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PORT FOLIO CAROLINE


CAROLINE

A 57 Changi South Avenue 1, Singapore, 485998 T +65 87818107 E caroline@mymail.sutd.edu.sg EDUCATION 2014 - present

Singapore University of Technology and Design Bachelor of Science in Architecture

May - September 2015

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Global Leadership Programme

2014

Anglo-Chinese Junior College GCSE A Level

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE February 2017 - present

Student Researcher Singapore University of Technology and Design

September - December 2016

Teaching Assistant Architecture Core Studio Term 4 in SUTD

September 2016 Czarl Architects Part-time employee May - August 2016 CPG Consultants Pte Ltd Architectural Intern


RESUME

ACHIEVEMENT AND AWARDS March 2017

Keppel Awards of Excelence 2017 Top Student in Architecture and Sustainable Design, Junior Year 2017

March 2017

ASD Core Design Award 2017 Singapore University of Technology and Design

2016-2017

SUTD Honours List Sophomore and Junior Terms

February - March 2017

Student Researcher in iLight 2017 Installation of Kaleidoscope Monolith - iLight

March 2016

Student Team in vMESH Pavilion Research Project Singapore University of Technology and Design

September - December 2015

Student Assistant in Lighting Materials in Architecture Research Undergraduate Research Programme in SUTD

2009-2017

ASEAN Scholarship Ministry of Education, Singapore

SKILLS Rhinoceros Grasshopper AutoCAD, Revit Karamba Python, C# Kangaroo

Adobe Suites (Photoshop, Illustrator, Indesign) Vray SketchUp DIVA+ArchiSim DesignBuilder

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CO N T E N T ACADEMICS

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WINDING HILL

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MAZE

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LENS

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RE-FIBER

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KALEIDOSCOPE MONOLITH

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CABLE CHAIR

Core Studio 3

Core Studio 1

Core Studio 2

Advanced Material Computation

i Light 2017

Architectural Structure and Enclosure Design

COMPETITION COMPETITION ENSO CEMETERIAL MONUMENT

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LIGHT BRIDGE

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Tokyo Vertical Cemetery Competition 2016

KMSPKS Design Competition 2016

ESSAY

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MADRID ATOCHA STATION Paradigms of Adaptation


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WINDING HILL

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01 WINDING HILL

Urban Living in Bukit Batok Individual Project Instructor: Oliver Heckmann Course: Core Studio/ Term 6

The project brief calls for a design of a social housing units that form a reaction to the urban condition in the Bukit Batok area. Located in the uneven topography, this project aims to seek relation to its surounding environment. The hill condition of the site allows a type of massing that can respond organically to the terrain; hence, the shape of the massing resembles a band of ribbon that weaves around the topography. This ribbon is then being molded more by the intention to create multiple connections to the surroundings. This gesture creates a series of open courtyards and private backyards that can also shape the daily activities of the inhabitants. Zooming in, the unit also has the concept of inner wall that tries to emulate the continuity of the massing. Every unit has two inner walls that not only act as the spine of the entire building, they also create zoning inside each units. Furthermore, since the distance of these walls vary as they span the building, they create different types and functions inside the building.


Low - r i s e Hig h D en sit y Hab it at io n Co n cep t In t he U rb an Hill

CIR CULATIO N O UTD O O R IN D O O R

Circulation network

PRO GRA MMES

OUTDOOR INDOOR

EDU CAT ION F&B TRAN S P ORT O FFI CE S RETAI LS H EALTHCA R E

P R O GR AM M ES ED UCATIO N F &B TR AN S P O RT O F F ICES R ETAILS HEALTHCAR E

CIRCULATION OUTD OOR IND OOR

Low-rise typology

SOL A R R A DI AT I ON STUDY

SHAD OW ANALYSIS

LO W- R IS E TY P O LO GY

PROGRA M M E S ED UCATION F&B TRA NSPORT OF F ICES RETA ILS HEA LTHCA RE

BUKIT BATOK UR B A N H O USI NG U RBA N A NA LY SIS 1: 2000

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Low - ri s e H i g h D en s i t y H ab i t at i o n Co n c e p t SOLAR RAD IATION STU DY I n t he U r b an H i l l

LO W-RI S E T YPOLOGY

LOW-RISE TY PO LO GY

U RBA N A NA LYS IS 1 :2000

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W I ND FLOW ST UDY

W IND FLOW STU DY CIRCU LATION SY STEMS

C I RC U L AT I O N O U T DO O R I N DO O R

S H A DO W A N A LY S I S CON C EPT

STA RT BY ENTW I N I N G T H E TOPOGR A PH Y

Program network

P RO G RAM M E S

C IRCU LATION ACCESS

M ASSING

E DU CAT I O N F&B T RAN S P O RT OFFICES RE TAI L S H E ALT H CARE

S O L A R R A DI AT I O N ST UDY

Green areas


WINDING HILL

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The shape of the massing resembles a band of ribbon that weaves around the topography.

