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Programme Review 2010 - 2012

Developing Car Clubs in Scotland


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ince its launch in November 2010, the Developing Car Clubs in Scotland programme has been enabling the country to get ever closer to achieving energy efficiency and carbon reduction in transport with innovative and cost-effective car clubs. The Developing Car Clubs in Scotland (DCCS) programme was launched with funding from Transport Scotland, with the aim of providing communities across Scotland with a convenient and cost effective alternative to car ownership. Two years on from the initial launch, we would like to welcome you to this review of the DCCS programme to date. In rural and urban Scotland, the DCCS programme has welcomed community engagement and provided financial and technical assistance to facilitate the successful launch of 11 new car clubs adding 35 vehicles and 600 members to the Scottish car club network. This has helped to reduce the dependency on private car ownership and contributed to the strengthening of rural communities and a reduction of transport poverty. Whilst we are proud of this achievement, there is of course still more work to do. Over the next two years, the DCCS programme will need to continue to support the work of these new car clubs to enable them to consolidate their positions, by expanding their membership and vehicle utilisation to ensure that they remain sustainable and successful in the long-term. Car clubs can play a key role in reducing private car dependency and are part of a broad range of sustainable transport measures such as walking, cycling and public transport, which collectively offer significant benefits for the environment, individuals and society as a whole. As such, we also aim for the programme to support a small number of additional new car clubs to further expand the Scottish car club network. This review aims to highlight the achievements of the DCCS programme so far, to introduce each of the car clubs supported by the financial and technical assistance offered by the programme, and to outline how the DCCS programme can continue to support the development of car clubs across Scotland in future years.

Chas Ball

Chief Executive, Carplus 2 Developing Car Clubs in Scotland


The Developing Car Clubs in Scotland programme is funded by Transport Scotland, the national transport agency for Scotland. As an agency of the Scottish Government, Transport Scotland is accountable to the Scottish Parliament and the public through Scottish Ministers.

“The Scottish Government has an ambitious agenda for tackling climate change and the increasing interest in car clubs is demonstrating how the people of Scotland are engaging in delivering on this. Greener lifestyles can also be cheaper lifestyles, given the ever-rising costs of running a private car. We are currently funding the establishment of a network of car clubs across Scotland, which will provide more drivers with the opportunity to give up their cars in favour of pay-as-you-go driving, further reducing the environmental and economic costs of car use.� Scottish Government Transport Minister, Keith Brown MSP

Contents 1. Developing Car Clubs in Scotland

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2. The Benefits of Developing Car Clubs

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3. Key Programme Achievements

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4. Urban Car Club Projects

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5. Rural Car Club Projects

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6. The Future of the DCCS Programme

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Programme Review 2010-2012

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Developing Car Clubs in Scotland Developing Car Clubs in Scotland (DCCS) is a national programme funded by Transport Scotland1 as part of the Scottish Government's support for energy efficiency and carbon reduction in Scottish transport. The DCCS programme is delivered by Carplus in partnership with community groups and local authorities interested in setting up car clubs in urban and rural communities across Scotland.

Aim

Achievements

The DCCS programme was launched in November 2010, with the aim of providing communities across Scotland with a convenient and cost-effective alternative to car ownership.

• In urban areas the DCCS programme has supported the development of new car clubs in 3 communities as well as supporting 2 existing urban car clubs.

Activities

• In rural areas the DCCS programme has supported the development of 8 new car clubs as well as supporting 1 existing rural car club.

To achieve its aim, the programme provides technical and financial assistance to support the expansion of existing car clubs and facilitate the development of new car clubs in urban and rural communities across Scotland. The programme supports all stages of car club development, including: • The initial car club development: establishing the feasibility of a scheme, raising awareness and creating local interest, identifying potential stakeholders and project partners, to drafting a detailed business plan and budget. • Technical aspects of car club delivery: examining the suitability of different car club operational models. • Supporting continued car club development: membership recruitment, vehicle utilisation, use of hybrid and electric vehicles, etc. 4 Developing Car Clubs in Scotland

• The programme also funded a Scottish Car Club Market Assessment, published in 2011, looking at potential car club locations across Scotland based on factors such as population density, public transport usage, car ownership, etc. to support car club development in future years.

About Carplus The programme is managed by Carplus, an environmental transport NGO with a decade of experience in developing and supporting car clubs and ride-sharing services.


