick, Cope-and-etick f

groovefor the floatingpanelalongthe insideedgesof the rails and stiles.The grooveis typically Vqinch wide and Vzinch deep,and the panelis cut to dimensionsthat allow/+ inch of its edges to sit in the groove.If you opt for morjoints,you alsoneedto tise-and-tenon cut a haunched---or notched-tenon at the endsof eachrail to accommodate the panel.For frameswith no panels,suchas the front ofthe caseshownon page59, you haveto cut standardmortise-andtenons.Toproducethisjoint, followthe sameproceduresusedin making the frameof a frame-and-paneldoor(page 104).Whatever typeof tenonyou decide to make,cutit3/+inch long andthe same thicknessasthe groovein the stiles.

HAUNCHED MORTISE.AND.TENON J(lINTS

thetenonsin therails 1 Cutting I Installa dadoheadslightly widerthanthelengthof thetenons ona tablesaw,thenattachanauxiliary fenceandraisetheblades to cut a notchin it. Setthewidthof cut eoualto thetenon length. Tocut thetenoncheeks, buttthestockagainst the fenceandthemitergauge, thenfeedit face-down overtheblades. Turnthe railoverandrepeat thecut ontheotherside.Test thetenonin a scrappieceof woodcut witha dadothesame sizeasthegrooves in thestiles;adjustthe heightof thedado headandrepeatthe cuts,if necessary. Next,cut thetenon

cheeks at theotherendof therail (above, /eff).Position the fenceto leavea haunch equalin widthto thedepthof thegroove for the panel;setthe heightof the dadoheadto cut about Vzinchintothetenon.Withthestockon its edge,usethe fenceandthe mitergaugeto guideit overthe blades. Repeat to cut the haunchontheothersideof thetenon(above, right). Fortherailsof anassembly withnopanel,cutstandard tenons (page104),makingthe shoulders equalto thewidthof the notchyoucut intothehaunched tenons.

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FRAME-AND- PANELCONSTRUCTION

r) Planning themortises inthestiles forthe L fust,evaluate theappearance of theboards withtheirbest stilesandarrange themona worksurface cabinei, suchasthe sidesfacingdown.Fora four-sided posioneshown on page59,setthestilesin theirrelative number themin sequence, tions-oneat eachcorner-and withthefrontleftstile.Thiswillhelpyourearbeginning Next, range thestilesshould theygetoutof sequence. putting locations of themortises, marktheapproximate facesat thetops Xsontheinside edges andtheinside witha median andbottoms of thestiles(lefil,Forstiles location rail,markanadditional X at theappropriate on theedseof thestock.

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-) Outlinine themortises <.

r - , 1 C l a m pt h e s t i l e st o g e t h efra c et o f a c e ,e n d sa l i g n e dT. o m a r kt h e l e n g t ho f t h e m o r t i s e su, s ea r a i lw i t h a s t a n d a r d t e n o n .H o l dt h e c h e e ko f t h e t e n o nf l u s ha g a i n stth e e d g eo f a s t i l es o t h a tt h e e d g eo f t h e r a i l i s a l i g n e dw i t h t h e e n d o f t h e s t i l e .0 u t l i n et h e w i d t ho f t h e t e n o n( a b o v el,e f t ) .T h e n usea try squareto extendthe marks(dottedlines in the illust r a t i o na) c r o s sa l l t h e s t i l e s .R e p e aat t t h e o t h e re n d a n df o r . o m a r kt h e w i d t ho f t h e m o r t i s e s , a n ym a r k sf o r m e d i a nr a i l s T remove t h e c l a m p sa n d h o l dt h e e d g eo f t h e t e n o nf l u s h

againstthe edgeof the stile (aboveright,fop);repeatfor the o t h e rs t i l e s .E x t e n dt h e m a r k sa l o n gt h e e d g eo f t h e s t i l e f t o t t e d I i n e d . f o o u t l i n et h e m o r t i s e so n t h e f a c e so f t h e s t i l e s ,f i r s t m a r kt h e l e n g t hb y e x t e n d i ntgh e l i n e sa c r o s tsh e e d g e so f t h es t i l e st o t h e f a c e s .F o rt h e w i d t h ,h o l dt h e e d g e o f t h e t e n o nf l u s ha g a i n stth e m a r k e df a c eo f t h e s t i l ea n d o u t l i n et h e c h e e k so f t h e t e n o no n t h e s t i l e ( a b o v er i g h t , b o t t o m ) .E x t e n dt h e l i n e sa l o n gt h e t a c e ( d o t t e dl i n e s ) . R e p e afto r t h e o t h e rs t il e s .

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FRAM E-AND - PANELCONSTRUCTION

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Routing themortises Secure a stilein a vise.Install a commercial edgegurdeon a plunge router, thenscrew ontotheguidea woodextension as wideastheedgeof thestile.Fittherouter witha straight bit youwillbecutthesamediameter asthewidthof the mortise ting,thensetthecuttingdepth.Center thebit overthemarks forthemortise andadjusttheedgeguideto butttheextension against f irmlywithbothhands, thestile.Gripping therouter

,{ -t

turnit onandplunge thebit intothestock(above, left).(lf you pivot areusinga conventional router, carefully thetool'sbase plateonthestockto lowerthebit.)Guidethebitfromoneend of themortise to theother.Makeasmanypasses asnecessary to cutthemortise to therequired depth.Then,square theends of themortise usinga chisel. Cutwiththebeveled edgeof the chiselfacingintothe mortise(above, righil. thegrooves f, Cutting marklocar,f Ontherailsandstiles, tionsforthegrooves thatwill holdthe panel. Thensetupyourtablesawwith an auxiliary fenceanda dadohead thesamewidthasthegroove. Place the edgeof a railora stileonthetablewith thedadoheadaligned to runrightalong itsmiddle, andadjustthefenceto butt against thestock.Usefeatherboards to holdtheworkpiece against thefence w h i l em a k i n tgh ec u t .T oc u t g r o o v e s onthefacesof thestiles, keepthefence in thesameposition: usefeatherboards b o t ha b o v e a n dt o t h es i d e so f t h e stock(left),andcomplete eachpass witha oushstick.

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J()INTS C()PE-AND.STICK thecopecutsin therails 1 Making I Insert a copingbit-alsoknown as pilot a railcutter-with a ball-bearing in a in a router, andmountthemachine tongues in router table.Youwillbecutting in the theendsoftherailsto fit intogrooves stiles.Butttheedgeof the railagainst depthsetting thebitandadjusttherouter's cutter sothatthetopof the uppermost the is slightlyabovethestock.Position fenceparallel to the mitergaugeslot andin linewiththeedgeof thebit pilot. Makethecutswitha mitergaugef itted withanextension andwiththeendof the thefence(/eftl. stockbuttedupagainst

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0 r) Adjusting theheightofthestickingbit L lnstalla stickingbit---orstilecutterpilot.Thissetupwill, witha ball-bearing shape theedges in a singleprocedure, witha decorative and of thestrles orofile fortherailsandthepanels. cutgrooves Tosetthecuttingheight, buttthe endof railsagainst the oneof thecompleted on setting bit,thenadjustthespindle the routersothatoneof theteethonthe on therail bit is levelwiththetongue (right).Alignthe fencewiththeedge of thebit pilot.

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FRAME-AND-PANELCONSTRUCTION

thestiles Q Cutting r-,1Tosecure theworkpiece, clampa featherboard to theroutertableagainst theoutside edgeof thestile;forextra support, secure a second featherboard to thefenceabove the bit.Whenfeedingtheworkpiece intothe bit (above), usea pushstickto complete thepass.

Il[llltlllllll flfllllllllllllltl|Illlllll tllllll ljlllllllll llltllll

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A ohop-builtmiter gauge lf you do nolhave a 65_ miler qauqeor if your rouLerlable io mieeinga sloI, you can u?ea o h o p - m a dj ieq L o quideetock accu- ,a ralely acroeolhe table.WiNht,he rouler Lable'efence aliqnedwiLhNheedge of the bit pilot,cuLa board IhaI willoverhangLheedqeof Nhetable by an inchor Lwowhenit ie bu|Ied aaainst the fence.)crew a ohort eu??ortpieceto Nhieboard,counNersinkinqlhe ocrew6. Then,ecrewa Lhirdboardto the undereide of lhe oupporLpiece.Thie lael addibionwillserveae a guide,runningalonqthe edqeof Nhetable. Oeforeueinqthe jiq, cuNa nolch into it by runninqit paeLNhebiL.

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MAKINGTHE PANEL canbe p anelsto fit insideyourfi'antes or edgeI madeof eitherply'wood gluedboards(page20).To ensurethat a on the panelwillfit snuglyin thegrooves railsandstiles, but stillhavea littleroom to moveasthewoodexpandsandconthinner tracts,it is madesubstintially on theedgesthanit is in themiddle.The raisedpanelis shapeofsucha so-called not by addingmaterialat the achieved centerbut by cuttingawaythickness at theedges. Thereareseveralwaysof makinga on the visual raisedpanel,depending A common effectyou wish to achieve. in thissectionof the method,examined ofthe bevelingtheedges book,involves 54)orrouter panelwitha tablesaw(page (page56).Raisedpanelcuttersfor the

router areavailabein severaldesigns, includingcoveandogee,andin various Makesureyourrouterhasat diameters. to makesucha cut. least2 horsepower

Beforeraisinga panel,cut it to size.As shownbelow,this demandsprecision, sincethereis little room for playin the fit betweenthepanelandtheframe.

with Akhoughthedesignis different,bevelinga panel'sedges thesanreffict: a router(top) or a tablesaw(below)achieves are Thecenterof thepanelappearsraised,while itsedges sfficientlynarrowtofit intoa groovein theframe.

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T()FIT THEPANEL CUTTING to size Cutting a panel it rails andstilesof theframe, Test-fthe between them. thenmeasure theopening with cope-and-stick Fora frameassembled joints, fromtheback, theopening measure frontof the molding cut into the sincethe precise calculation difficult. framemakes dimensions AddVzinchto eachof the to allowforIher/qinchof fortheopening of thepanelthat stockalongtheedges grooves in therailsandstiles fitsintothe (Thedottedlinesin theillustration (inset). of thepanel; represent theactualedges theframeopenthesolidlinesrepresent p a n e l i n g . )C u tt h e o nt h et a b l es a w , Forthe rippingfirst,thencrosscutting. to themitergauge screwa board crosscut, firmly thenholdthepanel asanextension, andpushthemtogether, against theextension feedinsthestockintothe blade(left).

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MAKING A RAISED PANET WITHA TABTE SAW

Auxiliary fence

theendgrain 1 Cutting I Tosetthebladeangle, beginbymarkinga cutting line:Draw a 7a-inch square at thebottom corner, thenmarka line fromthefrontfaceof thepanelthrough theinside corner of thesquare to a point onthebottom edget/a inchfromtheback face(inset). Restthepanelagainst an auxiliary woodfenceandadjusttheangle of thebladeuntilit aligns withthemarked l i n eA . d j u stth eb l a d eh e i g hut n t i o l ne toothjustprotrudes beyond thefrontface of thepanel, thenclampa gurde blockto thepanel to ridealong thetopofthefence. Feed thepanelintotheblade, keeping it f l u s ha g a i n st ht ef e n c ew i t hy o u r i g h t handwhilepushing it forward alongwith theguideblockwithyourlefthand(left). Test-fit thecut endin a groove. lf less thanl/qinchof thepanelentersthegroove, movethefencea littlecloser to theblade pass.Repeat andmakeanother thecutat theotherendof thepanel.

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r) Cutting withthegrain L Setthepanelon edgeandfeed i t i n t ot h e b l a d e k, e e p i n g the back f l u s h a g a i n s t h e f e n c e .T u r nt h e paneo l v e rt o c u t t h e r e m a i n i n g edge(right).Cuttinginto the end g r a i no f t h e p a n e lf i r s t - b e v e l i n g t h e t o p a n d b o t t o mb e f o r et h e sides-helps reducetearout.

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FRAME-AND - PANELCONSTRUCTION

Anqled fence 12"x 3O" Auxiliary fence 9" x 30"

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RAISED PANETS A JIGF(lRGUTTING Toraisea oanelonthetablesawwiththeangleof the blade, outadjusting jig shownat left. usetheshop-built for suggested Referto the illustration dimensions. the lip alongthe bottomedge Screw sureto fence,making of theangled position wheretheywill thescrews withtheblade.Propthe notinterfere fence theauxiliary fenceagainst angled at thesameangleasthecuttingline marked onthe panel(page54I (Usea Cut theangle.) slidingbevelto transfer supports to fit precisetriangular-shaped thetwofences, ly in thespacebetween thenfix themin placewithscrews. it onthesaw Tousethejig,position the lip and tablewiththejointbetween fencedirectly overtheblade; theangled ensurethatthe screwsarewellclearof Slidetheripfenceto thetableopening. fence,and thejig'sauxiliary buttagainst Turnonthe saw screwthetwotogether. andcrankthebladeslowlyupto cut a the lip. Next,seatthe pankerfthrough el in thejig andadjusttheheightof the bladeuntila singletoothis protruding the frontof the panel.Make beyond a testcut in a scrapboardthe same asthepanel,feedingit into thickness thebladeandthentestingitsfit in a groove. Adjustthe positionof thefence Thencuttheactuor blade,if necessary. thesideswiththeend al panel,beveling graintisl (lefil.


FRAME-AND- PANELCONSTRUCTION

MAKING A RAISED PANET WITHA ROUTER uptherouter 1 Setting I Fita router witha panel-raising bit, thenmountthetoolin a routertable.To ensure thatthecutting widthis uniform, position thefenceparallel to themiter gauge slotandin linewiththeedgeof thebit pilot.Withtherouter turnedoff, placea scrapboardalongthefenceand across the bitto checktheposition of thefence.Thebit pilotshould turnasthe boardtouchesiI (left);adjustthefence's position, if necessary. Settherouterfor a Va-inch deothof cut.

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t I I I r) Raising thepanel L Lowe,the guardoverthe bit and turnon therouter. Tominimize tearout, cut intotheendgrainof thepanelfirst, beveling thetopandbottombefore the s i d e sW . h i l er u n n i ntgh es t o c kp a s t h e bit,keepit flushagainst thefencewith yourlefthandandpushit forward withyour (right). righl Theoutside faceof the panmust el bedownonthetable.Turnoff therouter, thentest-fitthecut endin a groove. lf the panelsitslessthant/q inchdeepintothegroove, increase the c u t t i n gd e p t hb y 7 ei n c ha n dm a k e another oass.

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PUTTINGTHE PANELIN THE FRAME to boreoocketholesin therailsor rout groovesin the railsand stiles.In either case,the stockwill haveto be prepared prior to gluingup.

f) eforegluingup the rails,stilesand I) panel,takethe time to dry-fit the parts.Ifthe piecesdo not fit perfectly, A asnecessary. makefinal adjustments, slightshavingwith a wood chiselwill usuallydo thetrick. Sincetheindividualframe-and-panel is only one componeniof a assembly pieceof furniture,somefurtherplanning is requiredat this stage.You needto decidewhich methodsyou will useto install a bottom panel(page60) anda rop (page64).Someof the methodsof requireyou installingthosecomponents

provides A beltsander a quickand thesurefficient startin smoothing Here,the facesof a ftame-and-panel. pieceisclampedto a work glued-up surface for sandingthefacesof the stilesandrails.Thepaneland the of theraik andstiles insideedges prior toglueup. shouldbesanded

THEFRAME-AND.PANEL ASSEMBLING

'l Testassembling thepieces them.Setthestileona worksurI Joina railanda stile.thenseatthepanelbetween railandstile(abovd.Markeachof thejointsusinga pencilto face,andaddthesecond whenyouapplytheglue.lf anyof thejointsistootight, helpyouin thefinalassembly, to pareawaysome andusea woodchisel thepieces markthebinding spots, disassemble joint.Assemble withthefit, Onceyouaresattsfied theframeagain. woodat theill-fitting oncethe to reach thatwillbedifficult theframeandsandanysurfaces disassemble hasbeengluedup. assembly

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FRAME-AND-PANELCONSTRUCTION

r) Applying theglue I VtaV,e fourclamping blocks, cutting themaslongastherailsarewideandas wideasthestilesarethick.Layoutallof positions thecomponents in theirrelative withtheiroutside surfaces facingdown. F o rm o r t i s e - a n d - t ej onionnt ss, q u e e z e glueintothemortises andonthetenon cheeks andshoulders; forcope-and-stick l o r n t sa, p p l yg l u et o a l l t h ec o n t a c t i n g surfaces. In eithercase,usejustenough adhesive to cover thesurfaces completely whenit is spread outevenly(right).Do gluein thepanelgrooves; notinsert the panelmustbefreeto movewithinthese joints.Afterapplying theglue,assemble thef rame-and-panel.

Tightening theclamps Q r-,1 Laytwobarclamps ontheworksurface andplacethe glued-up assembly facedownonthem,aligning therails wrththebars.Tokeeptheclamps fromfallingover,prop themup in notched woodblocks. Place clamping blocks between thestilesandthejawsof theclamps to avoidmarringthestockandto distribute thepressure evenly along the just Tighten each clamp in turn enough to close loint. thejoints(left),Ihenusea trysquare to makesurethatthe corners of theframeareat 90' angles. Continue tightening theclamps untila thinbeadof gluesqueezes outof the joints,checking forsquare asyougo.0ncethegluehas dried,remove theclamps. Protecting thesurface with a woodpad,clamptheassembly to a worksurface. Usea paintscraper to remove anydriedgluethatremains onthe wood,pullingthescraper alongeachloinI(inset).

Notched wood block

5B

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CASE, A FRAME,-AND-PANE,L ASSEMBLING youcanrepeat ith a fewvariations, shownon pages57 theprocedures and 5Bto join individualframe-andinto a pieceof furniture. panelassemblies A singleframeand panelmakeup the Thefront is put backof a smallcabinet. in roughlythesamewayusing together joints.On thisside, mortise-and-tenon however,thereis no panelin the frame, but a medianrail runninebetweenthe

stiles.In thissituation,therailsandstiles canbe joinedwith standardmortiseand-tenons(page104),ratherthanthe haunchedvarietyusedfor the other threesides. areidenticalto The sideassemblies theback,exceptfor onefeature:Instead of havingstilesof their own, the sides fit into the stilesof the front and back Ifyou areusingmortise-andassemblies.

G L U I NUGPA C A B IN E T Putting thecasetogether a single Test-fit thecaseasyouwouldwhendryassembling side(page57),thensandtheinsidesurfaces frame-and-panel Applyglueto thejoints-wtththeexcepof all the pieces. makeyourfinal thatholdthepanels-and tionof thegrooves facedownandfit the Setthebackof thecabinet assembly: in the twosidepanels foursiderailsintoitsstiles.Installthe groove edges of thesiderails, andtheinside in thebackstiles putonthefront,placing over in thestiles themortises Finally, and tenons onthesiderails.Setthecaseupright thehaunched running fromfrontto backovertherails, install fourbarclamps protecting Tighten the of thestileswithwoodpads. thesurfaces (right) outof the untila thingluebeadsqueezes clamps euenly j o i n t sU. s ea m e a s u r itnagp et o c h e c kw h e t h et h r ec a s ei s corners; between opposite thedistance measuring square, another should beequal.lf not,install thetwomeasurements the setting of thetwodiagonals, thelonger barclampacross Tighten theclampa litin place. clampjawsonthosealready untilthetwodiagoasyougo (below) tle at a time,measuring and remove theclamps Oncethegluehasdried, nalsareequal. anydriedadhesive. to remove usea paintscraper

tenonjoints,asin thepieceof furniture shownbelowandon thefollowingpages, thetenonsof thesiderailsfit into mortisescut into theinsidefacesof thestiles; joints,tongues cutin ior cope-and-stick routedin thestiles. therailsfit in grooves In bothcases, thepanelsfit into grooves ofthe fiont routedalongtheinsidefaces ofthe rails andbackstilesandtheedees betweenthem.


INSTALLINGA BOTTOM PANEL ''l"t hereareseveral waysto installa botI tom on a fi'ame-and-panel case. One methodthat is popularamongctrbinetmakerscallsfor grooves alongtheinside facesof thebottomrailsandthe stiles priorto gluingup theindividualfrarreand-panel assemblies. Thegrooves canbe madewith a dadoheadon thetablesaw, and theyshouldfall about1 inch from

thetop edgeof thebottomrails.They shouldbeabout7zinchwideandhalfas deepasthe thickness ofthe stock;stop thegroovein thestilesatthepointwhere the siderailsbutt up against them.To installthepanel,narrowits edges slightly with a plane,allowingthe pieceto fit snuglyin thegrooves, but not corrpletely restricting itsmovenrent.

Anothertypeof installation, shown below,relieson ledgerstrips,whichare screwed to thebottomrails.With this approach, thebottomcanbe installed afterglueup.Usingeithermethod,the bottom is madefrom the samestock usedfor the restof the case.Makethe widthof thepanelslightlynarrower than itsopeningto allowfor woodexpansion.

ATTACHING THEPANEL

Installing ledgerstrips S a wf o u r 1 - i n c h - s q u alreed g esr t r i o st o f i t a l o n gt h e r a i l sa t t h e b o t t o mo f t h e c a b i n e tc, u t t i n gt h e ms l r g h t lsyh o r t o m a k et h e m e a s i etro i n s t a l lB . o r et w o s e t so f h o l e si n e a c hs t r i p :o n ei n t h e c e n t e ar l o n go n ee d g ef,o r s c r e w i ntgh es t r i pt o t h e c a s ea, n d a n o t h etro t h e s i d eo f a n a d j a c e net d g ef o r a t t a c h i n g thebott o m p a n e l .B o r et h e h o l e si n t w os t e p sw i t ht w o d i f f e r e nbt r a d p o i n tb i t s :o n eb i t s l i g h t l yl a r g etrh a nt h e d i a m e t eor f t h e s c r e w h e a d sf o r r e c e s s i ntgh e f a s t e n e rasn da n o t h ebr i t s l i g h t l yl a r g e r t h a nt h e d i a m e t eor f t h e s c r e ws h a n k st o p r o v i d e clearance

h o l e s(.T h ew i d e rh o l ew r l la l l o wf o r m o v e m e n tP. )o s i t i otnh e s t r i p so n t h e i n s i d es u r f a c e o f a r a i la b o u t1 i n c hf r o m i t s t o p e d g ea n d m a r kt h e p o s i t i o nosf t h e s c r e wh o l e sw i t h a n a w l . B o r ea p i l o th o l ef o r a N o .8 s c r e wa t e a c hm a r k e dp o i n t t, h e n u s ea d r i l lf i t t e dw i t h a s c r e w d r i v eb ri t t o f a s t e nt h e s t r i p st o . f t ) . f oi n s t a ltlh e b o t t o mp a n e ls, e tt h e c a s e t h e c a s e( a b o v el e o n i t s b a c k .H o l d i n tgh e p a n efll u s ha g a i n st th e s t r i p sw i t ho n e hand,screwthe bottompanelin place(above,rrght).

