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CASEY TREES

URBAN TREE SELECTION GUIDE A Designer’s List of Appropriate Trees for the Urban Mid-Atlantic


TABLE OF CONTENTS Casey Trees Š 2015 Lead Authors Maisie Hughes - Casey Trees, Director of Planning & Design Emily Oaksford - Casey Trees, Planning Associate Mary Blakeslee - Casey Trees, Research Associate Reviewers

About the Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Growing Conditions

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2

Physical Characteristics

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2

Jessica Sanders, Ph.D. - Casey Trees, Director of Technical Services and Research Jim Woodworth - Casey Trees, Director of Tree Planting

Large Trees

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3

Sue Erhardt - Casey Trees, Director of Education Jim Sherald, Ph.D. - Casey Trees, Board of Directors

Medium Trees

Special Thanks

Small Trees

Douglas Tallamy, Ph.D. - University of Delaware, Professor & Department Chair of the Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology Denny Townsend, Ph.D. - USDA Agricultural Research Service (retired), Plant Geneticist

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

Suitable Landscape Locations Habitat Indicators

Guide available at caseytrees.org

2CASEY TREES: URBAN TREE SELECTION GUIDE

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8

References + Index

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

1


About This Guide This Urban Tree Selection Guide provides key information for selecting trees suitable for landscapes in the urban Mid-Atlantic. This region includes Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Virginia and the parts of New Jersey, New York and North Carolina that drain into related waterways of the central region. In this guide, trees are first grouped by size at maturity (Large, Medium and Small) and then alphabetically by scientific name. Each row provides information about the tree, including its growing conditions, physical characteristics, habitat indicators and recommended landscape locations. The guide also notes if the tree is native or evergreen. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service, only plants found in the United States before European settlement are considered to be native. Trees are considered evergreen if they keep their needles or leaves for more than one growing season.

Zone 5a

5b 7a

Zone 5b

New York City Ouercus robur Columnar `Fastigiata' Cylindrical, English verticalOak axis

greatly COLUMNAR exceeding horizontal Suggested for narrow sites. Shade produced can be limited due to lack of wide crown.

Top 3 for the DC Region Ouercus robur `Fastigiata' English Oak Juniperus virginiana Eastern Redcedar X Cupressocyparis leylandii Leyland Cypress

7b

Trenton Zone 6a

Harrisburg

Philadelphia

Zone 6b

Pittsburgh

6b

Dover Baltimore Washington, DC

Round Oak Rounded circular form, vertical and horizontal ROUND axis about XXequal

Ohio

Top 3 for the DC Region XX

7a 7b

5a

6b

5b

Richmond Zone 7a Zone 7b

Growing Conditions Hardiness Zones. The USDA’s Hardiness Zone Map divides the U.S. into 11 zones based on average minimal winter temperature. A plant’s Hardiness Zone refers to a plant’s ability to thrive in the corresponding map location. Heat Zones. The American Horticultural Society defines 12 regions in the continental U.S. by the average number of “heat days” (temperatures over 86°F) each zone will experience per year. The Mid-Atlantic region includes areas in Heat Zones 4, 5, 6 and 7. Zone 4, the Northernmost areas of the region, experiences 14-30 days over 86°F. The Southernmost areas of the region (Zone 7) experience 60-90 days over 86°F.

Platanus occidentalis Oval Sycamore Elliptic to egg-shaped, broadest at base, vertical OVAL axis exceeding Preferred for street horizontal tree. minimal pruning. by 2 Requires to 1 ratio Produces generous shade. Top 3 for the DC Region Liriodendron tulipifera Tulip Poplar (mature) Franxinus pennsylvanica Green Ash (mature) Crataegus phaenopyrum Washington Hawthorn

Ulmus Americana Vase American Elm Elliptic to egg-shaped, broadest at crown apex, VASE Preferred for street tree. vertical axis exceeding Requires minimal pruning. horizontal by 2 shade. to 1 ratio Produces generous Top 2 for the DC Region Ulmus Americana American Elm Zelkova serrata Japanese Zelkova

Soil Conditions. A tree’s preferred soil moisture level, drainage and pH level.

Hackberry, Celtis occidentalis The Hackberry can is a rapidly be found growing throughout tree native the upper to North half of America. the eastern It canUnited be found States, throughout the Great thePlains, upper and half southern of the Eastern Canada. United It isStates, a relative theofGreat the elm Plains tree,and andSouthern due to its Canada. rapid growth, The Hackberry’s it often makes barkaisgood street smooth tree. during Although youth. the As itHackberry’s matures, thebark barkis develops smooth during wart-like youth, marks it develops which later wart-like turn into marks rough, which corky, later irregular develop ridges. intoThe rough female corky, tree irregular produces ridges an abundance through maturity. of drupes, or berry-like fruits. These fruits ripen to deep purple and attract a variety of wildlife. The Hackberry is a lesser known tree, but a top performer that is also highly versatile in many urban landscape The Hackberry conditions. can endure The tree tough is resistant urban conditions, to Dutch withstand Elm Disease, heavy canwinds adaptand to its adapt soil to types various and soil withstand types. It makes heavyawinds good and street tough tree urban and can conditions. be used in bioretention or park landscapes.