This ribbon is then being molded more to create multiple connections to the surroundings.

Varying the skyline of the massing for different programs and views

The result is the creation of inner and outer courtyard connected to the entrance of the landscape 0

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ENTWINING THE TOPOGRAPHY

RE TAIL S HE ALTH CA R E E DUCATION F &B T RANSPORT Residential Commercial Communal

ADJUSTING THE HEIGHT BASED ON TOPOGRAPHICAL UNDULATION

BREAKING UP THE MASS TO REACT TO THE SITE

MODU IN RE

RESIDENTIAL UNITS TWO - BEDROOM UNIT

COMMERCIAL UNITS COMMUNAL SPACES

CIRCULATION SYSTEMS

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RESIDENTIAL UNITS COMMERCIAL UNITS COMMUNAL SPACES

RETAI L S H EALTH CARE EDUCATI ON F& B TRANS PO RT

CIRCULATION SYSTEMS

PROGRAMMATIC RELATIONS

Programmatic relations

ENTWINING THE TOPOGRAPHY

Agglomeration of units,

BREAKING UP THE MASS TO REACT TO THE SITE

ADJUSTING THE HEIGHT BASED ON TOPOGRAPHICAL UNDULATION

MODULATING THE TOPOGRAPHY IN RELATION TO THE URBAN MASSING

TWO INNER WALLS AS THE SPINE OF THE BUILDING LOAD BEARING COLUMNS ON THE PERIMETER

RESIDENTIAL UNITS COMMERCIAL UNITS COMMUNAL SPACES

RETAILS H EALTH CAR EDUCATIO NE F&B TRANSPORT LOAD-BEARING SYSTEM

CIRCULATION SYSTEMS

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Load-bearing system

Private units Communal units

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WINDING HILL

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Unrolled section


WALL CATALOGUE

wall

opening

cabinet

kitchenette

table

desk

piano

laundry

sofa

toilet

stairs

bathroom

stairs

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FUNCTIONS EMBEDDED IN THE CORE WALLS

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ADJUSTING THE HEIGHT BASED ON TOPOGRAPHICAL UNDULATION

MODULATING THE TOPOGRAPHY IN RELATION TO THE URBAN MASSING


WINDING HILL

Three-bedroom unit

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THIS PAGE Floor plans of typical units OPPOSITE PAGE Catalogue of inner walls

One-bedroom unit

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THIS PAGE Photographs of 1:200 model OPPOSITE PAGE Photograph of 1:500 massing model


WINDING HILL

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MAZE

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02 MAZE

DManD Research Center Individual Project Instructor: Carlos Banon Course: Core Studio/ Term 4

The idea of a digital manufacturing lab evokes the need to create a creative environment. This project intends to evoke curiosity of the visitors on what is hidden underneath the buildings. The design incorporates two parts; one where people could roam around on the ground and have a glimpse of what was underneath throughout the labyrinth made of simple small buildings, and another where they are seamlessly connected underneath. Different orientation of these buildings also enables different natural light condition underneath throughout the day.


EXTRUDE Based on the area

requirement CONTINUOUS PROGRAMS Continuous labyrinth of programs

EXTRUDE EXTRUDE EXTRUDE BasedBased onthe theon area the area Based on area requirement requirement requirement

EXPAND AND CONTRACT Free circulation on the ground, continuous circulation underground

CUT

introduce different CHANGE INTo ELEVATION sun exposure Gradual change of the elevation on the ground to allow different light CUT CUT CUT Tointroduce introduce To introduce different different To different exposure throughout the day

sunexposure exposure sun exposure sun

DIFFERENT TIME ZONE Different light condition during the day

REVERSE

Bring the upper level down UNDERGROUND to underground level Bringing the programs all underground to create meeting space REVERSE REVERSE REVERSE Bring Bring theupper upper the upper level down level down Bring the level down on the ground floor

tounderground underground to underground level level to level

SKEWING Changing the roof height to allow different reception of sunlight

FLATTEN

Flatten the underground level UNDERGROUND for practicality in the program The underground is flattened for practical purpose FLATTEN FLATTEN FLATTEN

