Michel Porter was the creator of the value chain concept as the main tool to identify the sources of value creation for the client. This chain identifies a series of strategic activities in the company through which you can create value for the client.
business resource planning (ERP) and supply chain management. The following figure shows the variety of business applications that e-business can have if it is applied to clients and suppliers.
Companies can create value through the capture, organization, selection, summary and distribution of information, so they can increase their effectiveness if they move activities from the real value chain to the virtual value chain, in e-business, redefining their business processes. IBM defines an extreme model for the value chain. The model focuses on customer relationship management (CRM), business operations,
The value chain in relation to the management of customer relations requires the study of online marketing, the support
of online self-service customers and online sales. The most important infrastructures that allow the development of ebusiness are:
It is a packaged software that includes different business functionalities such as: financial systems, purchasing, production, transportation, inventory management, human resources, management reports, etc. In practice, this application software offers integrated solutions that are designed to manage the internal processes of the business in order to optimize the value chain that affect the different departments of the company.
CRM software tools are fundamental in the support, development and retention of profitable customers. They analyze the behavior of the client and allow to personalize their offers and anticipate the wishes and needs of the clients. CRM manages business processes focused on customer service such as marketing, sales and other services. Other processes that can be supported by CRM are: acquisition of new clients, maintenance and management of social networks, management of requests and claims from clients, etc.
Supply chain management (SMC) manages the processes of the supply chain in the company. is the method to connect the company with people, processes and related information, both internal and external, associated with the flow of products. It is a strategy to link companies with their
suppliers, distributors and customers, and so facilitate exchanges of information and unite all stages of the product cycle.
It is the process that helps organizations to identify, select, organize, disseminate and transfer knowledge, as well as the organization's own experience. It helps to convert data into information, information into knowledge and knowledge into its effective use for help in decision making. In essence, the management of knowledge involves the analysis of the situation of the organization, in terms of generation, access and effective use of knowledge.
Is the process by which companies collect data, analyze and use their results in order to take advantage of their own model and improve performance from a strategic and operational point of view. At present, there is a set of business processes and critical activities in the model of each company and in their respective value chain, where the obtaining of specific knowledge is essential for the decision-making processes.
There are different models of electronic commerce based on the parties that are involved in the transactions. These models or categories refer to the type of relationship that is established between the different parties that can integrate the commercial exchange.
company manipulates transactions within its own value chain, and with other businesses and organizations such as suppliers, distributors and financial institutions. This model is one of the most dominant formats of electronic commerce.
The most popular models or categories of e-commerce are the following:
It is a model in which the buyer and seller are business organizations, that is, it is electronic commerce between companies. The B2B model represents inteorganizational information systems in which a
Is that in which the sellers are the organizations or companies, and the buyers are the individuals or individual customers. The examples are numerous: Amazon, Casa del libro, Iberia, Avianca, Aeromexico... B2C is the most visible model of electronic commerce from the point of view of the consumer. Global B2C revenues are hundreds of billions of dollars, although still lower than B2B revenues.
The consumer-to-consumer model represents transactions between consumers facilitated by a third party. Consumers act as sellers and buyers through an exchange platform. The best known example of C2C is eBay, the auction website that allows individuals and businesses to offer items to sell or items to buy.
B2E systems use electronic commerce in organizations to
provide information and services to their employees. Technically, B2E is not electronic commerce if transactions between buyer and seller are considered, since there is practically no such relationship. The companies allow their employees to buy plane tickets, tickets for events, private insurance, etc., sometimes the companies offer commercial products, for sale, normally, with discounts.
Electronic government is the use of internet technology, in
general, and electronic commerce in particular, to deliver public services to citizens. For example, an agency, ministry or department of a national, regional or departmental government provides services to its citizens through electronic commerce technologies. There are different models of electronic government:
G2C: Government-to-citizen. G2B: Government-to-business. G2G: Government-to govemment. E-government is an effective means of conducting business transactions with citizens and businesses, and within governments themselves. the egovemment makes the government more effective and effective, especially in the delivery of public services. Examples of G2C are the benefits of social security, payment of pensions, medical service clearing of public hospitals, where the government offers free services to its citizens.
The term m-commerce or mobile commerce refers to transactions and activities carried out using wireless networks (mobile, cell phones, or wireless such as Wi-Fi or Wimax).
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