Light Conditions. The amount of sun and/or shade required for a tree to grow and thrive (Full Sun: direct sunlight for at least 6 hours a day during the growing season, Partial Shade: approximately 3-6 hours of direct sunlight, Shade: less than 3 hours of sunlight). Drought Tolerant. Trees that can generally survive several weeks between deep waterings (after a three-year establishment period).

Tilia cordata Pyramidal Littleleaf Linden Approaching triangular in outline, broadest at base PYRAMIDAL Generally requires pruning on lower branches.

Top 3 for the DC Region Tilia cordata Littleleaf Linden Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglasfir Taxodium distichum Baldcypress

Air Pollution Tolerant. Trees generally not harmed by airborne pollutants. Salt Tolerant. Trees generally not harmed by road and sidewalk deicers.

Nyssa sylvatica Spreading Black Gum with Mature tree crown a branch spread width of ROUND - SPREADING Produces ample shade. 35’ or Generally greater requires pruning

Zone 8a

USDA Hardiness Zones of the Mid-Atlantic Region This region includes Zones 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b and 8a. The coldest area in the region, Zone 5a, has average annual extreme minimum temperatures from -20°F to -15°F. The warmest area, Zone 8a, has an average minimum temperature range of 10°F to 15°F.

Physical Characteristics Height. The approximate mature tree height from the ground to the top of the crown under normal landscape situations (Large: 50 feet and greater, Medium: 35 to 50 feet, Small: 35 feet and under). Spread. A tree’s crown diameter. In plan view, it is the horizontal distance from one edge of the crown (dripline) to the other. Crown Form. The shape of a tree at maturity based on the outline of the crown as perceived in silhouette. Six basic crown forms plus an irregular form are used in this document with two additional qualifiers: variable and multi-stemmed.

on lower branches.

2 2CASEY CASEY TREES: URBAN Urban TREE Tree SELECTION selection GUIDE Guide

Top 3 for the DC Region Nyssa sylvatica Black Gum Acer rubrum Red Maple Quercus phellos Willow Oak

22


Large Trees (50’ and over)

Catalpa speciosa

Northern Catalpa

40 - 60’

20 - 40’

4 to 8

8 to 1

Deep, moist, welldrained

Fagus grandifolia

American Beech

50 - 70’

50 - 70’

4 to 9

9 to 1

Well-drained, acidic

Ginkgo biloba

Ginkgo

50 - 80’

30 - 40’

4 to 8

9 to 3

Adaptable

5

Gleditsia triacanthos

Honey Locust

30 - 70’

30 - 70’

4 to 9

9 to 1

Adaptable

46

Bioretention

Adaptable

Buffers / Screening

8 to 1

Parks / Lawns

4 to 8

Parking Islands

35 - 50’

Paved Plazas

60 - 80’

Suitable Landscape Locations

Streets

Number of Caterpillar Species

Salt Tolerant

Air Pollution Tolerant

Shagbark Hickory

Drought Tolerant

Heat Zones

Soil Conditions

Hardiness Zones

Light Conditions

Spread

Carya ovata

Evergreen

Common Name

Native

Scientific Name

Height

Fruit / Nut Producing

Habitat Indicators

Growing Conditions Crown Form

Physical Characteristics

Legend applicable

235

8

127

N/A information

not available

Light Conditions Full Sun Part Shade shade

Gymnocladus dioicus ‘Stately Manor’

Fruitless Kentucky Coffee Tree

50 - 70’

30 - 50’

3b to 8

9 to 2

Liquidambar styraciflua

American Sweetgum

60 - 75’

60 - 75’

5 to 9

10 to 1

Deep, moist, slightly acidic

N/A

35

35

oval

21

vase

Adaptable

5

Mature Crown Form N/A

35 columnar

Liquidambar styraciflua ‘Cherokee’

Cherokee Sweetgum

40 - 50’

25 - 30’

5 to 9

N/A

Deep, moist, slightly acidic

Liquidambar styraciflua ‘Rotundiloba’

Low Fruiting Sweetgum

60 - 75’

40 - 50’

6 to 9

N/A

Deep, moist, slightly acidic

N/A

Liriodendron tulipifera

Tuliptree, Tulip Poplar

60 - 90’

35 - 50’

4 to 9

9 to 2

Deep, moist, welldrained

N/A

Magnolia grandiflora

Southern Magnolia

60 - 80’

30 - 50’

7 to 9

11 to 1

Well-drained, rich, porous, acidic

N/A

21

Metasequoia glyptostroboides

Dawn Redwood

70 - 100’

15 - 25’

5 to 8

10 to 5

Moist, well-drained, slightly acidic

N/A

0

Pinus strobus

Eastern White Pine

50 - 80’

Platanus occidentalis

Sycamore

75 - 100’

75 - 100’

4 to 9

5 to 9

Platanus x acerifolia

London Planetree

70 - 100’

65 - 80’

5 to 8

N/A

Quercus alba

White Oak

50 - 80’

50 - 80’

3b to 9

8 to 1

Moist, well-drained, acidic

Quercus bicolor

Swamp White Oak

50 - 60’

50 - 60’