FlattenFlatten theunderground underground the underground level level Flatten the level forpracticality practicality for practicality inthe theprogram in program the program for in

GRADUAL PROGRESSION Of brightness, height of room, and sunlight received on the day


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MAZE

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EXTRUDE Based on the area EXTRUDE requirement Based on the area EXTRUDE requirement Based on the area requirement

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REVERSE Bring the upper level dow REVERSE to underground level Bring the upper level dow REVERSE to underground level Bring the upper level dow to underground level

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AXONOMETRIC 1:150


THIS PAGE Plans of ground and underground floors OPPOSITE PAGE Elevation and section

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Exhibition Production EXHIBITION PRODUCTION Assembly ASSEMBLY Storage STORAGE Discussion 1 DISCUSSION 1 Discussion DISCUSSION22 WORKspace SPACE Work

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03 LENS SUTDx Campus Extension Individual Project Instructor: Christine Yogiaman Course: Core Studio/ Term 5

This project asks for the design of a satellite SUTD campus building in the intersection of Bras Basah, Prinsep, Orchard and Handy Road; housing flexible space for public events, recruitment efforts, providing basic classrooms/learning spaces, lecture theatres, exhibition spaces, cafe and administrative offices. The building is a response to the linearity of the pedestrian walk along the site. It intends to create a space that progresses together with the pedestrians. It involves the play of lenses throughout the building, to create the changing illusion of the interior of the building, and even beyond the building; outwards and inwards. The building acts like a lens that may amplify programs inside (by making objects look closer) or reduce its significance (by making objects seem further). As pedestrians walk along the edge of the building, they are exposed to the changing spectacle of the activities.

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Convex lens matrix

Concave lens matrix

Studies done on different lenses to show how they affect the immediate surrounding from inside and outside the building.

Lines of view across site


LENS

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THIS PAGE Views from outside and inide building


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LENS

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RE-FIBER

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04 RE-FIBER Beam Reinforcement Optimisation Group Project Instructor: Sawako Kaijima Course: Advanced Material Computation/ Term 7

Based on the studies on rebar and carbon reinforcement in concrete, there is a potential to redesign rebar geometry in a beam to optimise its tensional performance down to the path and direction where tensional force travels. 2D typology optimisation is used as a main method to analyse the stress lines. This study also seeks to explore the new way of fabrication in the use of particles in the reinforcement method. The way suggested is to use magnetic field to redirect and redistribute the magnetic particles to achieve the intended stress lines generated and analysed on the first part of the study.


PROBLEM STATEMENT WASTAGE ISSUE There is an extensive amount of rebars utilised in the construction industry today. There is therefore a need to mitigate this wastage by optimising the rebar reinforcements.

PRECEDENT STUDIES CONCRETE REINFORCEMENTS Reinforcements counter the relatively low tensile strength in concrete. Tthe reinforcements generally are layered at the bottom of the beam where tension forces are high. This will reduce the crack lines formed.

Compression (concrete) Neutral axis

Reinforced concrete are composite material composing of high tensile steel rebar embedded in concrete to counteract concrete low tensile strength. Steel rebars are placed in regions of concrete with high tension to resist tension and prevent structure failure or cracking.

Crack pattern in concrete under load, with no reinforcement

Tension (concrete) Reinforcing steel

Crack pattern in concrete under load, with steel reinforcement

CARBON FIBER REINFORCEMENT CONCRETE Carbon fibers are typically 10 Âľm in diameter when added into concrete. It is uniformly distributed and randomly oriented. Carbon fibers also have low coefficient of thermal expansion, hence would be suitable as a fiber composite used as reinforcements for concrete.