What is a Car Club? A car club is a member-based organisation that provides access to pay-as-you-drive vehicles. Car club vehicles are available for hire on an hourly or daily basis, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Vehicles tend to be parked in dedicated and clearly marked parking spaces close to the homes and workplaces of car club members. Members can access car club vehicles via a smart card or by a key, accessible via a key safe.

How do Car Clubs Work? Car clubs typically own or lease vehicles that are then made available to their members for shortterm use. The club covers all the costs of owning and operating the vehicles, such as insurance, tax, fuel, cleaning and servicing. Members usually pay an annual membership fee to be part of a car club and then pay an hourly charge (typically between ÂŁ3 and ÂŁ5) to hire a vehicle and a mileage charge (typically around 21p per mile) that covers fuel and vehicle wear and tear. Members can join and book vehicles online or over the phone and are usually billed for their use monthly in arrears.

Who Uses Car Clubs? Occasional Drivers People who do not own or have access to a car but who require access to one occasionally.

Money Savers People who own a car but only use it occasionally and who could do without the expense of owning one.

Multiple car owning households Households with access to more than one car interested in giving up one or more of their vehicles.

Employees and local businesses People making use of car club vehicles for business travel.

Commuters People looking to utilise car club vehicles to ride-share rather than commuting to work alone. Programme Review 2010-2012

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The Benefits of Developing Car Clubs Car clubs offer a number of proven benefits2.

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CO2

A practical and cost-effective alternative to car ownership Car clubs provide access to new, or nearly new, vehicles and can offer significant savings compared to car ownership - especially where a member only requires a vehicle occasionally and where a privately owned car is no longer required as a result of car club membership. The RAC calculates that the average cost of owning a new car is £6,689 a year3. Charges for car clubs vary but a typical cost is £3 - £5 per hour or £25 - £40 per day with a mileage charge of 21p and annual membership of £15 - £60.

Access to fuel efficient vehicles Scottish car club vehicles are, on average, 29% more fuel efficient than the average car in the UK. Across the Scottish car club network as a whole this is equivalent to a saving of around 148 tonnes of CO2 per year in terms of improved fuel efficiency alone4.

Encouraging walking, cycling and public transport use Member survey results show that car club members are more likely to walk, cycle and use public transport than the average car user in Scotland. Feedback from car club members suggests that they are more aware of the cost of car use and are therefore more likely to consider all travel options for completing a journey.

Reducing the number of cars on Scotland's roads Member survey results show that 33% of car club members dispose of their car after becoming a member. Results also show that most car club members travel less than 3,000 miles a year, and just over a third of car club members (36%) report that they reduced their car mileage by an average of over 3,000 miles a year after joining a car club.

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Reducing dependency and improving accessibility By providing access to a car without the need to own one, car clubs can reduce dependency on private car ownership, whilst providing cost-effective access to a car when it is the most appropriate transport choice.

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Meeting the Scottish Government's Strategic Objectives with DCCS Wealthier and Fairer The DCCS programme supports the creation of new businesses (car clubs) and reduces transport costs by providing a shared alternative to private car ownership.

Smarter Developing new car clubs provides opportunities for local entrepreneurial activity as well as providing car club vehicles that can be used to access work and education.

Healthier Car club vehicles can be used to access health services, but car club membership is also shown to increase healthy and active travel such as walking and cycling.

Safer and Stronger kg

Car clubs can strengthen local communities by providing the opportunity to collectively develop shared local resources, and, by doing so, improve access to essential services.

Greener Car clubs contribute to an overall reduction in the number of cars on Scotland's roads and reduce vehicle mileage and associated carbon dioxide emissions.

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Key Programme Achievements

New clubs

The DCCS programme has supported the development of 3 new car clubs in urban communities and 8 new car clubs in rural communities in Scotland.

New members

The DCCS programme has resulted in a significant geographical expansion of the car club network across Scotland, directly contributing 35 car club vehicles and 600 members to the car club network in Scotland.

Expansion of existing clubs

The DCCS programme has supported the expansion of the 2 existing urban car clubs and 1 existing rural car club.

Market assessment

The DCCS programme also funded a Scottish Car Club Market Assessment, published in 2011, looking at potential car club locations across Scotland based on factors such as population density, public transport usage, car ownership, etc. to support car club development in future years.

Looking ahead

In 2012-13 the programme will also support the development of 3 new car clubs. There are now approximately 6,300 car club members in Scotland using approximately 160 car club vehicles.