4 to 8

8 to 1

Acidic

Quercus coccinea

Scarlet Oak

60 - 80’

40 - 50’

5 to 8

9 to 4

Adaptable

20 - 40’

3 to 7

7 to 1

N/A

Casey Trees: Urban Tree selection Guide

pyramidal spreading irregular

Moist, well-drained

201

Deep, moist, welldrained soils

45

Adaptable

0

Swamp White Oak, Quercus bicolor The Swamp White Oak grows naturally in swamps, lowland forests and along streams. It has a shallow root system that does well in both moist and compacted soils. Planting this tree along rivers can help stabilize soils and establish wildlife habitats. The Swamp White Oak is well-suited for bioretention, is a beautiful specimen tree for parks and lawns, and it can also be used as a large street tree. The Swamp White Oak has a round crown and interesting bark: when young, its bark is flaky and peels back to reveal orange colors of the inner bark. The tree has dark green leaves that are silvery white on the bottom.

Round

N/A

N/A

M

multi-stemmed

*

variable

Fruit / Nut Producing

532

fruit

532

berry

532

nut

3


Large Trees (50’ and over)

Quercus imbricaria

Shingle Oak

50 - 60’

50 - 60’

4 to 8

8 to 4

Adaptable

N/A

532

Quercus lyrata

Overcup Oak

45 - 50’

40 - 50’

5 to 9

8 to 4

Moist to wet loams

N/A

532

Quercus macrocarpa

Bur Oak

70 - 80’

70 - 80’

3 to 8

9 to 1

Adaptable

N/A

532

Quercus palustris

Pin Oak

65 - 70’

25 - 40’

4 to 8

7 to 3

Moist, rich, well drained, acidic

532

Quercus phellos

Willow Oak

40 - 60’

30 - 40’

5 to 9

9 to 3

Adaptable

532

Quercus rubra

Northern Red Oak

60 - 75’

60 -75’

3b to 7

9 to 5

Well-drained, sandy loam, slightly acidic

532

Bioretention

Adaptable

Buffers / Screening

9 to 5

Parks / Lawns

7 to 9

Parking Islands

70 - 100’

Paved Plazas

70 - 80’

Suitable Landscape Locations

Streets

Number of Caterpillar Species

Salt Tolerant

Air Pollution Tolerant

Southern Red Oak

Drought Tolerant

Heat Zones

Soil Conditions

Hardiness Zones

Light Conditions

Spread

Quercus falcata

Evergreen

Common Name

Native

Scientific Name

Height

Fruit / Nut Producing

Habitat Indicators

Growing Conditions Crown Form

Physical Characteristics

Legend applicable

532

N/A information

not available

Light Conditions Full Sun Part Shade shade

Mature Crown Form columnar

Robinia pseudoacacia

Black Locust

30 - 50’

10 -15’

4 to 8

9 to 3

Adaptable

Sophora japonica

Japanese Pagoda Tree

50 - 75’

50 - 75’

4 to 7

9 to 5

Loamy, well-drained

0

oval

Taxodium distichum

Common Bald Cypress

50 - 70’

20 - 30’

4 to 11

12 to 5

Moist, well-drained acidic

16

vase

Tilia americana

American Linden, Basswood

60 - 80’

30 - 55’

3b to 8

8 to 1

Moist, well drained

149

Tilia cordata

Littleleaf Linden

60 - 80’

30 - 50’

3b to 8

8 to 1

Deep, moist, fertile

149

72

Round

pyramidal spreading irregular

Tilia tomentosa

Silver Linden

50 - 70’

Ulmus americana ‘Jefferson’

Jefferson American Elm

60 - 80’

30 - 50’

4 to 7

8 to 2

Rich, moist preferred but adaptable

215

Ulmus americana ‘New Harmony’

New Harmony American Elm

60 - 70’

60 - 70’

5 to10

8 to 2

Rich, moist preferred but adaptable

215

Ulmus americana ‘Valley Forge’

Valley Forge American Elm

60 - 70’

60 - 70’

4 to 9

8 to 2

Rich, moist preferred but adaptable

215

fruit

Zelkova serrata

Japanese Zelkova

50 - 80’

50 - 80’

5 to 8

9 to 5

Moist, deep, pH adaptable

0

berry

Zelkova serrata ‘Green Vase’

Green Vase Zelkova

60 - 70’

40 - 50’

5 to 8

9 to 5

Moist, deep, pH adaptable

35 - 45’

4 to 7

9 to 1

Ginkgo, Ginkgo biloba This attractive tree has a pyramidal shape when young that spreads as it matures. Because of its form and tolerance to road salt, vehicular exhaust, nutrient-deficient soils and urban pollution, it performs well as a street tree. It is also good for urban parks and bioretention areas. The unique dichotomous fan-shaped leaves have extraordinary yellow color in the fall. Some people prefer the male Ginkgo tree because the female bears a malodorous fruit. However, the female tree’s fruit yields a nut meat that is edible and often used in herbal remedies.