3D TOPOLOGY OPTIMISATION FOR COMPRESSION AND TENSION Topology optimization has as a means of automating the development of minimum strain energy strut-and-tie reinforced concrete model, which can lead to improved structural behavior. (a) Design domain

(b) Optimized model using linear elastic continuum elements only

(d) Optimized model using hybrid topology optimization

(e) Cutaway view of hybrid solution

(c) Optimized model using linear elastic truss elements only

(f) Details of reinforcement at the top of (e)

Figure 16: Topology optimizaed solutions: (a) concrete block design example; (b) and (c) traditional; solutions indicate only compressive load paths; (d)-(f) the hybrid model correctly indicates the presence of tensile stresses as a result of load spreading as indicated by the placement of the steel

References: http://www.concrete.org.uk/fingertips-nuggets.asp?cmd=display&id=648 Yang Yang, S.M.ASCE1; Cristopher D. Moen, M.ASCE2; and James K. Guest, A.M.ASCE3


RE-FIBER

CONCEPT GENERATION Based on the studies that have been studied, there is a poterntial to redesign rebar geometry in a beam to optimise its tensional performance down to the path and direction where tensional force travels.

Original rebar grid layout

Iron fillings and magnetic field lines

IRON FILINGS ORIENTATING ITSELF IN THE DIRECTION OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD LINES Carbon fiber is a resistant-magnetic material but can be coated with Fe coating via the solgel process. This would introduce magnetic properties in the fibers. By using the magnetic properties of these fibers, the fibers would be able to orient themselves in the direction of the magnetic field. This would greatly optimise the carbon fibers in the direction of the stress lines of the beam.

Optimized layout

Stress lines experienced by a concrete beam

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DESIGN APPROACH Running topology optimisation with various support conditions will give us stress lines that is experienced by the beam. As reinforcement needs to cater for only tensional lines, simple FEM analysis is run to get an idea about the regions where it undergoes tension and compression. After the tensional region is identified, lines undergoes compression are then removed, and the tensional stress lines are optimised with a treshold of only those that are undergoing more stress.

CLASSIFICATION OF EXPLORATION After exploration of the effect of location of supports on the beam, we classify them into libraries. The way of classification is according to the number of set of magnets. All stress line with similar gradient will be considered the same and requires one set of magnets. One set of magnets will require two magnets, two set will require three, three set will require four. For efficient fabrication, results from the least set of lines is selected so that less magnets are used during fabrication.


RE-FIBER

FABRICATION PROCESS

01. Setting template for iron filings

05. Pouring in a 4mm layer of resin

02. Filling in the iron filings into the template

06. Let it cure for approximately 30 minutes

03. Arranging magnets on two sides of mold based on the

07. Continue the same steps for subsequent layers

04. Directing iron filings with a point magnet to give a

08. Cast beam

general pattern of the tensile stress line

general direction

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PROTOTYPE

THIS PAGE - TOP 1:10 Prototype of simply-supported beam THIS PAGE - BOTTOM 1:10 Prototype of cantilever beam


RE-FIBER

PROTOTYPE

THIS PAGE - TOP 1:5 Prototype of simply-supported beam THIS PAGE - BOTTOM 1:5 Prototype of cantilever beam

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KALEDOISCOPE MONOLITH

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05 Kaleidoscope Monolith i Light Marina Bay 2017 Design Lead: Kenneth Tracy, Christine Yogiaman, Suranga Nanayakkara

Kaleidoscopic Monolith incites curiosity from spectators through light, reflection and form. Contradictory strategies are used to enhance the complex presence of the object. At a distance it is perceived as a single convex form which subtly changes profile from different angles of approach. On closer inspection its rippling surface contains a pattern of concavities. Filled with kaleidoscopic reflections these voids distort, repeat and reorient the context. Light projected from the centre of each dimple surrounds the piece in an ambient, glowing pool and illuminates onlookers whose own reflections become part of the spectacle. Spiralling, radial geometry and faceted, reflective surfaces evoke the cylindrical kaleidoscope toys the piece is inspired from. Like the colourful patterns created by the toy, the installation resists a singular meaning and instead provokes participants to discover their own allusions through interactive play.


time 01 light ON

time 02 light OFF

time 03 light ON

PLAN VIEW___SCALE 1:20

When noone within zone of interaction, object pulsates at a base intensity

PLAN VIEW___SCALE 1:20

time 01 light ON

time 02 light OFF

time 03 light ON

When approached within zone of interaction, object’s pulsation increase in intensity SIDE VIEW___SCALE 1:20 SIDE VIEW___SCALE 1:20

Within the zone, object pulsation continues to increase in intensity

THIS PAGE - TOP Plan 1:50 THIS PAGE - BOTTOM Elevation 1:50

Within the closest zone around the object, the object retains its maximum intensity


KALEIDOSCOPE MONOLITH

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The toy kaleidoscope inspired the physical and experiential parts of the installation, how it made various complex optical illusion through reflection and refraction of simple elements.