Growth in membership of Car Clubs supported by DCCS Programme

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Achievements at a glance...

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148

new car clubs

tonnes of CO2 saved per year

600

new car club members

35

additional car club vehicles

200

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cars off the roads5

communities served Programme Review 2010-2012

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Car Club Expansion Supported by the DCCS Programme Scottish Car Clubs in 2010 Location of Car Clubs launched with DCCS support since 2010

Aberdeen

Dundee

Edinburgh

Glasgow

10 10 Developing Developing Car Car Clubs Clubs in in Scotland Scotland


Urban Car Clubs

Urban Car Clubs The vast majority of Scotland’s car club vehicles and members are located in larger cities. Car clubs can support sustainable urban living by providing access to a car without the need to own one and by offering affordable access to a car when walking, cycling and public transport are not convenient transport options. In order to support the continued development of car clubs in urban areas across Scotland, the DCCS programme has provided funding and technical assistance to support the growth of existing car clubs as well as the development of new schemes. Since November 2010, the DCCS programme has supported Aberdeen City Council in facilitating the launch of a new car club

in Aberdeen; developed a car club trial in Dundee; and worked with the existing car clubs in Edinburgh and Glasgow to identify opportunities for innovation and expansion. The programme has also assisted Dumfries and Galloway Council in the development of a car club in Dumfries, and is currently working with a public sector fleet operator to develop a new car club in a mid-sized town in Scotland in 2012-13. The DCCS programme also organises events to bring together key stakeholders from across Scotland to share best practice in urban car club development such as on and off-street parking, development control, and car club membership and utilisation.

Urban DCCS Project Output Technical and financial assistance to facilitate the launch of new car clubs in Aberdeen, Dumfries and a car club trial in Dundee. The development and launch of an additional new car club in a Scottish mid-sized market town. Working with existing car clubs in Edinburgh and Glasgow to identify opportunities for innovation and expansion. Supporting reduced public and private sector fleet operator costs - and grey fleet business mileage - by promoting car clubs as a convenient and cost-effective alternative for car-based business travel. Bringing together key stakeholders from across Scotland to share best practice in urban car club development. Identifying new urban car club projects that can be progressed in 2013-14.

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Urban Car Clubs

Aberdeen: a new car club for Europe's energy capital Launch date: April 2012 Operator: CIC No. of vehicles: 12 (located in on-street bays) No. of members: 315 Funders: Aberdeen City Council with support from the DCCS programme Role of DCCS (2011-12) • Provided support for the recruitment and training of a part-time development worker to support the development of the Aberdeen car club.

Structure: Not-for-profit Website: www.commonwheels.org.uk Background: No car club prior to DCCS.

operator Serco Ltd. to make car club vehicles a convenient option for ferry passengers. A novel approach In a world first for a car club, Aberdeen City Council were loaned two hydrogen electric vehicles and bookings were managed by Aberdeen car club.

• Funded a Business Breakfast event, working with the regional transport partnership Nestrans and Aberdeen City and Shire Economic Forum, to bring together key public and private sector Future plans employers from across Aberdeen to highlight the It is envisaged that Aberdeen car club has a business benefits of the car club. secure foundation on which to facilitate future • Supported the development of closer links growth and expansion. between the car club and northern isles ferry

"Aberdeen City Council has been benefiting from corporate membership of the car club since its launch, but it's also great to see there is keen interest in this rapidly growing car club from both public and private sector employers from across the city." - Louise Napier, Senior Planner, Aberdeen City Council

Source: Co-Wheels

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Urban Car Clubs

Dundee: trialling the car club concept in the city of discovery Launch date: February 2012 (Trial) Operator: Co-wheels CIC No. of vehicles: 3 (centrally located off-street parking bays) No. of members: 66

Funders: The DCCS programme Structure: Not-for-profit Website: www.commonwheels.org.uk Background: No car club prior to DCCS.

Role of DCCS (2012)

Future plans

This trial project was made possible by the DCCS programme which provided vehicles, funded operational costs and a part-time development worker to support the implementation of the project and engagement with public and private sector employers across Dundee.

It is envisaged that, should the trial be deemed a success, Dundee City Council will develop a strategic plan to establish a permanent car club in the city. The Dundee car club trial is at an early stage of development and is likely to need further funding assistance from the DCCS programme to support growth in future years.