Casey Trees: Urban Tree selection Guide

Deep, moist, fertile

149

N/A

0

M

multi-stemmed

*

variable

Fruit / Nut Producing

nut

4


medium trees (35’-50’)

The Yellowwood is native to the United States from the Carolinas to Oklahoma. The tree is adapted to air pollution and other urban conditions, making it a desirable, multi-functional tree that thrives in many landscapes. This tree has a broad rounded crown with spectacular cascading flowers. Its smooth gray bark and yellow autumn leaves also provide visual interest.

Casey Trees: Urban Tree selection Guide

3b to 9

9 to 1

Moist, well-drained, acidic

Deodar Cedar

40 - 70’

150’

7 to 8

9 to 7

Well-drained to dry

Celtis occidentalis

Hackberry

40 - 60’

40 - 60’

3 to 9

9 to 1

Rich, moist, withstands alkaline conditions

Cercidiphyllum japonicum

Katsura

40 - 60’

20 - 30’

4 to 8

8 to 1

Rich, moist, welldrained

N/A

N/A

applicable

N/A information

not available

N/A

Light Conditions

0

Full Sun

43

Part Shade 0 shade

Cladrastis kentukea

American Yellowwood

30 - 50’

40 - 55’

4 to 8

9 to 1

Adaptable, welldrained

Cryptomeria japonica

Japanese Cedar

40 - 60’

30 - 40’

5 to 8

9 to 4

Moist, rich, welldrained

N/A N/A

0

Mature Crown Form N/A

0 columnar

Diospyros virginiana

Common Persimmon

35 - 60’

25 - 35’

7 to 10

9 to 1

Adaptable, welldrained

Ilex opaca

American Holly

40 - 50’

20 - 40’

5 to 9

9 to 1

Average, medium, well-drained

Juniperus virginiana

Eastern Red Cedar

40 - 50’

10 - 20’

3b to 9

9 to 1

Adaptable

Maclura pomifera ‘White Shield’

White Shield Osage Orange

20 - 40’

20 - 40’

4 to 9

10 to 1

Adaptable

Nyssa sylvatica

Black Gum, Black Tupelo

30 - 50’

20 - 30’

4 to 9

9 to 7

Moist, well-drained, acidic

26

9 to 6

Moist, well-drained, drought resistant

0

N/A

46

N/A

39

oval

42

vase

N/A

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Round

pyramidal

8

spreading irregular

Pistacia chinensis

Chinese Pistache

30 - 35’

Prunus x yeodensis

Yoshino Cherry

35 - 45’

30 - 40’

5b to 8a

8 to 3

Well-drained, acidic

Quercus muehlenbergii

Chinkapin Oak

40 - 50’

50 - 60’

5 to 7

8 to 2

Well-drained upland, weakly acidic to alkaline

N/A

Quercus nuttalli

Nuttall Oak

40 - 60’

40 - 50’

6b to 8b

N/A

Well-drained, acidic, extended flooding

N/A

6 to 9

Legend

297

12

Cedrus deodara

25 - 35’

Bioretention

40 - 60’

Buffers / Screening

40 - 70’

Parks / Lawns

River Birch

Parking Islands

Betula nigra

N/A

Paved Plazas

Moist, well-drained

Suitable Landscape Locations

Streets

9 to 1

Number of Caterpillar Species

3b to 9

Fruit / Nut Producing

40 - 60’

Salt Tolerant

40 - 60’

Air Pollution Tolerant

Heat Zones

Red Maple

Drought Tolerant

Hardiness Zones

Soil Conditions

Spread

Light Conditions

Height

Acer rubrum

Evergreen

Common Name

Native

Scientific Name

M

American Yellowwood, Cladrastis lutea/kentukea

Habitat Indicators

Growing Conditions Crown Form

Physical Characteristics

N/A

0

532

N/A

532

M

multi-stemmed

*

variable

Fruit / Nut Producing fruit berry nut

5


small trees (35’ and under)

Shadblow Serviceberry

5 - 20’

15 - 20’

4 to 9

7 to 1

Moist, well-drained, acidic

124

4 to 9

9 to 1

Moist, well-drained, acidic

124

5 to 8

8 to 6

Moist, well-drained, acidic

Bioretention

124

Buffers / Screening

Bogs, swamps

Parks / Lawns

7 to 1

Parking Islands

3 to 7

N/A

Paved Plazas

Moist, well-drained, acidic

Drought Tolerant

9 to1

Suitable Landscape Locations

Streets

Number of Caterpillar Species

Fruit / Nut Producing

Salt Tolerant

Air Pollution Tolerant

Soil Conditions

4 to 9 M

Amelanchier canadensis

Light Conditions

Heat Zones

15 - 25’

Hardiness Zones

15 - 25’

Habitat Indicators

Growing Conditions Crown Form

Downy Serviceberry

Spread

Amelanchier arborea

Height

Common Name

Evergreen

Scientific Name

Native

Physical Characteristics

Legend applicable

124

N/A information

not available

M

Amelanchier x grandiflora

Apple Serviceberry

15 - 25’

15 - 20’ M

Amelanchier laevis

Allegheny Serviceberry

15 - 25’

15 - 25’ M

Asimina triloba

Pawpaw

15 - 20’

30 - 40’ M

Carpinus caroliniana

American Hornbeam

20 - 30’

20 - 30’