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SHELVING tf h. numberandplacement of shelves I in a frame-and-oanel cabinetwill dependon the useyou havein mind for the furniture.If the cabinetwill hold you mayneedfewer books,for example, shelves thanif it will bethenlacefor vour comoactdiscs. eithoughsomeshelf-support systems canbe put in placeafterthe cabinetis planningwill gluedup, a little advance First,choose maketheinstallationeasier. betweenfixed and stationaryshelves; eachhasits advantages. Fixedshelves canaddto thestructural integrityof a case, but onceinstalledthey cannotbemoved.Onewayto installpermanentshelves is to mount cleatson the frameinsidethe cabinetandthenscrew the shelvingto them.Fixedshelvescan

alsobe gluedinto dadoesroutedin the framebeforethecabinetis assembled. Whileadjustable shelves do not add strengthto a pieceof furniture,they allowgreaterflexibility.As in simplecarcaseconstruction,adjustable shelves are commonlyheldin placewith wooden pins,or dowelpins,plasticor metalshelf Themethod adjustable shelfstandards. shownbelowandon thefollowingpages usescornerstripsandwoodensupports.

Notchedcornerstrips allow shelfsupports-and the shelves that reston them-to be shifted easily to different levels.

NGADJUSTABTE SHELVES INSTALLI

thecorner strips 1 Making I Ripa board to a 4-inch-width andthencut it to lenghto inside Install reach fromtopto bottom thecabinet. a dado headontheradial armsaw,setting theblades to a widthto accommodate thethickness of theshelfsupports 62) @age Starting at theendthatwillbeat thebottom of thecabinet, cuta dadoacross theboard forthe lowest shelf.Slidethe boardalonsthefenceto cutthesecond dadoat thenext

shelfposition. Before making thecut,to makedadoes the aoart. drivea screwintothefencewiththe samedistance headof thefastener against the leftedgeof thefirstdado. Thencutthesecond dadoandslidetheboard alonguntrl thescrewhead. Cut theleftedgeof thisdadois upagainst (abovd, in thisfashion theremaining dadoes thenripthe boardintofourequalstrips.

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t FRAME-AND- PANELCONSTRUCTION

r") Installing thecorner strips Z Cuta rabbetat the bottomendof eachcorner stripto allowit to sit onthe bottom of thecabinet whilefittingaround the rail.Tomountthestrips,boretwo screw holesin eachof themneartheends. Maketheholesona drillpressin a twostepprocedure asfor ledger stripsin the bottomof a cabinet(page60). Position eachstripin a corner of thecabinet, makingsurethatthedadoes facetheinterior as shown.Markthescrewholesin thestilesusinganawl,thenborea pilot holefora No.8 screwat eachooint.Use a screwdriver to fastenthestrioto the cabinel(lefl.

Inserting theshelfsupports Measure thedistance between the frontandbackstileson bothsidesof the cabinet. Cutshelfsupports to fit thegaps pairsof dadoes. matching between Make surethatthesupports arewideenough to properly, buttress theshelves andtest-fit lhem(right)to ensurethattheyfit snugly in thedadoes.

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FRAME-AND-PANELCONSTRUCTION

Cutting theshelving to fit U s ep l y w o o do r e d g e - g l u ebdo a r d s

to maketheshelving, cutting eachpiece to sizeona tablesawsothattheendswill beflushagainst thecabinet sidesand theedges willbuttagainst thestiles. Add edgebanding to thevisibleedgeif you (page39).Tomakea areusingplywood shelffii, setit ontopof thecorner strips andoutline theirshape ontheunderside o f t h es h e l fT. h e ns, e c u rteh es h e l if n a v i s ea n dc u t o u tt h e c o r n e rws i t ha (right).Withedge-glued backsaw shelving, youhavetheoptionof routing a decorat i v em o l d i n cgo n t o uar l o n gt h ef r o n t pd,oe< (c.tpn 5)

Routing a molding f, r.,f Place theshelves momentarrly inside t h ec a b i n eat ,n dm a r kt w ol i n e so nt h e frontedgeof eachoneto indicate thebeginningsandendsof themoldings. Drawa t h i r dl i n ef o rt h ed e s i r edde p t ho f c u t . P r o t e c t i nt hges h e l w f i t ha w o o dp a d , clampit to a worksurface. Fita router withan edge-shaping bit,ihensetthe d e p t ho f c u t .G r i p p i nt g h er o u t efri r m l y withbothhandsandresting its baseplate ontheshelf,turnonthetool.Move the bit pilotup against theedgeof theshelf andguidetherouter against thedirection of its bit rotation to cutthe moldine 1efil.

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INSTALLINGATOP T ike thebottom,the top of a frameI: and-panel cabinetis madefrom the samestoik astherestof thepiece,usuallyindividualboardsedge-glued together.To determinethe size,measurethe frameandaddthewidth of anymolding you plan to installunderthe lip. Also takeinto considerationa smallamount of overhangat thefront andsides.Unless thecabinetwillbefeaturedin themiddle

of a room,makethetop panelflushwith thebackofthe case. Fourcommonmethodsof attaching topsareillustratedbelow Onetechnique "butfeaturesrabbetedblocks.called tons,"whichfit into a groovecut around thetop rails.Metalfasteners canbeused in the sameway.Ledgerstrips,suchas thoseusedto attacha bottom panelto the cabinet,will work equallywell for

securinga top.Anothermethodcallsfor the creationofpocketholesin the rails beforethe caseis gluedup. Whateverapproachyou choose,allow someplayin anticipation of woodmovement;otherwise, the top will buckle, warp and forcethe frameapart.Also, rememberto installanydrawer-hanging hardware(page92) beforeputting the top on thecabinet.

()PTIONS TOP-FASTENING

Woodbuttons

Metal faatenera

?ocket holea

Ledgeretilpa

()NA T(lP WOOD BUTTONS TOLATCH a groove in thetoprails 1 Cutting I Fita router witha three-wing slottingcutterandsetthetool'scutting depthfor abouI3/t inch.Protecting the surface of thecabinet withwoodpads, usebarclamps to holda guideboard flushalongtheedgeonwhichtherouter willberiding; thiswillprovide a surface to bracethetoolasyoucut thegroove. Foreachrail,guidetherouteralongthe topedge,moving fromleftto right(lef\. Reposition theedgeguidebefore cutting subseouent sidesof thecabinet.

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Woodbutton

r) Making thebuttons L youwillneedto produce a series of 1-inch-square buttonsat leastthreeforeachsideandoneforaboutevery 6 inches for larger tops.Youcanmass-produce froma single thesepieces board, butchoose stockof a thickness equalto thegapbetween thebottom of thegroove cut in stepi andthetopof therails, less%oinch.Cuta3/rinchrabbet at eachendof theboard. Thenriptheboardinto1-inch-wide stripsandcutoffthebut-

tonsaboutl% inches fromtheends(lnsef). Tomakeholesin jig thebuttons forinstallation, usea 3/ro-inch bitanda corner fashioned froma scrapof 3/rinchplywood andL-shaped supportbrackets. Clamp thejigto thedrillpress tableandsteady thebuttons witha pushstick.Borethrough thecenters of the nortion(ahove) buttons onthe unrabbeted

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Installing thebuttons Setthe cabinettop facedownon a worksurface,and

position thecaseupside downontopof it. Aligntheback of thecabinet withthebackedgeof thetopandcenter thecasebetween itssides.Fittherabbeted endsof three buttons intothegroove in therailat thebackof thecabinet,positioning onein themiddle andtheothertwonear gapbetween theends.Leave a %o-inch thelipped ends of the buttons andthe bottomof thegroove to allowfor movement of thewood.Drive screws witha drilltofasten thebuitonsin place(left).

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FRAME_AND_ PANELCONSTRUCTION

Squaring thetop l n s t a lal b a rc l a m oa c r o s tsh e f r o n to f

t h ec a s ea l i s n i ntsh eh a rw i t ht h ef r o n t rail.Usingwoodpadsto focuspressure onthecorners, buttonejawof theclamp ontheedgeofthetopandtheotherjawon measure thefrontstile.Totestforsouare. thegapbetween theedgeof thecabinet points andtheedgeof thetopat several Thegapshould on bothsides. beuniform. lf it is not,tightentheclamp(right)unlil positroned thetopis correctly onthecase. (page lnstallthe remaining buttons 65),at leastthreenerside.Thebuttons onthe sidesshouldbefirmlyseated inthegroove; onthefront-likethoseon the buttons theback-should bebacked offslightly fromthe bottomof thesroove.

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P()CKET HOTES jig holes witha commercial 1 Boring I Usea drillto boreholesin twosteps w i t ht w od i f f e r e nbt r a d - p o i n b ti t s :o n e s l i g h t llya r g etrh a nt h ed i a m e t eorft h e screwheads, sotheycanberecessed, and onea littlelarger thanthescrew shanks to a l l o wa l i t t l em o v e m e nCt .l a m oa s t o o b l o c kt o a w o r ks u r f a c et h, e nf i t t h ef i r s t b i t o nt h ed r i l l .W r a pa s t r i po f m a s k i n g t a p ea r o u n tdh eb i t t o m a r kt h ed r i l l i n g depth.Buttthetopedgeof anupperrailfor thecabinet against thestopblock,inside pocket surface up,andclampa commercial h o l ej i gc l o s teo o n ee n d .H o l d i nt g h er a i l f irmly,borethehole,stopping whenthe stripof tapetouches thejig.Reposition the jigto boreanother holeat themiddle(/eff) anda thirdoneneartheotherend.Fitthe second bitonthedrillandboretheclearanceholesin thesamemanner.

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PANELCONSTRUCTION FRAME-AND_

t') Aftaching thetop L Once thecabinet hasbeenglued up (page59),setthetopfacedown andposition the ona worksurface, caseupside downon it asyouwould wheninstalling woodbuttons(page bit 65).FiIa drillwitha screwdriver anddrivescrews to attachtheback railof thecabinet to thetop (/eff). Square thecabinet topthesameway youwouldwheninstalling woodbuttons(page66), Ihendrivescrews r agi l s . t h r o u gthh er e m a i n i n

SECURING A T()PWITHLEDGER STRIPS Installing thewoodstrips Cutfourledgerstripsandboretwosets (page60). of holesin themfor mounting Toinstallthetop,firstscrew thestripsin placeflushwiththetopedges of theupper railsof thecabinet(right).fhen, setthe and too oanelfacedownona worksurface place in position thecabinet ontopof it. Screw thetooto thestrioattached to the backrailandsquare thetop (page60. Run screws through theremaining ledger strips.

Ledqeretrip

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FRAME_AND_PANELCONSTRUCTION

ti o.^

9upporl;bracket 1 1 / 2 "x 1 t / 2 " x 4 ' / 2 "

Jig baee

A POCKET H()IEJIG Usea pocketholejig,shop-built from%-inchplywood, to borepocket holeson a drillpress. Referto the illustration at leftforsuggested dimensions. Forthejig,screw together thetwosidesof thecradle to forman L. Cuta 90'wedgefrom eachsupport bracket sothatthe widesideof thecradleis angled about15"fromthevertical when it sitsin the brackets. Screw the brackets to thejig baseandglue thecradleto thebrackets. Tousethejig,seatthepieces to bedrilledin thecradle withtheir inside facing surfaces outandtheir topedgesin theV of thecradle. Borethe holesin twostepswith twodifferent bitsasdescribed in step1, page66. In thiscase,use a Forstner bit anda brad-point bit. Withthe brad-point bit in the chuck,position thejigonthedrill tablesothatthebitwillexit oress in thecenter of thetopedgeof the rail.Clamp thejigto thetableand install theForstner bit in thechuck. Holding theworkpiece firmlyin thejrg,feedthebit slowly to bore threeholesintotherailjustdeep enough to recess thescrewheads. Then,installthebrad-point bit in thechuckandborethrough the workpiece to complete thepocket holes(/efi,bottom).

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INSTALLINGMOLDING 1 'hethelit isstore-bought or shop" .' fulfillsa keyrole rnade, rnoldirrg On a frame-andfor thecabinetmaker. panelcabinet,its principalfunction thetop and isto hidethejoint between therails,creatingtheillusionof a seamBut moldingalsogives lessconnection. and a pieceof furniturea decorative distinctivelook. By shapingthe edgesof a pieceof hardwoodwith a routeror-as shown belowandon thefollowingpages-with a tablesau you cantransformsomeof thesamestockusedfor thecabinetinto attractivemoidings.Crown,cove,bead

andogeecurvearejusta fewof thecommon profilesusedin cabir-retmaking. makethe Wren cuttingthemoldings, finaloassa vervshallowoneat halfthe previoirrpos.r.Sucha finishing speedof touchshouldproducea smoothfinish thatwill requiieonlyminimalsanding.

The rrtold i rtg .for ilt i s.fitt trrc- a rrclpttrrclcctltinetwosctft ort a taltle sttw eryipped witlt o setof ogeckrrives.

MOLDING PREPARING ANDINSTALLING

a t a b l es a w 1 C u t t i ntgh em o l d i n og n t o y i e l dm o l d i n gfso r t w os i d e s I S e l e cat b o a r dl o n ge n o u g h a n dt h e f r o n to f t h e c a b i n e tA. f t e rf i t t i n go u t a m o l d i n gh e a d w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a tceu t t e r s s, c r e wa n a u x i l i a r fye n c et o t h e m e t a lr i p f e n c e W . i t ht h e m e t a fl e n c ec l e a ro f t h e m o l d i n g h e a d ,p o s i t i o tnh e a u x i l i a rfye n c eo v e rt h e t a b l eo p e n i n ga n d . r a n ku p t h e h e a dt o c u t a n o t c hi n t h e w o o d . t u r no n t h e s a w C t os t h e f e n c e T o s e c u r et h e w o r k p i e c ec,l a m pf e a t h e r b o a r d a b o v et h e m o l d i n gh e a da n dt o t h e s a w{ 3 [ l s [ s 3 r i n oa o a i n c i

t h e e d g eo f t h e s t o c k T . h e n ,r a i s et h ec u t t e r s7 s i n c ha b o v et h e . i n i s ht h e t a b l ea n df e e dt h ew o r k p i e ci en t ot h e m o l d i n gh e a d F p a s sw i t ha p u s hs t i c k .F o ra d e e p ecr u t ,m a k ea d d i t i o n apla s s o e s ,r a i s i n tgh ec u t t e r sr / ai n c ha t a t i m e .R e p e atth e p r o c e d u rt e (above). Installa comedgeof the workpiece shapethe opposite f r o mt h e e d g e s b l a d eo n t h es a w t, h e nr i p t h e m o l d i n g bination t o l e n $ hf o r o n es i d eo f t h ec a b i o f t h e s t o c kC . u tt h e m o l d i n g n e t ,m a k i n ga 4 5 ' m i t e r a t o n ee n do f t h e p i e c e .

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FRAME-AND-PANELCONSTRUCTION

r') lnstalling themolding ononeside L Cutfourwoodpadsandtwoshort pieces of molding to serve asspecial clamping blocks. Turned upside down, theblocks willmeshwiththemolding gluedin place. being Applyanevenlayer of adhesive to thebackof themolding, beingcareful notto slopanyglueonthe topedge.Thedecorative trimshould bondto therails,notto thetopof the cabinet. Position themolding onthe siderail(left),makingsure thatit butts against thecabinet topandthatits mitered endisflushwiththefrontstile.

theclamps Q Tightening r-J Protecting theopposite sideof t h ec a b i n ewt i t hw o o dp a d si,n s t a l l twoclamps across thetopof thecase. place Toholdthemolding firmly, the clamping blockbetween themolding a n dt h ew o o dp a d sT. i g h t eena c h clampa littleat trme(right)unIila thinbeadof gluesqueezes outof the anyexcess adhesive. loint.Remove

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molding Installing front onthecabinet o f s i d em o l d i nsgt i l l W i t ht h ep i e c e ee c l a m p etdo t h ec a b i n e tm, e a s u rt h . u ta w i d t ho f t h ef r o n to f t h ec a s eC p i e c eo f m o l d i nsgl i g h t l lyo n g et rh a n , a k i nag 4 5 ' m i t e rc u t t h i sw i d t hm a t t h ee n dt h a tw i l lb u t ta g a i n st ht e Holdthenew in place. already molding p i e c ei n p l a c e a n du s ea p e n c i l t o lineontheunmitered marka cutting outfromthecorangling end(above), to length, of molding ner.Cutthepiece m a k i n ag 4 5 " m i t e ri n l i n ew i t hy o u r mark. Once thegluefortheside cutting and piecehasdried, remove theclamps (page install thepieceof frontmolding to cutandinstall 70).Repeat theprocess o fm o l d i n g . t h er e m a i n i np gi e c e

lllt lltll]11 lllllllrllllr]lJ lllll.ltillllltllllilIlllllilltlllrrllil1ll 1HO?Tt? An alternalive mei'hod for alampingon moldingo TooimVlify Nheclampinq operalion,maKetwo woodVado, Nriangular whichwillenableyouto uoeC clamVsto hold lhe moldinqin place. Gluea ebripof oandpaper lo the edqeof eachpad to Vrevenlit' from elipVinq whenclampinq?reeoure ieaVVlied.

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D jammingor chattering. Aswithjoinery f n.rr.n.., a draweris nothingmore mountinga draweroffersmanychoices I thana boxwithouta top-a front,a (page87).Everymethodmustsupport bachtwosidesandabottom.Individual thedrawetpreventit fromtippingasit however, beliethissimplicity. examples, is pulledout and stopit asit slides Theyrun thegamutfromthemodern home.Theperfectdrawerwill glide kitchendrawerslammingshutonmetal nearlyout, thenhesitate a bit; drawer slidesto the drawerof a well-made stops(page95)preventthe unit from homewitha Victoriandeskwhispering pulledall theway beinginadvertently nearlyairtight sigh.Theformerisoften out or pushedtoofar in. interchangeable unit an anonymous, Differenttypesof furnituredemand with a falsefront.Thelattermaybea differentmethodsof mountingdrawers. finicky individualpreciselyfit to an grooves cut in In carcases, drawers canbeside-mountSizedtofitbetuveen offumiture, openingin aparticularpiece ed:grooves routedin their sidesslide thesidesof a drmuer,a plywood itsuniquefaceblendingbeautifrrlly with directly it. bottompanelslidesintoposition. onthin stripsof woodattached thegrainof thewoodsurrounding to the cabinetsides.Theycanalsobe moreof Thepanelwill bottomout in a Pulledopen,adrawerreveals groovein thefront and benailedto supported by a U-shaped framewith may is personality. Eachof is fivepieces runnersat the sidesanda rail at the Thefront, thebackto secureit in place. becutfromadifferentwood. front.Here,thedrawerslidesonthebotwhichshowsmost,is chosenfor its calledbottomof itssides-atraditional technique for longwear; theback tomedges species, colorandgrain;thethinnersides run.In frame-and-panel cases, drawersupports sit on strips for strengh;thebottomfor stability. to theframesonly. Not onlyisthefrontthemostvisiblepartof a drawetit also attached metaldrawersliderunners-like thosefound Asyouwill discover in thejoinerysecCommercial takesthemostabuse. side-mounting option. it attached to thesides on file drawers-providea wheeled 76),keeping tion of thischapter(page jointsrangefrom One-halfof thehardware attaches to thecarcase andtheother requires a durable, solidjoint.Front-to-side in kitchencabinethand-cuthalf- halfto thedrawersides.Usedextensively theutilitarianrabbetjoint to thehandsome, blind dovetail.Therabbetis quickandeasyto cut;producing work,meal slidescansupportgreatweightandprovideaccess to theverybackof thedrawer. thedovetailcanbeanart form in itself. in a quicklymadechild's Whethermeantto holdpajamas Thejoint between thebackandsidesalsorequires strength, will form lastly, chestor nightgowns in anheirloomhighboy, drawers suffice. butit showsless,sosimplerjointssuchasdadoes projects. Each anintegralpartof manyofyourcabinetmaking in thesidesandfront. thebottomslidesinto grooves of timessomeone opensoneof thesedrawers, A drawer's mostbasicfunctionisto holdthings.Butit must of thethousands of thecareyoutookto buildthem. alsoslipin andoutof thepieceof furniturehousingit without heor shewill bereminded

Setoffby thesimplicityof ametallicsingJe-pullhandle, a solidwooddrau,erglidessmoothlyin and out of aframeroutedinto thedrawersides and-panelcabinet.Grooves run alongsupportsattachedto theframeof thecabinet.

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ANATOMY OF A DRAWTR rruvclnrrrliinqcorrsists o1'tll'cetlis t i n c ts t c p sj:o i n i n ul l o a r c ltso g c t h c r ' l o l i l r n r r t b o r , n r o L u r t i ntgh c c l r r r n ' ci nr , rp i c c co 1 ' f i r n r i t t r racn d i n s l i r l l i n h s ilrdn'rrrc.EachstcpntLlst[rcpcrfirlntcclprecisclvif .rcllarvcris to contbincqlaccancl s t r u t q t h ,g l i d i n gs n r o o t h l vi n a p i c c co l ' f i r r n i t u l ci v h i I c[ r c i n qs t u l t l vc n o L r q tho b c a l t h c r v c i g ho t l ' i t sc o n t c n t s . . \ l t h o L r s hv i r t u r r I l va l l t l r . r r vl e s shIrc thc basiclcirturcs of thc onc slrtxvnbclorv Iar/if i./,thelc rrrcirn ilrritvol'r'irriations.

'l'his l l c l i r r cn r r r l i i n {\ 1 ) u rl l r s t c L r t c, o n s i c l e r ' i s t h c p . u ' to l ' t h c d l r t r v c t ' t h i t t t h c o p t i o n sf i r l c a c hs t c p .I r o rc r i r n t p l c , c n d u l c st h c n r o s ts lr c s s . 'l i ' r ' o r ri r r l o n q t h c j o i n t s i l l u s t r r r t c cal t h c s L r c c cosls' t h cc i r i t i v cnr t o L r n t i n g r i s h t ,t h c r ci so n c t o s a t i s l \ ' r ' i r t L r r r l l r ' . r n yopct'ation hinqcson horvrvcllthc clran'cr 'l'hrcc l c t l L r i l c n r c nFt . a c hi o i n t h . t sd i l - l c r c n t h r r sb c c n p u 1t o q c t h c r ' . dil'ltrcnt chrrrrtctcristics in trrnts of stt'cngth.ltcl Inethocls tirr ntoLrntinq rrrlrarr'clin ir cirr clLrrrrbil itr, lo'cl ol'd i lllcLrl tri anii .rppcil rc r l s ca r c s h o n ' i .rrn t h i s c h a p t c r{ 1 r e / o r r l anccirndsuitirbiIitv tirr diflcrent tvpcsof r . i q / r ti )r sn ' c l li r so n c t c c l t n i q u cs u i t a b l c stocliirncllirrnitLrrlc. \ilu can .rlloripcrf i l r i r a n r c - i r n i l - p a nccr il b i n c t s . ' \ I t h o u s h son.rlprclcrcnccto guicicvour sclcction, c a c hn r c t h o tpl e r n r i t s o r r ci r c l j L r s t n t c n t , l r t t t t t t . t ] i .\' U l ' L\' o l l . 1 t , , , ' r . J, : l t o I l i r r i t t l ir driuvclout ol stprirrc lrvit u'idcnr.rrgin to itttitchthc cllau'crll-ontto thc sitlcs. r v i l l[ r ca l n r o s itr r p l r 5 5 j b [t'o i n s t . r l l .