"When implementing the Council's new travel plan, having the additional option of car club membership has helped to ensure that Dundee City Council staff have easy access to a car when one is needed - and helped reduce the number of staff travelling to work by car." - John Berry, Sustainable Transport Team Leader, Dundee City Council

Source: Carplus

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Urban Car Clubs

Edinburgh: one of the UK's oldest and most successful car clubs Launch date: 2002 Operator: City Car Club No. of vehicles: 100 No. of members: over 5,000 Funders: Private finance with Council support for parking bays Structure: Commercial Future Plans It is envisaged that the DCCS programme can best support the car club in Edinburgh by identifying opportunities to support innovation such as trialling electric vehicles (EVs) in the car

Website: www.citycarclub.co.uk Background: Established in 2002 and run by City Car Club, the Edinburgh scheme was one of the first car clubs in the UK and offers extensive coverage across the city.

club fleets and supporting the expansion of the car clubs to neighbourging local authority areas such as East Lothian, Midlothian, West Lothian and Fife.

"Edinburgh's car club was the first of its kind in the UK. It has grown to provide excellent coverage across the city and forms an important part of the local transport network." - Phil Noble, Senior Professional Officer, City of Edinburgh Council

Glasgow: one of the UK's fastest growing car clubs Launch date: 2010 Operator: City Car Club No. of vehicles: 21 No. of members: over 700 Funders: Glasgow City Council Structure: Commercial Future plans It is envisaged that the DCCS programme can best support the car club in Glasgow by identifying opportunities to support innovation such as trialling electric vehicles (EVs) in the

Background: Launched in 2010 with financial assistance from Glasgow City Council, Glasgow car club is one of the UK's fastest growing schemes. It currently covers the west end of Glasgow and parts of the city centre. car club fleets, and providing support for the expansion of the car clubs to neighbouring local authority areas such as the Greater Glasgow and the Clyde Valley.

"Glasgow's car club has grown rapidly, providing a convenient and cost-effective alternative to owning a car and was even commended for its contribution to sustainable transport at the 2012 Scottish Transport Awards." Willis Warden, Assistant Group Manager, Glasgow City Council

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Urban Car Clubs

Dumfries: developing a car club in a mid-sized market town Launch date: November 2012 Operator: Co-wheels CIC No. of vehicles: 6 No. of members: N/a Funders: The DCCS programme Structure: Not-for-profit

Role of DCCS (2012-13) The programme will facilitate the development of the new car club by providing support for the recruitment and training of a parttime development worker. The development worker will support the roll-out of the project in Dumfries and identify opportunities for developing car clubs in other communities throughout Dumfries and Galloway. Future plans One of the aims of the DCCS programme is to foster interest in developing a car clubs in mid-sized market towns in Scotland. To this

Background: The DCCS programme is supporting Dumfries & Galloway Council in developing a new car club in Dumfries. The not-for-profit car club operator Commonwheels CIC successfully tendered to establish this new car club in 2012-13. end the programme will provide funding and technical assistance, as well as identify and work with a Scottish public sector fleet operator interested in making a number of its fleet vehicles available to kick start a car club trial project in 2012-13. The car club in Dumfries can provide an important case study for the development of car clubs in other mid-sized towns across Scotland. It is envisaged that this project will be launched in early 2013 with initial development work carried out in 2012. If justified by interest in the concept, Carplus will also identify similar projects that can be progressed in 2013-14.

"Through the DCCS programme Carplus was able to provide SWestrans and Dumfries & Galloway Council with invaluable technical assistance to facilitate the tendering for a new car club in Dumfries, as well as funding to help with project development and promotion." Eddie Glover, Policy and Projects Officer, The South West of Scotland Transport Partnership

Source: Carplus

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Rural Car Clubs

Rural Car Clubs In large parts of Scotland the car is often the only practical and convenient transport option. 95% of Scotland is rural in nature and 18% of Scotland’s population live in rural areas6 where access to essential services may be limited and where walking, cycling and public transport may not always be practical transport options. In car-dependent rural communities car clubs can provide a practical, cost-effective alternative to car ownership, recognising the need for access to a car whilst reducing overall car use. In order to support the development of car clubs in small towns and rural communities, the DCCS programme has provided funding and technical assistance to develop eight new community-run car clubs in Scotland since November 2010. The programme will continue to support community groups interested in exploring the feasibility of developing a car club and will fund the development of a tenth car club in 2012-13. Car clubs established in smaller, often more rural, communities through the DCCS programme are

typically developed by local community groups with some experience of delivering sustainable development projects and with the capacity to develop new projects. Community-run car clubs typically source insurance, back-office booking and billing functions, and sometimes in-car telematics, from existing not-for-profit car club operators due to the high cost of developing these independently.