3b to 9

9 to 1

Moist, well-drained, acidic

Cercis canadensis

Eastern Redbud

25 - 30’

25 - 35’

4 to 9

9 to 6

Moist, well-drained

6 to 8

9 to 3

Adaptable, good drainage

4 to 9

9 to 1

Deep, moist, acidic

Light Conditions Full Sun Part Shade shade

N/A

N/A

68

Mature Crown Form 19 columnar

Chionanthus retusus

Chinese Fringetree

15 - 25’

20 - 25’

Chionanthus virginicus

White Fringetree

25 - 30’

25 - 30’

Cornus florida

Flowering Dogwood

20 - 30’

20 - 30’

5 to 9

9 to 3

Wet, acidic, welldrained

Cornus kousa

Kousa Dogwood

20 - 30’

20 - 30’

5 to 8

8 to 5

Well-drained, acidic

Crataegus phaenopyrum

Washington Hawthorn

25 - 30’

20 - 25’

4 to 8

10 to 1

N/A

N/A

0

Round

8

oval

118

vase

M

N/A

0

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

168

No

No

Yes

No

No

pyramidal spreading

Moist, fertile

irregular

Crataegus spp.

Hawthorn

20 - 30’

Ficus carica

Fig

10 - 15’

10 - 20’

7b to 11

N/A

Well-drained, light to medium soils

Halesia monticola

Mountain Silverbell

20 - 40’

15 - 35’

5 to 8

8 to 4

Medium moist, welldrained, acidic

Hamamelis virginiana

Common Witch Hazel

20 - 30’

20 - 25’

3b to 8

8 to 1

Most, well-drained

6 to 9

9 to 4

Medium moist, welldrained, slightly acidic

20 - 35’

3 to 8

10 to 1

Green Vase Zelkova, Zelkova serrata ‘Green Vase’ This winner of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society’s Styer Award, the Green Vase Zelkova is a fast growing cultivar of the Japanese Zelkova. Resistant to Dutch Elm Disease, it has been promoted as a substitute for the American Elm. It is also resistant to drought and harsh winters. The Green Vase Zelkova has a unique grayish white to grayish brown bark. The tree’s young bark is smooth with lenticels. As the tree matures, its bark exfoliates to reveal an orange-brown inner bark. The ascending branch structure makes it an excellent street tree and a nice addition to parks and lawns.

Casey Trees: Urban Tree selection Guide

Adaptable

M

Ilex x attenuata ‘Fosteri #2’

Fosters Holly

20 - 30’

10 - 20’

168

N/A

N/A

8

7

N/A

63

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

M

multi-stemmed

*

variable

Fruit / Nut Producing fruit berry nut

6


small Trees (35’ and under)

20 - 30’

Magnolia virginiana

Sweetbay Magnolia

10 - 20’

10 - 20’

*

Well-drained

3

6 to 9

11 to 6

Well-drained

3

4 to 9

9 to 5

Well-drained, rich, porous, acidic

5 to 9

9 to 6

Wet, swampy acidic

4 to 8

9 to 1

Well-drained, adaptable

4a to 8a

N/A

Moist, well-drained, acidic

308

3b to 9

9 to 5

Moist, well-drained, acidic

94

N/A

Bioretention

20 - 30’

11 to 6

Buffers / Screening

Saucer Magnolia

6 to 9

Parks / Lawns

Magnolia soulangiana

*

3

Parking Islands

15’

Well-drained

Paved Plazas

15’

11 to 7

Suitable Landscape Locations

Streets

Tuscarora Crapemyrtle

Number of Caterpillar Species

Lagerstroemia indica ‘Tuscarora’

*

Fruit / Nut Producing

20’

Salt Tolerant

20’

Air Pollution Tolerant

Natchez Crapemyrtle

6 to 9

Drought Tolerant

Lagerstroemia indica ‘Natchez’

Soil Conditions

15’

Light Conditions

20’

Heat Zones

Muskogee Crapemyrtle

Hardiness Zones

Spread

Lagerstroemia indica ‘Muskogee’

Habitat Indicators

Growing Conditions Crown Form

Common Name

Native

Scientific Name

Height

Evergreen

Physical Characteristics

Legend applicable

N/A information

not available

Light Conditions Full Sun

21

Part Shade

N/A

21

M

Malus domestica

Apple - edible

10 - 35’

Variable

Malus spp.

Flowering Crabapple

15 - 25’

10 - 20’

Many different

*

shade

N/A

308

Mature Crown Form columnar

Ostrya virginiana

American Hophornbeam

25 - 40’

15 - 25’

Prunus x ‘Okame’

Okame Cherry

15 - 25’

20’

6b to 9b

9 to 5

Adaptable

N/A

0

oval

Prunus avium

Sweet Cherry

15 - 30’

15 - 30’

3 to 8

8 to 1

Moist well-drained, moderately acidic pH

N/A

456

vase

Prunus cerasus

Sour Cherry

10 - 30’

10 - 20’

4 to 8

8 to 1

Moist well-drained, moderately acidic pH

N/A

456

Prunus domestica

Plum

15 - 25’

15 - 25’

5 to 8

8 to 3

Moist, well-drained

N/A

0

0

0

Round

pyramidal spreading irregular

Flowering Dogwood, Cornus florida The Flowering Dogwood is native to the mid-Atlantic region but can be found from Southern Maine to Northern Florida and from Eastern Kansas and Eastern Texas. The tree is well-loved for its beautiful white, pink or red bracts, which are smaller specialized leaves that are arranged in groups of four around the tree’s true flowers. The bracts are often mistaken for flowers, but the tree’s flowers are small and greenish yellow. In the spring, the flowers and bracts open before the leaves, creating a stunning show. The Flowering Dogwood thrives on a site with some afternoon shade, and it does not do well in extreme heat.