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False front: '\ .sr'lrrltt/t' t lt ' t ' r t l r t ' lrorrlis ttLrilt'o sl r t rt l t rrttI .l)o trl; crrlrrti/-s ctttl lt ttitt of rli'rttrt'r'-sir/t'-s

t Lippedfrorrt: ,\ rttblrt'tt'd l r o t t l L '(to l r st r l i p t l t t r t .\('i'j'c-i./-\Ltt l o t't'r I t ttt t !; t r sc.lt rI .lit r cortt't'Lrli rr! t'orrrt t t t'rt'i tt I r t l I I t t('t : tt'l tct t l I tt' tlrttrcr i.rcio,st'r/; lip ptrI o r t tr s t l t tt r l t l ct l t t I t ' t t s {/iiil1t'i-_\/()f).

Drawer alide ?ita in qrooverouted in drawer side; Ecrewed to carcaaeaide panel

Bot'tom panel / Typically'/. - inch plywood: fiLa in 4rooverauted in draweraides and front

F l u s h f r o n t : , ' \ / h r r ' - s/ / r r ' tl ttttt't'rt tt .li t t'ttt i rr:lv t t ' i t l t i r tl l t c c t r b i r t t ' l ;r t l s o / ' i i , , r r ' i i , i :r 1 l li / i i ( ' 1{ / / , / l l i l

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DRAWER JOINTS

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Rabbet For back-to-eide jointa on moat draw' ers; alao etron4 enoughfor joininq the front to the aidee if reinforced with screwe or naila;auitablefor aolid woodor plyvvood

Through dovetail 1tron4, decorativejoint for any drawercorner; end qrain of drawer aideacan be concealed with fal6e front; appropdate for aolid wood but not plSwood

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Half-blind dovetail Thetraditional joint for connectin4the front to the aidea; concealaend qrain of eidea;euitableonly for aolid wood

Doubledado For any corner of ematl,liqht-duty drawer; concealaend qrain of aideoand front; auitable only for aolid wood

METH(|DS DRAWER-MOUNTING Drawer back

Drawer front Typicallythicker than eidee,back and bottom; may be coveredby a falae front

5ide-mounted Woodenslidee acrewed to carcaaeoidepanela run in 4rooveerouted in drawer sidea

Eot'tom-run Drawerslideaon rail and runner aaaembly.Twintenone at enda of rail are gluedinto doublemortiges cut into carcaae panelg: one ed4e of runnera ia iabbeted and fita into groovecut into panele

Commeraialslide runner5 Metal alidea acrewed lo draweraideemeeh with runnere acrewed to carcaae

Drawer eide Joined to front and back with any of a variety of jointe; qroove ahownmeshea with drawer alide

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Dado Can be uaed to join the front to the aideaand the back to the sidea;for aolid wood or plywood

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he firststepin drarver-making is to think the process throLrgh fron-r beginning to end.Ther,arious stages of the operationarerelated; the finished dimensionsof a draler front, for extrmple, candependon thejoinery metl-rod you choose. And drawerhanging methodscaninfluence the waya draweris br,rilt. Onceyouhavesettledon thesizeof drawer,choosea joinerymethod(pnge 75),a methodof hangingandthesryleof front yon will r-rse; thensizeyourstock. Cut the front,backandsidesto fit the opening,choosingthe ntostvisually appealing piecefor thefront.Thegrain of the drawershouldrun horizontally whenit is installed. Makesurethatthe bestsideof eachpiecefircesoutward; markit with an X asa reminder. Not allthepartsof a drawerundergo the samestresses. The front takesthe hardest beating, thesidesa iittleless,the backlessstill.Cabinetmakers takethis into accourrtwl-rentheybr,rilddrawers. Many will planethe partsdifferently depending on howsturdytheyneedto

be.Thus,thefrontcanbethickerthanthe sidesandthesidesthickerthantheback. Woodworkersoften use different jointsat differentcorners. The choice depends not merelvon thedesired visual effict,but alsoon the stresses thejoint will face.A joint thatmightbeadequate to connectthe sidesto the backof a drawermaynotbestrongenoughto join thefront to thesides. The following pagespresentan assortment ofjoinerymethods. Someare joints,othersare suitablefor front-to-side joints,whilestill strictlyfor back-to-side otherscanbeusedat anycorner.Youalso needto keepin mindtherypeof woodyou areusing.Somejoints,suchasthedovetail and the doubledado,canbe used onlywithsolidwood,whileothers-the rabbetandthedado,for example-work wellwithply.rvood eqrrally or solidwood. Forthestronsest andmostattractive joint, chooseihe throughdovetail, whichcanbecut quicklyandaccurately usinga jig (pageB0).Youcanalsosaw oneby handasyouwouldto join carcasesides(pnge27).Unlessyou will be

installinga falsefront (pnge97),ahalfblinddovetail(pnge82)nay bea better choice. Alsocalledthelappeddovetail, thehalf-blinddovetailconceals theend orrirr nf thp cidpc

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Rabbet andlippedrabbetjoints(pnge 77)areeasyto cut andarestrongenough to useat anycornerofa drawer, particularlyif reinforced with screws or nails. The main difference betweenthe two jointsisthatthedrawerfrontin a lipped rabbetjoint overhangs the sides.As a result,thefront mustbecut largerthan theopening. Simpleto constmct,the dadoand doubledadojoints (pnge78)areideal choicesfor small,light-dutydrawers. Thedoubledadoconceals endgrain, rnakingit a visuallyappealing alternativeto thedado. Likeotheroperations in cabinetmaking,drarver-building demands accuracy andpatience. Maketestjointsto finetune your tools and nteasllrements beforecuttingintostock,andperiodically test-fita drawerto eusrlreit will fit its openingperfectly.

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t Diftbrettt.jointsfor diflbrerrtptu'p()ses: A sinrpledadojoiltt is suJficiertto.joirrtlrc backto tlrc sidesof n drat er.But the.fi'orrt reqtiresn strortger .ioirrt-irt tltiscnse,a doultledndo,alsokrtotvrtttstt concenled dado-arrcl-tortgtrc.

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RABBET JOINTS Usinga dadoheadon thetablesaw O ny o u rt a b l es a wi n s t a lal d a d oh e a ds l i g h t l y w i d e rt h a nt h e t h i c k n e sosf t h e d r a w esr i d e s a n dc r a n ki t b e l o wt h e t a b l e .A t t a c ha n a u x i l i a r yf e n c ea n d s e t t h e w i d t h o f c u t e q u a lt o t h e t h i c k n e s so f t h e s i d e s .T u r no n t h e s a w a n d r a i s et h e b l a d e st o n o t c ht h e a u x i l i a r y f e n c e .S e tt h e c u t t i n gh e i g h t o n o m o r et h a n one-halfthe thickness of the drawerfront.To c u t t h e r a b b e t sb , u t t t h e e d g eo f t h e f r o n t a g a i n stth e f e n c e .H o l d i n gt h e w o r k p i e c e f l u s ha g a i n stth e m i t e rg a u g ef,e e di t f a c e downintothe dadohead.Flipthe boardaround and repeatthe cut at the oppositeend (right).

LIPPED RABBET JOINTS Cutting a lip in a drawer front Tocut lippedrabbets around theedges of a drawer front,marklineson itsinside faceto allowforanoverhangof at least% inch.Alsomarktherabbet depthon itsedges-upto one-half thethickness of thedrawer front.Cuttherabbets in twosteps, firstnotching the inside faceof thefront,thenfeeding thestockinto thebladeonendandonedge. Tomakethefirstcuts, setthebladeheight to thedepthof therabbet. Then feedthestockinside facedownintotheblade to cut lines(insef). along themarked Tomaketheremaining cuts,setthebladeheight to thewidthof therabbets. Alignthebladewiththemarks fortherabbet depth, thenbuttthefenceagainst thestock.Keeping the drawer frontflushagainst thefence,feedit onend intothebladeto complete onerabbet. Turntheboard overandrepeat to cuttherabbetat theotherend(left). Thenfeedthestockintothebladeonedgeto cutthe rabbets onthetopandbottomedges.


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DAD() J()INTS Cutting dadoes in drawer sides A dadocut aboutr/zinchfromthe back endof eachsideserves asan effective joint.Onyourtablesawinstall back-to-side a dadoheadthesamewrdthasthedrawer back.Position theripfenceabout% inch fromtheblades andsetthecuttingheight no higher thanone-half thestockthickness.Buttthedrawer sideagainstthe f e n c eT. h e nh, o l d i ntgh eb o a r df i r m l y , a k et h ec u t . a g a i n st ht em i t e g r a u g em

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DOUBTE DADO J()INTS dadoes in a drawer front 1t Cuttins -

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J - M a r ko n ee n do f t h e b o a r dt o d i v i d e i t s t h i c k n e sisn t ot h i r d s T . h e n ,o n y o u r t a b l e s a w a t t a c ha d a d oh e a dw h o s e w i d t he q u a l so n e l h i r dt h e t h i c k n e sosf t h e d r a w efrr o n t .N e x t ,i n s t a lal c o m m e r c i a lt e n o n i njgi g ;t h e m o d esl h o w ns l i d e s in the miterslot.Protecting the stockwith a woodpad,clampthe drawerfrontto the Movethe jig sideways to alignthe marks .1rg. on the stockwith the dadoheadto cut out t h e d a d oi n t h e m i d d l et h i r do f t h e b o a r d . S l i d et h e i i s a l o n st o f e e dt h e s t o c ki n t o the blades.Turnthe drawerfrontoverand c l a m pi t t o t h e j i g t o c u t t h e d a d oa t t h e olher end (right).

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/) Trimming thedadotongues L lnslallanauxiliary fence,thenmark a cuttinglineontheedgeof thedrawer frontto divideoneof thetongues on its insidefacein half. Withthestockf lush a g a i n st ht e m i t e rg a u g ei ,n s i d e face down, alignthemarked linewiththedado head.Buttthefenceagainst thestock. Notchthe fence(page77),thensetthe cuttingheightto trimthe half-tongue. Holding thedrawer frontfirmlyagainst feedit intothedadohead. thegauge, Turnthe boardaround andreoeat the procedure at theotherend(right).

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matching in the dadoes Q Cutting r-,f drawer sides Tojointhedrawer sidesto thefront,cut a dadonearthefrontendof eachside.The dadoes needto meshwiththehalf-tongues onthefront.First,setthecuttingheight to the lengthof the halftongues. Tosetthe widthof cut,buttthedrawer sideagainst t h ef r o n a t n du s ea o e n c it lo o u t l i nteh e half-tongu oe n t h e d r a w esr i d e A . lign themarks withthedadohead, thenbuttthe ripfenceagainst thestock.Holding theboard flushagainst themitergauge, feedit into Thenreoeat theblades. thecut onthe otherdrawer side.

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t THROUGH DOVETAIL J(|INTS jig uptherouter 1 Setting jigforcutting I Setupa router dovetails following themanufacturer's instructions. Forthemodelshown, adjusting thetails ona fingerassembly automatically setstheproper widthforthe pinsontheopposite sideof thesameassembly. Tobegin, cut plywood a pieceof 3/a-inch to fit across thetopof thejig asa spacer board, thenclamptheboardbetween thejig bodyand thefingerassembly. Thespacer boardserves asa solidbase fortheassembly andhelpsreduce tear-out. Makesurethatthe assembly lockscrews faceup;if theydo not,loosen thescale thumbscrews, remove thefingerassembly fromitssupport arms andflip it over.Fita router witha dovetail bit,thensetthepin scaleon bothendsof thefingerassembly to thebit diameter (inseil.fighlenthethumbscrews. Clampthetail board(oneof thedrawer's sides) to thejig,outside-face out.Loosen the lock knobs oneachsideof thejig,thenslightly raise thef ingerassembly andtighten theknobs.Layoutthefingers across the endof thetail boardto setthesizeand spacing of thetails.Leave a fewfingers oneachsideof thetailboard to keeothe routersteady whenit is cutting.There shouldbeonefingerat eachedgeof theboardto makehalf-tails. Onceyou aresatisfied withthespacing-symmetric a lo r a s y m m e t r i cdael p, e n d i nogny o u r (/eft). preference-tighten thelockscrews

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Cutting thetails Withthetailboardstillclamped to thejig,loosen thescalethumbscrews. Turnoverthefingerassembly andslideit alongthesupport armsuntilbothscales indicate theALLposition. Loosen thelockknobs on thesideof thejig,lower thefingerassembly onthe spacer board andtighten theknobs, making sure theassembly is sitting squarely onthespacer board. Usea pinboardasa guideto scribe a lineacross the tailboardmarking thecutting depth. Then,position therouteronthejig, its baseplaterestrng onthefingerassembly, andsetthetip of thebit %ainchbelow themarked line.Turnontherouter andcui outthe wastebetween thetails(right).Routfromrightto left, keeping thetoolflatagainst thefingerassembly. Turn theboardover,secureit to thejig andcutthetails at theotherendthesameway.Follow thesameprocedure to cutthetailsof theotherdrawer side.

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thepins Q Cutting r-,1 Remove thetail boardandturnover thefingerassembly. Setthepinscale to thediameter of thedovetail bitasin witha straightstep1. Thenfit therouter cuttingbitandclampthepinboard-the drawer front-tothejig,outside-face out. against thepin Usea tailboardbutted to marka lineforthecuttingdepth. board Placethe routeron thejig andsetthe themarked tip of thebit %oinchbelow thepins line.Cutoutthewastebetween thesamewayyourouted outthetails(/eff). it Then,remove thepin boardandtest-f t h ej o i n t .l f t h ef i t i s t o ot i g h t ,l o o s e n t h es c a l et h u m b s c r e w a ns ds l i d et h e fingerassembly about7einchtoward the thethumbscrews backof thejig.Tighten (belowlMakeanother passwiththe router morewastebetween thef into remove gers,Test-f it thejointagain,andmake anynecessary adjustments. Onceyou aresatisfied withthefit, turnthe board it to thejig andcutthepins over,secure at iheotherend.Cutthepinsat both backthesamewav. endsof thedrawer

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HAIF-BLIND DOVETAIL JOINTS

t The half-blind dovetailmakesan idealjoint for building drawers: The taik on the sidepieceqre visible but their endgrain is concealed by the drawerfront. Thejoint can be cut by hand, asshownin thefollowing page5or by a router in contbination with a tenrplnteor a jig.

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Marking thepinboard I Marktheoutside facesof theboards withanX.Thenseta gauge cutting to abouttwothirds thethickness ofthepinboard andmarka lineacross theend,closer to theoutside thanthe insideface(above), Adjustthecuttinggauge to thethickness of thestockandscribe a linearound theendsof theoinboards to marktheshoulder lineof thetails.Next,usea dovetail square to outline thepinsonanendof thepinboard; thewidepart of thepinsshould beontheinside faceof thestock. There are pins,butformostdrawnostrictguidelines forspacing dovetail ers,starting wrtha half-pin at eachedgeandadding twoevenly pinsin between joint. spaced makes fora strong andattractive Tocomplete themarking, secure thepinboard in a viseanduse a trysquare anda pencil to extend thelinesontheboard end to theshoulder lineon its rnsideface(right). Markthewaste sections withanX asyougo.

Tryoquare

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r) Cutting thepins in a visewith Z. Secure oneoinboard the outside faceof the stocktoward you,thencutalong theedges of thepins yourway saw,working witha dovetail fromoneboardedgeto theother.(Some prefer to cutalltheleft-hand woodworkers edges of thepinsfirst,thenalltherightHoldtheboard steady and handedges.) side alignthesawbladejustto thewaste of thecuttingline;angle thesawtoward thewasteto avoidcuttingintothepins. evenstrokes, allowing the Usesmooth, Continue sawto cutonthepushstroke. t h ec u tj u s tt o t h es h o u l d el i rn et,h e n repeat to cutthepinsat theotherend of the board.

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-) Removins thebulkofthewaste <'

r . , l S e t t h e p a n e li n s i d e - f a cuep o n a w o r ks u r f a c e a n dc l a m pa g u i d eb l o c kt o it, aligningitsedgewiththewastesideof t h e s h o u l d elri n e .S t a r t i n ga t o n ee d g e of the stock,holdthe flat sideof a chisel a b o u l r A ian c hf r o mt h eg u i d eb l o c k ; t h e t o o ls h o u l db e n o w i d e rt h a nt h e n a r r o w e s t p a r to f t h e w a s t es e c t i o nW . i t ht h e c h i s e sl q u a r et o t h e f a c eo f t h e b o a r d , usea woodenmalletto strikeit, scoring i npt ot h e w a s t e a l i n ea b o u t7 a - i n c h - d e e s e c t i o nT. h e nh o l dt h e c h i s e fl l a t s i d e downandsquareto the endof the board a b o u t% i n c h b e l o wt h e t o p s u r f a c e . a thin layer S t r i k et h e c h i s e tl o r e m o v e . o n t i n u eu n t i ly o u r e a c ht h e o f w a s t eC s c r i b e dl i n e o n t h e e n d o f t h e b o a r d , t h e n p a r ea w a ya n y e x c e s sb t e p 4 ) . s i t ht h e r e m a i n i n g R e p e atth e p r o c e sw wastesections.

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paring Final W o r k i no s n o n ew a s t es e c t i o na t a t i m e n r e s st h e f l a t s i d eo f t h e c h i s e l ! , i , i v '

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against thewallsof thesection withthe thumbof yourlefthand;withyourright hand,pushthechisel toward theshoulderline,shaving away thelastslivers of waste(left).lf necessary, tapthechisel gently witha wooden mallet.

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t I I I andcutting thetails f, Marking .-,1Seta tailboardinside-face uDona worksurface. Holdoneof theoinboards e n d - d o wwni t hi t si n s i d fea c ea l i g n e d w i t ht h es h o u l d el i rn eo f t h et a i lb o a r d . U s ea p e n c it lo o u t l i nteh et a i l so nt h e tail board(right),Ihen extend thelines ontheboardendusinga trysquare. Mark thewaste wrthXs,thenoutline thetails ontheotherendof theboard thesame way.Remove thewaste asyouwouldwhen jointsforcarcase panels cuttingdovetail (nape.30)Reneat thp nrocedure forthe othertailboard.

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A DRAWER ASSEMBLING ASSEMBLY DRAWER panel thedrawer fora bottom 1 Preparing then I Dry-f it the partsof thedrawer, bars aligning the unit securely, clampthe Use with drawer sides. clamps the of the parts pencil fit that togethto identify the a laterwhen easier er to makereassembly panel, y o ug l u eu p .T oi n s t a a ll bottom groove inside of the drawalong the routa r/z inch from the botmark a line er.First, sides. front, back and tomedgeof the r i t ha % - i n c thh r e e T h e nf,i t a r o u t ew wingslotting cutterandmountthetool right-side in a router table.Setthedrawer with align the cutter uponthetableand of at the middle line.Starting themarked into stock the side,feedthe onedrawer butted the pilotbearing cutter.Keeping feed the drawer against theworkpiece, pivoting the clockwise tight). Continue return to drawer onthetableuntilvou yourstarting point.

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r) Making panel thebottom theback L anlpreparing panel, cuta pieceof %-inch Forthebottom plywood adding thedepth to f it theopening, grooves of its width and the depth to of the groove of the back to and the thickness one and trim lengh. Next, remove the clamps its backwitha table of thedrawer thebottom panel you bottom to slide the sawto allow position. inside face up With the back into of the align the top edge onthesawtable, groove youcut in step1 withtheblade.Butt thestock,thenfeed the ripfenceagainst t o m a k et h ec u t , t h eb a c ki n t ot h eb l a d e with of your thefence thefingers straddling (Caution: guard Blade removed righthand. forclarity.)

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I upthedrawer Q Gluing gluingupthedrawer, r-,1 Before decide you how will mountiI (page87),since youto prepare somemethods require the drawer sidesbefore finalassembly. Then, sandthesurfaces thatwillbedifficult to access afterglueup.Squeeze someglue onthecontacting surfaces of thejoints andspread theadhesive evenly witha brush. Assemble thedrawer, thenarrange twobarclamps ona worksurface andlay thedrawer onthem,aligning thedrawer sideswiththebarsof theclamps. Install t w om o r ec l a m p a s l o n gt h et o po f t h e drawer andtwomoreacross the back andfront.Place a woodpadbetween the stockandtheclampjawsto avoidmarringthewood.(Donotplacea padona lipped drawer front,asit willprevent the jointsfromclosing.) Tighten theclamps justenough to fullyclosethejoints(/eff,), thenusea trysquare to checkwhether thecorners areat rightangles. lf they arenot,usea barclampplaced diagonally to correctthe problem(page59). Finish tightening theclamps untila bead of gluesqueezes outof thejoints,checkingasyougothatthecorners aresquare. Oncetheadhesive hasdried,remove any d r i e dg l u ew i t ha p a i n st c r a p eSr .l i d e panelintoplace, thebottom thendrive a fewfinishrng nailsthrough it andinto thebottomedgeof thedrawerbackto fix it in position.

ilfliltllltllltlllllllt]lltllllillififillllllllfiutllllll fililllltll1 1HO?TI? Fixinga loooe drawer bottom If a drawerbo|tom is looee,uoeohop-made wedgeo to ^tighhenNhefit. Deqinby uoinga t ableoawNorip a fewthin otripe of woodfrom a board,anqlingbhe bladeNoproduceone narcowedge.Then,cuI the elriVointo smallerpiecee.1eIthedrawerupeide downon a worksuflace and installa wedqe inlo any qap betweenlhe bottrom paneland the sidesor fronLof T,hedrawer.CoaLthe eLripo wilh qlue,NheninserNthe NaVered end inlo Nheqap;uoe a hammerNotap them enugly in|o place.Oncelhe qluehao dried,ueea woodchiselNo oeverany part of Lhewedqee protrudinqfrom Nheqroovee,

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hereare probablyas many drawI er-mountingmethodsasthereare drawerjoints. The techniqueyou selectis determinedby the pieceof furniture in which the drawerwill be housed:a frame-and-panelcabinet requiresdifferenthangingmethods than doesa carcase.The following pagesconsiderboth typesofcasework. A drawercan be supportedin one of two ways:along its sidesor along its bottom. As shown below and on page88, a side-mounteddrawerhas groovesrouted in its sidesbeforeglue up, allowingit to run along slides A side-mountattachedto the carcase. case ed drawerin a frame-and-panel (page92) is held in placeby the same

draweris slid into A side-mounted A lipped test-fitting. a carcase for runners and the conceals front grooves whenthedraweris closed.