The aim of the DCCS programme is to provide gap funding and technical assistance to enable the development of rural car clubs that will ultimately generate the revenue necessary to cover their day-to-day operational costs. However, additional funding is likely to be required to progress delivery of car club projects in 2013-14 as it is not expected that all the rural car clubs will achieve self-sufficiency within the first few years of operation.

Rural DCCS Project Outputs The development and launch of new community car clubs in small towns and rural communities across Scotland. Reducing transport costs by providing access to a car without the need to own one. Improving rural accessibility and reducing social exclusion by reducing reliance on private car ownership to access essential services. Tackling transport related CO2 emissions by reducing the number of vehicles on the road and overall vehicle mileage. Contributing to rural resilience by encouraging communities to work collectively to develop sustainable car club projects. Rural car clubs can make a modest contribution to the local economy by providing employment opportunities and making use of local services.

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FEET: a car club for a rural community with no regular public transport services Location Car club developments Fintry Energy Efficient Transport (FEET) is Established in 2011, FEET7 is a car club run by located in Fintry in Stirlingshire. Fintry is a small, Fintry Development Trust (FDT) with back office booking and billing functions provided by the comparatively remote, rural community with around 700 residents located just under 26km / not-for-profit car club co-operative Moorcar. The 16 miles from Stirling and around 26.5 km / 16.5 DCCS programme provided FEET with vehicles miles from the town of Milngavie. Fintry has not and marketing and operational costs. had a regular bus service for over Most FEET journeys are local and the average car club hire lasts around 3.3 20 years, and its hours and covers approximately 40 miles. There are also occasional hires only dedicated lasting several days and covering a large number of miles over those days. public transport service is a Demand Responsive Transport (DRT) taxi service. Car club usage A significant proportion of households in the FEET currently has around community therefore own one or more vehicle. 24 members and 2 cars. “Our Members use our vehicles for a wide range of reasons such as travelling for work, to visit friends and family, to attend medical appointments and for shopping; it would be very difficult to live in Fintry without access to a car. Many of our members rely on the car club and we know that 2 of our members sold their cars and 6 of our members avoided buying a car, or second car because of FEET.” - Kelly McIntyre, Project Manager, Fintry Development Trust

Findhorn Park Carpool: an informal community-based car club booking and billing system. The Carpool is funded Location by its members and his been supported with Findhorn Park Carpool is a car club based in technical assistance from the DCCS programme. Findhorn Ecovillage, a community founded on current thinking on sustainable The Findhorn Park Carpool benefits its members by human settlements and based at The saving them money compared to the cost of buying their Park, in Moray. own car, or by getting convenient access to a car that Car club developments they could not otherwise afford to use. Findhorn Park Carpool8 was established in 2007 by the New Findhorn Car club usage Association and, unlike then other rural car clubs Findhorn Park Carpool currently F i n dh orn Park Carpool in Scotland, has developed its own bespoke has 30 members and 6 vehicles. “The carpool is an example of how human beings can share resources in a way that benefits all and minimises it’s environmental impact by providing appropriate and affordable transport for its members.” - Gordon McAlpine, Manager, Findhorn Carpool

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Rural Car Clubs

WestWheels: a car club serving remote rural and island communities Club is a not-for-profit community-run Industrial Location Provident Society (IPS) with back office booking WestWheels is based in Mallaig in the Highlands and billing functions provided by the not-forof Scotland. Mallaig is a comparatively remote profit car club co-operative Moorcar. The DCCS rural community on the west coast of Scotland located around 68km / 42 miles from Fort William programme supported WestWheels by providing vehicles, marketing and operational costs and and 167km / 104 miles from Inverness. Mallaig funding for a part-time member of staff to manage serves as an important transport hub for ferry the car club. services linking neighbouring rural and island communities including the Knoydart WestWheels has unique patterns of vehicle use based around ferry arrival and departure times and longer hire durations and peninsular, the Small Isles, distances. The average car club hire tends to be for around 19 Morar, Arisaig and the Isle of hours and covers distances of around 100 miles. Skye.