Made of an ultrathin, 0.1mm piece of aluminium-coated polyester film supported on a recycled and recyclable aluminium frame, with sensors that control the array of LED lights.

ASSEMBLY


KALEIDOSCOPE MONOLITH

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CABLE CHAIR

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06 CABLE CHAIR Group Project Instructor: Sam Conrad Joyce Course: Architectural Structure and Enclosure Design/ Term 5

The concept of the design is to create a chair that can be placed in public spaces, which not only does it serve as a chair, but an installation too. The chair consists of a network of cables inside a simple square frame. In the heart of the frame, a transparent plastic seat is located. Thus, it looks just like a network of cables and frame from afar that serves as an installation, and when one moves closer and closer, he will be able to find the seat hidden inside.


The chair is made of a transparent plastic seat, a network of pretension cables, and steel frame. The pretension cables are connected to both the seat and the frame and act to provide compression and tension forces. Force on each cable is analysed and used in favour to create a balanced seat that can hold a load.


CABLE CHAIR

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2.00

Steel frame

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Based on our Karamba analysis, we shifted the cables design for a more w design while keeping to our design intention.This help to distribute the forces more evenly and make the chair design more structurally stable

Pretension steel cables

Acrylic seat

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A. UTILISATION Most of the cables had more compressive forces (red and yellow represent compressive forces). However, cables attached to the four corners of the seat had tensile forces. The seat frame beam has points where there is excessive tensile forces (in green) which is possibly due to many pretension cables attached. Forces on the cables are relatively low and welldistributed which does not damage the structure.

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B-C. BENDING MOMENTS Bending moment on the frame is pushing from multiple axis. The most significant bending moment would be along the x-direction (B), where the vertical elements of the outer frame is suspectible to lateral forces which might cause it to bend sideways and topple. Bending moments in the y-direction (C) represents the horizontal deformation which has a larger effect on two opposite corners of the frame. A diagonal element across the two corners could be required to counter the bending moment. Bending moments are buckling inwards - this is due to the pretension cables.

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D-E. LOADING ANALYSIS The three types of load considered for our model using Karamba are: Gravity, Pretension in the cables (D), and Mesh loads from the seat to simulate a person sitting on the chair (E). F. REACTION FORCES With regards to the reaction forces at the supports, there are upward forces that represent the tendency for the structure to lift from the ground. The upwards reaction force also implies that the load force is successfully transferred to ground. D

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ENSO CEMETERIAL MONUMENT

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ROOF TOP GARDEN Includes commercial attractions intended to siphon off patrons (non columbarium visitors) from ground level

GLASS PODS An externalized staircase that leads up or down. It is through this act of traversing that the visitor is caught by a moment of liminal experience as he stood at the threshold of the glass landing, comtemplating his very own mortality.

CRYING ROOM A catharsis that is necessary for the healing of the individual . The room is lit minimally and surrounded by sounds of water trickling down the periphery of the space so as to drown out the crying of the solitary mourner.

TRANSITIONAL FLOOR Affords patrons a serendipitous encounter of cemeterial space while a mandatory descent between the 2 terraced parks to contemplate

COLUMBARIUM SPACE The columbariums are spaced out into smaller enso volumes to create a semi-private experience of mourning for visitors and still retain its efficiency.

07 Enso Cemeterial Monument Tokyo Vertical Cemetery Competition 2016 Competition Project Partner: Czarl Architects, Bryan Lim Wei Guo, Ryan Chee Wei Shen

A Monument for the Living, the  Dead and In Between In this project, we attempt to negotiate the liminality of cemeterial spaces and the transcendence of monumentality in architecture. Cemetery and Monuments are different architectural typologies which are intrinsically similar, built for remembrance of the past. The imperfect circle of life and death is often punctuated by liminal experiences. The Japanese incomplete enso describes these liminal moments of perfecting life imperfections. This forms the basis of the project's spatial/volumetric generator and create a platform to explore potential meaningful experiences of the liminality of cemeterial spatial units which can collectively grow into a monument.