CARCASE SIDE-M0UNTING: grooves sides in thedrawer 1 Cutting cuta groove finalassembly, I Before side. faceof eachdrawer in theoutside forthe Thereareno rigidguidelines groove width,but it shouldbeable slidesthatarelarge to accommodate thedrawer. 0n your to support enough a dadoheadthesame tablesawinstall Drawcuttinglines widthasthegroove. widthin themiddleof forthegroove side; endof onedrawer theleading alsomarkthedepthof thegroove-no thestockthickness. morethanone-half width Buttthe linesforthegroove the thencrank thedadohead, against blades upto thedepthltne;position thestock theripfenceflushagainst width andmakethecut.lf thegroove exceeds thewidthof thedadohead, endfor endandmake turntheboard pass.Repeat to cutthegroove another side. in theotherdrawer

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systemof cornerstripsand supports usedto installshelves. Commercialsliderunners(page93) offer anothermethodfor side-mounting drawersin a carcase.Although many purists regardthem as a poor alternative,commercialrunners are actuallystrongerthan wood runners, making them ideal for drawersthat will bearheavyloads. A popularway to supporta bottom-run draweris by a systemof runas nersand rails affixedto a carcase, s h o w no n p a g e s9 0 a n d 9 1 . S o m e woodworkersprefer to rout a groove in the carcasesidesand install a shelf, which servesnot only asa drawersupport but asa dustpanelaswell.

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r) Ripping thedrawerslides I lnstala l c o m b i n a t i ob n l a d eo n y o u r tablesaw.Crosscut a boardsothat its lengh i s a f e w i n c h e ss h o r t etrh a nt h e w i d t ho f t h e c a r c a s sei d ep a n e l sT. h e np o s i t i o tnh e r i p f e n c et o s e ta c u t t i n gw i d t he q u atl o t h e w i d t ho f t h e g r o o v eyso uc u t i n t h e d r a w e r sides(sfepl), lesst/zzinchfor clearance. C u tt w o s l i d e sf r o mt h e e d g eo f t h e b o a r d , u s i n ga p u s hs t i c kt o f e e dt h e s t o c ki n t o the blade(nghD.SmooIhone edgeof the s l i d e sw i t ha h a n dp l a n et o m a k es u r et h a t t h e yw i l l r e s tf l u s ha g a i n stth e s i d ep a n e l s o f t h e c a r c a s e(.C a u t i o nB: l a d eg u a r d removedfor clarity.)

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r - . f I n s e r t h e d r a w e irn t ot h e c a r c a s e a n dh o l dr t i n p l a c ew h r l el s i n ga p e r - c i l t o m a r kt h e l o c a t i o o n f t h e g r o o v eosn t h e f r o n te d g e so f t h e s i d ep a n e l sT. h e n u s ea c a r p e n t e rs' sq u a r et o e x t e n dt h e m a r k sa c r o s st h e i n s i d ef a c e so f t h e p a n e l sT. o m o u n t h e s l i d e sb, o r et h r e e h o l e sf o r c o u n t e r s i n k i sn cgr e w sm ; ake t h ec l e a r a n cheo l e s l i g h t lw y i d e rt h a n the screwshanksto allowfor woodmovem e n t .H o l d i ntgh es l i d e sb a c kf r o mt h e frontedgeof the carcasebetweenthe m a r k e dl i n e so n t h e s i d ep a n e l ss, c r e w them in place(left).Test-fitthe drawer. l f i t i s t o o l o o s ea, d d s h i m su n d e rt h e s l i d e s i;f i t i s t o ot i g h t ,e n l a r g teh e g r o o v ien t h e d r a w esr i d e .Y o uc a na l s o r e c e stsh e s l i d e si n t h e c a r c a ssei d e s usinga lig (pageB9).

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DADO-ROUTING JIG FOR DRAWER SUPPORTS To routa seriesof evenlyspaced of a cardadoes in ihe sideoanels runners, usethe casefor drawer jig shownat right. shop-made depend onthesizeof Dimensions between thecarcase andthespacing therunners. Forthejig,cut a pieceof %-inch plywood asa base.Makeit about side thesamewidthasthecarcase panels than anda fewincheslonger gap Set the runners. the between and thejig baseona worksurface placea router on it nearoneend. Markthescrewholesin the router alsodraw baseplateonthejig base; tool's chuck. a spotdirectly below the cut Boreholesforthescrews; a hole to belowthechuckwideenough router bit. allowclearance forthe thejig baseto themachine's Screw baseplateandinstalla straight-cut-

tingbitthesamewidthasthedadoes youwishto rout. Next,cut a spacer to fit snuglyin makeit slightlylonger thedadoes; Screw thanthewidthof thepanels.

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to the bottomof thejig thespacer between base,making thedistance it andtherouterbitequalto thespactherunners. ingyouwantbetween Tousethejig,clampa sidepanel inside-face upto theworksurface. Setthejig onthepanelwiththe flushagainst oneendof the spacer workoiece andtherouterbit at one firmly,turn therouter edge.Gripping the it on andfeedthe toolacross panelto routthedado;keepthe Turn flushagainst thepanel. spacer off therouter,theninsertthespacer theclamps, in thedado,repositioning Routthe nextdado, as necessary. in thefirstdado. sliding thespacer have untilall thedadoes Continue theoperation beencut,thenrepeat ontheothersidepanel.


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I B0TT0M-RUN: CARCASE therail 1 Preparing I Crosscut a boardlongenough to spanthegapbetween thesidepanels, adding thethickness of onepanel to allow fortwintenons at theendsof therail.For t h et w i nt e n o n sm, a r kt h ee n d so f t h e stockto divideitswidthintofifths.Then, install a dadoheadwideenough to cut outthewastebetween twoof the marks. S e tt h ec u t t i n g h e i g hat t o n e - h atlhf e t h i c k n e sosf t h ep a n e l sN. e x ti,n s t a l l jig onyoursaw a commercial tenoning t a b l eC . l a m tph er a i lt o t h ej i g e n du p ; shiftthedevice sideways to alignthe marks ontherailwiththedadoheadto c u tt h es h o u l d ei nr t h em i d d l fei f t ho f theboard. Tomakethecut,pushthejig fonvard, feeding thestockintotheblades. Move thejigto cuttheshoulders at the outside edgeof therail.Turnthestock a r o u ntdo c u tt h er e m a i n i nsgh o u l d e r (lefil.fhencutthetwintenons at the otherend.

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r) Chiseling thedouble mortises I Uontheendof therailagainst eachcarcase sidepanelat thedesired heightof thedrawer bottom andoutlinethemortises,Extend thelinesto theedgeof thepanels, thenbuttthetwo workpieces faceto faceto makesurethemarksareat thesame herght. Tocutthemortises, firstclampa panel to a worksurface.Then,starting at anendof oneoutline, holda mortising chiselsquare to thefaceof thepanelandstrikethehandle witha wooden mallet.Usea chisel thesamewidthasthemortiseandbesurethatthebeveled sideisfacing thewaste. Make a n o t h ecru t % i n c hf r o mt h ef i r s t C . o n t i n uuen t i yl o ur e a c h theotherendof theoutline, usingthechiselto leveroutthe wasteto therequired depth.Chopouttheadjacent mortise a n dt h ed o u b l e m o r t i soent h eo t h e p r a n etlh es a m ew a y . T e s t i-tf t h et w i nt e n o n sw: i d e no r d e e o ean m o r t i sw eith t h ec h i s e a l .sr e c u i r e d .

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lltlltllllllllllltlllllllllllllllrlllllll llllllllllllilllllllllllllll 1HO? TI? Fixinga boweddrawer side A bowedeidecan ?revent, a drawerfrom olidinq a ohoV-made proVerly: qlue block willcorrect,the Cutthe block problem. eliqhtlynarcowerlhan NhegaVbetweenthe bottom Vaneland the botlom edqeof r,he drawereide.)Vread oome qlueon Nheeurfacesof Nhe block th at, co nLact the d rawe r, Lhen butf, the pieceof wood aqainet, N h eb o t l o m p a n e la n d d r a w e r e i d e a s

it beNween Nhefront'and back.lnelalla clamV ehown,cenLerinq of lhe drawer, tiqhleninqiXuntilIhe eide acro;o the mid,Ale Nheclamp. oLraiqhtene ouL,Oncethe qluehasdried,remove

r.,f Cuttwo runnersfor the sidepanels o f t h e c a r c a s em; a k et h e mt h e s a m e w i d t ha n dt h i c k n e sass t h e r a i la n da s l o n ga s t h e w i d t ho f t h e p a n e l sl,e s s t h ew i d t ho f t h er a i l .C u ta t o n g u ei n t h e m i d d l eo f o n ee d g eo f t h e r u n n e ras b o u t o n e t h i r dt h ew i d t ha n dt h i c k n e sosf t h e groove in the carrunner.Routa matching p a n e l s ; c a s es i d e c e n t e tr h e s l o to n t h e d o u b l em o r t i s ef o r t h e t w i n t e n o n s (inseil.f o mountthe runners, f irstbore a s e r i e so f h o l e sf o r c o u n t e r s i n k i n g s c r e w st:h e c l e a r a n c he o l e ss h o u l d a l l o wf o r w o o dm o v e m e n tT. h e n ,f i t in one t h e r a i li n t ot h e d o u b l em o r t i s e l n ds l o tt h e r u n n e ri n t ot h e s i d ep a n e a p a n e lM . a k i n gs u r et h a tt h e r u n n e irs b u t t e ds q u a r e layg a i n stth e r a i l ,s c r e w . e p e at to m o u n t h e r u n n e r i i i n p l a c eR . t the t o t h e o t h e rc a r c a s sei d ep a n e l A g l u e upthecarcase, s a m et i m et h a ty o u s p r e a ds o m ea d h e s i voen t h e r a i l ' st w i n t e n o n sa n dt h e d o u b l em o r t i s eisn t h e cidp nanplc:nd

fii thp iriln tnspihpr

will Theclamping setupforthecarcase while holdtherailin place thegluedries.


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SIDE-M0UNTING: FRAME-AND-PANEt The samesystemof corner strips and supportsfor installing adjustableshelves in frame-and-panelcabinetscan be usedto mount a drawer.Beforethe corner strips are screwedto the stilesof the cabinet,they are held in placewith handscrews.This way, the drawer can be test-fitted in the opening and the strips can be raisedor loweredas needed.Once the drawer slidessmoothly and is centered, the stripsarefixed to the cabinet.

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Attaching cornerstripsandsupports Prepare thedrawer sidesasyouwould to side-mount thedrawer in a carcase (page87).Glueupthedrawer, thenhold it atthedesired height in thecabinet and marktheposition of itsgrooves onthestiles. To mountthedrawer, usecorner strips (page61).Makethestrips andsupports longenough to reachfromthetopedge of thecabinet to thebottom of thedrawer. Routa dadoacross thestrips, aligning it youmadeonthestiles. withthemarks Cuttwosupports to fit between thedadoes, lessVre inchforclearance. Holdthe c o r n esr t r i p sf l u s ha g a i n st h t es t i l e s withhandscrews, liningupthedadoes with theposition marks. Fitthesupports inthe dadoes, thenslidethedrawer intoposrtion.lt should movesmoothly andsit centered andlevelin theopening. lf not, loosen thehandscrews andadjustthe heightof thecorner strips,asnecessary (above). Screw thewoodstripsto thestiles.

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I l n s t a l l c o m m e r csilai dl er u n n e r s f o l l o w i ntgh e m a n u f a c t u r e irn' ss t r u c t i o n s .T h et y p es h o w nc o n s i s t so f t w o p a r t s :r u n n e r st h a t a t t a c ht o t h e c a r to the caseand slidesthat arescrewed d r a w e rT. o h e l pp o s i t i o tnh e r u n n e r s , c u t a p i e c eo f 1 / , r - i n cphl y w o o d to frt and between the bottomof the carcase t h e b o t t o me d g eo f t h e r u n n e rl.f t h e d r a w e irs d i r e c t l yu n d e ra s h e l fo r t h e top, trim t/zinchfromthe plycarcase w o o dj i g t o a l l o wf o r c l e a r a n cdeu r i n g installatiow n ,h e nt h e d r a w e m r u s tb e l i f t e ds l i g h t l yt o f i t t h e w h e e l si n t ot h e r u n n e r sW . i t ht h e c a r c a s o e n i t ss i d e , b u t tt h e p l y w o o dp i e c ea g a i n stth e b o t . h e np l a c et h e t o m o f t h e s i d ep a n e l T r r r n n p re o : i n q i t h p i i q s p t f i n o i t h : r . k

f r o mt h e f r o n te d g eo f t h e p a n e lt o a l l o wf o r t h e t h i c k n e sos f t h e d r a w e r f r o n t .M a r kt h e s c r e wh o l e so n t h e s i d e p a n e lt,h e nb o r ea p i l o th o l ea t e a c h p o i n t .S c r e wt h e r u n n e tro t h e p a n e l ( a b o v d .R e p e atto f a s t e na r u n n e rt o tho nthor cidp nanpl

r) Installing theslides L l,on theslides onthedrawer, thentestjitit in thecarcase. plane if thedrawer lf thedrawer is loose, shimtherunners; binds, somestockfromitssides(page94).fhensetthedrawer upside down.oosition theslides andmarkthescrewholes onthedrawer. Borepilotholes, thenscrewtheslidesin place(above),

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commercial slideeon drawersides,usea jig. Cut ohop-made a rabbet in a ecraV board;makethe depLhof Lhe rabbet,equalto the deeired dielance beNween Nheelide and the boI0omof the drawerside.To uoethe jiq, holdil uVaqainotthe bottromof lhe drawersideas shown.Then sellhe slideonLhedrawereide,botLomedgebutted aqainotthe jig, HoldinqNheslideandjiq in place, markNhe suew holee,Then boreoiloLholee and ecrewNheelideIo Nhedrawer.


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FINE.TUNING DRAWER FIT Planing thedrawer sides 1 maybindin a pieceof I A drawer furniture evenaftera thorough sanding. lf thetooor bottomof thedrawer rubs partof thecasework, planethe against top (sfep2). lf lhe sidesbind,remove thedrawer andmarkanyshinyareas on thesides-highspotsthatcanbe shaved Tosecure offwitha handolane. t h ed r a w ef ro r p l a n i n gc ,l a m pa w i d e boardto a workbench withoneedge extending overiheside.Hangthedrawer ontheboard sothatthebinding sideis f a c i n gu p .T h e nc l a m pa n o t h ebro a r d to theworkbench, it against butting the drawer; usea benchdogto keepthesecond boardfrommoving. Gripping theplane withbothhands, shaveoffthemarked spotswithsmooth,evenstrokes(nghf). periTest-f it thedrawer in itsopening o d i c a l l yp ,l a n i ntgh es i d e su n t i tl h e drawer fits perfectly.

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r r) Planing thetopofa drawer l to holdthedrawer in prace, ser it ona worksurface andnailthreescrap boards to thetableflushagainst thesides andbackof thedrawer. Gripping a hand plane passonthe f irmly,makea smooth topedges of thedrawer sidesfromthefront of thedrawer to the back.Moveto the adjacent sideof thetableto planethetop edges of thefrontandback.Test-fit and planing continue untilyouaresatisfied withthef it.

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a drawerstop ,\ s thenamesuggests, f1' controlshow far a drawercanslide in or out. Thereare two basictvoes depending on wheretheyarelocated'orr a pieceof furniture.Inwardstopsare placednearthebackandkeepa drawer from beingpushedin too far.Outward stopsareinstallednearthefiont andpreventa drawerfrom slidingin beyonda pointor pullingrightout. certain Thereis a drawerstopfor everypiece of furniture.InwardstoDsareidealfor with side-mounted carcases drawers sincetheycanbe mountedat anypoint on thesidepanels.Outwardstopswork wellfor anypiece,but theyaresimplerto installon frame-and-oanel furniture.

INWARD ST0PS:CARCASE

r Attaching an inwardstop W i t ha b a n ds a wo r s a b e sr a wc u t a 1 - t o 1 % - i n c h - d i a m e tdei sr kf r o ma p i e c eo f s c r a pw o o dt h e s a m et h i c k n e sass t h e d r a w esr i d e s B . o r ea n o f f c e n t e rh o l ei n t h e s t o p ,t h e ns c r e wt h e d i s kt o a s i d ep a n e ln e a rt h e b a c k . S e tt h e c a r c a s o e n i t s s i d ea n dc l o s et h e d r a w e rL. o o s e tnh e s c r e ws l i g h t l y a n d r o t a t et h e s t o pu n t i l r t l u s tt o u c h e tsh e d r a w e rt ,h e nt i g h t e nt h e s c r e w

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OUTWARD STOPS: CARCASE thedrawer 1I Preparine gluingupthedrawer, I Before cuta notchforthestoponthedrawer back witha tablesaw.Markcutting linesin themiddle of thetopedgefora 1-inchwidenotch. Setthebladehighenough s ot h a tt h en o t c hw i l lc l e a trh es t o p whenyouinstallthedrawer. Screw a board to themitergauge asanextens i o nA. l i g n i nogn eo f t h ec u t t i n lgi n e s onthestockwrththeblade, butta handscrew against theendof thedrawer back andclamprtto theextension asa stop block. Turnonthesaw,holdthestock f l u s ha g a i n st ht ee x t e n s i oann, df e e d thetwointothe blade. Turntheworkpiecearound andcuttheothersideof thenotch.Remove thewastein between bymaking repeat cuts(/eff).

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r) Screwing the stopin place L Cuta drawerstopfroma scrapDoaro: m a k ei t l o n g e ar n d n a r r o w et h r a nt h e widthof the notchin the drawerback.To m o u n t h e s t o o .i n s t a ltlh e d r a w ear n d markthe locationof the notchon the bott o m o f t h e o a n eol r s h e l fu n d e w r h i c ht h e d r a w ew r i l ls l i d e .B o r ea p i l o th o l et h r o u g h the stop,then screwit in position(rrghf), i t s e d g e sw i t ht h e l i n e so n t h e aligning c a r c a s eD. o n o tt i g h t e nt h e s c r e wa l l t h e w a y .W i t ht h e l o n ge d g eo f t h e s t o pp a r a l l e l t o t h e d r a w esr l i d e s i,n s t a ltl h e d r a w e r (inseil.Oncethe stop passescompletely t h r o u g ht h e n o t c h r, o t a t ei t 9 0 ' s o t h a t i t s l o n ge d g ei s p a r a l l et lo t h e d r a w e br a c k .

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()UTWARD ST()PS:FRAME-AND-PANEL Installing a stoponthelrontrail Cuta drawer stopfroma scrapboard. lt should b e l o n ge n o u gtho e x t e n bd e l o w thefrontrailof thecabinet whenoneend is attached to therail.Tomountthestoo. borea pilotholethrough it nearoneend. Wrththecabinet topoff, screw thestop to themiddieof therail.Leave thescrew justloose enough sothatyoucanrotate thestopoutof theway.Install thedrawer. Oncethedrawer backclears thefrontrail, rotate thestop90' sothatit extends below Iherail (right).

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FALSE, FRONTSAND HARDWARE part from theirvisualappeal,false fronts havepracticalapplications For thewoodworkin drawer-makins. er reluctantto diicarda drawerthat is not perfectlyalignedwith its opening, a properlymounted falsefront can providea simplesolution.Centering the front on the carcaseor cabinet, ratherthan on the drawer,will salvage an imorecisefit. Falsefronts can also serveis drawerstops,but avoidexagg e r a t i n gt h e s i z eo f t h e o v e r h a n g . Slamminsthe drawerwhen it is filled with wei[hty itemsriskssplittingthe front asit strikesthe cabinet.

A drawerpull putsthefinishingtouch on a drawerwith afalsefront.

Installinshardwareon a draweris the last-and possiblyleasttaxingactivityin an otherwisechallenging ooeration.Still. drawerhandlesand oulls needto be mountedwith care. Thekeyis to centerthemon thedrawer front. Aligninga single-pullhandle properly is fairly straightforward: Mark the diagonalsacrossthe front andinstallthe oull wherethetwo lines intersect. For a double-oullhandle. jigs canprovide variouscommercial fastand accuratepositioning.But as shownon page99,thejob canalsobe doneusinga simpletapemeasure.

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INSTALLING A FALSE FRONT thedrawer 1 Preparing I Oncethedrawer hasbeenproperly mounted, it face set up on a worksurface anddrivetwo front,leaving bradsintothedrawer theirheads protruding. Makesurethebrads arenotlocated pullwillbeinstalled. where thedrawer Thensnip offtheheads witholiers.

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Positioning thefalsefront Install thedrawer, thensetthecabinet on itsback.Cutthefalsefrontto therightsize,then (right).Onceyou lowerit intoposition carefully press iedwiththeplacement, aresatisf f irmly;the pointed willpunchimpressions, endsofthebrads youto repositron allowing thefalsefrontlater whenyoucomplete theassembly.

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t I andclamping Q Gluing r-,1Spread a thin layerof glueonthe backof thefalsefront.Avoidapplying toomuchadhesive oryouwillendup withtoomuchsqueeze out.Place the frontin position, withthetwobrads r e s t i nign t h e i ri m p r e s s i o H n so.l d withbarclamps; theassembly together alignthe barswiththedrawer sides. Tighten evenly untilthere theclamps arenogapsbetween thefalsefront a n dt h ed r a w e r .

lltlll]rll1 lltlltrlllllltilltllltllllilllllltulrfilrffilllllrillll 1HO?Tt? Faeleninga einqle-pullhandle to a drawer already built, Thescrewoupplied with a oinqle-pull handle may nol be longenou4hlo paoothrouqh wif,ha falsefronl, )ne rem' a d,rawer edy ioto countersinklhescrew,but tr it you havealreadyasoembled the drawer,a drill may nol fi| inside, lnslead,workfrom Lheoutsideof the drawer.)Nart by boringa clearance holeIhroughIhe cenNere of Nhef alse front and lhe drawerfront. Then eharpentheehoulder of a eVade bit elightlywiderLhanlhe screwhead to creaNea cuNtinaedae.Feedtheehank l

af thebt throuqhlhehole{romtrheinside of the drawerand atlach it t o Nhedrill.)wtch onthe tool and pullNhebff,tnward youuniilthe countersinkinq holeio the righNdepIh.

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Marking holesforscrews I Placethedrawer on its backon a and worksurface, thenmarkvertical linesacross front horizontal thedrawer Forthedoubleintersecting at itscenter. pullhandle measure the shownbelow, gapbetween posts. Then itstwomounting transfer thatdistance to thehorizontal line,making twomarks thesamedistance fromthecenterof Ihedrawer(right).