Car club developments Initially set up as a trial in 2011 with the support of the Isle of Eigg Trust, Knoydart Foundation and Mallaig Harbour Board, WestWheels Car

Car club usage WestWheels currently has around 46 members and 2 vehicles located in Mallaig and 1 in Arisaig.

“Our car club serves a large number of island and mainland communities. By providing access to vehicles in Mallaig and Arisaig we enable our members to access education, employment and essential services in Fort William, Inverness and elsewhere without the need to own a car.” - Lucy Conway, Company Secretary, WestWheels Car Club IPS

Wheels4Creetown: a car club improving the resilience of a rural community Location profit car club co-operative Moorcar. Funding for Creetown is a rural community of 500 the scheme came from The Big Lottery Village households in Dumfries & Galloway that has SOS and The Rural Dumfries & Galloway Leader experienced a reduction in public transport Programme, with technical assistance from the provision and a decline in local services in recent DCCS programme. years. Wheels4Creetown provides an affordable alternative to owning a Car club developments car or second car and draws its members from across the community. Wheels4Creetown was Car club usage launched in June 2012 and is operated by Wheels 4 Wheels4Creetown currently Creetown Initiative Ltd. with back office booking Creetown has 2 vehicles and 9 members. and billing functions provided by the not-for“Wheels4Creetown is a fantastic scheme bringing mobility to every member of our community for as little as £1 per hour.” - Kevin Dodd, Wheels4Creetown Co-ordinator

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SpareWheels: Dunbar's transport club Location the local community, and operates as a franchise SpareWheels is based in Dunbar in East Lothian. of the not-for-profit car club operator Co-wheels. Dunbar is a small market town located on the The DCCS programme supported SpareWheels by east coast of Scotland around providing vehicles and marketing and operational costs. 47km / 29 miles from Edinburgh, SpareWheels vehicles tend to be booked from a day up to with good public transport links several days at a time. The average car club hire tends to be to Edinburgh and many other for around 14 hours and covers distances of around 90 miles. neighbouring communities. Car club developments Established in 2011 with the support of Sustaining Dunbar, SpareWheels car club9 is a Community Interest Company (CIC) run by volunteers for the benefit of its members and

Car club usage SpareWheels currently has around 38 members and 3 vehicles located in a number of prominent locations a c ro s s Dunbar.

"Dunbar is a comparatively self-contained community with lots of local businesses and it’s possible to live in Dunbar without needing to use a car every day. SpareWheels provides its members with access to a car without the need to own one and Dunbar’s comparatively small size also means that most local residents live within a 10-minute walk of a SpareWheels vehicle." - Keith Nicolson, Chair, SpareWheels CIC

WheelShare: a small rural car club and formalised ride-share scheme Location as a franchise of the not-for-profit operator WheelShare is based in Anstruther in Fife. Co-wheels. The DCCS programme supported Anstruther is a small town located 14km / 9 WheelShare by providing a vehicle and marketing miles south-southeast of St Andrews on the and operational costs. north-shore of the Firth of Forth. The WheelShare vehicle is used for a formalised ride-share scheme, licenced with a Section 19 Permit, helping members commute beCar club developments tween Anstruther, St Andrews and Dundee during the working week. Established in 2011 by residents of Anstruther and Cellardyke, Car club usage 10 WheelShare car club is a Community Interest WheelShare currently has around 10 WheelShare.org Company (CIC) run by volunteers and operates members and 1 vehicle in Anstruther. "WheelShare provides a a car club and organised ride-share where there is no convenient public transport alternative so its members can commute to and from work together and share the cost of travel rather than driving alone." - Alistair Macleod, Board Member, Wheelshare (East Fife Carshare Ltd.)

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Rural Car Clubs

LEAP Car Club: reducing dependency on private car ownership in a rural setting Location Club by providing vehicles and marketing and LEAP Car Club is based in Lochwinnoch in operational costs. Renfrewshire. Lochwinnoch is a small village located in the west LEAP Car Club is a new scheme in the process of becoming central Lowlands of Scotland, established as a successful car club. The average car club 30km / 18 miles from Glasgow. hire tends to be for around 20 hours and covers distances of around 99 miles. Car club developments

LEAP Car Club11 was established in the spring of 2012 and is delivered by the Local Energy Action Plan (LEAP) a community led charitable organisation, with back office booking and billing functions provided by the not-for-profit car club co-operative Moorcar. The DCCS programme supported LEAP Car

Car club usage LEAP Car Club currently has around 27 members and 2 vehicles located in Lochwinnoch and 1 in the neighbouring community of Kilbarchan.