Casey Trees: Urban Tree selection Guide

Prunus persica

Peach

10 - 25’

10 - 25’

4 to 9

9 to 5

Moist, well-drained, sandy, neutral pH

Prunus serrulata ‘Kanzan’

Kwanzan Cherry

15 - 25’

20 - 25’

5 to 8

9 to 4

Damp, well-drained fertile

Pyrus pyrifolia

Asian Pear

30’

20’

4 to 9

9 to 1

Moist, well-drained, slightly acidic

Syringa reticulata

Japanese Tree Lilac

20 - 30’

15 - 25’

3 to 7

8 to 3

Loose, well-drained, slightly acidic

Viburnum prunifolium

Blackhaw Viburnum

10 - 15’

10 - 15’

3 to 9

N/A

M

Adaptable

N/A

N/A

N/A

138

0

104

M

multi-stemmed

*

variable

Fruit / Nut Producing fruit berry nut

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Suitable Landscape Locations

Habitat Indicators

Streets. The planting space between the street and the sidewalk. Trees with columnar, oval or vase-shaped crowns that are resistant to compacted soils, road deicers and the heat reflected off dark roadways make good street trees.

Fruit or Nut Producing: trees that Producing. Trees that produce produce fruits fruits or or nuts. nuts. Berries (which are a type of fruit) and nuts provide a food source for songbirds and other animals. In this guide, trees that“fruit” produce fruits are edible by humans. the term refers to trees that produce fruits that are edible for humans. Species Hosted: the number of different butterfly,

Parks / Lawns. Parks (land for public use and recreation) and lawns (private property) are open spaces that provide ample and healthy rooting space for trees. Due to their generally non-compacted, nutrient and moisture rich soil, they are prime locations for larger canopy trees and trees with shallow root systems.

Common Bald Cypress, Taxodium distichum The Bald Cypress grows naturally from Southern Maryland to Florida, to Eastern Texas and up the Mississippi River Valley. While the tree is at home in swamps, it also does well on dry sites, streets and in bioretention. The Bald Cypress is a deciduous conifer and loses its leaves in the fall. The mature Bald Cypress has a wide trunk flare, which helps to stabilize it in waterlogged or flooded soils. The bark is gray brown to reddish brown with a stringy vertical texture. The Bald Cypress is known for its woody protrusions, or “knees,” that grow up from its roots. In wet sites, the knees are believed to help oxygenate the trees roots.

CASEY TREES: URBAN Urban Tree TREE selection SELECTION GUIDE Guide

Suggested Trees for Biodiversity (Genus) Suggested Trees for

Buffers / Screening. A landscaping strategy that often uses evergreen trees to naturally reduce noise or visual pollution and create privacy between dwellings or differing land uses. Evergreen trees used as buffers should be pruned according to spacing and desired level of privacy. This guide recommends both evergreen and deciduous trees for this category.

Biodiversity - Quercus; Oak(Genus)

Bioretention. Depressions or shallow basins in the landscape that slow and treat stormwater runoff onsite. Trees that perform best in bioretention require little maintenance, are salt and drought tolerant and can survive up to three days of standing water.

- Populus, Aspen, Poplar

- Quercus, Oak Plum, Peach Prunus; Cherry, - Prunus, Fruit Trees Salix; Willow - Salix, Betula;Willow Birch - Betula, Populus;Birch Poplar

455 455

358 358

411 411

400

300

300

Tot

200

100

0

Populus; Populus;Poplar Aspen, cottonwood, poplar

- Quercus nuttalli, Nuttall Oak MEDIUM

400

Betula; Betula;Birch Birch

- Betula nigra, River Birch MEDIUM

500

Salix; Salix;Willow Willow

- Quercus bicolor, Swamp White Oak LARGE

500

456 456

- Taxodium distichum, Common Baldcypress LARGE

Trees and serveplants as habitats can serve andas food a sources home forfor bees, beneficial butterflies, animals birds, and or insects. Inthe squirrels; an vegetation ongoing study, itselfDr. serves Doug as food Tallamy, for herbivores, entomologist and the at the University of herbivores serve Delaware, as foodexamined for larger plant genera and the moth and animals. butterfly caterpillar species they Doug Tallamy, entomologist at the attracted. this study, native University Through of Delaware, has shown treesmost haveinsects been found host a that prefertoplants more range of caterpillar nativediverse to the region/climate in which species. their species evolved. Due these initial findings, In anto on-going study, Tallamy has Tallamy’s research can be used ranked plant genera based on the as an indicator of and a tree’s ability to number of moths butterflies supportdeveloping biodiversity. found on vegetation (both native and non-native).