Permutations of Incomplete Enso Modular Volumes The basic circular volumes are distributed to form 3 different zones which are connected to a central lift core foyer which stops at 3 floor intervals. The Enso volumes may house columbarium of various sizes, crying rooms, memorial room, administrative functions while the absence of a circular volume gives rise to a quiet garden space for contemplation. The primary composition of the Enso volumes are kept intentionally identical for every floor except for the incidental omissions or redistribution of volumes that allows for potentially infinite variations and permutations of spaces between from floor to floor. Legend Columbarium Garden Deck Miscellaneous

Example A

Example B

Example C

THIS PAGE Section of transitional floors


ENSO CEMETERIAL MONUMENT

Programmatic Intervention Considering the economics & social context of the site by way of introducing entertainment and touristic program at the roof levels. The revenue generated power from the commercial quantum will systematically feed the growth of more Enso columbarium.

Essemble of Modular Enso Capsules The design is made up of many modular Enso volumes which opens inwards. It is only broken at points which allows for pockets green spaces or liminal space of glass landings of stairs

Site Relations The structure is monolithic yet porous. The intended Monument will draw in the dizzying lights and endless cacophony of the streets of Shinjuku and drowning out all sensory bombardments with its gravely silent monumental presence.

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Roof top garden

Transitional floot (Level 30)


ENSO CEMETERIAL MONUMENT

Transitional floot (Level 29 and 28)

Standard Columbarium Plan)

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LIGHT BRIDGE

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08 Light Bridge Competition KMSPKS Design Competition 2016 Project Partner: Cheryl Lim Jia Li

This competition calls for a lightweight canopy to replace the existing tents at the open court fronting the Hall of Great Compassion, of which is to provide adequate shelter, ventilation and comfort for users in tropical weather. The Hall of Great Compassion is a place of worship where devotees gather to practise their faith. We recognise this sacred connection between the Guanyin Bodhisattva and the devotees, and our intent was to introduce an intervention that can intensify this connection. It was important to us that the canopy is a simple extension and not overpowering. Rather, a complementary follower of the Great Hall.


The design is rid of excessive ornamentation and is intended to intensify the focus on the Guanyin Bodhisattva and the Hall through its simplicity. Our design uses natural light to vitalise the passage. The gradual sloping path guides users on the journey towards Guanyin Bodhisattva, their faith and to Nirvana. Ultimately, it is to let users experience a build-up of divine connection, to a journey and design that is the Guanyin Bodhisattva.


LIGHT BRIDGE

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TRELLIS

The diaphanous canvas roof that can be perched to the main structure and is used to offer a bigger shelter area during peak seasons.

A strip of rainbow light on the roof that acts as a guiding light for the devotees as they journey towards the Guanyin. It is done with the use of painted reflector on the roof. When lights hit the reflector, it reflects the colour of the painted reflector, projecting the reflection along the canopy.

Trellis serves not only to soften the hardscape of the temple but also adds life and a nurturing foundation to the design. It also conceals the storage space underneath the platform. A sense of participative design is cultivated as devotees are free to place their flower offering to the trellis, encouraging a sense of conservation as they give-back to nature.

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09 Madrid Atocha Station Individual Essay Instructor: Calvin Chua Course: Paradigms of Adaptation/ Term 7

Does the expansion of Atocha Station act as an urban catalyst as it is expected to?

The most immediate change associated with the arrival of the high-speed railway service is the revolution in mobility. The new accessibility and mobility facilitated by the high-speed railway services can generate new social and economic dynamics, which can produce physical changes in the form of clearly appreciable spatial modifications: in urbanisations; in the arrangement and dynamics of activities; and finally, in the organisation and structure of the city or territory (JosĂŠ M. de UreĂąa, 2016).