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r) Aftaching thehandle L Boreclearance holes forscrews atthe p o i n t st,h e na p p l yw h a t t w om a r k e d everf inishyouhaveselected. Tomount screw onemounting thehandle shown, postto thedrawer front.Slipthepullinto thepost,thenfit theotherpostonthe pullandscrewit to thedrawer fronl(left).

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DOORS

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doorwouldbemostappropriate I safinepieceoffurniturenears whereas a fine ona simplecarcase, ,[ \ completion,the lastmajor periodpiecenormallydemands a taskbeforefinishingthewoodis door.Glass doors frame-and-oanel andmounting oftenconstructing area goodchoicefor a chinaor thedoors.A projectwithin a project,assembling curiocabinet. a doordemands Sincewoodis proneto swelling thesamecareasbuildingthepiece andwarping,soliddoorsshould Nothingis more it accompanies. small onlybeinstalledon relatively a carefully frustratingthanseeing pieces of furniture.Wth a larger offsetbya doorthat craftedcabinet hutch, cabinet-a floor-to-ceiling is warpedor ill-fitting. for example-abroad,soliddoor, In additionto providingavisuor suchastheboard-and-batten a strip of molding A braddriversecures al focus,doorsservethe simple door,wouldbe tongue-and-groove a centralpane to a doorframe,sandwiching thecontents functionof protecting morelikelytobucklethanwoulda of glassbetweenthemoldingand a rabbet storedinsidea pieceof furniture. veneered-panel frame-and-panel, cut into theedgeof theframe. usesin Oneof thefirst recorded or glass doot whoseconstruction of a doorasa physcabinetmaking in woodmovement changes to accommodate alargecabinetused is calculated icalbarrierwasthemedievalaumbrey, to protectfoodfromvermin.Thedesignof thedoorwasprim- dueto shiftingheatandhumiditylevels. a door of precision Anotherpointto ponderisthedegree itive:a singlepieceof woodheldin placewith simpleforged requires. A flush-mounted doorpermitslittlemarginfor error. straphinges. havefar morechoices thantheir A gapaslittle as7sinchcanspoilthelook of an otherwise woodworkers Today's piece.Overlaydoors,on theotherhand,do will exam- finelyexecuted fromtheMiddleAges.Thischapter counterparts to sincetheyaredesigned inefivedifferentdoortypes,eachwith its ownvisualappeal not requirethesameexactness thesizeoftheiropenings. rangingfrom therusticboard-and-batten exceed andapplication, is available for doorsofall types, A vastrangeofhardware model.Youwill doorto thefinelycraftedframe-and-panel to fine of theaumbrey doors from rusticiron hingesreminiscent doors,glass alsolearnhowto buildtongue-and-groove hingesfor flushdoors.Mostof theseaccessories cast-brass doors. andveneered-panel finishes, includingblack withoneof several thedesignof a pieceof furnituredictates canbepurchased Tosomedegree, brass,andchrome. thetypeof dooryouwill installon it. A board-and-batten or polishediron,antiqueor polished

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dooris hungon a cabinet A frame-and-panel whichallowthe cabinethinges, with detachable doorto beeasilyremovedafterinstallation.

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ANATOMYOFADOOR havean integrated moldingcut into [ frame-and-paneldoormaybebuilt fl, thesamewayasonesideof aframe- them;for addedembellishment, you and-panel cabinet(page a8).Although maychoose to cutanarchor curveinto thedoorillustratedbelowfeatures stan- theupperrail. dardmortise-and-tenons, youcanalso The tongue-and-groove door is a usehaunched mortise-and-tenons popularchoicefor modern,Europeanor joints.Thefloatingpan- stylefurniture.It hasstileswith grooved cope-and-stick elin thecenterofthedoorcanberaised, edgesthat accepttenonsat theendsof asshown,dividedintoapatternofsmall- therails.Therailshavegrooves ontheir er panelsor inlaid.Therailsandstiles bottomedges andtongues ontheirtops,

FRAME.AND-PANEt DOOR

allowingthemto interlock.Shouldthe woodcontractandtherailsseparate slightly,the matchingtonguesand grooves will hideanygaps. Theboard-and-batten doorisassembledwithoutglue.Rabbets arecutinto theedges of theboards, whichareheld togetherby battensscrewed acrossthe backof thedoor.Woodplugsareused to conceal thescrewheads.Theglass

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a frame-and-panel platejointsthatconnectthepanelto the dooris essentially doorwith a glasspanelratherthana frame,rabbetsarecut into the inside atthebackof theframe.Thepanpanelbetweenthe rails and stiles. edges jointsare elthenfits snuglyinto therabbets. mortise-and-tenon Standard madeto fit Althougha doorisalways shownin thedoorbelow.Thepieceof cutalongtheinside a pieceof furniture,it doesnot haveto glass sitsin rabbets of theframe;it isheldin placeby besizedexactlytoitsopening,asshown edges methbelowin thedrawer-mounting stripsof molding. doorcanbedifa ods.A flush-mounted doorfeatures Theveneered-panel to construct the ficultandtime-consuming framejoinedto thepanel.Toconceal

required ofthe finetolerances because lipBoth to build andhangthedoor. are usually rabbeted andoverlaydoors simplerto make. Theentirethicknessof an overlay thefrontofa cabbeyond doorprojects door Thelip-rabbeted inetor carcase. cutarounditsoutsideedges hasrabbets thatonlyapartof is thickatthebad<so nessis exposed. DOOR VENEERED.PAI{Et

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FRAME-AND.PANEL DOORS doorimpartsstyle I fiame-and-panel A to a pieceoifurniturewithoutsacrificing durability or strength.Its solid frame constructionaccountsfor the structuralintegrity.At the sametime, anyoneofseveralstylistictouchescan be addedto makeit more attractive. Theseincludedesigninganarchedtop nil or,ifthe doorislargeenou$, dividingthe

Liketheframe-and-panel assembly usedto build thesidesoffurniture, theframe-and-panel doorfeatures a sturdyframe of raik and stiles encasing a decorative floatingpanel.

panelinto smallersectionswith horizontalcrossrailsandverticalmullions. Youcanbuilda frame-and-paneldoor the sameway you would constructa frame-and-panel assembly, usingeither haunched mortise-and-tenons or coDeand-stickjoints(pageaS).This section features a doorassembled with standard jointsandintegrated mortise-and-tenon molding.The first stepis to sizeyour stock.Makethe stilesequalto the door height;the railsshouldbe aslong as the width of the door, including two tenonsat eachend,minusthe stilewidth. The tenonstypicallyare cut about 7+inchlong.

MAKING A FRAME.AND.PANEL D()OR thetenons 1 Cufting I I n s t aal l d a d oh e a ds l i g h t lw y ider t h a nt h et e n o nl e n g t h o ny o u rt a b l e sawA . t t a c ha n dn o t c ha n a u x i l i a r y fence(page48),Ihensetthe width of cutequalto the lengthof thetenon to cut thetenoncheeks; adjustthe cuttingheight to aboutone-third the thickness of thestock.Butting therail against thefenceandthemitergauge, feedthe stockfacedownintothe blades. Turnthe railoverandmake thesamecutontheothersideof the tenon.Thenrepeat the orocess at the opposite endof the rail (left,above) a n dw i t ht h es e c o nrda i l .T oc u tt h e tenonshoulders, settheheight of the dadoheadat about1/zinch.Withthe r a i lf l u s ha g a i n st ht ef e n c ea n dt h e mitergauge, feedtheworkpiece edge d o w ni n t ot h e b l a d e sT.u r nt h er a i l overandrepeat on theothersideof thetenon.Cutthetenonshoulders at theopposite endof therailthesame way(left,below).Repeatthe process withthesecond rail.Toaddintegrated molding, f it a routerwiththeappropriatebitandmountthetoolin a router table. Cutalong theinside edges of the railsandstilesasyouwouldformaking a veneered-panel door(page113).

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r) Preparing therailsforglueup fenceand I Re.ouetheauxiliarv a adjust theblade angle to45".Make testcut in a scrapboard andmeasure square, thecutendwitha combination thebladeangleif necessary. adjusting Tosetthewidthof cut,marka lineon themolded edgeof a railthesamedisasthe tancefromthetenonshoulder molding width.Alignthemarkwiththe bladewhereit exitsthetableopening, thenbuttthefenceagainst therail. Adjust thebladeheight untilonetooth justprotrudes beyond thetenonshoulder.Tomakethecuts,butttherarl against thefenceandholdit flush against themitergauge to feedit moldRepeat ed-edge downintotheblade. to cut theotherendof the rail (left) andbothendsof thesecond rail.

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Readying thestiles preparing molding if youwish Before thestilesforfinalassembly, routa decorative stopped (page107).Thenmarka lineonthemolded fromthe edgeof eachstilethewidthof a railaway Withthetablesawbladeangled at 45', alignthecutting edgewiththemark endof theboard. stopthecutat thepointwhere themolding endsandthefaceof andcut intothemolded edge; Next,sliceoffthestripof molding between the45" cutandtheendof thestile thestilebegins. theripfenceoutof the witha bandsaw.Then,smooth thecutedgeusingthetablesaw.Moving the way,holdthethestileflushagainst themitergauge andslidethestockbackandforthalong edgeof thestile. mitergauge(above, right).Makesureyoudo notcut intothemolded

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mortises Cutting A l i g na r a , lw i t he a c hs t i l ea n dm a r k t h e o u t l i n eo f t h e m o r t i s eass y o uw o u l d w h e nm a k i n ga f r a m e - a n d - p a naes ls e m b l y (naop lQ) \ r e o e .

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f e n c ec. e n t e r i ntph e m o r t i s oe u t l r n e under t h ec h i s eal n db i t .S e tt h ed r i l l i n g d e p t ht o t h e t e n o nl e n g t ht,h e nm a k ea c u t a Le a c h e n d o f t h e m o r t i s eb e f o r eb o r i n go u t t h e wastein belween(rrght).

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Preparing theframefor a panel f, r . . / A s s e m b l teh e r a i l sa n d s t i l e s T . h e n .p ' o t e c t r ntgh e s t o c k w i t hw o o dp a d s ,u s et w o b a rc l a m p st o h o l dt h e f r a m et o g e t h e r s e c u r e l yF.i t a r o u t ew r i t ha % - i n c ht h r e e , w i nsgl o t t r n cgu t t e r a n d m o u n t h e t o o l i n a r o u t e tr a b l e .R e m o vteh e f e n c ea n ds e t t l ' e r r a m eo n t h et a b l e .A d j u s t h e b r t ' sc u t t i n gd e p t ht o c u t t h e groove m i d w a yb e t w e etnh e b o t t o mo f t h e f r a m e3 n dt h e c d o c

I I I o f t h e m o l d i n gG, r i p p i r tr hg e b a rc l a m p fsi r m l y b, u t tt h e i n s i d e e d g eo f t h e f r a m ea g a i n stth e b i t n e a ro n ec o r n e rt,h e nr o t a t e i t c l o c k w i st eo c u t t h eg r o o v ae l o n gt h e r a i l sa n ds t i l e s( a b o v e ) . K e e pt h e f r a m ef l a to n t h e t a b l ea s y o uf e e dr t i n t ot h e b i t . lMake a raisedpanelto f it the f rame(page53) andthendisass e m b l teh ef r a m e .

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upthedoor fi Gluing

\.,1 Squeeze someglueintothe mortises in thestilesandonthetenoncheeks and shoulders attheendsof therails; alsoapply someadhesive onthecontacting surfaces ofthemitercutsin therailsandstiles. Do notaddanyglueto the panelgrooves. Then,assemble thedoorandsetit ontwo barclamps ona worksurface, aligning the railswiththebarsof theclamps. Tokeep fromfallingover,propeach theclamps oneon a notched woodblock.Protecting t h ef r a m ew r t hw o o dp a d st,i g h t e n the justenough clamps tofullyclose thejoints (riSht), thenusea try squareto check whether thecorners of thedoorareat right angles. Finish tightening theclamps until gluesqueezes outof thejoints, checking remain occasionally thatthecorners square. glue has 0ncethe dried,usea paintscraper to remove anyremaining adhesive.

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Cutting molding intothestiles I n s t aa l l m o l d i nhge a dw i t hc u t t e rtso m i l lt h ep r o f i loef y o u r choice; a beaddesignis shown(above, left).Crank thecutters to % inchabove thetable,center onestileoverthem,thenbutt theripfenceagainst thestock.Marktheplaces onthetable insertwherethemolding headstartsandstopscutting. Then markthepoints oneachstilewhere themolding willbegin and e n d .F o re a c hc u t ,h o l dt h es t i l ej u s ta b o vteh em o l d i nhge a d , frontcuttinglinewiththemarkonthetableinsert aligningthe

farthest fromyou.Keeping thestileagainst thefence,lowerthe stockontotheblades. 0ncethestockisflatonthetable,feed it forward whilepressing it against ihe fence.Slideyourleft handalong thetopof thestileandhookyourfingers around the faredgeof thetable.Oncethebackcuttinglinereaches the markonthetableinsert closest to you,liftthestileoffthecut(above, ters right).Fora deeper cut,makeasmanypasses as necessary, raising themolding headr/ainchat a time.

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DOORS SOLID-PANEL doorsofferthesame com- the length of the rails-without the Q olid-panel rJ binationofstrensthandcharmas tenons-added to thewidth of the stiles. theirframe-and-paneimunteqparts. This In buildinga board-and-batten door, section features twostyles: tongue-and- somewoodworkersusetwo horizontal grooveandboard-and-batten doors. battensinsteadofthe standardZ-shaoed Sizingstockfor a board-and-batten pattern;for addedstrength,the two piecesarerecessed doorisamatterof makingthelengthof in dadoescut into the theboardsequalto thedoorheight;their back of the door. A more elaborate combined widthshouldeoualthedoor method is to rout a sliding dovetail width.Dimensioning stockioratongue- acrossthe backand fit the battensnugand-groove doorrequires makingthe ly into it, securingthe supportpieceof Iengthof thestilesthesameheightas wood with a singlescrewin the center thedoor.Thewidthof thedoorwill be ofthe door.

A modern,European-style door(nearleft) is assembled raik and stiles that interlockwith tenonsand tonguefrom joints. Forthemorerusticboard-and-batten and-groove door(far left), boardsarejoined with rabbetjoints reinforcedby battensscrewedto thebackof thedoor.

MAKING A TONGUE.AND.GROOVE D(l(lR thestock 1 Milling I Toprepare therailsandstilesyouwill haveto cuta series of grooves, tenonsand tongues. Beginbysawing a groove along oneedgeof eachboard,exceptfor the bottom rail.Install a 7+-inch-wide dadohead on yourtablesawandsetthe cutting heightat Vzinch.Center a boardedgeover theblades, thenbutttheripfenceagainst thestock;clampa featherboard to thetable for support. Tocut eachgroove, feedthe pressing stockintotheblades, theboard against thefence(farleft).Thencut a tenonat theendsof eachrailthesame wayyouwouldfora frame-and-panel door (page104),butdo notmaketheshoulder cut.Finally, cuta tongue along thenongrooved edgeof eachrail,exceptforthe toppiece.Installandnotchanauxiliary fence(page4B).Setthecuttingheightat Vqinch,thenclamponefeatherboard to thefenceabove thedadoheadandinstall a second featherboard onthetable.Tocut eachtongue, usea pushstickto feedthe railintothedadohead.Turntheboard overto complete thecut (nearleft).

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r) Gluing upthedoor Z fitthe partsof thedoortogether, t h e nn u m b eera c hr a i lt o h e l py o u reassemble thedoorforfrnalglueup. lf anyjointis tootight,usea wood chiselto paresomewoodfromthe edges of thetenonorthegroove, as required. with Onceyouaresatisfied thefit, takethe pieces apartand s p r e asdo m eg l u eo nt h et e n o n s , Reassemble thedoorandolaceit on propping twobarclamps, themup withnotched woodblocks. Protectingthestockwithwoodpads,tightuntilgluesqueezes entheclamps fromthe jotnls(abovd.Oncethe hasdried,remove adhesive the witha paintscraper. excess

llflllllllllllltllllIIJlllttlljilIltlllllllIllJ lrJill]rlllilllllllrlll 1HO?Tt? ?reventing oanding -6\S ocrat'aheo tY1andinqthe sbileeof a eolid,,\\\ frame door may \f c a u o ec r o e e - q r a i n \ \ ' : \ \ \ i scralcheeon lhe raile. An eaeysolutionie No sand NherailefireL,Nhen apVlyetripeof maekinq LapeIo the rails,aligning Nheedqeof the tape wiLhthe ioints belweenLheraileand, -sIilee. TheneandLheetilee.

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BUILDING A BOARD.AND.BATTEN D()()R therabbets 1 Cutting I Onvourtablesawinstall a dadohead one-half aswideasthestockthickness. Attachandnotchanauxiliary fence(page 48),thensetthecuttingheight-again, one-half thethickness of theboards. To secure theworkpiece, clamptwofeatherboards anda suooort boardto thetable sawasshown. Feedthestockintothe blades usinga pushstick.Thenflipthe board overandrepeat thecutalong the nlhpr

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Assembling thedoor Dry-clamp thedoorinside-face up usingthesamesetupas where thescrew willlointhebatten to anoutside doorboard. for a tongue-and-groove door(page109).Then cuttwobattens Then,holding thebatten square to theedgeof thedoor,drive slightly shorter thanthedoorwidthandnarrower thanthedoor in eachscrew(above, left).Cuta thirdbattento fit diagonally boards. Position thetwopieces of woodacross thetopandbotbetween thetwoalready in placeandscrewit in position. To tomoftheassembly. Thenfit anelectric drillwith a combinationconceal thescrews, applya dabof glueto theirheads, then bitandcounterbore holesforscrews plugsin theholes. andwoodplugsat 2-inch insert Tapthemin placewitha wooden intervals along thebattens, alternating between thetopandbotmallel(above, right),Ihenusea chiselto trimtheprojecting tomof eachboard. Makeclearance holesexcept in theplaces stubsflushwiththedoorsurface.

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GLASSDOORS of largecabinets, f) opularfeatures I hutches, andshelving units,glass doorsareconstructed in muchthesame wayasframe-and-panel doors(page 104).The frameisheldtogether bymorjoints;adecorative tise-and-tenon moldingadornsitsinneredges. Thedifference isthatonaglass doorthemoldingisnot routedintotheframe;instead, a rabbet is cut,thena separate glass-stop moldingis nailedin place.Theadvantage of thisdesignis thatthemoldingcaneasilybepriedoffshouldtheglass break. In largerpieces of furniture,thedoor is oftendividedby horizontalrailsand verticalmullionsinto several smaller

panels, eachholdingits ownpane.In additionto its aesthetic appeal,this designmakesthe glasslessproneto breaking andalsocheaper to replace. Glassis available in variousthicknesses purandtypes.Fordoor-making poses, themostcommonly usedvariety is sheetor windowglass, in available thicknesses up to %inch.

Glassdoorssolvetheproblemof shieldingthecontentsof a piece offurniturefrom dustwhile still allowingthemto bedkplayed.

CONSTRUCTING A GLASS D(l(|R

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a rabbet to holdthepaneof glass 1 Cufting I Clamptheframeto a worksurface, usinga woodpadfor protection. Theninstalla3/a-inch rabbeting bit ona routerand setthedepthof cutto thecombined thickness of theglassand themolding. Holdthetoolfirmlywithbothhands whileresting thebaseplate ontheframenearonecorner, thenturnonthe

routerandguidethebit intotheinsideedgeof thedoor.Move therouterclockwise alongthe edges(above, left)unlilthecut is completed. Square thecorners witha wooden malletanda woodchisel(above, right).Makethecutswiththegrainfirstto avoidsplitting theframe.

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Routing themolding l n s t a lal d e c o r a t i vmeo l d i n pb i t o n t h e

router, thenmount thetoolIna router table. Choose a boardlongenough to produce youneed. Tosecure thelength of molding thestock,install twofeatherboards onthe router table-onepressing theworkpiece toward thefenceandonepressing down (Here, directly above therouter. theupper featherboard hasbeenremoved forclarity.)Turnonthetoolandfeedtheworkpiece intothebitwhilekeeping theboard flushagainst thefence.Finish thepass using a pushstick.Repeat thestepto rout molding in theopposite a second edge (left),thenrip thetwo of theworkpiece fromthestockwitha tablesaw.Sawthe molding to theproper length, making 45" mitercutsat theendsof eachpiece. Cut e ta t i m e m a n df i t o n ep i e c a , a k i nsgu r e youalignthemitercutswiththecorners of therabbets.

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t I I Finalassembly Q r.,f Setthe frameandthe glasson a worksurface, thenplacethe moldingin position. B o r ea p i l o th o l ee v e r y2 i n c h e su s i n ga n e l e c t r i d c r i l l f i t t e dw i t ha s m a l l f i n i s h i nnga i l w i t ht h e h e a ds n i p p e do f f .T h e nd r i v et h e b r a d si n p l a c eu s i n ge i t h e ra h a m m eor r a b r a dd r i v e rW . i t ht h e h a m m e rh, o l dt h e m o l d i n gf l u s ha g a i n stth e f r a m eo f t h e d o o r ; usea pieceof cardboard to protectthe glass(above,Ieft).To usea braddriver,insert a b r a di n t ot h e p i l o th o l e t, h e np o s i t i o tnh e j a w sa n dt i g h t e nt h e l o c k i n gn u t .H o l d i n g the framesteady,squeezethe jawsto set the nail (above,right).

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DOORS VENEERE,D.PANE,L I s ornamentalas the frame-anddoor A paneldoor,theveneered-panel is muchsimplerto make.Firstof all,it doesnot recuiremortise-and-tenon joints.In fact,theframeaddsno strengh to thedoorat all;thefour sidesaresimply miteredat eachend.The assembly is held togetherby biscuitjoints that affixit to a plyvood panel,whichserves asthe structuralbackboneofthe door. The veneeredplyuood is formedby up to nine pliesof thin veneerglued together.The outerskin is typically%s inch thick for hardwoodsand %oinch thick for softwoods.

Sinceplywood is not affectedby humidiry no allowancehasto be made for changesin the sizeof the panel. Therefore, it doesnot needto havea bevel cut alongits edgeto fit into a groove on theframe.Theplywoodsimplyrests in a rabbetcut in the frame.

Thepanelof a veneered-panel door- with its typicallydarkhuedwood-offersa visualcontrastto thelighter-colored frame.