“LEAP Car Club reduces dependency on private car ownership by offering residents of Lochwinnoch and Kilbarchan a convenient and reliable alternative to owning a car or second car, and helps them save money and reduce energy consumption.” - Carol Gemmell, Project Manager, Local Energy Action Plan

Mearns Commonwheels: a car club supporting rural mobility Location Mearns Commonwheels by providing vehicles, Mearns Commonwheels is a car club based in marketing and operational costs. Laurencekirk and Inverbervie in Aberdeenshire. Laurencekirk and Inverbervie are small towns located in Mearns Commonwheels is a new scheme in the process of becoming the Mearns area of north established as a successful car club. The average car club hire tends to east Scotland. be for around 24 hours and covers distances of around 57 miles. Car club developments Mearns Commonwheels12 was established in the spring of 2012 by Mearns Area Partnership (MAP), a partnership of statutory, voluntary and community organisations and operates as a franchise of the not-for-profit car club operator Co-wheels. The DCCS programme supported

Car club usage Mearns Commonwheels currently has around 14 members and 2 vehicles located in Laurencekirk and 1 in the neighbouring community of Inverbervie.

“Our car club supports rural mobility and by having cars in both Laurencekirk and Inverbervie it offers residents across the Mearns the ability to reduce transport costs by providing a cost effective alternative to owning a car or second car.” - Suzie Brown, Chairperson, Mearns Area Partnership

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Car Bute: a car club for an island community Location not-for-profit car club co-operative Moorcar. Car Bute is located on the Isle of Bute in Argyle The DCCS programme supported Car Bute by and Bute. The Isle of Bute is located in the Firth providing vehicles, marketing and operational of Clyde off the west coast of Scotland, which costs and funding for a part-time member of is connected with the Scottish mainland by two staff to manage the car club. ferries operating between Rothesay and Wemyss Car Bute vehicles are mostly hired for journeys on and around Bay, and Rhubodach and Bute, but there are also occasional off-island journeys. The average Colintraive on the Cowal car club hire lasts just over 7.5 hours and covers around 51 miles. peninsula. Car club developments Established in 2011 with the support of Towards Zero Carbon Bute (TZCB), Bute Community Links (BCL) and Fyne Futures, Car Bute13 is a community-run car club with back office booking and billing functions provided by the

Car club usage Car Bute currently has around 53 members and 2 vehicles located in Rothesay on the Isle of Bute and 1 in Wemyss Bay on the mainland.

"Our members include residents and frequent visitors to the island who find the car club a convenient and cost-effective alternative to owning a car. Business users and tourists also use our vehicles rather than bringing their own cars on to the island. As the first island-based car club in the UK, I think we provide a great example of how reduce car ownership and dependency in island communities." - Reeni KennedyBoyle, Project Manager, Fyne Futures

Source: Carplus

Source: Morag Haddow

Source: Carplus

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The Future of the DCCS Programme As this programme review has demonstrated, funding from Transport Scotland has enabled the DCCS programme to provide financial and technical assistance to expand the car club network across Scotland, in terms of members, vehicles and locations. Through its development of innovative and cost-effective car clubs, the DCCS programme has contributed to Transport Scotland's aims to achieve energy efficiency and carbon reduction in transport.

The next two years of the DCCS programme will see the focus shift from developing new clubs to growing the membership, vehicle utilisation and geographical coverage of the existing rural and urban car clubs and those formed in the first two years of the programme. The programme will also support the development of an additional new car club in mid-sized Scottish town and fund a peerto-peer car club trial in one of Scotland's cities.

The focus of the DCCS programme over the next 2 years: • Support the continued development of existing urban and rural car clubs across Scotland by providing financial and technical assistance through the DCCS programme to encourage growth in membership, vehicle utilisation and geographical coverage. • Identify opportunities to support car club growth by subsidising trial car club membership for both private members and public and private sector employers. • Identify opportunities to increase integration between car clubs and public

transport in Scotland, if possible including trialling joint ticketing between a car club and a transport operator. • Develop a new car club in a mid-sized town in Scotland without relying on a public sector fleet operator to provide the necessary car club vehicles. • Develop a peer-to-peer car club trial in one of Scotland's cities which does not already have a car club (e.g. Inverness, Perth or Stirling).