In the effort to redesign Madrid’s transportation nodes, Rafael Moneo was hired by the government agencies to restore and extend Atocha Station in Madrid. It was seen as a means to increase connectivity within the country and with surrounding countries, as the extension of the station would allow the implementation of integrated high-speed rail system, which could offer faster and more extensive connectivity throughout the region. This in turn, would boost the country’s economy through the influx of tourists, business relations, and other professional works in and around Madrid city. The restoration of Atocha Station can be considered a significant project that will affect the dynamic of the city as it is located in the heart of the dense urban fabric of the city, where most of urban activities are based on. This essay aims to analyse the impact that the restoration project has brought into the urban fabric of the city by looking at the architectural features of the project. It aims to analyse whether it has improved connectivity both on large and small scale of the urban fabric through the intervention done by the architect. On the small scale of the urban fabric, the project will be analysed based on its influence on the passenger connectivity within the station itself, while on a larger scale, it is on the effect it has brought to the organisation and traffic circulation of the city. To begin with, Moneo’s approach in the adaptive reuse of the project shows a fragmented composition within the old and new parts of the station. In terms of the scope of the project, it includes the conversion of the former station building into a lobby and greenhouse with tropical plants. To create a new space for medium- and long-distance trains, while accommodating new tracks for the Madrid-Seville high-speed line, Moneo built a new hypostyle hall as an extension to the former station. A car park was also built, together with a local train station with connections to the city’s underground. The development of the extension of the station is meant to create a more seamless transport infrastructures in the city, where the station acts as a hub for all different nodes of land transportation, namely the rapid train system, local train system, local bus network, public and private cars, and pedestrians. On a closer look, there is a close relationship between the fragmented composition and appearance of the station and its distinct programs and functions. This forms the basis of the discussion in this essay, whether the architectural and structural features of the fragmented composition has played a part in changing the fabric of the condition within and outside the station. On a smaller scale within the station, it is apparent that the flow of the passengers is influenced by the distinct spaces created through the different features of the architecture and structures. This fragmentation of the station has resulted in a clear division of the arrival and departure halls, comparable

to the systems developed in airports throughout the world. Consequently, it helps to streamline passengers and reduce confusion in terms of way-finding. As seen on the diagrams below, distinct structural systems create distinct spaces in the station with different nature and function. In this case study, there is a clear, almost abrupt transition from the old station to the new extension, to represent the switch from the resting area to the boarding area. After adaptation is done in the station, the resting area is now open with no columns blocking the flow of the human traffic, while the boarding area is composed of grids of slender column that extends all the way from the ground to the roof, clearly demarcating each railway track in the platform. The linear spaces such as the platform areas in the station are specifically designed for boarding and brisk walking, large enclosed areas like the tropical garden in the old station are for resting and meeting. This creates an aiding navigation for the passengers throughout the station. Passengers can find their ways more efficiently by taking the different spatial conditions and structural hierarchy in the station as reference. Similarly, there is also a clear transformation in the structures of the new extension of Atocha station. The new extension of the station has three separate segments of roofs, from the hypostyle hall, to the low-rise canopy hall, and the high-rise canopy hall. As seen from the passenger flow diagram, the presence of the different roof construction can be related to the circulation flow inside the station. The departure area is marked by the hypostyle hall. As passengers walk towards the end of the station, the roof canopy evolves into the low-rise and high-rise canopies, where both marks the transformation to the arrival area. Within the arrival area itself, the flow of passengers is also in conjunction with the hierarchy of the roof. From where the passengers arrive on the train platform to the arrival walkway and lobby, the roof evolves from low-rise to high-rise typology and finally to a large vault typology, signifying the change in the volume of the passengers. Arrival walkway and lobby are marked with more vast area, therefore high-rise canopy and large vaults to create the vast atmosphere for higher volume of crowd. Therefore, the adaptation of the station based on its function can be seen very clearly on the station’s spatial hierarchy, and it has streamlined and differentiated the flow of the passengers within. On a larger scale, the adaptation of Atocha Station has greatly changed the fabric of the city as well. To begin with, the conversion of the former station hall into an urban garden, accompanied with a handful of retail spaces has extended the civic space of the city into the station. Atocha’s tropical garden


MADRID ATOCHA STATION

Top: Atocha Station in the heart of Madrid, Spain Bottom-Left: Old Atocha Station before adaptation Bottom-Right: Atocha Station after adaptation, converted to concourse area with garden

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Carpark Arrival lobby

Garden

Low-rise canopy + Low-rise canopy

Hypostyle hall

Old station (Converting to garden)

Top: Transformation Process Bottom: Adaptation on the station

New station (Modern style extension)