D()()R A VENEERED.PANEL MAKING

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intheframepieces Routing a molding I Ripthefourframepieces to width, themslightly longer than thencrosscut witha length. Fita router theirf inished molding bit,theninstall the decorative in a router table.Foreachcut, machine good-face downinto feedtheworkpiece (abovd, usinga featherboard to IhebiI thefenceanda bracethestockagainst pushstickto complete thepass.

r) Cutting a rabbet andsizing thestock justasyouwouldto makea board-and-batten door(page110). L Cutarabbet panel; the width should beone-half at thethickness of the Setthecuttingheight workpiece. the saw table to support the Clamp featherboards to thestockthickness. pressure keep featherboard and the fence to the thevertical Inserta shimbetween good-face part into workpiece up the dado offtherabbeted of ihe stock.Feedthe (above). pieces making 45" miter cuts at each end. Thencuttheframe to size, head panel panel fit. ldentify edges and their to the Dry-assemble theframe, thencutthe assemble thedoorforglueup. mating framepieces to helpyoucorrectly

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Preparing theframeandpanel forglueup Marka lineacross theoanel andthe framepieces about4 inches fromeach edgeandat 6-inchintervals in between. D i s a s s e mtbhl ed o o ra n dc l a m po n e protecting framepieceio a worksurface, thestockwithwoodpads.Adjustthe depthof cutona platejoiner, thenset thetool'sbaseplateonthebottom of the rabbet intheframepiece. Witha support boardunderthejorner to keepit level, a l i g nt h eg u i d el i n eo nt h et o o lw i t ha slotlocation mark.Holding thejoiner withbothhands, cut a groove at each mark(left).Repeat for theotherframe pieces, thencutthemating slotsin the panelthesameway.

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Gluing upthedoor Oncealltheslotshavebeencut,glueupthedoor.Settheframepieces andthepanel good-face glueintoeachslot,inserting upona worksurface andsqueeze biscuits asyougo. To prevent thewafers fromexpanding before everything is puttogether, assemble thedooras quicklyaspossible, fittingtheframepieces to thepanel(above, /eff).Next,setthedooron twobarclamps ona worksurface. Withwoodpadsprotectingthe frame, tighten theclamps justenough to closethejoints.Install twomoreclamps across thetopof thedoor,placing themperpendicular to thefirsttwo.Finish tightening untilgluesqueezes outof thejoints (above, paint right).Oncetheadhesive hasdried,remove anyexcess witha scraper.

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HANGINGADOOR astin metalsrangingfromwroughtf doorhingescomein U ironto brass, a wide arrayof stylesto complement virtuallv anv door.Most fit into one of shownat right. four basiccategories hingesare bestsuitedto Clock-case doorsthatoverlaytheiropening,Commonly usedfor flush-mounteddoors, butt hingestipically sit in shallowmortisescut into thedoor andcase.Surfacemountedhingesareidealforimparting an antiqueor rustic look to a door. hinges,suchastheEuropean Concealed cabinethinge,arecompletelyhidden whenthe door is closed. Beforeinstallingthehinges,readthe instructionsregarding manufacturer's Ifyou areworkingwith hingeplacement. fine woods,tap the stock for brass machinescrewsafterdrilling pilot holes to reducethechance of splitting.A spot of glue in the hole will improvethe holdingabilityof the screw.

HINGES DOOR

Cloak-caaehinge Fivota on a pin, which allowa the door to be lifted off

European cabineb hinge Commonlyused in kitchen oprin7-mounted.Can be adjuated after inatallation to correat minor mountinq inaccuraciea

Eutt hinge Availablein iron or bra99

5utfaae-mounted hinge A decorative hinge installed on the outaide face offluah doora

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HINGES EUROPEAN CABINET INSTALLING thehingebodies 1 Attaching install a Forstner I Onyourdrillpress, bitthewidthof thehingebody-typically,35mm.Setthedooroutside-face thenalign downonthemachine's table, for thebitwithoneof thetwomarks several lf youarehanging thehinges. against the doors, clampstopblocks edgeandendof thedoor.Setthedrilling d e p t ht o t h et h i c k n e sosf t h eh i n g e body.Holding thedoorflushagainst feedthe bit intothe thestopblocks, withmore door(left),lf youareworking too. thanonedoor,drilltheotherones, Thenalignthemarkat theotherend ofthedoorunder thedrillbit.Reposition andborethehole;repeat thestopblocks foranyotherdoors. Setthedooron a worksurface andscrewthehingebody in placeInseil.

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r) Aligning andattaching the plates Z- mounting Havea helper holdthedoorin itsopen position against thecase.Extend the plates hingearmsto buttthemounting against thepanel. Marka reference line around theplates, thenunscrew them fromthehingearms.Placetheplates in position onthepanelinside thecase (/eff). anddrivein thescrews

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thedoor Q Hanging r-,1 Slidethearmsontothemountingplatesandscrewin place?ight). Close thedoorandcheckits oosrtionon thecase.Youcanadjust position theheight, depthor lateral of thedoorbyloosening ortightenrngtheadjustment screws onthe hinse arms.

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BUTT HINGES ATTACHING mortises forthehinges 1 Routing and I Secure thedoorin handscrews clamothemin olaceona worksurface. onthedoor Position oneof thehinges edge,making surethatthepinpro1ects of the overtheedge.Marktheoutline forthe Repeat hingeleafwitha pencil. a straight-cutting hinge.Install second bit ona routerandsetthedepthof cut of a hingeleaf.Protectto thethickness ingthedoorwithwoodpads,clampa board to thedoorasanedgeguide.Posithedoor bitslightly above tiontherouter e d g ej u s ti n s i d teh eo u t l i n eG. r i p p i n g firmly, turnonthetooland thehandles Once thebase lower thebit intothestock. guide platesitssquarely onthedoor(right), t h eb i t i n a c i r c u l amr o t i o an r o u ntdh e o u t l i n eU. s ea w o o dc h i s etlo s q u a r e thenscrew the ofthemortises, theedges hinees to thedoor.

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r) Hanging thedoor holdsthedooragainst L Wntl"a helper buttthe thecasein its openposition, hingeleaves against the insidefaceof surethatthehardware's thecase.Making pin projects beyond theedgeof the panto outline thehingeleaf el,usea pencil (farleft).Placethecaseon itssideand routthemortises, following thesameproin step1. Thenscrew cedures described thehinges to thecase(nearlefil.

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INSTALLING CLOCK-CASE HINGES

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thehinges 1 Positioning I Setthecaseon its backandfix stripsof masking tape across thecorners of thedooropening. Place smallsandpapershimsontopof thepieces of tape,thensetthedoorin place. Onceyouaresatisf iedwiththepositioning, markthe doorcorners onthetapewitha pencil. Next,buttthehinges against theedgeof thedoor;usea tapemeasure to make surethattheyareequally spaced fromthetopandbottom of thedoor(above). Holding theupperhalfof thehingein place, slipoffthebottom halfandthehingepin.Thenmark thescrewholesonthedooredse(inscf)

r) Mounting thehinges onthedoor I Secure thedoorto a wornsurfacewithhandscrews andclamos. thenborepilotholesat eachmarked point.Holdthetophalfof eachhinge square to thedooredgeandscrew tt in place(right).

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DOORS

thedoor Q Hanging r - ) R e a s s e m btlhee h i n g ea n d r e p o s i . h e c kt h a t t i o n t h e d o o ro n t h e c a s e C withthe of thedoorarealigned thecorners m a r k so n t h e m a s k i n gt a p e .H o l d i n g disthe bottomhalfof oneof the hinges, a s s e m b lteh e h i n g ea n d m o v et h e d o o r a s i d et,h e nm a r kt h e s c r e wh o l e so n t h e c a s e .R e p e afto r t h e o t h e rh i n g e .B o r e pilotholes,thenscrewthe bottomhalf Remove of eachhingeto the case(/eff,). t h e s h i m sa n dt a p es t r i p s i,n s e rtth e p i n in the bottompartof the hingeandthen o l a c et h e d o o ro n t h e c a s e .

HINGES SURFACE.MOUNTED ADDING thehinges Mounting up on a work Withthedoorgood-face position onthedoor, thehinges surface, m a k i nsgu r et h a tt h ep i n se x t e njdu s t theedgeof thedoor.Alsocheck beyond t h a tt h eh i n g eas r et h es a m ed i s t a n c e of thedoor. fromthetopandbottom Markthescrewholesonthedoorwitha the pencil, Screw thenborepilotholes. to thedoor.Tomountthehinges hinges setthecaseon to thepieceof furniture, its back.Holdthedoorin thecaseand placea pieceof sandpaper between the twoto serveasa shim,Withthehinge pincentered overtheedgeof thedoor markthescrewholesonthe opening, c a s eB , o r ep i l o th o l e sa n dd r i v ei n the screws(right).

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,:qfrr*

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LE,GS In general,legs should be in human iketheircounterparts attached to furniturewith the legsin cabinetmakanatomy, joinerytechniqu es(page strongest of But ing servemainlyassupports. mortise-and-tenon 133), such as the play an equally furniture legs or thedoweljoint.Anotheroption role,compleimportantesthetic isleghardware, whichis commermentingandsettingofffor display available but canalsobeeascially to a chair. arythingfroma carcase This altermade in the shop. ily Whatever thestyleof legs,thechala leg to be detached, native allows lenges of makingthemareseveral: it is only appropriate but usually perandproportionmustbe shape whenthepieceis largeenoughto with therestof the fectlyin balance legsanadvantage makedetachable back to the The leg harkens cabriole pieceof furniture,andthelegmust moving. with hand during art of shapingwood time-honored support.The alsoprovideadequate youwill Formostlegprojects, contours tools.Here,theleg\ unmistakable between goalisto achieve abalance is comneed thicker stock than by a spokeshave, arerevealed and smoothed strengthandbeauty. plane. You monly available. can either ofthe hand traditionalcousin will showyouhow Thischapter proper-sized wood from a order to makefour popularlegtypes: your leg blanks from thinor make own specialized supplier, legs.Several methods andsquare tapered, octagonal cabriole, Startby preparcalledface-gluing. Takentogether, theseleg nerstock,usinga process ofattachinglegsarealsopresented. final of theleg:To joinery larger than the size ing the stock slightly for a offerattractive alternatives techniques typesand will 3by 3by 29 finished dimensions be make a leg whose widerangeof furniturestyles. t/rinchby boards. To I by 3 30-inch inches, cut three %-inch forlegs,thecabriole of designs Amongthemostdistinctive joint glue Then up fit, the mating surfaces. a seamless is bestsuitedto traditionalstylesof furniture,suchasQueen ensure theendgrainofthepieces have theboardsfaceto face,alternating ButasAmericanfurnituremakers AnneandHepplewhite. grainandcolor. maximize the stock to craftsmanship andarranging shownsincethe 19thCentury,accomplished process boardsinto panels The is identical to edge-gluing Asyouwill see,the cankeepthisdesignfreshandappropriate. (page used.Before cut20),except that more clamps should be requirements thatshould legdoeshavecertaindesign cabriole joint face an edge to create two (page your leg a and blank, contours of theleg tinginto berespected na).Thecharacteristic then use the a angle to one another, thatareat 90o Incorporating animal surfaces aremorethansimplyrandomshapes. its final width planir to bring the blank to or thetablesaw for example, hasalways beena feature. profilesin thedesign, Lastly,crosscut thelegto length.Referto the term, andthickness. anantecedent of theEnglish TheItalianwordcapriolarq (page12)for information Techniques chapter refersto ananimalleapingintotheair,anactionwhichmany Cabinetmaking operations. onthesebasicwoodworking to suggest. versions ofthelegarecalculated

A router etchesa rectangulargroove for an inlay into a squareleg.

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ANATOMYOFA CABRIOLELEG

I I I I I Poat block I 1ection of le7 joined to rail; len4th equala I width of rail; width typically I one-halfto twothirda aa wide I ao le7 blank I I I I I I

"|a h. illustrationbelowshowsoneof I the commonwaysa leg-in this case, a cabriole leg-is joinedto a piece of furniture,suchasa simplecarcase. Beforeattaching thelegto therails,you will needto cuta rabbetalongthetop of therails.Afterassembly, thetop of thelegistrimmedto thelevelof therabbet.Next,glueisappliedto therabbets, thenotches andthecontacting surfaces ofthecarcase, andthecasework isseated on theleg-and-rail assembly. The weightof thepieceeliminates theneed for clamping. There are many waysof joining legsto rails,includingthefour techniquesshownoppositeandfeatured in thischapter. Themortise-and-tenon anddoweljoints aretwo alternatives designed to lastthelife of a pieceof furniture.Ifyouchoose themortiseand-tenon, remember thatthetenons arealwayscutattheendsof therails, whilethemortisesarealwayschiseledoutofthelegs. Whetheryou buy hardwarefor attachingthelegsor buildyourown in theshop,it offersthestrength and durabilityof traditionaljoinery, with theaddedbenefitof easeof disassembly-an optionimpossiblewith a gluejoint.

t Rail Rabbet cut in top ed4eprovidea lip to cradle piece of furniture

Ankle At narrowest point, about twofiftha the width of le7 blank

Toe Typicallyabout 3/+to 1inch from bottom of leg

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LEGS

JOINTS LEG-TO-RAIL

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Rail

Rail

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Tenon

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LEGHARDWARE thop-made hardware

Commercialhardware Notch CUL tn le7 to hold mount- ,\ inq plate

Rail Flanqeof mounLtn7 plaLe fite tnto groove cut near end

Notah Cul;in le7 to accePt \ -: cornerblock

Rail Groove cuL near end arrenla

anline

''-:'

Spline Mounting plate Hanger bolt

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Cornerblock Orooveecut in endeaccept epltnee


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CABRIOLELEGS I lthoughits originscanbe traced A backto woodworkers of classical times in China,Egypt,Greeceand Rome,the cabrioleleg hasbecomea ubiauitousfixture of Westernfurnituriin the past200years,The best knowndesigns includethestaidQueen Anne leg with its spoon-shaped foot and the ornateball-and-claw foot of the Americancolonialdesign.Due to the leg'swidespread popularity,every generationhasaddedits own touches or variedold ones,so that thereis no standardpattern.Designsrangefrom legswith exaggerated curvesto others that arealmostknee-less andvirtually

straight.Themostcommonelementof cabriolelegsistheS-shaped curve,which is meantto suggest the graceand eleganceof a horse's leg. The designshownbelowwill yield an attractive,well-proportionedleg strongand stableenoughto supporta pieceof furniture.You can alterthe patternto suit your own projector copythe designofan existinglegthat appeals to you.However,do not exaggeratethe curvestoo muchor you risk makingthe leg unstable.Beforecutting into the block of wood, perform thissimpleteston your design:Drawa straightline from the top of the legto

the bottom;the line should fall within the leg outline at everypoint.

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A cabrioleleg.

MAKING A CABRI()TE LEG

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a cabriole leg 1 Designing I Fora template, cuta pieceof stiffcardboard point,thediameter or hardboardat its narrowest of theankleshouldbe to thesamelength andwidthasyourlegblanks. Todrawthe abouttwo-fifths thestockwidth.Moveonto theknee,sketch leg,startbyoutlining thepostblock.Makeits length equalto inga gentlecurvefromthepostblockto thefrontedgeof the thewidthof therailthatwillbeattached to theleg;thewidth template about2 to 3 inches belowthe block. Thenjointhe should beadequate to accept thetenonof therail(one-half to kneeto theanklewitha relatively straight line.Complete the two{hirds thewidthof thestockistypical). Next,sketch the outline at thebackof theleg,connecting thebottom of the toe;fora legof theproportions shown, it shouldbeabout% to legwiththebackof theankle. Thensketch a curve fromthe 1 inchfromthebottom of theleg,Thendrawa curveonthe ankleto the bottomof the postblock(above). Experiment with frontof the legfromthetoeto theankleusinga french curve; theoutlineuntilyouhavea satisfactory design.

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LEGS

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Illllllllltlllllll llltillilltlll]ili lll1 filtllllll|lI]I1 illlllltfiIl 1HO?Tt? Copyingt'hedeei1n of a aabrioleleg ToLransferNhecontoureof an exieLinq leqontroa temVlate,ueethis ehop-made Iracin7quide.CULa 2-inchcubefrom a ocrapblock,lhen useyour trablesawNo torm aV in one ed4e.1aw off the bot|om half of Nhewedqe.Remove Nhecatbrid4e from a ball-pointVenand uoeepoxyqlue Nobondit to Nhecubejuel Io onesideof lhe Y;Ia?e NhecarLrid^eLo Lheblockwhilethe glueie dryinq.To ueeNhequide,holdthe iemplate quidelhe pen flaLaqainoLoneeideol the leg.Then, alonqthe backand fronLof the leg,makinqsurethe VoinLof Ihe V ridesaqainotLheedgeof the leg.

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r) Transferring thedesign I nme legblank Cutoutyourtemplate ona bandsaw, thensandtheedges upto themarked outline. Holdthetemplate flatononeof theinside facesof thelegblank, makingsurethattheendsof thetemplate andtheblankarealigned andthatthe backof theoostblockisflushwiththe insideedgeof theblockof wood.Trace alongtheedges of thetemplate to outl i n et h el e g T . u r nt h eb l a n ko v e a r nd repeat theprocedure ontheotherinside face(above). At thispoint,somewoodpreferto makepreparations workers for thejoinery before cutting theleg.(lt is easier to clampandcuta mortise in a rectangular legblank, forexample, than to carryoutthesameprocedures in a legwithpronounced contours.) Other woodworkers cutthe legfirstandthen dotheioinerv.


LEGS

MakinS thecutsononefaceoftheleg Q r../ Setthe lesblankonthebandsaw tablewithon.of th. marked outlines facingupandthebottom of thelegpointing awayfromyou.Aligning thesawblade justto thewaste sideof themarked line forthebackof theleg,feedthestockinto theblade. Turnoffthesawabouthalfway through thecutandremove theworkpiece. T h e nc u ta l o n g t h es a m el i n ef r o mt h e opposite end.Toavoiddetaching thewaste piece fromtheblankandlosing themarked outline ontheadjacent face,stopthecut aboult/zinchfromthefirstkerf,leaving a shortbridgebetween thetwocuts.Retract theworkpiece, thencutalong thelinefor thefrontof Iheleg(left).

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Making thecutsontheadjacent face T u r no v e trh eb l a n ks ot h a tt h em a r k eodu t l i n oe n i t s adlacent sideisfacing up.Cutalong themarked lines, beginningatthefoothbove). Thistime,complete thecut,letting fallaway. thewaste

thebridges f, Cutting r-,t Rotate theblanksothatthefirstfaceyoucutfacesup. Withthesawoff,slidetheblankforward to feedtheblade intothekerfat thebackof theleg.Turnonthesawandcut through thebridge to release thewastepiece(above). Thencut through thebridge between thekerfsat thefrontsf theleo

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LEGS

Shaping andsmoothing the leg 4i t h e c a b r i o l el e g \ , 1 T o f i n i s hs h a p i n g a n dt o r e m o v e a n yb l e m i s h else f t b y the bandsawblade,smoothits surfaces w i t ha s p o k e s h a vfeo,l l o w e db y a r a s p a n ds a n d p a p eIrn. p r e p a r a t i of on r t h i s s m o o t h i npgr o c e s ss,e c u r et h e l e gi n a b a rc l a m pa n df i x t h ec l a m pt o a w o r k s u r f a cw e i t ha h a n d s c r eawn da C c l a m p a s s h o w nH . olding a spokeshaw v ei t h b o t hh a n d sa t t h e t o p o f a c u r v e de d g e o f t h e l e g ,p u l lt h e t o o ls l o w l yt o w a r d y o u ,c u t t i n ga t h i ns h a v i nagn df o l l o w i n g the grain(/eif).Repeatuntilthe surface i s s m o o t hT. u r nt h e l e gi n t h e b a rc l a m p t o c l e a nu p t h e o t h e re d g e sT. o s m o o t h an areathatthe spokeshave cannotreach, u s et h e r a s p .T h et o o lw o r k sb e s tw h e n p u s h e dd i a g o n a l layc r o s tsh e g r a i n .F i n ishthe job withsandpaper, usingprogress i v e l yf i n e r - g r ipt a p e r su n t i l t h es u r f a c e issmooth.

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illltllllllllll lll lllllltlrjlltlllll]lilllilIllllllll1 lll ltiltl]lilil 9HO7Tt? Sandinga aabrioleleg )mootrhinglhe curved eurfacesof a cabriole legueinqonlya eheeLof eandpaper o r a e a n d i n qb l o c k riekecrealinqbumpeor valleyeor flaXlening oul Ihe curvesif excessive io apVlied, Ueea ?ree6ure o h o V - m a doea n d i n qV a d

l h a L w i l lf o l l o wN h ec o n t o u r e o f l h e l e g .W r a Va s h e e l o f e a n d p a V e r a r o u n d a t h i c k o V o n q el h a | y o u c a n c o m f o r t a b l yq r i p a n d

h o l dt h e ? a ? e ra r o u n dt h e s p o n q ea o you emootrh Nheleg.Evenwilh firm hand is no nek of overaandinq. lhere ?reboure,

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TAPEREDAND OCTAGONALLE,GS abinetmakers taperlegsstrictly f \-.r for visualeffect.A taoeraddsno strength,but neitherdoei it takeany away.Its principaleffectis to reducethe stolidheaviness of a leg,impartinga sleekappearance to furnitureasdiverse astraditionalEnglishandcontemporary Scandinavian designs. A legcanbe taperedon one inside face,on two outsidefaces,or, asillustratedbelowandon page129,onallfour sides.Beforesettlingon the amountof taper for a leg-expressedin either degreesor inchesper foot-you can evaluate thevisualimpactof thefinished

productwithout cuttinginto your leg blank.Experimentwith differenttapers by simplymaskingoffthe part to becut awaywitha pieceof light-colored cardboard.Thereareno prescriptions for the idealamountof taper,but asa general rule,thethickerandlongertheleg,the greatertheangle. Anotheroption well-suitedto many furniturestylesis the octagonalleg. Despiteits appearance of intricacy,it is easyto createusinga tablesawasshown on page130.For eitherstyleofleg, be sureto sandthestockthoroughlybefore preparingit for joinery.

Cut on a tablesaw fitted with a moldingheadand cutters,a beadprofile adds a distinctive decorativetouch to this taperedleg.

J()INTING A TAPERED LEG

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Setting upandstarting thecut I Usea cuttinggauge to outlinethetaperon the bottom endof thelegblank(inset). Thenmarklinesonthefourfaces of thestockneartheopposite endto indicate where thetaper s f e etda b l et o h o l d w i l lb e g i nI.n s t aal l c l a m po nt h ej o i n t e r i' n theguardoutof thewayduring theoperation. Setthedepthof cutfor 7ainchand,holding theblankagainst thefence,align thetaperstartlinewiththefrontof theoutfeed table.Butta

stopblockagainst the legasshownandclampit to the infeed table.Tostarteachpass, caref ullylower theblank ontothecutterhead whileholding it f irmlyagainst thefence withyourlefthand(above). Straddle thefencewithyourright hand,usingyourthumbto keeptheblankflushagainst the stooblock.Makesurebothhands areovertheinfeed side of thecutterhead.