Peer-to-Peer (or neighbour-to-neighbour) Car Clubs This type of car club serves as a broker between those who wish to rent a car and car owners who wish rent out their cars. Vehicles are owned privately by members of the public and are collected and returned to the car owner after use. The peer-to-peer car club arranges insurance for both drivers and vehicle owners and facilitates the market by providing an online booking and billing system, checking driver records, handling transactions, etc. with revenue coming from a percentage of each rental. Those wishing to rent a car find available cars on the system’s website and rental requests are passed to the car’s owner for approval. Both renters and owners rate each other and these ratings can be seen by other users and help to determine interaction in the future.

22 Developing Car Clubs in Scotland


Further Information For more information on car clubs, the DCCS programme and Carplus, visit the Carplus website: www.carplus.org.uk.

Develop a car club in your area If you would like to find out more about developing a car club in your area of Scotland, or wish to contact someone about any other aspect of the DCCS programme, please contact Matthew Eastwood. Matthew Eastwood Car Club Development Officer (Scotland) Telephone: 07572 464 753 / 0131 243 2734 Email: matt@carplus.org.uk Carplus, Thorn House, 5 Rose Street, Edinburgh EH2 2PR

Endnotes: 1. The programme received grant funding from Transport Scotland of £200,000 in 2010/11, £350,000 in 2011/12 and £300,000 in 2012/13. 2. All data from the Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2011/2012, unless otherwise stated. These findings are corroborated by numerous international studies which show that, averaged across all members, reductions in car ownership and vehicle mileage and/or increases in walking cycling and public transport use do result from car club membership. For further details see p.11-12, Accessing Cars: Insights from International Experience, RAC Foundation, December 2011. 3. RAC Cost of Motoring Index, RAC 2011: http://media.rac.co.uk/pdf/rac-cost-of-motoring-index-2011. pdf. 4. Calculated based on direct emissions from combustion of fuel based on estimated distance travelled using UK DEFRA/DECC average emission factors and data for company reporting, October 2012. 5. This figure is based on car clubs supported by the DCCS programme having added approximately 600 car club members to the Scottish car club network, since November 2010, and the results of the Annual Survey 2011/2012 – Scotland, in which 33% of survey respondents reported that they got rid of a vehicle as a result of joining a car club. At the time of publication Carplus had confirmation of 41 separate examples of where Scottish car club members reported they disposed of a car, or would have otherwise have bought a car, if they had not joined a car club. 6. Figures from Scottish Government website: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/farmingrural/Rural, accessed April 2012. 7. For further information see the FDT website: http://www.fintrydt.org.uk/ 8. For further information see the Carpool website: http://carpool.findhorn.cc/ 9. For further information see the SpareWheels website: http://sparewheels.org.uk/ 10. For further information see the WheelShare website: http://wheelshare.org.uk/ 11. For further information see the LEAP website: www.lochwinnoch.info/community/leap/car-club. 12. For further information see the Mearns website: http://mearnsareapartnership.org.uk/ 13 . For further information see the Car Bute website: http://www.carbute.org.uk/ Programme Review Review 2010-2012 2010-2012 Programme

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Developing Car Clubs in Scotland Programme Review 2010 - 2012 This document provides a review of the first two years of the Transport Scotland funded programme Developing Car Clubs in Scotland (DCCS). The review outlines the progress made in achieving energy efficiency and carbon reduction in transport with innovative and cost-effective car clubs. It highlights how the programme has expanded the car club network across Scotland by providing financial and technical assistance to support the development of new car clubs, and by doing so, has added 35 additional vehicles and 600 additional members to the network.

Carplus is a not-for-profit, environmental transport NGO that promotes accessible, affordable and low-carbon alternatives to traditional car use in the UK. Carplus is leading the way towards a new era of shared car ownership and use, and works with others to explore ways to capture the benefits of new technology and support behavioural change.

www.carplus.org.uk www.udo-carsharing.eu

This report was prepared by Matthew Eastwood and Amy Clancy, with the help of the Carplus teams in Edinburgh and Leeds, and staff and volunteer board members of the car clubs featured. Printed by Colour Copy on recycled paper. Designed by B. Russell. Š Carplus Trust 2012 Carplus Trust is a Company Limited by Guarantee (No. 4429814), and a Charity (No.1093980) registered in England and Wales at Leeds Bridge House, Hunslet Road, Leeds, LS10 1JN, England.


DCCS Programme Review 2010-12