Prunus; Plum, Peach Prunus;Cherry, Cherry, peach, plum, almond

Trees help to mitigate stormwater runoff, absorb pollutants, prevent erosion and improve infiltration. By directing stormwater runoff into infiltration planters that feature trees, designers can create spaces where trees can thrive and help keep streams and rivers cleaner.

- Liquidambar styraciflua, American Sweetgum LARGE

Trees and Biodiversity 557 557

Trees and Bioretention

Suggested Trees for Bioretention (Species)

600

Quercus; Quercus;Oak Oak

Parking Islands. Parking lot tree spaces. Trees with an upright form that are heat, salt and drought tolerant are recommended. Trees that can litter the parking lot with fruit, branches or large leaves are avoided. Small or medium trees are best, unless the parking lot is designed to provide substantial soil volume for larger trees.

skipper, moth caterpillar species that of a tree Number ofand Caterpillar Species. The number butterfly, supports (a potential indicator of tree’s ability to support skipper and moth caterpillar species that a tree biodiversity). supports, which can be an indicator of a tree’s ability to support biodiversity.

Number caterpillar species Numberofof moths and butterflies

Paved Plazas. Spaces near or adjacent to office and retail buildings that are surrounded by paving. Trees that are low-maintenance and salt and pollutant tolerant perform best in these areas.

200

100

0

Tree Genus Tree Genus; Common Name

8


REFERENCES + INDEX The trees featured in this guide were drawn from more than 200 tree species planted or recommended by D.C.’s Urban Forestry Administration; Arlington County, Virginia; Prince George’s County, Maryland and Casey Trees. Information about each tree is drawn primarily from the Manual of Woody Landscape Plants Fifth Edition and Native Trees, Shrubs, and Vines for Urban and Rural America. Other sources were consulted to provide additional information. Web sources were accessed between January and November 2014.

Works Cited Appleton, Bonnie, et al. “Screening.” Virginia Cooperative Extension . Publication 430-025. 2009. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http:// pubs.ext.vt.edu/430/430-025/430-025.html> Beckerman, Janna and Rosie Lerner. “Salt Damage in Landscape Plants.” Purdue Extension. ID-412-W. West Lafayette: Purdue University Cooperative Extension, 2009. Web. 2 October 2014. <https://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/ID/ID412-W.pdf>

Images cover Erin. Ginkgo Trees & Rowhouses. 2013. Flickr. Web 2 Oct. 2014. <https://www.flickr.com/photos/ ekelly80/10769096175/in/set-72157639333515454> pg 2 Singleton, Marcela. Hackberry at Mc Donagh 15 School. n.d. Dirt Garden. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://dirtgarden.wordpress. com/2011/10/03/trees-of-the-french-quarter/> pg 3 Haegele, Liz. Quercus bicolor. n.d. The Scott Arboretum’s Garden Seeds. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://blogs.scottarboretum. org/gardenseeds/2008/06/quercus-bicolor/> pg 5 Spruce, Jon. Yellowwood. 2012. Philly Trees. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://phillytrees.blogspot.com/2012/06/quick-picksthree-trees.html> pg 6 Viljoen, Marie. Fall in Brooklyn. N.d. 66 Square Feet (Plus). Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://66squarefeet.blogspot. com/2010/10/fall-in-brooklyn.html> pg 7 P Walk. St. Dogwood. 2014. Washington DC Trees. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. < http://www.washingtondctrees.com/> pg 8 Marritz, Leda. Ginkgo. 2011. Deep Root. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://www.deeproot.com/blog/blog-entries/the-best-streettrees-reader-edition-results> City of Berkeley. Rain Garden. n.d. City of Berkley, CA. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://www.ci.berkeley.ca.us/Public_Works/ Sewers_-_Storm/Watershed_Resources.aspx>

Brand, Mark. “Plant Database.” UCONN Plant Database. University of Connecticut. 2014. Web. 2 May 2014. <http://www.hort. uconn.edu/Plants/>.

Garden Ally. Downtown-Views. 2011. The Garden Alley. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://gardenally.blogspot.com/2011/11/ downtown-views.html>

Dirr, Michael. A Manual of Woody Landscape Plants. 5th ed. Champagne: Stipes Publishing, LLC. 1998. Print.

Green Works. Rockwood Water Reservoir: n.d. Greenworks. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://greenworkspc.com/works/ waterwastewater/rockwood-water-resevoir/>

District of Columbia. Green Infrastructure Standards. Washington: District of Columbia Department of Transportation, 2014. Web. 2 October 2014. <http://ddot.dc.gov/GreenInfrastructure>. Hightshoe, Gary. Native Trees, Shrubs, and Vines for Urban and Rural America. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988. Print. Kress, Stephen. The Audubon Society Guide to Attracting Birds: Creating Natural Habitats for Properties Large and Small. 2nd ed. Ithaca or London: Cornell University Press, 2006. Print. Ladybird Johnson Wildlife Center. University of Texas at Austin, 2014. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://www.wildflower.org/>