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r) Jointing thetaper L feeathe lesacross thecutterhead pushing witha pushstic-k, downonthe trailing endof thestockwhilepressing it flushagainst thefence(left).Keep yourlefthandawayfromthecutterhead. Makeasmanypasses asnecessary until youhavetrimmed thestockdownto the taperoutline, thenrepeat theprocess to faces. shape theremaining

MOLDING ADDING DECORATIVE

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molding intoa leg Cutting headwiththeappropriOnyourtablesawinstalla molding Marka cuttinglinefor atecutters; a beadprofileis shown. eachmolding ononefaceof theleg,thenholdthelegagainst Fora tapered leg,youwillhaveto adjust themitergauge. square to make theangleof thegauge. Usea carpenter's partof thelegis perpendicular to the surethatthesquare miterslot.Crank thecutters to 7ainchabove thetableand a l i g no n eo f t h ec u t t i n lgi n e sw i t ht h em o l d i nhge a dT. h e n

the leg.Tocut thefirstmolding, buttthe ripfenceagainst press themitergauge andthefence, the legfirmlyagainst Repeat thecut on whilefeeding thestockintothecutters. face,thencontinuing in thesamemanner until theadjacent youhavecutthemolding cut, onallfoursides.Fora deeper raising head makeasmanypasses asnecessary, themolding forclarity.) 7sinchat a time.(Caution: Bladeguardremoved

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LEGS

SHAPING AN()CTAGONAT LEG upthecut 1 Setting

I Unplug thetablesaw,crankthe blade to itshighest setting andadjust thecutting angle to 45". Move therip fenceto theleft-hand sideof theblade Layonefaceof thelegblankonthe blade witha corner resting onthesaw table,thenbuttthefenceagainst the stock//eff.).

Cutting theleg Buttthestockagainst theripfence a fewinches in frontof theblade. Adjust thecuttingheightuntilonetoothjust protrudes beyond thefaceof theworkpiece.To makethef irstcut,feedthe blankintotheblade, straddling thefence withyourlefthand.Rotate theleg90" clockwise andrepeat thecutontheadjacentface.Continue in thissamemanner untilallthesidesarecut

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INLAYSANDDETAILING I ddinginlayto a legcantransform A an easilyoverlookedsquareor octagonalblock of wood into the eyecatchingfocusof a pieceof furniture. Whetherthegoalis to createa contrast with the legstockor to complementa leg'soutlines,you canchoosefrom a including widevarietyof inlaymaterials, marquetryandmetals,woodveneers, asshownbelowandon page132-solid hardwood.Eachtvoeof materialcanbe preparedin theshop,but mostarealso in variousdiameters at fine available woodworkingstores.

practiceis to rout a groove Standard for aninlavfromthetopto thebottomof a leg.However, beforecuttinginto your leg,holdpiecesof inlayof differentlengths up againstit andselectalengthor arrangement that oroducesthe besteffect. Anotheidecorative optionis to rout a moldinginto a leg.Althoughit does not standout asboldlyasinlay,molding canaddits own distinctivetouchto a oieceof furniture.Youcanalsoinstall a moldingcutterheadon your tablesaw and carveout a pattern,much asyou would on a door frame(page107).

An inlay of marquetry createsa vivid counterpoint to the understated grain pattern of an octagonalleg.

TOA LEG ADDING INLAV

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grooves Cutting androuting groove, I Tocut a straight useyourtablesawwiiha dado to headthesamewidthastheinlay;setthecuttingheight Makea cut in a scrapboard lessthanitsthickness. slightly of the thewidthandcuttingheight andtestthefit; adjust onthe if necessary. Next,marka lineforthegroove blades, leading endof thelegandalignit withthedadohead.Butt thestock, thenfeedit intotheblades theripfenceagainst (above, lefil.f o makea groove withmorethanonestraight

of the leg Startbysecuring all fouredges cut,usea router. bit onyour withstopblocks. Theninstalla straight-cutting lessthanthethickrouterandsetthecuttingdepthto slightly thegroove ontheleg,thenadjustthe nessof theinlay.Outline tool's edgeguide to alignthebitwithoneof thelinesthatrun therouterf irmly,cut thegroove, across thegrain.Gripping Repeat of bit rotation. to moving thetoolagainst thedirection witha chisel. thecorners cuttheothergrooves, thensquare

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LEGS

r) Setting theinlayinthegroove L Cutthe inlayto fit in thegroove witha tablesaw,a backsaw andmiterbox,ora wood groove chisel. Fortherectangular shown, make 45" mitercutsattheendsoftheinlaypieces. It is easiest to cutandfit onepieceat a time, making sureyoualignthemitercutswiththe corners of thegrooves. Next,spread a little g l u ei n t h es l o ta n do nt h em i t e r eedn d so f t h ei n l a yp i e c e sI n. s e rot n es t r i pa t a t i m e , tappingit gentlywitha woodenmallel(right). Oncethegluehasdried,gently sandtheleg to remove anyexcess adhesive andto trimthe inlayperfectly f lushwiththesurface of the wood.lf youareusingmetalinlay, cut it with a hacksaw andsandthesurfaces thatwillcontactthegroove to improve adhesion. Then glue. bondthestripin placewithepoxy

(lFA tEG DETAITING THESURFACE Routing detailing Holdthelegin placewithstopblocks screwed to a worksurface. Marklines onthelegforthebeginning andendof thecut.Theninstall a decorative biton yourrouter; a covebitwitha ball-bearingpilotis shown. Seta cuttingdepth appropriate to theprofileyouwantto make, thenalignthebitwiththestart line.Gripping therouter withbothhands, g u i d et h eb i ta l o n g t h ec o r n eorf t h e legagainst thedirection of bit rotation, stopping whenyoureach theendline. Repeat to routthedetailing ontheother cornerof the leg(left).

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LEGJOINERY

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his sectionfeaturestwo time-testjoining I edmethodsfor permanently legsto the railsof a pieceof furniture: joint and the the mortise-and-tenon doweljoint. Two more contemporary waysarealsofeatured;both involveusing knock-downleghardware-suitable for furniture that must be takenapartand periodically. reassembled To someextent,the type of leg will dictatethe wayyou join it to the rails. Youwould be unlikely,for example,to usea hangerbolt to fix a cabriolelegto cabinet.A mora fine frame-and-panel joint would be a more tise-and-tenon appropriatechoice. for maktechniques Thereareseveral Youcanuse ing the mortise-and-tenon. a tablesawto cut thetenons(page104);

f

Thetenonat theendof a railfi* snugly in a mortisecut out of a squareleg, joint. creatinga sturdy,long-lasting

the mortisescanbeboredwith a router (page50)or a drill press(page106).Yott, mayalsochooseto usehandtools.As shownbelowandon page134,tenonscut with a handsawand mortiseschopped out with a chiselaretraditionalmethconsider odsthat manywoodworkers particularlysuitablefor thecabrioleleg. Whatever method you choose,the strengthof the joint will be enhanced by its largegluingarea. As a rule of thumb,thelengthof the tenonshouldgenerallybe aboutthreequartersthe thicknessof the leg.The tenon is typicallyabout one-third as thick astherail,but manywoodworkers insteadon the basethetenon'sthickness width of the chiselwith whichtheywill chopout themortise.

J()INTS MORTISE.AND.TENON HAND.CUT

thetenons 1 Cutting s n t h er a i l st,h e ns e c u roen eo f t h e I 0 u t l i n et h et e n o n o v i s eC . u ta l o n g t hlei n e so nt h ee n d e n d u i p n a workpieces andcut to the thesawforward rail with a backsaw; tilt of the (above, complete thecut lefil.fhen line the tenon shoulder of from tenon cheeks, remove the waste the level. To withthesaw protecting thestock to a worksurface, clamptherailface-up pad. line the face of the shoulder on Cut alons the witha wood

ontheother theoperation rail;turnoverthestockandrepeat sidebbove,right).Tocut awaythewasteontheedgesof the theedges again andsawalong therailend-up tenon, secure clamptherailedgeline,Finally, of thetenonto theshoulder of the lineson bothedges theshoulder up andcutthrough at theotherendof therailand rail.Reoeat to cutthetenons at bothendsof theotherrails.

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LEGS

r) 0utlining themortises L lttar*mortise outlines on eachleg in twosteps,usingoneof therailtenons asa guide.First,holdthecheekof the tenonflushagainst theleg,withthetop of therailaligned withtheendof the leg.Drawa pencilalongtheedges of thetenonto outlinethe lengthof the mortise, thenusea try square to continuethelinesacross theleg.Tomark thewidthof themortise, holdtheedge of thetenoncentered flushagainst the leg(left).Extend themarksalongthe leg untilthetwooutlines intersect. Repeat to markanother mortise ontheadjacent faceof thelegfortheadjoining rail.

Chiseling themortises Foreachof themortises, clamothe legto a worksurface, protecting thestock witha woodpad.Then,starting at one endof anoutline, holda mortising chisel square to thefaceof the legandstrike it witha wooden mallet. Usea chisel the samewidthasthetenonandbesure thatthe beveled sideof the bladeis facingthewaste. Makeanother cut 7einch fromthefirst.Continue untilyoureach t h eo t h e e r n do f t h eo u t l i n el ,e v e r i n g outthe wasteto a depththatslightly exceeds the lengthof thetenon.Test-fit thetenonandwidenor deeoen themortiseasrequired.

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Gluing upthelegandrail S p r e a da l i t t l eg l u ei n t h e m o r t i s e a n do n t h e c h e e k sa n ds h o u l d e rosf t h e t e n o n .F i t t h e t w ot o g e t h e rm, a k i n gs u r e t h a t t h e t o p so f t h e r a i la n dt h e l e ga r e f l u s h .P r o t e c t i nt gh e l e gw i t h a w o o d p a d ,h o l dt h e j o i n tt o g e t h ewr i t h a b a r c l a m p .A l i g nt h e b a ro f t h e c l a m pw i t h t h e r a i l ,t h e nt i g h t e ni t u n t i la b e a do f g l u es q u e e z eosu t o f t h e j o i n t .O n c et h e adhesivh e a sd r i e d ,r e m o v ea n ye x c e s s gluewith a paintscraper.Repeatthe proc e d u r et o f a s t e nt h e a d j o i n i n rga i lt o t h e ^'{i^^^^+ duldLtrilL

{^^^ ^+ +hn laa and rdLU ur Llltr 1tr5 u"-

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t h e r e m a i n i n lge g sw i t ht h e o t h e rr a i l s .

JOINTS DOWEL dowelholes andborins 1l Locatins I i n t h er a i l s F i r s t ,m a r kl o c a t i o np o i n t sf o r t h e d o w e l h o l e sH . o l d i n go n eo f t h e r a i l se n d - u ps, e t a c u t t i n gg a u g et o o n e - h a ltfh e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e s t o c ka n d s c r i b ea l i n ea c r o s st h e . i t ht h e g a u g ea t a e n do f t h e b o a r dW s l r g h t lw y i d e rs e t t i n ge, t c ht w o m a r k so n t h e e n do f t h e r a i lt h a t i n t e r s e cwt i t ht h e firstline(ighil.Io avoidsplittingthe stock, dowelsno morethanone-half usegrooved . i t a d r i l lp r e s s t h et h i c k n e sosf t h e r a i l s F o r a n e l e c t r idc r i l lw i t ha b i t t h es a m ed i a m e t e ra s t h e d o w e l st,h e n b o r ea h o l ea t p o i n t ;t h e d e p t hs h o u l db e e a c hI o c a t i o n s l i g h t l ym o r et h a no n e - h a ltfh e l e n g t ho f t h e d o w e l sU . s et h e s a m et e c h n i q uteo b o r et h e d o w e lh o l e sa t t h e o p p o s i t e n d o f t h e r a i la n di n t h e o t h e r a i l s .

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r) Pinpointing mating dowelholes L lnsertdowelcenters in the holes. Thenalignthetopof therailwiththetop of the leg(right), andswingtherailupso thatrtsoutside faceisflushwiththeedge o f t h e l e g .T a pt h eo t h e er n do f t h er a i l witha wooden mallet. Thepointed endsof thedowelcenters willpunchimpressions pointsfor on the leg,providing starting b o r i n tgh em a t i n g d o w ehl o l e sR. e p e a t fortheotherrailsandlegs.

Boring themating dowelholes andgluing up B o r et h e h o l e si n t h e l e gt o t h e s a m e depthas thosein the rail (page135). l f y o ua r ed r i l l i n gi n t oa t a p e r e dl e go n a drrllpress,be sureto keepthe square p a r to f t h e l e gf l a t o n t h e m a c h i n e ' s t a b l e .S p r e a a d l i t t l eg l u eo n t h e s u r f a c e so f t h e l e ga n d r a i lt h a tw i l l c o m e i n t oc o n t a cw t i t he a c ho t h e r t, h e nd a b a smallamountof adhesive in the boftom o f t h ed o w e lh o l e sw i t h a p e n c i tl i p . A v o i ds p r e a d i nggl u ed i r e c t l yo n t h e d o w e l st;h e ya b s o r bm o r s t u rqeu i c k l y a n dw i l l s w e l l m , a k i n gt h e md i f fi c u l t t o f i t i n t ot h e h o l e s I. n s e r t h e d o w e l s i n t o t h e l e g s t, h e nt a p t h e m i n t op o s i t i o nw i t h a h a m m e rR . e m e m b enro tt o p o u n do n t h e d o w e l sw, h i c hc a nc a u s e t h e l e gt o s p l i t .F i tt h e r a i lo n t ot h e l e g , t h e nc l o s eu p t h e j o i n tw i t h t h e s a m e c l a m p r n sge t u pu s e df o r t h e m o r t r s e and-tenonlotnt(pageJ35l. Glueup the o t h e rl e g sa n d r a i l st h e s a m ew a y .

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LEGHARDWARE C()MMERCIAL therails 1T Preparing '

I I n s t a lcl o m m e r c i ahla r d w a rteo a t t a c hr a i l st o a l e gf o l s .o rt h e t y p es h o w n l o w i n gt h e m a n u f a c t u r e ri n' ss t r u c t i o nF i n t h i s s e c t i o n( p a g e1 3 & , t e s ta s s e m b lteh e l e g ,t h e r a i l s of theplate a n dt h e m o u n t i n gp l a t e t, h e nm a r kt h e l o c a t i o n flangeo s n t h e r a i l sT . o c u t t h e s l o t sf o r t h e f l a n g e sa, l i g n e a c hm a r kw i i ht h e b l a d et,h e nb u t tt h e r i p f e n c ea g a i n stth e r a i l .S e tt h e b l a d eh e i g ht o t h e l e n g i ho f t h e f l a n g e sa, d d i n g t / r ci n c hf o r c l e a r a n c eF.e e dt h e r a i l i n t ot h e b l a d ew i t ht h e mitergauge(/eff).(Caution:Bladeguardremovedfor clarity.) R e p e afto r t h e o t h e rr a i l .S l i pt h e f l a n g e si n t ot h e i rs l o t sa n d m a r kt h e s c r e wh o l e so n t h e s t o c k .B o r ep i l o th o l e sa t e a c h p o i n ta n dt h e ns c r e wt h e m o u n t i n gp l a t et o t h e r a i l s .

r) Preparing the leg L Fust,cut a notchout of the legfor the . t a n dt h e l e gu p a n dh o l d mountinp g l a t eS t h e r a i l - a n d - p l aat ses e m b loyn t o p o f i t , aligning t h e e n d so f t h e r a i l sw i t h a d j a c e n ts i d e so f t h e l e g .M a r ka d i a g o n al il n e a c r o s st h e t o p o f t h e l e ga l o n gt h e m o u n t i n g p l a t e .N e x t ,a l i g nt h e t o p o f t h e p l a t e w i t h t h e t o p o f t h e l e ga n d m a r ka l i n e a l o n gt h e b o t t o me d g eo f t h e p l a t ea c r o s s r f t h e l e ga d d i n g r / r " t h e i n s i d ec o r n e o i n c hf o r c l e a r a n c eT.o c u t t h e n o t c h s, e t t h e l e go n a b a n ds a wt a b l ea n dt r l t t h e t a b l et o a l i g nt h e b l a d ew i t ht h e d i a g o n a l l i n e .B u t t a b o a r da g a i n stth e l e ga n d . eed c l a m pi t t o t h e t a b l ea s a r i p f e n c e F t h e l e g i n t ot h e b l a d et o m a k et h e c u t , t h e nc l a m pa s t o pb l o c ki n p l a c et o h e l p with repeatcuts (righil.Completethe notch u s i n ga h a n d s a wT.e s t - a s s e m bt hl ee l e g s s e m b layg a i na n d a n d r a i l - a n d - p l aat e m a r kt h e h o l eo n t h e s t o c kf o r t h e h a n g e r b o l tp r o v i d e dF.i t y o u rd r i l l p r e s sw i t ha b r a d - p o i nbti t a n d b o r ea c l e a r a n cheo l e f o r t h e b o l tu s i n ga s h o p - m a dVe- b l o c k ltg (inseil.

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Fastening thelegto therails Insert thescrew-thread endof the h a n g ebro l ti n t ot h ec l e a r a n cheo l ei n theleg.Unlike otherfasteners, a hanger bolthastwotypesof threads: screw t h r e a dast o n ee n da n db o l t h r e a dast t h eo t h e ri;t a l s oh a sn o h e a dS . crew nutsontotheboltlhread endandtightenthemagainst eachotherwitha wrench, formrng a temporary headonthebolt. Tighten theboltwithoneof thewrenches to drivethescrewthreads completely intotheleg,thenunscrew thenutsfrom thebolt.Sliptherail-and-plate assembly overtheboltandscrew a nuton it, makingsurethattheflanges arein theirslots. Keeping thetopof therailsflushwiththe topof the leg,tightenthe nut (left).

SHOP-MADE LEGHARDWARE thecorner block 1 Cutting I Toattach therailsto a legusingshopmadehardware, firstmakea corner block.Rip a pieceof woodnarrow enough to drivea hanger boltthrough it intotheleg.Thenmake45' mitercutsat bothends.Next,cutgrooves for s p l i n ew s ,h i c hw i l lh e l pj o i nt h eb l o c tko t h e rails.Install a dadoheadonyourtablesawwith a widthandcuttingheight equalto one-third thethickness of therails.Screw a board to the mitergauge asanextension, thenalignthemidpointof oneendof theblockwiththeblades. C l a m pt h e b l o c kt o t h ee x t e n s i oBn u. t ta wastepiecefromthemitercutsagainst the workpiece to serve asa stopblockandclamp it to theextension. Feedthestockintothe blades, thenturnit overandcutthegroove in the otherend(right). Test-fitthe block a g a i n st h t er a i l st,h e nm a r ka n dc u tt h e grooves. Next,cuta splrne foreachgroove. Plane thesplines carefully to makesurethat t h e yf i t p r e c i s eilny t h e m a t c h i nggr o o v e s , remembering to cutthem%eshortto allow forclearance. Formaximum strength, make surethatthegrainof thesplrnes runsacross theirwidth,rather thanalong theirlength.

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r) Boring pilotandclearance holes (- lnsLall bit onyourdrill a brad-point pressandmarkthecenterof the long bolt.Secure edgeoftheblockfora hanger andclamp in a handscrew theworkpiece p l a c e w i t h t h ec e n t e r it in a ss h o w n , thehole. with bit. Then bore aligned the side of the holes on each Next,marktwo (right), pilot holes hole and drill clearance repositioning theblockin thehandscrew as necessary.

thelegto therails Q Fastening blockto therails: r-J First,fasten thecorner in theblockand somegluein thegrooves Spread in the intothegrooves therails,thenfit thesplines b l o c kP. r e stsh eb l o c ku p a g a i n st ht er a i l st o f i t t h es p l i n ersn t ot h er a i l sT. h e nk, e e p i nt gh er a i l s theblock,screwtheblockto the snugly against thelegasyouwouldforcomrails(lefil.Prepare (page137),cuttinga notchout hardware mercial a clear' of thetopforthecornerblockandboring thelegto the bolt.Fasten anceholefora hanger a washer railswiththebolt(page138),slipping Tighten the block. between thenutandthecorner together. nuIbelow)untilthelegandrailsf it snugly

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GLOSSARY A-B Ankle: The narrowest part of a cabriole leg, typically about two-fifths as wide as the widest part of the leg.

Copingbit A router bit that cuts a decorative molding and a tongue at the end or edge of a workpiece, allowing the stock to be joined to a board with a matching groove.

Featherboard: A piece ofwood cut "felathers" with fingers or at one end; used in conjunction with clamps to hold a workpiece against the fence or table of a saw or a router table.

Auxiliaryfence: A wood fence screwed to the metal rip fence of a table saw, usually to avoid accidental damage to the fence when the blade will cut close to it.

Crossgrain: A lumber defect appearing as an edge-to-edgecurve, produc1n8a concavetace.

Fence: An adjustable guide to keep the edge of a workpiece a set distance from the cutting edgeof a tool. Also called a rip fenceon the table saw.

Batten: A board screwed acrossthe back ofa board-and-batten door to provide reinforcement.

Cup: A lumber defectappearingas an edge-to-edgecurve, producing a concavetace.

Bench dog: A pin that fits into a slot on a workbench to help keep a workpiece in place.

Cutting gauge: A marking tool featuring a handle, a fence and sharp cutting edge for scribing a line on a workpiece parallel to its end or edge.

Biscuit joint Seeplate joint.

D-E

Biscuit A thin oval-shaped wafer of compressedwood, usually beech, which fits into slots in mating boards cut by a plate joiner. Bow: A defect in lumber characterizedby an end-to-end curve along the faceofthe stock. Brad driver: A locking pliers-like tool designed for driving finishing nails. Brad-pointbit: A drill bit featuring a sharpened centerpoint and two cutting spurs; produces cleaner holes than a twist bit.

C Cabriole leg: A type of furniture leg characterizedby roundedcontours designedto imitate the gracefulleg of a leapinganimal. Cheek In a mortise-and-tenon ioint, the part ofthe tenonperpendicular to the shoulder. Carcase:A pieceof furniture with a box-likeconstruction;madefrom solidpanels.

Dado: A rectangular channel cut into a workpiece. Double dado joint A method of joining wood at corners by means ofa tongue in each piece that interlocks with a groove in the other; also known as a concealeddado-andtongue joint. Dowel center: A metal cylinder that is inserted into a dowel hole to pinpoint a matching hole in a mating worKprece. Edge banding: Decorative veneer glued to the exposed edgesofa plywood panel in a piece of furniture. Edge gluing: Bonding severalboards together edge-to-edgeto form a panel. End grain: The arrangement and direction of the wood fibers running acrossthe width of a workpiece when viewed from the ends.

F Facegluing:Similarto edgegluing, except that boards are bonded together face-to-face.

Forstner bit: A drill bit with a razor rim and cutters for boring perfectly flat-bottomed holes. Frame: An assemblyof horizontal rails and vertical stiles: used to form a door or one side of a frame-andpanel piece of furniture.