High-rise canopy


MADRID ATOCHA STATION

has been established as the new meeting space in the city, even doubling up as a recreational space for the city dwellers. It no longer acts only as an urban transport node, but also as a part of social network and recreational space in the middle of the city. As a result of this adaptation, the pedestrian circulation in the city can be seen to extend even further into the station, creating a more porous pedestrian circulation in the city fabric. Moreover, the extension of the station has also changed the traffic flow in the city completely. As the result of the addition of the new high-speed infrastructure, the time and space in the city appear as if they are compressed. Travelling into and within the city become more accessible after the reorganisation of the traffic within and around the station, alongside the advent of the high-speed railway systems. Study has shown that there is a significant reduction of local travel time by personal vehicle and by public transit after the expansion of the train station (Shen, Y., de Abreu e Silva, J., Martínez, L.M., 2014) Functionally, the station has been adapted to meet the changing transportation needs of the country. This is in line with Viollet-le-Duc’s take on restoration, where he believed that “to restore a building is not to repair it, nor to do maintenance or to rebuild, it is to reestablish it in an ultimate state that never existed before” (Viollet-le-Duc, 1855). Moneo’s different approach to the development of the old and new parts of the station has presumably shown his similar approach in restoration to that of Viollet-le-Duc. He has restored the old Atocha station by keeping the structural integrity of the station intact, but more importantly, altered the function of the old station to become a resting and meeting area to meet the need of the current society. He has created a new civic space inside the station, the state that the city has never seen and experienced before. The restoration of the old station is as important as the extension of the new station complex; since the extension of the station has amplified its role as an urban interchange in the city, it needs to carefully consider the urban connection via footpaths and streets as well (which has been quite successfully met by the creation of the new civic space inside the old station building, ensuring the provision of seamless connection of space in the city for the urban pedestrians). In conclusion, the adaptation and new extension of Atocha Station have been successful in creating clear spatial relationship amongst different functions in the station, which in turn has been crucial in aiding pedestrian and traffic flow, both inside and outside the station. Moneo’s fragmented approach in this project has improved connectivity both in small and large scale of the urban fabric as it aids the way-finding around the station. His approach can be considered a sensitive one; in that making use of various structural aspects of the construction of the station to create distinct spatial atmosphere, which in turn

affects and improves the urban condition and flow of the city. Lastly, it is also important to take note that the project may have been successful in becoming a catalyst that drives the city’s transportation systems to be more holistic and efficient. However, it is not conclusive in terms of the impacts it has created in the whole urban fabric of the city, since urban fabric of a city is a complex network of system that is more than just merely the interaction of transportation system and social activities. We need to consider other aspects as well, such as the socio-economic aspects of the city, time, and the condition of the surrounding neighbours that are in close contact with Madrid to get a holistic view of this issue.

References Shen, Y., de Abreu e Silva, J., Martínez, L.M., 2014. Assessing land cover change in large urban areas resulting from Highspeed Rail: A case study of Madrid Atocha railway station from 1990 to 2006. Journal of Transport Geography. Vol. 41, Pp. 184- 196. José M. de Ureña. (2016). Territorial Implications of High Speed Rail: A Spanish Perspective. Routledge. Montogomery, Ian, and Quian, Karina. “Atocha Station.” Atocha Station, web.stanford.edu/~kunz/Madrid21/Projects/Atocha. htm#_Toc256849749. Accessed 27 Apr. 2017. Ramos, M. M., Calle, G. A., Tanner, P., Ceriani, L., & Artalejo, E. (n.d.). Enlargement of Atocha Railway Station (Stage I). Retrieved April 27, 2017, from http://www.elsevier.es/ en-revista-hormigon-acero-394-articulo-enlargement-atocharailway-station-stage-S0439568914000047 Edwards, B. (2011). Sustainability and the design of transport interchanges. New York, NY: Routledge. HIgh-rise canopy. Low-rise canopy. Passenger walkway. Hypostyle hall. www.elsevier.es. Accessed 27 Apr. 2017. Atocha Station. Alamy. Accessed 27 Apr. 2017. Renfe 597-1981.jpg. Wikipedia Commons. Accessed 27 Apr. 2017.

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Black: Departure Red: Arrival

Top: Roof Fragmentation (Concourse-Hypostyle hall-Low-rise canopy-High-rise canopy) Bottom: Passenger Flow


MADRID ATOCHA STATION

Top-Left: Low-rise roof Top-Right: High-rise roof Bottom-Left: Passenger walkway Bottom-Right: Hypostyle hall

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+65 87818107 caroline@mymail.sutd.edu.sg

Portfolio 02 2017 Caroline  

Singapore University of Technology and Design

Portfolio 02 2017 Caroline  

Singapore University of Technology and Design

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