Helms, Kanoa. Mineral Wells Picnic Area. 2009. Daily Venture. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://www.dailyventure.com/travel/ Griffith-Park-the-Heart-of-Los-Angeles> Swill. Untitled. 2010. Southwest…The Little Quadrant That Could. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://www.swtlqtc.com/2010/05/ wells-to-hold-campaign-event-on-sunday.html> Streets of Washington. Ginkgo trees on Cumberland Street, NW. 2011. Flickr. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <https://www.flickr.com/ photos/streetsofdc/6338558934/in/photostream/>

Learn 2 Grow. Preferred Commerce, 2006-2014. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://www.learn2grow.com> State of Maryland. Maryland Department of the Environment, Water Management Administration. Maryland Stormwater Design Manual: Appendix A. Landscaping Guidance for Stormwater BMPs - General Landscaping Guidance. Baltimore M.D.: MDE, 2009. Web. 2 May 2014. <http://www.mde.state.md.us/programs/Water/StormwaterManagementProgram/ MarylandStormwaterDesignManual/Pages/Programs/WaterPrograms/SedimentandStormwater/stormwater_design/ index.aspx> Missouri Botanical Garden. 2014. 2 Jun 2014. <www.mobot.org> Natural Resources Conservation Service Connecticut. “Native, Invasive, and Other Plant-Related Definitions.” U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2002. Web. 1 Nov 2014. http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/ct/technical/ecoscience/ invasive/?cid=nrcs142p2_011124 Natural Resources Conservation Service Connecticut. “Plant Hardiness Zone Map – US Map 300 dpi (CMYK).” U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2002. Web. 1 Nov 2014. <http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/ct/technical/ecoscience/ invasive/?cid=nrcs142p2_011124> North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. Gardening.ces.ncsu.edu. NC State University A&T State University. 2014. Web 2 Jun 2014. <http://extensiongardener.ces.ncsu.edu/spotlight/plant-database/>. “Map Downloads.” Planthardiness.ars.usda.gov U.S. Department of Agriculture. n.d. Web. 2 May 2014. <http://planthardiness.ars. usda.gov/PHZMWeb/Downloads.aspx> Seiler, John and John Peterson. “Tree Identification Factsheets.” Forest Biology and Dendrology Education. VirginaTech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation. 2010. Web. 2 May 2014. <http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/>. Slattery, Britt E., Kathryn Reshetiloff, and Susan M. Zwicker. Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Annapolis: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Chesapeake Bay Field Office. 2003. Print. Tallamy, Douglas. Bringing Nature Home: How to Sustain Wildlife in Our Gardens. Portland or London: Timber Press, 2007. Print. Tallamy, Douglas. “Bringing Nature Home.” Plantnative.com. 2009. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <plantnative.com>

CASEY TREES: URBAN TREE SELECTION GUIDE

Common Name Index Apple: 7 Bald Cypress, Common: 4 Basswood (Linden, American): 4 Beech, American: 3 Birch, River: 5 Black Gum (Black Tupelo): 5 Catalpa, Northern: 3 Cedar, Deodar, Japanese: 5 Cherry, Kwanzan, Okame, Sour, Sweet: 7 Cherry, Yoshino: 5 Crabapple, spp.: 7 Crapemyrtle, Muskogee, Natchez, Tuscarora: 7 Dogwood, Flowering, Kousa: 6 Elm, Jefferson American, New Harmony American, Valley Forge American: 4 Fig: 6 Fringetree, Chinese, White: 6 Ginkgo: 3 Hackberry: 5 Hawthorn, spp., Washington: 6 Hickory, Shagbark: 3 Holly, American: 5 Holly, Fosters: 6

Hophornbeam, American: 7 Hornbeam, American: 6 Katsura: 5 Kentucky Coffee Tree, Fruitless: 3 Lilac, Japanese Tree: 7 Linden, American (Basswood), Littleleaf, Silver: 4 Locust, Black: 4 Locust, Honey: 3 Magnolia, Saucer, Sweetbay: 7 Magnolia, Southern: 3 Maple, Red: 5 Oak, Chinkapin, Nuttall: 5 Oak, Bur, Northern Red, Overcup, Pin, Shingle, Southern Red, Willow: 4 Oak, Scarlet, Swamp White, White: 3 Osage Orange, White Shield: 5 Pagoda Tree, Japanese: 4 Pawpaw: 6 Peach: 7 Pear, Asian: 7 Persimmon, Common: 5 Pine, Eastern White: 3 Pistache, Chinese: 5

Planetree, London: 3 Plum: 7 Redbud, Eastern: 6 Redcedar, Eastern: 5 Redwood, Dawn: 3 Serviceberry, Allegheny, Apple, Downy, Shadblow: 6 Silverbell, Mountain: 6 Sweetgum, American, Cherokee, LowFruiting: 3 Sycamore: 3 Tulip Poplar (Tuliptree): 3 Viburnum, Blackhaw: 7 Witch Hazel, Common: 6 Yellowwood, American: 5 Zelkova, Green Vase, Japanese: 4

9


CASEY TREES

WHO WE ARE Casey Trees is a Washington, D.C. nonprofit with a mission to “restore, enhance and protect the tree canopy of the nation’s capital.” We pursue our mission through education, community action and research.

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