G-H-I Glass-stop molding: Decorative strips of wood used to hold a pane of glassin place in a door. Grain: The arrangement and direction of the fibers that make up wood. Half-blind dovetail Similar to the through dovetail joint, except that the pins are not cut through the entire thickness of the workpiece, thus concealing the end grain of the tail boards. Hangerbolt A bolt with no head; one end ofthe bolt has screw threads while the other end features machine threads. Haunched mortise-and-tenon: Similar to the standard mortise-andtenon, except that one edge ofthe tenon has a notch cut out ofit. Inlay: A decorative strip of metal, hardwood or marquetry that is glued in a groove cut into a workpiece.

I.K-L Kerf: A cut made in wood by a saw blade.

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Kickback The tendencyof a workpieceto be thrown backin the direction of the sawoperatorby a moving bladeor cutter on a woodworking machineor tool. Ledgerstrip: A short,narrowpiece of wood usedto supportthe top and bottom of a pieceof furniture. Legblank A solid pieceof wood madeof severalthinner boardsfacegluedtogether;usedasthe basisofa furniture leg. M-N Miter gauge:A devicethat slidesin a slot on a sawor router table,providing support for the stockasit moves pastthebladeor bit. Molding: Decorativestripsof wood that canbe carvedon a router or tablesaw. Mortise: A rectangularhole cut into a pieceof wood. Mortise-and-tenonjoinfi A joinery techniquein which a projecting tenon on one board fits into a mortiseon another. Mullion: A verticalmemberbetween the stilesof a frame;alsocalled muntin. O-P-R Ogeebit A decorativerouter bit or stationarysawmolding headcutter that producesan S-shapedprofile. Platejoint A method ofjoining wood in which biscuitsof wood fit into slotscut in mating boards. Pockethole: An angledholebored into the faceof a workpieceand exiting from its top edge.

Pushblock or stick A deviceusedto feeda workpieceinto a blade,cutter or bit to protectthe operator'sfingers.

Stile: A verticalmemberof a frameand-panelassembly. Stile cutter: Seestickingbit.

Rabbetjoint A method ofjoining wood in which the end or edgeof one workoiecefits into a channelcut alongthe edgeor endofanother workpiece. Rail A horizontalmemberof a frame-and-panel assembly; also,a board running acrossthe front opening of a pieceof furniture designed to supporta drawer.

Stop collar: An electricdrill accessory that fits around a bit to stop a drilling operationat a certaindepth. Tearout:The tendencyofa bladeor cutter to tearthe fibersof the wood it is cutting, leavingraggededgeson the workpiece. Tenon:A protrusion from the end of a boardthat fits into a mortise.

Rail cutter: Seecopingbit. Raisedpanet A pieceof wood that fits into groovescut into the inside edgesof a frame-and-panelassembly. Bevelingthe edgesofthe panelcreatesthe illusion that the middle por"raised". tion is

S-T-U Shoulder:In a mortise-and-tenon joint, the part ofthe tenonperpendicular to the cheek.In a dovetail joint, the valleysbetweenthe pins andtails. Spline A smallpieceof wood that fits in mating groovesin two workpieces, reinforcingthe joint betweenthem. Spokeshave: A plane-likehand tool with an adjustablecutter for shaping curvedsurfaces.

Three-wingslotting cutter: A router bit designedto cut a groove. Through dovetailjoint: A method of joining wood at cornersby meansof interlockingpins and tails;the name derivesfrom the distinctiveshapecut into the endsof joining boards. Tongue In a tongue-and-groove or joint,a protrusion cope-and-stick from the edgeor end ofone board that fits into the groovein another. Twin tenon: Two tenonsat the end of a board that fit into two side-bysidemortises. TWist:A lumber defectcharacterized by unevenor irregularwarping.

V-W-X-Y-Z

gluethat is Squeezeout The excess forcedfrom a gluejoint when clamping pressureis applied.

VeneeredpanehA panelwith a thin layerof decorativewood laid onto or overit.

Stickingbit A router bit that cutsa decorativemolding and a grooveat the end or edgeof a workpiece,allowing the stockto bejoinedto a board with a matchingtongue.

Wood button: A small,squareshapedblock with a rabbetat one end that fits into a groove;usedto securethe top of a pieceof furniture.

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INDEX Pagereferences in italicsindicate an illustrationof subjectmatter. Pagereferencesin bold indicate a Build It Yourselfproject.

A-B Adhesives, backendpaper Bar clamps,y'ont endpaper belt sanoers.-t5,5,/ Beveledpanels,' 5j-54, 55,56 Biscuitjoints.SeePlatejoints Blind nailers: ShopTip, 34 Board-and-batten doors,102,108,110 Build It Yourself: Carcaseconstruction carcase-squaring blocks,33 glue racks,24 Drawers dado-routingjigs for drawer supports,89 Frame-and-oanel construction jigs for culting raisedpanels,55 pocketholejigs,68 Burns,Michael,8-9 Butt hinges,115,117 Buttons(rabbetedblocks),47,64-65

C Cabinetmaker'sclamps,/ront endpaper Cabinets.SeeCarcases; Frame-and-panel construction Cabriolelegs,121,122,124-127 Copying the designof a cabrioleleg (ShopTip), 125 Sandinga cabrioleleg (ShopTip), 127 17,18-19 Carcases, Assembly,3l-32, 35,37,43 Backpanels,38 Carcase-squaring blocks,33 for square Checkinga carcase (ShopTip), 33 Toinerv dovetailjoints,17,19,27-32 platejoints, 16,17, 19,36-37 rabbetjoints, 19,34-35 SeealsoEdgebanding;Edge-glued boards;Shelves C clamps,front endpaper Clamping: Carcases, 32,35,37,43 for square checkinga carcase (ShopTip), 33 Doors,107,109,114 Drawers,86,98 Edge-gluedboards,22 preventing clampstains (ShopTip), 23 Frame-and-panel construction,45, 58,59 Glue racks,24 Moldings, T0-71 an alternativemethod for clamping on moldings(ShopTip), 71

Springboards for clampingedge banding(ShopTip), 40 Clamps,front endpaper SeealsoClamping hinges,115,118-119 Clock-case dadoand tonguejoints, 26, Concealed 78-79 joints,44,46, 48,5l- 52 Cope-and-stick Craftsmanship, 6-11 SeealsoHand-crafting I4 Crosscutting,

D

Dadojoints: Drawers, 75,76,78-79 Dado-routingjigs,89 Decorativetechniques: lnlays,120,131-132 Moldings aoofs. Lu/

legs,izs, i2g,t3t,132 shelves,63 Depthgauges: Insertingdowelswith a depth gauge .(ShopTip), 26 Doors,101 Board-and-batten, 102,108,110 Decorativemoldings,107 Frame-and-panel, 101,102,104-107 Glass,l0l, 103,1 11-112 H i n g e s1, 0 1 , 1 1 5 - 1 1 9 Mounting,103,115-119 Tongue-and-groove, 102,108- 109 preventingsandingscratches (ShopTip), 109 Veneered-panel, 10i, 113-114 Doubledadojoints,76,78-79 Double-sidedclamps,front endpaper Dovetailjoints: 17, 19,27-32 Carcases, Drawers,75,76,8U84 Hand-cut,27-32,82-84 dealingwith a defectivedovetail (ShopTip), 32 Doweljoints, 123,135-136 Dowels: Edge-gluedboards,25-26 insertingdowelswith a depth gauge (ShopTip),26 Drawers,17, 72,73,74-75 Assemblv.85 -86 Bottompanels,73,74, 85-86 Falsefronts,74,97-98 Fitting, 91,94 Flushfronts, 74 Jolnery, / J, /J, /O

dadojoints,75,76,78-79 dovetailioints,75,76,80 -84 rabbetjoints,75,76,77 Lipped fronts,74, 87 Mounting,86 bottom-run,75,90-91 positioningjig for sliderunners (ShopTip), e3

g, 75,87-88,89,92 side-mountin sliderunners,73,75,87,93 slides,73,74,75 Pullsand handles,97,99 singlepulls for drawersalready built (ShopTip), 98 Repair fixing a boweddrawerside (ShopTip), el fixing a loosedrawerbottom (ShopTip), 86 Stops,95-96 Drill presses: Poiket holejigs,68

E-F Edgebanding,19,39-40 Springboards for clampingedge banding(ShopTip), 40 Edge-gluedboards,20-26 Clamping,22 glueracks,24 preventingclampstains (ShopTip), 23 Dowels,25-26 insertingdowelswith a depth gauge (ShopTip), 26 Sanding,l5 Two waysto spreadglue ( S h o pT i p ) , 2 1 European cabinethinges,115-116 Face-gluing,121 Frame-and-panel construction, 45, 46-47,53 Assemblv.52-59 Cabinets alternativemethod for clampingon moldings(ShopTip), 7l bottom panels,47,60 drawers,92,96 moldings,47,69-71 shelves, 47,61-63 top panels,64-67,68 joints,44,46,48, Cope-and-stick 51-52 Doors,l0l, 102,104-107 joints, Haunchedmortise-and-tenon 46,47,48-s0 Raisedpanels,5i- 54, 55,56

G Glassdoors,101,103,111-112 Glossarv. 140-14l Glue racks.24 Glues,backendpaper Gluing: Carcases, 32,35,37,43 carcase-squaring blocks,33 Doors,107,109,114 Drawers,86,98 Edge-glued boards,21-23,24 preventingclampstains (ShopTip), 23 spreadingglue(ShopTip), 21

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Face-gluing,l2l Frame-and-panel construction, 58, 59, 107

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Half-blinddovetailjoints, 75,76,82-84 Hand-crafting: Dovetailjoint s,27-32,82-84 joints, 133-135 Mortise-and-tenon Handscrews, front endpaper Hardware: D o o r s ,l 0 l , 1 1 5 - 1 1 9 Drawers,74 pulls and handles,97, 99 pullsfor drawersalreadybuilt (ShopTip), 98 sliderunners,73,75,87,93 Legs,121,122,123,137-139 Metal top fasteners, 64 joints, Haunchedmortise-and-tenon 46,47,48-50 Hinges,107,115-119

Lipped rabbetjoints, 76, 77 Lumber.SeeWood

M.N-O Miter gauges,14,52 Moldings: Frame-and-panel construction,47, 69-71 , 11-112 G l a sd s o o r s ,1 0 1 1 SeealsoDecorativetechniques: moldings Moore,Terry,10-11 joints: Mortise-and-tenon Frame-and-panel construction, 46,47, 48-50,59 Hand-cut,133-135 L e g s1, 2 2 1, 2 3 , 1 3 3 - 1 3 5 Nails: Concealment invisiblenailers(ShopTip), 34 wood plugs,35 Octagonallegs,128,130

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P-Q-R

Ingersoll,Ian,6-7 Inlays: Legs,120,131-132 Invisiblenailers: ShopTip, 34 figs: Drawersliderunners positioningjigs for sliderunners (ShopTip), 93 Drill presses pocketholejigs,68 Routers dado-routingjigs for drawer supports,89 Shelf-drillingjigs,4l Tablesaws raisedpanels,55 foinery: P l y w o o d1, 7 ,1 8 - 1 9l,1 3 SeealsoDadojoints;Dovetail joints;Mortise-and-tenon joints; Platejoints;Rabbetjoints lointing,l3

Panels: Carcases, l8 Frame-and-panel construction,45, 46,53 raisedpanels,53-54,55,56 Veneered-panel doors,103,1I 3-I 14 SeealsoEdge-gluedboards Pipeclamps,/ront endpaper Planing,13 Platejoiners,l6 Platejoints, 16,17, 19,36-37 Veneered-panel doors,103,I13, 114 Plywood: Edgebanding,39-40 J o i n e r y1, 7 ,1 8 - 1 91, 1 3 Veneered-panel doors, 103,1 13-114 Pocketholes,64, 66-67,68 Powertools: Beltsanders,15,57 Drill presses: Pocketholejigs,68 Platejoiners, l6 Safetyprecautions, front endpaper SeealsoRouters;Tablesaws Pullsand handles,97, 99 Singlepulls for drawersalreadybuilt (ShopTip), 98 Quick-action clamps,front endpaper Rabbetjoints: Carcases, 19,34-35 Drawers, 75,76,77 Rip fences,.14 Ripping,14 Routers: Dado-routingjigs for drawersupports,89 Dovetailjoints,80-81 Raisedpanels,56 Shop-builtmiter gauges (ShopTip), 52

L Ledgerstrips,47, 60, 64, 67 Legs,l2l Cabriolelegs,121,122,124-127 copyingthe designofa cabrioleleg (ShopTip), 125 sandinga cabrioleleg (ShopTip), 122 Decoration, 128 inlays,120,131-132 moldings,128,129,l3l Detachable legs,12l, 122,123, 137-139 Joinery,I2l, 122,123,133-139 Octagonal,128,130 Tapered,128-129

r43

S Safetyprecautions, front endpaper Sanding,15 Cabriolelegs(ShopTip), 127 Frame-and-panel construction,57 Preventingsandingscratches (ShopTip), 109 Screws: Concealment invisiblenailers(ShopTip), 3a wood plugs,35 Shelf-drillingjigs,4J 18-19,41-43 Shelves, Adjustable,41- 42, 6I - 63 Edgebanding,39-40 Frame-and-panel cabinets,6l-63 ShopTips: Carcase construction,21,23,26,32, 33,34,40 Doors,109 Drawers, 86,91,93,98 Frame-and-panel construction,52, 71 Legs,125,127 Sliderunners,73,75, 87,93 Springclamps,front endpaper Squareconstruction: checking,33, 59 Surface-mount hinges,115,119

T-U-V-W Tablesaws,14 Raisedpanels,53-54,55 Taperedlegs,128-129 Through dovetail joints,27-32, 75,76, 80-81 Tongue-and-groove doors,102,108-109 Preventingsandingscratches (ShopTip), 109 Tools: Cl,amp s,fr ont endpaper Safetyprecautions, front endpaper SeealsoPowertools Trigger clamps,front endpaper Veneered-panel doors, 103,113-114 Web clamps,/ro nt endpaper Wood: Anatomyof aboard,front endpaper Defects,12 Face-gluing,121 Grain carcases, 17,20 Preparation ofstock,12, 13-15 Selection,l2 carcases, 20 legs,121 Shrinkingand swelling,101 T1pes,backendpaper SeealsoPanels;Plywood Wood plugs,35


ACKNOWTEDGMENTS Theeditorswish to thank thefollowing CABINETMAKING TECHNIQUES AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Delta InternationalMachinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; Freud Ont.; HitachiPowerToolsU.S.A.Ltd.,Norcross,GA WestmoreTools,Ltd.,Mississauga, CARCASECONSTRUCTION Cable,Guelph,Ont.; Freud AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; DeltaInternationalMachinery/Porter Ont.; LeeValleyToolsLtd.,Ottawa,Ont.; SandvikSawsand ToolsCo., WestmoreTools,Ltd.,Mississauga, A.G.SwitzerlandiColonial SawCo., Scranton,PA; Sears,Roebuckand Co.,Chicago,IL; Steiner-Lamello NY Kingston,MA; VeritasToolsInc.,Ottawa,Ont./Ogdensburg, FRAME-AND-PANELCONSTRUCTION AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln,NE; DeltaInternationalMachinery/Porter Ont.; LeeValleyToolsLtd.,Ottawa,Ont.; Cable,Guelph,bnt.; FreudiVestmoreTools,Ltd.,Mississauga, RichardsEngineeringCo. Ltd., Vancouver,BC; SandvikSawsand Tools Co., Scranton,PA; Sears,Roebuck and Co.,Chicago,IL; Shopsmith,Inc.,Montreal,Que.;StanleyTools,Divisionof the StanleyWorks,New Britain,CT; VermontAmericanCorp.,Lincolnton,NC and Louisville,KY DRAWERS AdjustableClamp Co.,Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln,NE; BelwithInternational,GrandRapids,MI; Ont.; Cable,Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd.,Mississauga, DeltaInternationalMachinery/Porter Ont.; LeeValleyToolsLtd.,Ottawa,Ont.; LeighIndustriesLtd., Port Coquitlam, HafeleCanada,Mississauga, BC;MohawkFinishingProductsInc.,Amsterdam,NY/Montreal,Que.;SandvikSawsand ToolsCo., Scranton,PA; Sears,Roebuckand Co.,Chicago,IL; StanleyTools,Divisionof the StanleyWorks,New Britain, CT; VermontAmericanCorp.,Lincolnton,NC and Louisville,KY DOORS AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Delta InternationalMachinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; Freud Ont.;LeeValleyToolsLtd.,Ottawa,Ont.;MohawkFinishingProducts WestmoreTools,Ltd.,Mississauga, Inc., Amsterdam,NY/Montreal,Que.;RichardsEngineeringCo. Ltd., Vancouver,BC; Sears,Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; Shopsmith,Inc., Montreal, Que.;StanleyTools,Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT; Steiner-LamelloA.G. Switzerland/ColonialSawCo., Kingston,MA; Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville.KY LEGS Nf; DeltaInternational Corp.,Somerdale, AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; Anglo-AmericanEnterprises, Ont.; LeeValleyToolsLtd., Machinery/Porter Cable,Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd.,Mississauga, Co. Ltd.,Vancouver,BC;Sears,Roebuckand Co.,Chicago,IL; Vermont Ottawa,Ont.; RichardsEngineering AmericanCorp.,Lincolnton,NC and Louisville,KY in thepreparatton Thefollowingpersonsalsoassisted ofthis book: RenaudBoisjoly,LorraineDor6,GraphorConsultation, JosdeLaperridre,Gâ&#x201A;ŹrardMariscalchi, JenniferMeltzer,JamesTh6rien

PICTURECREDITS Cover PaulMcCarthy/Au Puitsde Lumiire 6,7 PaulRocheleau 8,9RobertHolmes l0,ll ThomasAmes,Jr.

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I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

t I I I I I

t I I I I I I I I I


T

t

WORKSHO GPU I D E

I

t t t I

()FLUMBER TYPES WPE

CHARACTERISTICS

S0FTW00D

Pine

grainr Skong;lowshrinkage Whiteto paleorred-brown, withredstreaks; fineto coarse, skaight andwarpage . Mosttypeseasyto shape; whendried;lightto heavy holdsfasteners wellt Glueandclearfinishbondwell

HARDWOOD

Ash

grain. Strong qualities; White to darkbrown; coarse, uneven, straight orwavy withexcellent bending heavy and hardo Easy to shape; holds fasteners well. Glueandclear finishbondwell

Birch

qualities; Whiteto palebrown; fine,uneven, skaight orwavygrain. Strong withgoodbending heavy andhard . Easy o Glueandclear holds to shape; fasteners well,butoftensplits whenscrewed finishbondwell

Cherry

Paleto darkred-brown, grain. Strong oftenwithhintsofgreen; fine,uneven, straight orwavy withmedium bending qualities; moderately heavy andhardo Easy to shape; holds fasteners wello Glueandclearfinishbondwell

t t t I

. Strong grain,oftenwithvivid,flecked patterns Mahogany Brown to darkred-brown; fine,even,straight withgoodbending

qualities; moderately heavy andhard. Easy to shape, buttendsio scuffwhenplaned; holdsfasteners wello Glue andclearfinishbondwell

I I I

t t T T I t I I I I

t t t t I I t I

EXOTIC W00D

Maple

. Exceptionally grain, White fine,even, to palered-brown; straight oftenwithbird's eyeorburlpatterns strong with goodbending qualities; heavy andhardo Easy to shape; holds fasteners wello Glueandclearfinishbondwell

0ak

grain. Strong qualities; Palegrayto red-brown; coarse, even,straight withgoodbending heavy andveryhard . Hardtoshape; r Glueandclearfinishbondwell holds fasteners well,butoftensplits whennailed

Walnut

grain. Exceptionally Grayto darkbrown, oftenwithhintsof purple; coarse, even straight strong withgoodbending qualities; moderately heavy andhardo Easy to shape; holds fasteners wello Glueandclearfinishbondwell

grainwithhighly Rosewood Darkbrown to black,oftenwithhintsof darkpurple orstreaks of orange; coarse, uneven figured o Exceptionally patterns qualities; strong withgoodbending heavy, hardandveryoilyr 11ur6 to shape, tending to dullblades; holds fasteners well. Gluebonds well;usually finished withpenetrating oil

Teak

grain! Strong lVledium qualities; to darkbrown, oftenwithhintsofyellow; coarse, even, straight withgoodbending heavy, veryhardandoilyo 53.ttoshape, buttends to dullblades andsuffer burnmarks frompower tools; holds fasteners well. Gluebonds well;usually finished withpenetrating oil

o 61u.bonds poorly MANUFACTURED HardboardBrittle; fairlyheavy andhardo Easy tocut,buttends holds to shred; fasteners well PANELS Plywood Strong; heavy andfairlyhardr Easy tocut;holds fasteners wello Gluebonds well ADHESIVES CABINETMAKING TYPE

CHARACTERISTICS

usEs

White glue

. Skongbonding; Polyvinyl-acetate-based; nottoxicorf lammable working time3 to 5 minutes r Setting o Dries timeabout 30 to 45 minutes; cures fullyin 24Io72 hours clear andcolorless o Doesnotsandaswellasyellow glue

General woodworking

Yellow glue

o Better grabthanwhiteglue; Aliphatic resin-based; nottoxicorflammable wettackforfaster . Setting working time3 to 5 minutes timeabout 30 to 45 minutes; fullyin 24Io72 hours cures . Dries (faded yellow); properties opaque moreheatresistant forbetter sanding thanwhiteglue

General woodworking

. Drying o Afterdrying, Contact Solvent-based; maybetoxicandflammable time10to 20 minutes instant . Non{oxic cement bondoncontact; curesfullyin 72 hours water-based contact cements alsoavailable, properties withsimilarbonding butslower drying; water-based maycause thinveneers to warp Epoxy glue

Bonding dissimilar materials suchasplastic laminate and veneers to woodandplywood

priorto use;notflammable Resin andhardener typically mixed together butmaybetoxic. Strong, Bonding acidic woods suchas (depending waterproof bonding; working time5 minutes to 2 hours ontype). Setting time5 oakandmahogany; other exotic (depending minutes to 2 hours ontype); cures fullyin 24 hours woods difficult toglue

. Strong Hideglue Protein-based, available ingranular orliquidform;nottoxicorflammable bonding; workingCabinet construction, antique r Setting o Sandable time3 to 5 minutes timet hour; fullyin 24 hours cures anddriesa darkcolor restoration andveneering r Notwater-resistant: gluebondcanbesoftened withwaterfordisassembly Casein glue

o Average Milk-based, available in powdered form;nonflammable bonding; working time o Setting o Highresistance 15to 20 minutes time15to 20 minutes; cures in8 to 12 hours to water anddriesanopaque color; sands well,butstains acidic woods

0ilywoods thatbondpoorly with (teak, glues yewand other lemonwood); laminating


Cajas y gabinetes  

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